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DOCUMENTATION

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Sulphur Recovery Unit, Incinerator Rompetrol TOM000062

Issue: 9/22/2011 Page 1 von 19

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT INCINERATOR


for

Rompetrol

0 Rev

20.09.2011 Date

DK Name

First Issue Remark

Rev.

Date

Name

Remark

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Table of Content
Page

General
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

General-Documents ..................................................................... 4 Plant description.......................................................................... 4 Information fail safe PLC............................................................. 5 BMS / Fail safe system ................................................................ 5 DCS / Visualisation ...................................................................... 5 Signal-exchange BMS DCS ................................................ 5 Plausibility check......................................................................... 6 Emergency shut down switch (190-HS-0526; 190-HS-0527) ..... 6 Oxygen monitoring ...................................................................... 6

Start of the Plant


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Preconditions to be satisfied for initiate burner start sequence7 Start sequence of the plant ......................................................... 7 Interlock system (Main Safety Chain) (All signals Failsafe)...... 8 Burner start Normal Operation ................................................... 9

3 4 5

First start up curing of the refractory lining Temperature control reaction chamber Combustionair
5.1 5.2 5.3

11 12 13

Combustion air blower .............................................................. 13 Combustion air monitoring ....................................................... 14 Combustion air calculation and control ................................... 14

Waste gas operation

15

6.1 Preconditions to be satisfied before waste gas should be fed into the TO system........................................................................... 15 6.2 Ready for waste disposal .......................................................... 15

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Shut down of the TO system


7.1 7.2

16

Scheduled Shut down................................................................ 16 Shut down caused by trip.......................................................... 17

8 9 10 11

Emergency stop buttons Cool down mode Settings of Air Flow and Fuel Gas Furthers:

18 18 18 19

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General

1.1 General-Documents
Related documents The function representations and explanations to the plant consist of the following documents:

Process Flow diagram = operating and design data P&ID diagram: PJ177-UE114-190-00 Sheet 21/26 Rev. F Instrument list Wiring diagram local panel

1.2 Plant description


This tail gas thermal oxidiser is designed treating the low concentrations of combustible components that remain in sulphur plant off gases; i.e tailgas. The tail gas is injected into the burner for oxidising with combustion air and fuel gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature of 750 A vent gas stream is injected into the chamber C. after the burner. Downstream of the reaction chamber a boiler heat recovery system is installed before the flue gas is leaving the stack into atmosphere. JZKEU scope of supply: Burner incl. accessories 190 H-13 Refractory lined reaction chamber 190 H-14 Local Panel Waste heat boiler, superheater and stack are not in JZKEU scope of supply. Vendor documentation and instructions must be followed strictly.

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1.3 Information fail safe PLC


Fail-safe systems are used wherever the highest degree of safety must be guaranteed for humans, machines and the environment. This means that accidents and damage as a result of a fault must be avoided at all costs. Fail-safe control systems immediately go into a safe condition after a fault occurs, or they remain in a safe condition. They combine the standard operating automation and safety technology in a single system.

1.4 BMS / Fail safe system


All interlocks and functionalities in the fail safe system must be protected against easy access. That means no possibility for operators to do changes, especially switching limits and the safety chains. The rules for burner systems and fail safe systems must be considered. But, as mentioned on the DCS, the design of the BMS / Fail safe system is within the scope of customer.

1.5 DCS / Visualisation


All available process states should be indicated on the visualisation system, especially those of the burner starting procedures (e.g. time indication during purge) - this will help the operators working with this plant. The analogue values should be in the history, and indicated with a refreshing time as standard on site. Also changes on controller parameters, limits, alarms and so on should be stored. Changes should be protected by passwords of different levels. The alarms and switching points of analogue values should have a dead band of 5%, which will be adjusted during commissioning. All alarms, switching points and binary signals of the field (e.g. pressure switches) should be delayed by timers, which will be adjusted during commissioning. But anyway the design of the DCS is within the scope of customer Fundamental all quantities, are always to be reached or maintained by the automatic controllers. When setpoints of automatic controllers are to be changed, each time they have to be ramped from the current to the target setpoint. This is a general comment and has to be considered in detail during programming.

1.6 Signal-exchange BMS

DCS

The safety functions and states of the plant will be covered and maintained with the BMS or better fail safe system. The none fail safe functionalities will be included in the DCS, e.g. controllers. Which signals belong to either the BMS or the DCS can be found in the signal list. During the plant operation there will be signals, which have to be exchanged between the BMS and the DCS. The most of them will be exchanged during the starting procedure of the burners, and these signals are dependent of the sequence state. E.g., and the next step will be the purge of the plant, the BMS will send a signal to the DCS to drive the combustion air into the purge-condition.

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1.7 Plausibility check


For each fuel shut off valve there is a plausibility check for close position. That indicates if the valves reach its close position when the control system forced them to do. In case one of the valves is de-energized but do not show close, a lack of plausibility will immediately trip the plant.

1.8 Emergency shut down switch (190-HS-0526; 190-HS-0527)


Emergency shut down will not cut all electrical power in that plant. It will just force the thermal oxidizer to switch into safe state, which means a cool down mode with air. Due to the fact that a complete power loss for long time will possibly damage the equipment there is no power off emergency switch in that plant.

1.9 Oxygen monitoring


For safety reasons the oxygen content in the flue gas must be measured at the end of the oxidation chamber by at least two measurements Tag-No. These signals are used for burner shut down (1oo2 selection on LL limit, Tag-No.). These signals are part of the main safety chain. There are two alarm limits LOW (Tag-No., 1oo2) to show the operator the system is out of range. JZ KEU recommends an additional oxygen measurement with 1o.o.2 selection.

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2 Start of the Plant 2.1 Preconditions to be satisfied for initiate burner start sequence
Preconditions for a safe operation without waste streams
To start the burner start sequence, the following parameters must be fulfilled: Power 380VAC / 220VAC 24VDC available Customers control system (failsafe part and none failsafe part) available Emergency shut down system (failsafe part) available Upstream and downstream equipment from customer to be in safe operation and good condition for burner operation Double block fuel gas valves XV-0523 and XV-0524, ensured to be closed, solenoid valves XY-0523 (fail safe) and XY-0524 (fail safe) de-energized. Close position monitored by limit switches ZSL-0523 and ZSL-0524 Bleed valve fuel gas XV-Tag-No? ensured to be opened. Solenoid valve XY-Tag-No? energized the open position is monitored by limit switches ZSH-Tag-No?. Double block ignition gas XV-0533 and XV-0534, ensured to be closed, solenoid valves XY-0533 (fail safe) and XY-0534 (fail safe) de-energized. Close position monitored by limit switches ZSL-0533 and ZSL-0534 Shut off all waste gas lines, must be ensure by client Instrument air avaible Fuel gas avaible Ignition gas avaible Boiler system ready for operation (e.g. boiler feed water available)

2.2 Start sequence of the plant


After approve of the pre-conditions: If all those parameters are in good condition the plant can be started via operator push button e.g. Plant On. On the DCS or local Panel The control system has to initiate the following steps: Start the combustion air blower Tag-No? Block temperature control loop combustion air TIC-0521 Release flow control loop combustion air FIC-0521 Block temperature control loop natural gas TIC-0521 (set analogue output to 0%)

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2.3 Interlock system (Main Safety Chain) (All signals Failsafe)


When all the above steps are completed, all flow and pressure set points inside the Thermal Oxidizer system will establish and the main safety chain, Interlock system should be ready for reset. This main safety interlock consists of: Upstr. and Downs. equipment ready for TO operation available Combustion air fan Tag-No? (switch gear energized) running Combustion air damper XV521 open Combustion air flow FT-0522 above low low Instrument air pressure for Instruments above low Fuel gas pressure max PT-0583 *) below high Fuel gas pressure min PT-0583 *) above low Ignition gas pressure min PT-538 *) above low (only till burner start is done) Ignition gas pressure max PT-538 *) below high (only till burner start is done) Ignition air flow FT-528 above low (Air flow is required for ignition and later for cooling the pilot Interlock only active till burner start is done) Oxygen content Tag-No?. (1o.o.2) above low low Temperature Comb.Ch TT-0521 below high high Interlocks at waste heat boiler and superheater (not in JZKEU scope of supply) e.g.: water levels, steam pressure and steam temperature to be completed by others Emergency push buttons HS-0526 Local Panel inactive Emergency push buttons HS-0527 Control Room inactive maintenance switch burner (Refer to chaper 2.4) position 1 or 2 Other interlocks required by client or equipment which are not in JZKEU scope of supply

If all those conditions are fulfilled, the system indicates ready for reset, and the interlock system can be released, by pushing the button reset interlock system When one of those conditions change, the signal ready for reset disappears or if during operation - the plant will trip and has to be restarted after trouble shooting. A deviation of one of these signals leads to an immediately shutdown, burner trip. The safety chain must be rearmed after coming back to good conditions. The operator gets a message for example main safety chain closed. *) The Pressure Transmitter muss be locatead to follow the European Regulation EN 746-2 upstream the safety shutdown valves and at least SIL 2.
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2.4 Burner start Normal Operation


Now after the main safety interlock system is released the burner can be started by pushing the button: BURNER ON (DCS) or local Panel JZKEU recommends a maintenance switch for the burner: This maintenance switch is only used during commissioning, or during re-commissioning, when there was some work at the igniter or the natural gas supply line itself. This switch is a three position switch with positions 1 0 2. Position 0 means: System not able to start burner sequence at all. Position 1 means: System can be started with normal burner sequence and all safety devices, but only the ignition burner will start. Main burner is locked and the ignition burner will run continuously. Position 2 means: Normal burner operation Changing from position 1 to position 2 means pass position 0 and the burner will trip, and has to be restarted again. Now after the main safety chain is released the burner start can be introduced by means of pushing the button: Burner on After that, the burner start-procedure will start automatically with the following steps (based on burner start procedures, described in DIN EN 746-2 or NFPA). Overwrite actual controller set points with set points for purging (FIC-0521). Refer to table in chapter 11 for air flow settings. Overwrite actual controller set points FIC-0521 with the set point for purging with cold air drive combustion air valve FV-0521 in purge position) This will be executed by ramping the analogue output slowly until the correct position. After the combustion air flow is established and the combustion air flow is above low the operator can press the purge start button. The purge-time begins after pushing the button and the purge air flow low limit is exceeded. Start purging with air. (Purge air flow is detected by FT-0521 above low) As long as the purge time is running these switchpoint has to be in good condition. Otherwise burner start trips and has to be restarted manually. Purge time is done when the complete flue gas volume up to stack outlet is exchanged 5 times with air. The complete amount of volume of burner combustion chamber is approx 52 m (boiler and stack to be added) Boiler and stack (by others) flue gas volumes to be added for the calculation of purge time. The remaining purge-time should be shown on the display. The successful purge is reached when the purge-timer has elapsed. After purging is done the fuel gas control valve FV-0525 has to go to its start position ZSL0525, Fuelgas (leaving start position before start-sequence is completed results in a burner
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Sulphur Recovery Unit, Incinerator Rompetrol TOM000062

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trip). Natural gas control valve FV-0525 has to move to start position all times starting from its close position. (Here it is to be noted that the natural gas control valve FV-0525 always drives from position 0% into the ignition position ZSL-0525 (fail safe) by ramp the analogue output from0% slowly to correct position and this position is monitored by a position switch. The adjusting of the ignition position must be possible by means of adjusting the end position switch without any change of the software.) Overwrite actual set point combustion air controller FIC-0521 with set point ignition. The combustion air quantity to combustor is to be reduced by ramp to ignition quantity. Burner start sequence waits until combustion air reaches its start amount/ ignition position. The min flow is monitored (fail safe) by FSLL-0522 Energize ignition transformer Waiting time 2 seconds (pre-ignition-time) Energize ignition gas valves XY-0533 (fail safe) and XY-0534 (fail safe). Ignition gas Vales XV-0533 and XV-0534 open. De-energize ignition transformer 2 seconds after ignition valves XY-0533 and XY-0534 went open. Flame has to be detected by BT-0521 or BT-0522 latest 3 seconds after ignition valves XV0533 and XV-0534 went open. Otherwise burner start procedure trips and has to be restarted manually. IGNITION BURNER IN OPERATION is shown on the DCS. Energize XY-0523 (fail safe) and XY-0524 (fail safe) main fuel gas valves XV-0523 and XV0524 went open energize bleed valve XY-Tag-No? bleed valves XV-Tag-No? went open 3 seconds after ignition valves XY-0533 and XY-0534 energized, as long as the flame scanner detects a flame. (Depending on the ignition behavior of the afterburner system it is possible to extend the time between opening of ignition gas valves XV-0533 and XV-0534 and opening of main fuel gas valves XV-0523 and XV-0524. De-energize Ignition valves XY-0533 and XY-0534 Ignition Gas Valve XV-0533 and XV0534 close 3 seconds after main fuel gas valves XV-0523 and XV-0524 went open. Another 10 seconds later, after ignition valves XV-0533 and XV-0534 are closed, the system is on duty and starts running under temperature control. BURNER IN OPERATION is shown on the DCS (and by lamp Burner on duty at the local panel). On that point the burner start is completed. Now the burner system runs with fuel gas and ambient air, and starts heating up to operation temperature by a defined ramp. This ramp is given by the manufacturer of the refractory lining. Sepoint for Combustion air FIC-0521 is ramping up (flexible ramp) to heat up air flow. The heat up behavior will follow the heat up ramps, described in the refractory documentation. Due to the fact that the plant is not meant to be an emergency we will always follow the complete heat up ramp right from the start.
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Now the burner system runs with Fuel gas and ambient air / hot air, and starts heating up to operation temperature as per heat up ramp given by refractory supplier.

When the heat up procedure is done the temperature in the combustion chamber remains at operational temperature. Once the temperature inside the reaction chamber reaches operation temperature for the first time, the release temperature for waste disposal is also fulfilled, (TSL-0521 above low) and the TO system is ready for waste disposal. Release temperature for waste disposal. Now the operator is able to start the waste disposal by pushing the individual push buttons. To avoid high energy peaks due to energy input coming from the wastes streams, the individual can only be started cascaded one after the other. As long as one waste is in start up procedure the other one will be blocked.

First start up curing of the refractory lining


The drying out and first heat up curve after drying out is in detail described in the related documentation of the refractory line supplier and in the JZKEU manual.

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4 Temperature control reaction chamber


The reaction chamber has been heated up with fuel gas and ambient air to the operation temperature. The operation temperature is controlled: via temperature control TIC-0521/TY-0521A ensuring correct temperature by fuel (temperature setpoint fuel gas = 750 C) When the heat up procedure is done the Tail gas unit system remains at operation temperature, release temperature control loop Fuel gas TIC-0521/TY-0521A set point. Release Temperature controller TIC-0521 From reaching operation temperature the close control loop for combustion temperature runs with its fixed set point. (TY-0521B temperature setpoint = 760 to be optimized during C; commissioning) The release temperature for wastes operation is also fulfilled, TSL-0522 above low and the TO system is ready for wastes disposal. There are two temperature controllers, one for combustion air and one for fuel gas. The temperature controllers are parameterized, that with a temperature increase first the fuelgas amount will be reduced (TY-0521A) During normal operation the combustion air runs under temperature control TY-0521A. If TY-0521A is reduced to a minimum already and the temperature in the combustion chamber rises further, the amount of air FY-0521B is increased for cooling by the close control loops temperature controller TY-0521B and flow controller FIC-0521. If the temperature rises further, the operator should reduce the energy coming by wastes into the system, to avoid an over temperature shut down by activate the safety temperature limiter TSH-0522 (part of the main safety chain) temperature max combustion chamber (part of the safety chain) Procedures for the behavior at rising temperature shortly: The sequence means, as a reaction caused by a high temperature situation: First: Second: Third: decrease fuels fuel gas by reducing natural gas flow by control valve FV-0525 increasing combustion air flow TY-0521B/FIC-0521 (cooling) reduce energy coming by wastes by operator.

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5 Combustionair 5.1 Combustion air blower


The plant is equipped with combustion air fan Tag-No?. The combustion air fan is startet at full speed when the plant is startet. Operation notification signals: Tag-No?.. Tag-No?.

running failure

At the outlet of the fan is a control valves FV-0521, which is controlled by the combustion air controller FIC-0521.

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5.2 Combustion air monitoring


For safety reasons the combustion air flow to the combustion chamber is detected by one measurement FT-0522. These signal is used for burner shut down on LL limit, the signal is a part of the main safety chain, please refer to section 2.3) and purge amount on L limit, please refer to section 2.3) and ignition amount on H limit, please refer to 2.3) Remark: The absolute minimum limit for the combustion air is monitored during the complete burner operation (main safety chain). Falling below this value leads to a safety shut down of the combustion system.

5.3 Combustion air calculation and control


The combustion air flow to the combustion chamber is detected by the measurement FT-0521 This signal is used for the regulation (FIC-0521) of the combustion air input by operating the combustion air control valve FV-0521. The combustion air flow FI-0521 is the actual value for the controller FC-0521. This controller will control the total combustion air input into the incinerator system by varying the control valve FV-0521 The Air/Fuel gas controller will be released with a setpoint. This controller assures overstoechimetric air flow conditions in the burner as a minimum. Normally this calculation air flow will be overwritten by temperature air flow controller (see section 5) and oxygen airflow controller. In case the oxygen content in the flue gas decreases too low the oxygen controller will increase the FI-0521 to add more combustion air to the system via FC-0521.

The minimum operating oxygen level is 2.0 % by volume (wet basis) shall be set as the alarm value. Below this level the unit should be shut down by the operator.

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Waste gas operation

6.1 Preconditions to be satisfied before waste gas should be fed into the TO system
TO on duty (burner in operation) TO ready for waste gas disposal TSL-0521above low Temperature control fuels FIC-0525 released Temperature control combustion air FIC-0521 released Waste gas shut-off valves closed

The following message should be displayed: READY FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

6.2 Ready for waste disposal


When the heating ramp is finished the combustion air comes down to operating setpoint. The temperature is adapted by varying the fuel gas (temperature controller TY-0521A). The combustion air controller needs some time to adjust and stabilise due to swinging. The combustion air quantity is considered as stabilised, if the amount of air maintains longer than 1 minute on a value below of operating quantity + 5%. Now the plant is ready for the waste disposal. When the TO is on duty the all the mentioned preconditions are satisfied, waste gas operation can be switched active by the operator e.g. waste gas disposal on. In case one of these signals changes, the waste operation stops immediately. Now the wastes can be switched on by the operator one by one. By a ramp function it is guaranteed that connecting of the wastes is done in a certain time, i.e. the plant and the automatic controllers are able to adapt themselves to the new conditions. It must be ensured by the customers control system, that during an active ramp no further waste can be connected or switched off in the later process. Further descriptions can be found in the respective sections to the wastes. By a ramp function must be guaranteed that disconnecting of the wastes is done in a certain time, i.e. the plant and the automatic controllers are able to adapt themselves to the new conditions. It must be ensured by customers control system, that during an active ramp no further waste can be disconnected. Further descriptions can be found in the respective sections to the wastes.
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Shut down of the TO system


There are two possible ways to shut down the system:

7.1

Scheduled Shut down


SYSTEM OFF can be pushed on the DCS Now all wastes are ramped down and switched off individually successively in a fixed order. This will also happen automatically if the temperature has fallen below the limit for waste disposal. If all the wastes have been switched off manually, the plant can be switched off by system off, as before. After switching off the plant, all the fuel valves are closed and the setpoints are set to cool down mode values. The plant goes into the cool down mode, an appropriate message is indicated. A restart of the plant is possible at any time, according to the above described procedures (burner start). The message "cool down mode will disappear then. Here all wastes are to be selected successively by the operator before switching the plant completely off. By a ramp function it is guaranteed that disconnecting of the wastes is done in a certain time, i.e. the plant and the automatic controllers are able to adapt themselves to the new conditions. It is ensured by the control system, that during an active ramp no further waste can be connected or disconnected. Exception: waste(s) is (are) tripped. lt is also possible to execute a controlled shutdown automatically. Then he is able to switch of the Burner system in two different ways. Either by using the push button Burner off or activating one of the emergency stop push buttons. In case of a scheduled shut down the control valve FV-0525 for fuel gas will close by following a ramp. In both ways the Burner system will block the fuel gas valves XV-0523 & XV-0524, open bleed valve Tag-No and set each system in a safe position. Furthermore the controller set point will be overwritten with the cool down set points and the burner system starts its cool down mode. That means the complete system is purged with ambient air, until all the stored heat, coming out of the refractory line, decrease to a safe level. (this is realized by running an cool down timer)

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During cool down mode it is possible to restart the plant by following the above mentioned steps at any time. The disconnection is executed as the following: Controller TY-0521B (combustion air) block Controller TY-0521A (fuel gas) analogue output ramp down to 0% When analogue output is at 0% the control valve FV-0525 is in close position De-energize XY-0523, XY-0524 and XY-Tag-No, natural gas valves XV-0523 & XV-0524 close, bleed valve Tag-No open. Monitored fail safe by position switch ZSL-0523 (fail safe) and ZSL-0524

The plant goes into the cool down mode, in detail described in point 10 of this documentation The ramp must be set during commissioning.

7.2 Shut down caused by trip


When a safety device is activated (refer to chapter 2.3), the plant is brought into a safe condition immediately. This means the immediate closing of all wastes and fuels as well as the setpoints are set to cool down mode values. The plant goes into the cool down mode, the appropriate messages are indicated. The cool down set points for combustion air and quench air should be the lowest possible amount of air to shelter all parts from overheating, and has to be defined during commissioning. Emergency shut down is executed as the following: De-energize solenoids valve XY-0523, XY-0524 and XY-Tag-No. Both safeties shut off valves XY-0523 and XY-0524 close immidiatly, bleed valve Tag-No open immiediatly and the Fuel gas line is out of operation. The temperature controller TY-0521A will be blocked output set to 0%. The Fuel gas control valve FV-0525 close

The plant goes into the cool down mode, in detail described in point 10 of this documentation A restart of the plant is possible at any time after solving the problem(s), according to the above described procedures (Chapter 2.4 burner start). The message "cool down mode will disappear then.

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Emergency stop buttons


There are 2 emergency stop buttons in the following plant locations: HS-0526 (Local Panel) HS-0527 (Customer) The actuation of one of these buttons leads to an emergency shut down of the plant.

Cool down mode


After shut-down of the TO the plant is in cool down mode. This procedure will be maintained until the energy of the plant (brickwork) has been discharged. And the set points are set to cool down mode values. The cool down set points for combustion air should be the lowest possible amount of air to protect all parts from overheating. The plant goes into the cool down mode Block temperature controller TIC-0521 Furthermore the controller set point FIC-0521 will be overwritten with the cool down set point and the TO system starts its cool down mode. That means the complete system is purged with ambient air, until all the stored heat, coming out of the refractory line, decrease to a safe level. This is realized by running a cool down timer. The cool down time must be set during commissioning. During cool down mode it is possible to restart the plant by following the above mentioned steps at any time. After the time of the cool down mode time is terminated, the plant all electric drives (fans, pumps) are switched off (in inverse order as during start-up) and the plant is out of operation

10 Settings of Air Flow and Fuel Gas


Following flows are used in the functional description. The values have to be updated during commissioning: (See also Process Flow Diagram for further information): Combustion Air FIC 521 Purge Air Flow Ignition Air Flow Heat up Air Flow Min Operational Air Flow Fuel Gas FT 525 Ignition Gas Flow Min Operational Gas Flow

20000 15000 20000 10000 400 100

Kg/h Kg/h Kg/h Kg/h Kg/h Kg/h

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DOCUMENTATION
System: Customer / Plant: KEU-order no.:

Sulphur Recovery Unit, Incinerator Rompetrol TOM000062

Issue: 9/22/2011 Page 19 von 19

11 Furthers:
If the tail gase and vent gases are not connected the nozzles N4 and N7 need to have cooling air or nitrogen for cooling and purging.

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