Virgo

2: A large white cross upraised.

T h e w o r d l a rg e d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e L a t i n l a rgu s me a n i n g “ g e n e r o u s . ” 1 O n e o f i t s m o st c o m m on d e f i n i t i on s i s “ o f g r e a t e r t ha n a ve r a g e s c o p e , b r e a d t h, o r c a p a ci t y ; c o m p re he n s i v e . ” T h e w o r d w hi t e de s c e n d s f r o m kw ei t which means “white, to shine.” 2 Other d e r i v a t i v e s i n c l u d e wh e a t, b is m u t h,

e de l we i s s, wh it i n g ( a f o o d f i s h), a n d wi t l o o f .
T h e w o r d c r oss de sc e n d s f r o m t h e O l d E n g l i s h c ro s a n d m o r e r e m o t e l y f r o m t h e L a t i n c rux m e a n i n g t h e s t a ke o r c r o s s “ on w h i c h c r i m i n a ls w e r e i m p a le d o r h a n g e d h e n c e fi g u r a t i v e l y” i t i mp l i e s “ t o r t u r e , t r o u b le , misery.”3 T h e p r e f i x u p- d e s ce n d s f r o m t h e IE ro o t u po - w h i c h me a n s “ u n d e r , u p f r o m u n d e r , o v e r. ” 4 A m o n g i t s r o o t s a re t h e w o r d s ab o ve , u p , o p en , o f t en ,

s u p i ne , va l e t , e a ves , a n d o p a l.
T h e w o r d r ai s ed d e s c e n d s f r o m t he r oo t e r -1 , “ t o m o v e , se t i n m o t i o n . ” O t h e r d e r i v a t i v e s i n c l u d e a re ( s e c o n d p e r s on s i n g u l a r a n d p l u r a l a n d f i r s t a n d t h i r d p e r so n p l u r a l p r e se n t i n d i c a t i v e o f b e ) , a rt ( a s e c on d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p re s e n t i n d i c a t i v e o f b e ) , e a rne s t , t he n a m e E rn e st ,

o ri e n t, ab o rt, o ri gin , o ri gi n a l , h o rm o ne , a ri s e , ri se , a n d re a r ( t o c a r e f o r
c h i l d r e n o r a c hi l d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f l i fe ; b r i n g u p ) . 5 TH EMES : T h e f i r s t t h e m e c on c e r n s t ha t w h i c h i s U P RIGHT —b o t h i n a p h y s i c a l a n d a m o ra l s e n s e . A c ross i s “ a n u p r i g h t p o st w i t h a t r a n s v e r se p i e ce n e a r t he t op ” a n d m o r e sp e ci f i ca l l y a c r u c i f i x. 6 A s a n a d j e c t i v e , t h e

1 2 3 4 5
6

http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/large Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo -European Roots, p. 45 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cross Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo -European Roots, p. 94 Watkins, c. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo -European Roots, p. 23 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/cross Starling Hunter © 2011 1

w o r d w hi t e m e a n s “ u n s u l l i e d , p u r e . ” 7 W h i t e a n d u p r i g h t s h a r e s e ve r a l s y n o n y m s , o n e o f w h i c h i s ‘ c le a n . ’ A s a v e r b , c ross me a n s “ t o p a s s f r o m on e s i de o f t o t h e ot h e r ” a n d “ t o e x t e n d o r p a s s t h ro u g h o r o v e r , t o i n t e r s e c t . ” 8 B o t h h a l ve s o f t he k e y w o r d u p rai s ed s u g g e s t t h e v e r t i ca l i t y , t h e up w a r d d i r e c t i o n . T h u s w e h a v e i m p l i e d O RTHO GONA L ITY i . e . t ha t w h i c h r e l a t e s t o o r i s c o m p os e d of right angles.

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http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/white 8 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/cross Starling Hunter © 2011 2

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