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# What is a Projectile?

In Unit 1 of the Physics Classroom Tutorial, we learned a variety of means to describe the 1-dimensional motion of objects. In Unit 2 of the Physics Classroom Tutorial, we learned how Newton's laws help to explain the motion (and specifically, the changes in the state of motion) of objects that are either at rest or moving in 1-dimension. Now in this unit we will apply both kinematic principles and Newton's laws of motion to understand and explain the motion of objects moving in two dimensions. The most common example of an object that is moving in two dimensions is a projectile. Thus, Lesson 2 of this unit is devoted to understanding the motion of projectiles. A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity. There are a variety of examples of projectiles. An object dropped from rest is a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). An object that is thrown vertically upward is also a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). And an object which is thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal is also a projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible). A projectile is any object that once projected or dropped continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the downward force of gravity.

By definition, a projectile has a single force that acts upon it - the force of gravity. If there were any other force acting upon an object, then that object would not be a projectile. Thus, the free-body diagram of a projectile would show a single force acting downwards and labeled force of gravity (or simply Fgrav). Regardless of whether a projectile is moving downwards, upwards, upwards and rightwards, or downwards and leftwards, the free-body diagram of the projectile is still as depicted in the diagram at the right. By definition, a projectile is any object upon which the only force is gravity. Projectile Motion and Inertia Many students have difficulty with the concept that the only force acting upon an upward moving projectile is gravity. Their conception of motion prompts them to think that if an object is moving upward, then there must be an upward force. And if an object is moving upward and rightward, there must be both an upward and rightward force. Their belief is that forces cause motion; and if there is an upward motion then there must be an upward force. They reason, "How in the world can an object be moving upward if the only force acting upon it is gravity?" Such students do not believe in Newtonian physics (or at least do not believe strongly in Newtonian physics). Newton's laws suggest that forces are only required to cause an acceleration (not a motion). Recall from the Unit 2 that Newton's laws stood in direct opposition to the common misconception that a force is required to keep an object in motion. This idea is simply not true! A force is not required to keep an object in motion. A force is only required to maintain an acceleration. And in the case of a projectile that is moving upward, there is a downward force and a downward acceleration. That is, the object is moving upward and slowing down..

Now suppose that the gravity switch is turned on and that the cannonball is projected horizontally from the top of the same cliff. What effect will gravity have upon the motion of the cannonball? Will gravity affect the cannonball's horizontal motion? Will the cannonball travel a greater (or shorter) horizontal distance due to the influence of gravity? The answer to both of these questions is "No!" Gravity will act downwards upon the cannonball to affect its vertical motion. Gravity causes a vertical acceleration. The ball will drop vertically below its otherwise straight-line, inertial path. Gravity is the downward force upon a projectile that influences its vertical motion and causes the parabolic trajectory that is characteristic of projectiles.

and velocity. There are the two components of the projectile's motion . Due to the absence of horizontal forces. a projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity. Horizontal forces are not required to keep a projectile moving horizontally. And furthermore. The goal of this part of the lesson is to discuss the horizontal and vertical components of a projectile's motion.horizontal and vertical motion. specific attention will be given to the presence/absence of forces. but also undergo a horizontal motion. Horizontally Launched Projectiles Let's return to our thought experiment from earlier in this lesson. Consider a cannonball projected horizontally by a cannon from the top of a very high cliff. these two components of motion can (and must) be discussed separately. the cannonball would continue its horizontal motion at a constant velocity. The horizontal motion of the projectile is the result of the tendency of any object in motion to remain in motion at constant velocity.Yes or No) (If present.8 m/s every second. Gravity acts to influence the vertical motion of the projectile. as they move upward or downward they are also moving horizontally. The above information can be summarized by the following table. This is consistent with the law of inertia.A projectile is an object upon which the only force is gravity. the cannonball would accelerate downward. thus causing a vertical acceleration. In the absence of gravity. And since perpendicular components of motion are independent of each other. a projectile remains in motion with a constant horizontal velocity. accelerations. Horizontal Motion Forces (Present? . what dir'n?) No Yes The force of gravity acts downward Vertical Motion . if merely dropped from rest in the presence of gravity. gaining speed at a rate of 9. The only force acting upon a projectile is gravity! Characteristics of a Projectile's Trajectory As discussed earlier in this lesson. That is. Many projectiles not only undergo a vertical motion. This is consistent with our conception of free-falling objects accelerating at a rate known as the acceleration of gravity.

then x.and y-components of the velocity of the cannonball is changing with time. a projectile maintains a constant horizontal velocity since there are no horizontal forces acting upon it. This means that the vertical velocity is changing by 9. supposing that the gravity switch could be turned off) the projectile would again travel along a straight-line. However.velocity vectors could be drawn . Yet in actuality. inertial path. If there were no gravity. If a vector diagram (showing the velocity of the cannonball at 1-second intervals of time) is used to represent how the x.e. The horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant (a never changing in value). The horizontal motion of a projectile is independent of its vertical motion. the cannonball would continue in motion at 20 m/s in the horizontal direction. gravity-free trajectory. There is a vertical acceleration caused by gravity. then the object would once more free-fall below this straight-line.. As you proceed through this part of Lesson 2. In fact. its value is 9. Suppose that the cannonball is launched horizontally with no upward angle whatsoever and with an initial speed of 20 m/s. You will learn how the numerical values of the xand y-components of the velocity and displacement change with time (or remain constant). This downward force and acceleration results in a downward displacement from the position that the object would be if there were no gravity. the projectile would travel with a parabolic trajectory. projectiles travel with a parabolic trajectory due to the fact that the downward force of gravity accelerates them downward from their otherwise straight-line. The downward force of gravity would act upon the cannonball to cause the same vertical motion as before . There are no horizontal forces acting upon projectiles and thus no horizontal acceleration. Projectiles travel with a parabolic trajectory due to the influence of gravity.and y. Consider again the cannonball launched by a cannon from the top of a very high cliff.a downward acceleration. if the gravity switch could be turned on such that the cannonball is truly a projectile. In the absence of gravity (i. inertial path. down. An object in motion would continue in motion at a constant speed in the same direction if there is no unbalanced force.8 m/s/s.8 m/s each second.Velocity Constant (Constant or Changing?) Non-Horizontally Launched Projectiles Changing (by 9. The force of gravity does not affect the horizontal component of motion. A projectile is any object upon which the only force is gravity.8 m/s every second. Describing (Horizontal and Vertical Velocity) Projectiles With Numbers: So far in Lesson 2 you have learned the following conceptual notions about projectiles. In this portion of Lesson 2 you will learn how to describe the motion of projectiles numerically. This is the case for an object moving through space in the absence of gravity. gravity causes the cannonball to accelerate downwards at a rate of 9. In conclusion.8 m/s each second) Now suppose that our cannon is aimed upward and shot at an angle to the horizontal from the same cliff. pay careful attention to how a conceptual understanding of projectiles translates into a numerical understanding.8 m/s/s. The vertical velocity of a projectile changes by 9.

8 m/s/s. This is indeed consistent with the fact that there is a vertical force acting upon a projectile but no horizontal force.8 m/s/s. But what if the projectile is launched upward at an angle to the horizontal? How would the horizontal and vertical velocity values change with time? How would the numerical values differ from the previously shown diagram for a horizontally launched projectile? The diagram below reveals the answers to these questions. These values are x.8 m/s.and ycomponent of the velocity vary with time. right Vertical Velocity 0 9. This is to say that the vertical velocity changes by 9. These same two concepts could be depicted by a table illustrating how the x. down 19. down 29.7 m/s at an angle of 15 degrees above the horizontal. down 49.2 m/s. The important concept depicted in the above vector diagram is that the horizontal velocity remains constant during the course of the trajectory and the vertical velocity changes by 9.and their magnitudes labeled. right 20 m/s.and y-components of the initial velocity and will be discussed in more detail in the next part of this lesson.6 m/s. downward and no horizontal acceleration. right 20 m/s.4 m/s. The lengths of the vector arrows are representative of the magnitudes of that quantity.1 m/s. down The numerical information in both the diagram and the table above illustrate identical points . For such an initial velocity. down 39. A vertical force causes a vertical acceleration . upward and 73. right 20 m/s.8 m/s each second and the horizontal velocity never changes. rightward.a projectile has a vertical acceleration of 9. right 20 m/s. .8 m/s every second. Horizontal Time Velocity 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 20 m/s. the object would initially be moving 19. Such a diagram is shown below. The diagram depicts an object launched upward with a velocity of 75.0 m/s. an acceleration of 9.in this case.6 m/s. right 20 m/s.

vertical speed) is the same an equal interval of time on either side of its peak. These concepts are further illustrated by the diagram below for a non-horizontally launched projectile that lands at the same height as which it is launched.0 m/s. Consider a projectile launched with an initial velocity of 50 m/s at an angle of 60 degrees above the horizontal. The vertical speed two seconds before reaching its peak is the same as the vertical speed two seconds after falling from its peak. right Vertical Velocity 19.1 m/s. an analysis of the motion of a projectile demands that the two components of motion are analyzed independent of each other. the vertical velocity is 0 m/s. down 29. down 39. right 73. the velocity vector is entirely horizontal at this point in the trajectory. and as it falls from its peak.1 m/s..8 m/s each second. final vertical velocity. As the projectile rises towards its peak. Perpendicular components of motion are independent of each other. yet the magnitude of the vertical velocity (i. The above diagrams.. right 73. That is. These numerical values were determined by constructing a sketch of the velocity vector with the given direction and then using trigonometric functions to determine the sides of .1 m/s. it is speeding up (0 m/s to 9. These are known as the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity. one would use kinematic equations with vertical motion parameters (initial vertical velocity.). Thus. down 19. the important concept depicted in the above diagram is that the horizontal velocity remains constant during the course of the trajectory and the vertical velocity changes by 9.1 m/s. right 73.1 m/s. right 73. right 73.8 m/s. Another vector quantity that can be discussed is the displacement.6 m/s..8 m/s to 19.on the way down. Horizontal Time Velocity 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 73. right 73. It is for this reason that one of the initial steps of a projectile motion problem is to determine the components of the initial velocity. right 73. horizontal acceleration). it is slowing down (19. Initial Velocity Components It has already been stated and thoroughly discussed that the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent of each other.8 m/s.6 m/s. the direction of the velocity vector is sometimes considered + on the way up and . For non-horizontally launched projectiles. Such a projectile begins its motion with a horizontal velocity of 25 m/s and a vertical velocity of 43 m/s. being careful not to mix horizontal motion information with vertical motion information. At the peak itself.there is a horizontal velocity that is constant and a vertical velocity that changes by 9. if analyzing the motion to determine the vertical displacement.8 m/s every second. up 9. down the numerical information in both the diagram and the table above further illustrate the two key principles of projectile motion . down 49. Finally.Again. the symmetrical nature of the projectile's motion can be seen in the diagram above: the vertical speed one second before reaching its peak is the same as the vertical speed one second after falling from its peak.1 m/s. The numerical description of the displacement of a projectile is discussed in the next section of Lesson 2. and discussion pertain to how the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity vector change with time during the course of projectile's trajectory. The horizontal velocity of a projectile does not affect how far (or how fast) a projectile falls vertically.e.6 m/s to . tables.2 m/s.6 m/s to 9.8 m/s to 0 m/s).4 m/s. final horizontal velocity.1 m/s.1 m/s. These same two concepts could be depicted by a table illustrating how the x.and ycomponent of the velocity vary with time. up 0 m/s 9. vertical acceleration) and not horizontal motion parameters (initial horizontal velocity.

the initial height of the projectile. and the peak height of the long-jumper. and the height of the projectile when it is at its peak. Upon reaching the peak. Determine the time of flight. The physical principles that must be applied are those discussed previously in Lesson 2. Predictable unknowns include the initial speed of the projectile. we will focus on the first type of problem sometimes referred to as horizontally launched projectile problems. A football is kicked with an initial velocity of 25 m/s at an angle of 45-degrees with the horizontal. A long jumper leaves the ground with an initial velocity of 12 m/s at an angle of 28-degrees above the horizontal. Such predictions are made through the application of physical principles and mathematical formulas to a given set of initial conditions. Combining the two allows one to make predictions concerning the motion of a projectile. and the peak height of the football. the horizontal distance. the projectile falls with a motion that is symmetrical to its path upwards to the peak. the horizontal range. the time of flight. In this part of Lesson 2. In the case of projectiles. and the horizontal distance of the projectile. b. While the general principles are the same for each type of problem.) Horizontally Launched Projectile Problems One of the powers of physics is its ability to use physics principles to make predictions about the final outcome of a moving object. a student of physics can use information about the initial velocity and position of a projectile to predict such things as how much time the projectile is in the air and how far the projectile will go. The sketch is shown at the right and the use of trigonometric functions to determine the magnitudes is shown below. The mathematical formulas that are used are commonly referred to as kinematic equations. Determine the time of flight. (If necessary.the velocity triangle. the horizontal distance. review this method on an earlier page in this unit. Predictable unknowns include the time of flight. Three common kinematic equations that will be used for both type of problems include the following: . Examples of this type of problem are a. the predictive ability of the principles and formulas are most often demonstrated in word story problems known as projectile problems. the approach will vary due to the fact the problems differ in terms of their initial conditions. The two types of problems are: Problem Type 1: A projectile is launched with an initial horizontal velocity from an elevated position and follows a parabolic path to the ground. There are two basic types of projectile problems that we will discuss in this course. The second problem type will be the subject of the next part of Lesson 2. Problem Type 2: A projectile is launched at an angle to the horizontal and rises upwards to a peak while moving horizontally. In a typical physics class.

y. Thus. The solution of this problem begins by equating the known or given values with the symbols of the kinematic equations . but a projectile is usually moving in two dimensions .60-meter high table with an initial horizontal velocity of 2. and t.both horizontally and vertically. In this case. viy. any term with viy in it will cancel out of the equation. ay. vix.x. The two sets of three equations above are the kinematic equations that will be used to solve projectile motion problems. An application of projectile concepts to each of these equations would also lead one to conclude that any term with ax in it would cancel out of the equation since ax = 0 m/s/s. Thus.4 m/s. Predict the time required for the pool ball to fall to the ground and the horizontal distance between the table's edge and the ball's landing location. ax. the following information is either given or implied in the problem statement: . Since these two components of motion are independent of each other. Equations for the Vertical Motion of a Projectile For the vertical components of motion. the three equations are In each of the above equations. for the special case of the first type of problem (horizontally launched projectile problems).one column for horizontal information and one column for vertical information. Because horizontal and vertical information is used separately. the vertical acceleration of a projectile is known to be -9. the equations are Of these three equations.one for the projectile's horizontal motion and one for its vertical motion. Example A pool ball leaves a 0. consider the solution to the following problem. Furthermore. two distinctly separate sets of equations are needed . viy = 0 m/s.Equations for the Horizontal Motion of a Projectile The above equations work well for motion in one-dimension.8 m/s/s (the acceleration of gravity). Solving Projectile Problems To illustrate the usefulness of the above equations in making predictions about the motion of a projectile. it is a wise idea to organized the given information in two columns . the top equation is the most commonly used. the three equations above are transformed into two sets of three equations. For the horizontal components of motion.

3499 s)2 Since the second term on the right side of the equation reduces to 0.60 m = (0 m/s)•t + 0.350 s (rounded from 0. t = 0. Select either a horizontal or vertical equation to solve for the time of flight of the projectile. it would be reasonable that a vertical equation is used with the vertical values to determine time and then the horizontal equations be used to determine the horizontal displacement (x).first use the horizontal and then the vertical equation). the unknown quantity is the horizontal displacement (and the time of flight) of the pool ball. By substitution of known values.84 m from the edge of the pool table.5•(0 m/s/s)•(0.0 m/s/s. 2. By substitution of known values. It will almost always be the case that such a strategy demands that one of the vertical equations be used to determine the time of flight of the projectile and then one of the horizontal equations be used to find the other unknown quantities (or vice versa .122 s2 = t2 By taking the square root of both sides of the equation.35 seconds and lands a horizontal distance of 0. the equation becomes 0. For example. 3. Carefully read the problem and list known and unknown information in terms of the symbols of the kinematic equations.5•(-9. the physics problem becomes transformed into an algebra problem.5•ax•t2) can then be used to solve for "x.9 m/s/s)•t2 If both sides of the equation are divided by -5.3499 s) + 0. The solution of the problem now requires the selection of an appropriate strategy for using the kinematic equations and the known information to solve for the unknown quantities. For convenience sake. An organized listing of known quantities (as in the table above) provides cues for the selection of the strategy.4 m/s ax = 0 m/s/s Vertical Information y = -0.4 m/s and ax = 0 m/s/s.60 m viy = 0 m/s ay = -9.60 m = (-4.5•ay•t2) will allow for the determination of the time. knowledge of three of the variables allows one to calculate a fourth variable. The first horizontal equation (x = vix•t + 0. x = 0. the time of flight can then be determined. the equation can be simplified to -0. the table above reveals that there are three quantities known about the vertical motion of the pool ball.8 m/s/s)•t2 Since the first term on the right side of the equation reduces to 0. Identify the unknown quantity that the problem requests you to solve for. Since each equation has four variables in it.8398 m) The answer to the stated problem is that the pool ball is in the air for 0.Horizontal Information x = ??? vix = 2.4 m/s)•(0. 1. Recall from the given information. The first vertical equation (y = viy•t +0. Once the appropriate equation has been selected. a horizontal equation can be used to determine the horizontal displacement of the pool ball." With the equation selected.84 m (rounded from 0. the physics problem once more becomes transformed into an algebra problem. make a table with horizontal information on one side and vertical information on the other side. the equation can then be simplified to x = (2.8 m/s/s As indicated in the table. the equation takes the form of x = (2. . Thus.3499 s) Once the time has been determined. the equation takes the form of -0.4 m/s)•(0. vix = 2. The following procedure summarizes the above problem-solving approach.3499 s) Thus.

a firm grasp of conceptual physics. Never divorce conceptual understanding and critical thinking from your approach to solving problems. the use of kinematic equations to solve non-horizontally launched projectiles will be demonstrated. (Usually. problem solving requires careful reading. A non-horizontally launched projectile is a projectile that begins its motion with an initial velocity that is both horizontal and vertical. As discussed earlier in Lesson 2. These equations were used to solve problems involving the launching of projectiles in a horizontal direction from an elevated position. and lots of disciplined practice. the same principles that were discussed earlier in Lesson 2 will have to be combined with the kinematic equations for projectile motion. not all problems can be solved with the above procedure. the equations are Of these three equations. Problem solving is not like cooking. The initial x-velocity (vix) can be found using the equation vix = vi•cosine(Theta) where Theta is the angle that the velocity vector makes with the horizontal. if a horizontal equation is used to solve for time. then a vertical equation can be used to solve for the final unknown quantity.8 m/s/s (the acceleration of gravity). The initial y-velocity (viy) can be found using the equation viy = vi•sine(Theta) where Theta is the angle that the velocity vector makes with the horizontal.) One caution is in order. Non-Horizontally Launched Projectile Problems In the previous part of Lesson 2. use one of the other equations to solve for the unknown. For the horizontal components of motion. the top equation is the most commonly used. The sole reliance upon 4. To treat such problems.and 5-step procedures to solve physics problems is always a dangerous approach.a set of equations for the horizontal components of motion and a similar set for the vertical components of motion.problems! While problems can often be simplified by the use of short procedures as the one above. For the vertical components of motion. The other two equations are seldom (if ever) used. consider their use in the solution of the following problem. the use of kinematic equations to solve projectile problems was introduced and demonstrated. You may recall from earlier that there are two sets of kinematic equations . In this section of Lesson 2. the vertical acceleration of a projectile is known to be -9. While steps 1 and 2 above are critical to your success in solving horizontally launched projectile problems. it is not a mere matter of following a recipe. the vix and viy values in each of the above sets of kinematic equations can be determined by the use of trigonometric functions.4. there will always be a problem that doesn't fit the mold. critical thought and analysis. To illustrate the usefulness of the above equations in making predictions about the motion of a projectile. . With the time determined. the three equations are In each of the above equations. An application of projectile concepts to each of these equations would also lead one to conclude that any term with a x in it would cancel out of the equation since ax = 0 m/s/s. Rather. The topic of components of the velocity vector was discussed earlier in Lesson 2. Physics problems are usually just that .

An organized listing of known quantities in two columns of a table provides clues for the selection of a useful strategy. ax. it happens that the vix and the viy values are the same as will always be the case when the angle is 45-degrees. From the vertical information in the table above and the second equation listed among the vertical kinematic equations (vfy = viy + ay*t).8 m/s/s As indicated in the table. there is no horizontal acceleration.7 m/s from each side of the equation.4 m/s = (-9.7 m/s Vertical Component viy = vi•sin(Theta) viy = 25 m/s•sin(45 deg) viy = 17. There are a variety of possible strategies for solving the problem. the time of flight. it becomes obvious that the time of flight of the projectile can be determined.61 seconds.7 m/s vfy = -17.7 m/s ax = 0 m/s/s Vertical Information y = ??? viy = 17.Example A football is kicked with an initial velocity of 25 m/s at an angle of 45-degrees with the horizontal. This is due to the fact that the horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant.7 m/s + (-9. The unknown quantities are the horizontal displacement. the equation takes the form of -17. By substitution of known values. and the height of the football at its peak. This is due to the symmetrical nature of a projectile's trajectory.8 m/s/s)•t The physics problem now takes the form of an algebra problem. ay. the final x-velocity (vfx) is the same as the initial x-velocity (vix). . the horizontal displacement.8 m/s/s. vix. the following information is either explicitly given or implied in the problem statement: Horizontal Information x = ??? vix = 17. Determine the time of flight.8 m/s/s)•t If both sides of the equation are divided by -9. viy. the equation becomes 3. and the peak height of the football.7 m/s vfx = 17. and t. y. In this case. Horizontal Component vix = vi•cos(Theta) vix = 25 m/s•cos(45 deg) vix = 17.61 s = t (rounded from 3. The solution of the problem now requires the selection of an appropriate strategy for using the kinematic equations and the known information to solve for the unknown quantities.x. The table also indicates that the final y-velocity (vfy) has the same magnitude and the opposite direction as the initial y-velocity (viy).7 m/s ay = -9. the equation becomes -35.7 m/s = 17.6077 s) The total time of flight of the football is 3. The solution of any non-horizontally launched projectile problem (in which vi and Theta are given) should begin by first resolving the initial velocity into horizontal and vertical components using the trigonometric functions discussed above. The solution continues by declaring the values of the known information in terms of the symbols of the kinematic equations . By subtracting 17.7 m/s In this case. Thus.

Identify the unknown quantity that the problem requests you to solve for.7 m/s)•(3. the second equation listed among the vertical equations (vfy = viy + ay*t) is usually the most useful equation. "what is the vertical displacement (y) of the projectile when it is halfway through its trajectory?" In other words. it is not a mere matter of following a recipe. With the time determined. 2. the equation can then be simplified to x = (17. The most useful equation for this is usually y = viy*t +0.80 s)2 Using a calculator. x = 63.With the time determined. and the peak height of the football 15. unrounded numbers were used.5•(0 m/s/s)•(3.80 seconds (one-half of the total time).7 m/s)•(1. Finally.6077 s) + 0. the equation takes the form of x = (17. For convenience sake.8 m. it takes the form of y = (17. there will always be a problem that doesn't "fit the mold.80 s) + 0.7 m/s)•(3. This is the same as asking. a firm grasp of conceptual physics. By substitution of known values into this equation.9 m + (-15.5•ax•t2) listed among the horizontal kinematic equations is suitable for determining x. Carefully read the problem and list known and unknown information in terms of the symbols of the kinematic equations. 2 and 3 above are critical to your success in solving non-horizontally launched projectile problems. this equation can be simplified to y = 31. not all problems can be solved with the above procedure.80 sec).6077 s) Thus. One caution is in order: the sole reliance upon 4.) The following procedure summarizes the above problem-solving approach. Select either a horizontal or vertical equation to solve for the time of flight of the projectile. While steps 1.9 m. Physics problems are usually just that .5•ay•t2) listed among the vertical kinematic equations can be used. The numbers reported in the preliminary steps and in the final answer were the rounded form of the actual unrounded values. 6. Rather.9 m) And thus. By substitution of known values. To determine the peak height of the projectile (y with t = 1. With the equation selected. (Note that in all calculations performed above.5*ay*t2 .5*(-10 m/s/s)•(1.and 5-step procedures to solve physics problems is always a dangerous approach. Use the given values of the initial velocity (the magnitude and the angle) to determine the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity (vix and viy).8 m. make a table with horizontal information on one side and vertical information on the other side. 5." Problem solving is not like cooking. find y when t = 1. the horizontal displacement of the football is 63. the problem statement asks for the height of the projectile at is peak. Finally. . 3.9 m The solution to the problem statement yields the following answers: the time of flight of the football is 3. 1.8 m The horizontal displacement of the projectile is 63. critical thought and analysis. and lots of disciplined practice. y = 15. the peak height of the projectile can be found using a time value that is one-half the total time of flight. For non-horizontally launched projectiles. use a horizontal equation (usually x = v ix*t + 0. the first equation (y = v iy•t +0.5*ax*t2 ) to determine the horizontal displacement of the projectile. 4.6077 s)2 Since the second term on the right side of the equation reduces to 0. The first equation (x = vix•t + 0.problems! And problems can often be simplified by the use of short procedures as the one above. the physics problem once more becomes transformed into an algebra problem. Never divorce conceptual understanding and critical thinking from your approach to solving problems. problem solving requires careful reading. information in the table and the horizontal kinematic equations can be used to determine the horizontal displacement (x) of the projectile.61 s. However.

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