Unit 5

September 17, 2011

1

Defect

For the development phases before testing, the development activities themselves are subject to defect injection, and the reviews or inspections at end-of-phase activities are the key vehicles for defect removal. For the testing phases, the testing itself is for defect removal. When the problems found by testing are fixed incorrectly, there is another chance to inject defects. In fact,even for the inspection steps, there are chances for bad fixes. The Figure below describes the detailed mechanics of defect injection and removal at each step of the development process. From the figure, defect removal effectiveness for each development step, therefore, can be defined as:

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P.Selvapriyavadhana,Asst.Prof,ACT

Figure 1: Defect Injection and Removal During One Process Step

SQM

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then models the defect removal pattern step by step. experiences from previous releases provide the basis for phase-specific target setting and for quality planning.Prof.3 and works like this: SQM 3 . and the control chart technique can be used to enforce consistent improvement across the board. and effectiveness. Longitudinal release-to-release monitoring of these metrics can give a good feel for the process capability of the development organization.P.Selvapriyavadhana.Asst. These measurements clearly indicate which phase of the development process we should focus on for improvement. Phase-Based Defect Removal Model The phase-based defect removal model (DRM) summarizes the relationships among three metricsdefect injection. It takes a simplified view of Figure 6. In addition. Effectiveness analyzes can be done for the entire project as well as for local areas. defect removal. The DRM takes a set of error-injection rates and a set of phase-effectiveness rates as input.ACT Defect Removal Effectiveness and Quality Planning Phase defect removal effectiveness and related metrics associated with effectiveness analyzes (such as defect removal and defect injection rates) are useful for quality planning and quality management. such as at the component level and specific departments in an organization.

P.ACT Figure 2: Defect Removal SQM 4 .Prof.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana.

P. The causes are divided into main-and side causes.Prof. Environment 7. Manpower 6. Machinery 3.Selvapriyavadhana. The7 causes are: 1. Methods 2. Materials 5. Measurement SQM 5 .Asst. Management 4.ACT 2 Ishikawa-Diagram Basic concept The Idea: Think about possible causes and reasons leading to an effect or a problem find solution for preventing those problems. 7 causes lead to the problem/effect.

ACT Figure 3: Ishikawa-Diagram SQM 6 .Selvapriyavadhana.Prof.P.Asst.

sketch the diagram and in script the needed causes. SQM 7 .Selvapriyavadhana. work the main and side causes out 3. 2. check the selected causes for rightness 6. • causes that can be improved or eliminated easily will be finished first of all (no need to be weighted) • The weighted causes are in a list of priority and will be finished in turn. check the completeness 4. main and side causes. weight the main & side causes in terms of meaning & influence 5.P.ACT Aim • Find the causes. The team discusses about the solution.Asst. Example Rise in productivity 1. • Improve them for having the wanted effect or eliminate them for solving the problem. sketch the diagram and in script the needed causes. theoretical conversion 1. • Clarity • Interdependence of the causes.Prof.

P.ACT SQM 8 .Prof.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana.

Asst.P.Prof.Selvapriyavadhana.ACT SQM 9 .

ACT SQM 10 .Selvapriyavadhana.Asst.P.Prof.

P.Prof.Selvapriyavadhana.ACT SQM 11 .Asst.

P.Selvapriyavadhana.Prof.ACT SQM 12 .Asst.

Prof.P.Selvapriyavadhana.Asst.ACT SQM 13 .

Prof.Asst.ACT SQM 14 .P.Selvapriyavadhana.

Asst.P.Selvapriyavadhana.Prof.ACT SQM 15 .

ACT SQM 16 .P.Prof.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana.

Selvapriyavadhana.Prof.Asst.ACT SQM 17 .P.

Selvapriyavadhana.ACT SQM 18 .P.Asst.Prof.

6. weight the main & side causes in terms of meaning & influence.P.Selvapriyavadhana.Prof. check the selected causes for rightness.Asst. • Lean Management • Standardization • Motivation • Education 5. The team discusses about the solution causes that can be improved or eliminated easily: • Hardware • Software • Temperature • Noise weighted causes • Lean Management • Standardization • Motivation • Education SQM 19 .ACT 4.

SQM 20 .Selvapriyavadhana. It may require. This chapter describes the application of these tools for process and quality control in software development. There are many ways to analyze software metrics.ACT Applying the Seven Basic Quality Tools in Software Development The basic statistical tools for quality control promoted by Ishikawa (1989) are widely used in manufacturing productions. hence. Also. the use of control charts in manufacturing production can ensure a certain endproduct quality once the process is defined and the control limits are set. achieving statistical process control in software development may mean a lot more than control charting.Asst. For instance. In addition.P. the benefits of statistics may not be realized. although the benefits of these tools have long been proved in manufacturing operations. their use and roles in software development has not been widely recognized. In software development. They have indeed become an integral part of the quality control literature. the process is complex and involves a high degree of creativity and mental activity.Prof. are useful for project leaders and process experts. they do not provide specific information to software developers on how to improve the quality of their designs or implementation. and have been known as Ishikawa’s seven basic tools. because not all these tools are equally useful for small projects where statistical patterns of parameters of the development process are less obvious. It is extremely difficult. however. The box at the end of the chapter offers specific recommendations for small teams. the applications of Ishikawa’s seven tools represent a set of basic operations. In contrast. Keep in mind that these statistical tools are for process and quality control at the project and organization level and. to define the process capability of software development in statistical terms. Therefore. if not impossible.

Prof. CASE tools. and the use of defect models and reliability estimating techniques. The examples are either from software engineering literature or from software projects developed at IBM in Rochester. However.P. In addition to the seven basic tools. The following sections begin with a brief description of the tools.ACT for example. we discuss the relations diagram. Where appropriate. followed by a discussion of each tool with examples of its applications. new development technology.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana. which is effective for small team brainstorming and particularly useful in displaying cause-and-effect relationships. the influences of these tools on process improvement and on decision making are also described. SQM 21 . good use of the seven basic tools can lead to positive long-term results for process improvement and quality management in software development. Minnesota.

Prof.P.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana.ACT Figure 4: Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools for Quality Control SQM 22 .

the data-gathering aspect is automated electronically and goes far beyond the data-gathering check sheet approach. By arranging the causes based on defect frequency.Prof. It is concerned mainly with the quality characteristics of a process or a product. the X -axis for a Pareto diagram is usually the defect cause and the Y -axis the defect count.ACT A check sheet is a paper form with printed items to be checked. who expounded his principle in terms of the distribution of wealth—that a large share of the wealth is owned by a small percentage of the population. although the cause-defect relationship is not always in an 80–20 distribution. A Pareto diagram is a frequency chart of bars in descending order. we use the term checklist. Our discussion on this tool. It indicates which problems should be solved first in eliminating defects and improving the operation.P. the frequency bars are usually associated with types of problems. In most software development environments. Another type of check sheet is the check-up confirmation sheet.Asst.Selvapriyavadhana. which has been used in manufacturing production. The histogram is a graphic representation of frequency SQM 23 . To distinguish this confirmation check sheet from the ordinary data-gathering check sheet. In software development. is confined to checklists. Its main purposes are to facilitate gathering data and to arrange data while collecting it so the data can be easily used later. Pareto analysis is commonly referred to as the 80–20 principle (20% of the causes account for 80% of the defects). It is named after a nineteenthcentury Italian economist named Vilfredo Pareto (1848– 1923). a Pareto diagram can identify the few causes that account for the majority of defects. In 1950 Juran applied the principle to the identification of quality problems—that most of the quality problems are due to a small percentage of the possible causes. therefore.

and skewness. A scatter diagram vividly portrays the relationship of two interval variables. whereas in a Pareto diagram the frequency bars are shown by order of the frequency counts. An example of a run chart in software is the weekly number of open problems in the backlog. Ishikawa (1989) includes various graphs such as the pie chart. One should always look for a scatter diagram when the correlation coefficient of two variables is presented. The X-axis is time and the Y -axis is the value of the parameter. severity level of software defects) ranked in ascending order from left to right. it shows the development team’s workload of software fixes. if action is planned on the X variable and some effect is expected on the Y variable)..Selvapriyavadhana.. A control chart can be regarded as an advanced form of a run chart for situations where the process capability can be defined.g. a pair SQM 24 .Prof. It enhances understanding of the parameter of interest. compound bar graph. the X -axis is for the independent variable and the Y -axis for the dependent variable.Asst. A run chart is best used for trend analysis. and circle graph under the section that discusses run charts. Scatter diagrams aid databased decision making (e. The X-axis lists the unit intervals of a parameter (e. dispersion. central tendency.P. The purpose of the histogram is to show the distribution characteristics of a parameter such as overall shape.ACT counts of a sample or a population. bar graph. the frequency bars are shown by the order of thXe variable. In a cause-effect relationship. In a histogram. especially if historical data are available for comparisons with the current trend. It consists of a central line. Each point in a scatter diagram represents an observation of both the dependent and independent variables. A run chart tracks the performance of the parameter of interest over time. and the Y-axis contains the frequency counts.g.

It is included in the Japanese Industrial Standards terminology for quality control (Kume.Asst. the cause-and-effect diagram identifies all causal factors of a quality characteristic in one chart. was developed by Ishikawa and associates in the early 1950s in Japan. Such cases call for causal analysis and corrective actions are to be taken.Prof. Its layout resembles a fishbone.ACT of control limits (and sometimes a pair of warning limits within the control limits). and factors affecting the characteristics placed where the bones are located. The cause-and-effect diagram. While the scatter diagram describes a specific bivariate relationship in detail. If all values of the parameter are within the control limits and show no particular tendency. If they fall outside the control limits or indicate a trend. also known as the fishbone diagram. which represent the state of a process. The X -axis is real time. and values of the parameter of interest plotted on the chart. SQM 25 . It shows the relationship between a quality characteristic and factors that affect that characteristic. the process is considered out of control. It was first used to explain factors that affect the production of steel.P. the process is regarded as being in a controlled state.Selvapriyavadhana. with the quality characteristic of interest labeled at the fish head. 1989).

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