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# Power Engineering Foundation

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THE PER UNIT SYSTEM In the analysis of power networks having different voltages levels, it is rather cumbersome to transform all impedances to a single voltage level; particularly whenever they flow through a transformer (the change in current being inversely proportionally to the transformer turns ratio). The computation using the actual values of parameters and variables tend to be lengthy and timeconsuming. However, power engineers have devised the per-unit system such that the various physical quantities such as power, voltage, current and impedances are expressed as a decimal fraction or multiples of base quantities. In this system, the different voltage levels disappears, and a power network involving various equipments such as generator, transformer and lines of different voltage levels as illustrated in Figure 1 reduces to a system of simple impedances as shown in Figure 2. This simplified diagram provides ease of computation and solution.

## Figure 2: Per Unit equivalent circuit

BASIC FORM OF PER UNIT The p.u value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the actual value (in any unit) to the base or reference value in the same unit.

Where Actual Value = the unscaled quantity in appropriate SI units; a phasor or complex number in an AC circuit; a function of time where appropriate. Base Value = a real number selected to conform to the scaling axioms and to achieves as any desirable

## Power Engineering Foundation

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characteristics as possible. Per-Unit Value = the scaled dimensionless quantity; a phasor of complex number in an AC circuit situation; a function of time when appropriate.

Example 1 In the simplest of form, lets take Ractual = 10 and choose Rbase = 3. Hence, the per unit value

As shown above the key to per-unit scaling lies in the base selection process. Theoretically any arbitrarily chosen base will be acceptable. However, the choice of a suitable base will result in a convenient value.

ADVANTAGES OF PER UNIT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Clear idea of relative magnitudes Voltage levels are more comparable Same order of voltage drops and losses Minimal calculations Transformer turns ratio calculation minimized Small number to manage

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## , thus Voltage in per unit is same in line and phase values.

PER UNIT IN TRANSFORMER In a loss-less transformer we will observe that the complex input is equal to the complex power output. However, the actual voltages, currents and impedance changes, across the transformer related to the turns ratio. On the other hand the base voltage, base current and base impedance also changes across the transformer by similar transformation. Thus, the per-unit values are the same on both sides of the transformer. Since the voltage base is usually chosen to be either the nominal voltage or the rated voltage, the per-unit value of voltage is almost always equal to unity. The concept is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Concepts of per unit in transformer Figure 5 shows a transformer with its typical per-unit parameter, given as X = 0.1 pu referring to a common base of 50MVA. If we were to transform the transformer into per-unit quantities, the Figure 6 will be the final circuit represented by its per-unit equivalent; excluding the 132kV/33kV terminal voltage. Those voltages are the base voltage levels across the transformer.

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## Figure 5: Impedance of Transformer

Figure 6: Impedance of Transformer in pu CHANGE OF BASE The per-unit impedance of a generator or transformer, as supplied by the manufacturer, is generally based on the rating of the generator of transformer itself. This impedance is generally in terms of per cent or per-unit quantities based on their own ratings. It has been the standard practice. It is then necessary to convert these per-unit quantities from one base to another. This is to rationalize the per-unit values to a common base; especially when carrying out analysis involving a number of equipment within a system. The diagram of Figure 7 illustrates the concepts involved when carrying-out conversion of two equipments with original bases or references to newly chosen base/reference.

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## Figure 7: Rationalization to a Common Base General formula to change base in Transformer

Example 2 Figure 8 represents a system comprising a generator and two units of transformer with the respective ratings, impedance and parameters to their respective base (rated value). Taking a base of 50MVA and terminal nominal voltage of transformers as the voltage reference, determine the new per-unit reactance of transformers as the voltage reference, determine the new per-unit reactance of the a) Generator GA, b) Transformer TA and c) Transformer TB (The answers will be discussed in class)

Figure 8: Example 2

## Power Engineering Foundation

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SELECTION OF VOLTAGE ZONES A typical single line diagram of a power system involving generation, transmission and distribution with various components is shown in the single-line diagram of Figure 9. To determine the actual voltage base care must be taken at the transformer turns ratio that is available. It is very easy to make mistake in the process of transforming the appropriate voltage bases as shown in Figure 10. Observe that the selection of base voltage was wrongly carried-out in case 1 at the generation zone of 10kV. For case 2, wrong selection was made at the distribution region of 33kV zone. This mistake arise mainly on the assumption that zone of voltage base could be determined purely by inspection.

## Figure 9: Typical representation of power system

Figure 10: Wrong selection of base voltage The right method is illustrated n Figure 11 (provided with 4 different alternative cases) whereby one voltage base is fixed and the rest of the voltage base in respective zones is transformed to the appropriate voltage base.

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## Figure 11: Right Steps to selection of base voltage

We could finally transform the single-line diagram to its per-unit impedance diagram of Figure 12 after applying the various per-unit transform technique we have previously described.

## Figure 12: Equivalent Per-Unit diagram

The appropriation transformation of voltage base for Figure 11 is determined in the following with the final zones of voltage base as in Figure 13.

## Power Engineering Foundation

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Example 3 Lets proceed with actual determination of the per-unit equivalent circuits. Assume that a base of 200MVA is chosen and voltage zone as in case 1 redrawn in the following diagram of Figure 14.

Figure 14: Example 3 Example 4 Figure 15 shows the schematic diagram of a three-phase radial transmission system. The ratings and reactance of various components are as shown, along with the nominal transformer rated line voltages. Using a base of 200 MVA and voltage reference as 18 kV at Zone A as shown, convert the schematic into an equivalent per-unit circuit with the various new voltage base in Zone B, C, D and E. Subsequently calculate the new per-unit reactance of the followings; a) Generator GA b) Transformer TA c) Line parameter LC d) Transformer TB e) Transformer TC f) Receiving Voltage VR g) Load Current at the receiving busbar (The answers will be discussed in class)