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Introduction Purposes of Storytelling Golden Rules for Telling Stories Choosing a Story Creating a Story (4Ps) Responding a Story Functional Aspects of Storytelling Conclusion Bibliography

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Storytelling is a feature of every country's culture. Is is loved by children and adults. It inspires immagination, it is natural part of learning. The sources can be found everywhere ( friends, family, fairytales, myths, legends, television,films, magazines, newspapers, world religion, internet, music, songs, students). According to Anne Pellowski storytelling is the art or craft of narration stories in verse or prose, as performed or led before the live audience; the stories narrated may be spoken, chanted, or sung, with or without musical, pictorial, or other accompaniment and may be learned from oral, printed, or mechanically recorded sources; one of its purposes may be entertainment.1 Telling stories can help in:  Sharing and creating a common experience in storytelling aids in the development of a child's ability to interprete events beyond his immediate experience. The child's world view is expanded through story experiences in a non-threatening and loving athmosphere.  Introduce the child to oral language patterns. The child needs wide exprience with spoken language, if the child is to achieve success in reading.  Develop a child's listening skills.  Develop a positive attitude on the part of the child for books and reading. Storytelling is an excellent means of introducing the children to the world of books.  Contribute to the social and congitive development through shared experiences ... to feel joy for another happiness or sadnes for their misfortunes.  Contribute to the child's mental health. It helps the child cope with his own conscious self by giving the child structure for his own daydreams and fantasies.  Aid in development of an ethical value system.  Introduce well-known tales which all well-informed people should know.



 Aid in vocabulary development.  Entertain and amuse the child.  Help the child appreciate his own cultural heritage, as well as the heritage of others.

Purposes of Storytelling
Anne Pellowoski2 in her analysis of the history of storytelling The World of Storytelling has suggested that the storytelling has its origin in play activities, with gifted but ordinary people entertaining their particular social group informally. Gradually these activities were included in religious rituals, historical recitations and educational functions. She found evidence to support many theories on the origins of storytelling, including:  That it grew out of the playful, self-entertainment needs of humans;  That it satisfied the need to explain the surrounding physical world.  That it came about because of an intrinstic religious need in humans to honor or propitiate the supernature force(s) believed to be present in the world.  That it evolved from the human need to communicate experience to other humans.  That it fulfilled an aesthetic need for beauty, regularity, and form through expressive language and music.  That it stemmed from the desire to record actions and qualities of one's ancestors, in the hope that this would give them a kind of immortality.

Golden Rules for Telling Stories
When telling a story, a teacher should....  include language that is a challenge  try to cater to all learning styles with activities that encourage different responses


 support storytelling with quest, pictures, puppets  use himself as a source  prepare a story outline that includes the main points  practice the story out loud to a friend, or read into tape  use facial expressions, mime and gestures  keep an eye contact with the listeners  enjoy it

Choosing a Story
When the teacher prepares himself for the class, where he will tell a story, he has to prepare himself properly. But where and how a story can be found. Here are some hints of choosing stories for storytelling. The teacher should...  choose only the best stories, stories by virtue of style,theme and plot beg to be told.  choose stories from all genres – legends, fantasy, biography, poetry etc.  choose a story which speaks to him personally ( a story is not worth telling since the teacher's emotional involvement is often a keynote to a successful presentation)  know his intended audience – age, interests, attention span,previous experience with stories ( trial and error may be the first guide to matching a story with audience to find out what works well for the teacher and the children)  read widely within all areas of literature .  develop stories which fit the teacher's personal storytelling and meet his needs.  locate books, cassetes/records/CDs and other forms of media devoted to storytelling.  attend storytelling conferences and performances to listen the stories done by master storytellers.


Creating a Story (4Ps)
A teacher can also create a story together with pupils, for example pupils are supposed to create the story The Dragon. They are given pictures of two girls, forrest, dragon and whistle. The first part has to be done in pairs or in groups. The teacher will help them to develop a story using 4Ps, that is: PICTURING .................................................. What do you think the dragon looks like ? PREDICTING ................................................. What do you think is going to happen? PERSONALISING........................................... Do you like walking in the forest? PASSING JUDGEMENT.................................. What would you tell the next time? children to do (MESSAGE)

Responding to a Story
Activities3 that can follow after the telling a story:  roll plays (personalising)  putting sentences in the correct order  describing pictures and putting them in order  matching the split sentences  fill in the gaps in a story text  dramatizing the story (puppets, mimes..)  children mime the story as the teacher tell it  children draw comic strip of a story  dissapearing text


Ur, P. & A. Wright (1995): Five-Minute Activities, CUP, Cambridge, p.80


Functional Aspects of Storytelling
This is a lesson plan based on Aesop’s fable LION AND THE MOUSE Key Words/Concepts: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS: Lion and the Mouse (The); Character Development; Compare/Contrast; Constructing Meaning; Fable; Fiction Literature; Group Discussions; Inferences/Generalizations; Listening; Plot Development; Predicting; Prior Knowledge; Response to Text/Others; Story Elements; Universal Themes; Vocabulary PHILANTHROPY: Caring/Sharing; Helping SOCIAL STUDIES: Civic Responsibility/Virtue; Good Character Purpose: Introduces the idea of kind deeds and reciprocity using fables with a moral issue at the core of the story. Reinforces that a kind deed is never wasted and demonstrates that kindness is related to good citizenship. Increases listening comprehension and the use of critical thinking skills. Objectives: The learner will:  rely on imagination for pictures instead of actual illustrations.  orally consider the lion - mouse relationship, especially how each one could affect the other's life in unexpected ways.  suggest some characteristics involved in becoming a good citizen. Synopsis: In the story "The Lion and the Mouse," the mouse accidentally awakens and upsets a lion. The lion felt kind and decided to let the mouse go. The mouse promises to repay the lion one day. The lion laughed, thinking what could a mouse do for me. Later, the lion became caught in a trap. When the mouse heard the lion roaring he came and quickly chewed through the ropes to set the lion free. 6

Instructional Procedure(s):
Anticipatory Set: Have you ever done something nice for another person? Do you think you can help someone who is bigger, stronger, or older than you? The fable, The Lion and the Mouse, tells how this happened.  Set the stage by explaining that this story will be told orally rather than read. Students will use their ears and imagination since there are no storybook pictures to look at.  Show pictures of a mouse and a lion and help students compare and contrast them. Describe the savanna habitat and show a picture if possible.  Tell the story to the class and help them discuss it when you are finished. Ask: What happened to the mouse? What happened to the lion? What is a trap? How did the mouse free the lion? Why couldn't the lion free himself?  Ask students to describe the lesson the story conveys. Relate the moral of the story to good citizenship. Guide discussion to other kind deeds the children may have done or seen. Ask, as good citizens, what kind deeds they could do. Assessment: Have the children name other animals, making two lists as they brainstorm. Have the children suggest how the animal pairs could help each other. What could you do, as a good citizen, to help someone in an unsafe situation? Have the children draw a picture of the lion and the mouse or two other animals helping each other. Label each picture with their description of "helping."


Educators have long known that the arts can contribute to student academic success and emotional well being. The ancient art of storytelling is especially well-suited for student exploration. As a folk art, storytelling is accessible to all ages and abilities. No special equipment beyond the imagination and the power of listening and speaking is needed to create artistic images. As a learning tool, storytelling can encourage students to explore their unique expressiveness and can heighten a student's ability to communicate thoughts and feelings in an articulate, lucid manner. These benefits transcend the art experience to support daily life skills. In our fastpaced, media-driven world, storytelling can be a nurturing way to remind children that their spoken words are powerful, that listening is important, and that clear communication between people is an art.

Why Storytelling (more reasons)?
Gaining Verbal Skills Becoming verbally proficient can contribute to a student's ability to resolve interpersonal conflict nonviolently. Negotiation, discussion, and tact are peacemaking skills. Being able to lucidly express one's thoughts and feelings is important for a child's safety. Clear communication is the first step to being able to ask for help when it is needed. Imagination Both telling a story and listening to a well-told tale encourages students to use their imaginations. Developing the imagination can empower students to consider new and inventive ideas. Developing 8

the imagination can contribute to self-confidence and personal motivation as students envision themselves competent and able to accomplish their hopes and dreams. Passing On Wisdom Storytelling based on traditional folktales is a gentle way to guide young people toward constructive personal values by presenting imaginative situations in which the outcome of both wise and unwise actions and decisions can be seen.

Ur, P & A, Wright (1995): Five-Minute Activities, CUP, Cambridge Scott, W.A. & L. H. Ytreberg (1997): Teaching English to Children, Longman, Harlow Scrivener, J. (1994): Learning Teaching, Heinemann, Oxford 9

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