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• Introduction 2
• Purposes of Storytelling 3
• Golden Rules for Telling Stories 3
• Choosing a Story 4
• Creating a Story (4Ps) 5
• Responding a Story 5
• Functional Aspects of Storytelling 6
• Conclusion 9
• Bibliography 10

Storytelling is a feature of every country's culture. Is is loved by
children and adults. It inspires immagination, it is natural part of learning.
The sources can be found everywhere ( friends, family, fairytales, myths,
legends, television,films, magazines, newspapers, world religion, internet,
music, songs, students).
According to Anne Pellowski storytelling is the art or craft of narration
stories in verse or prose, as performed or led before the live audience; the
stories narrated may be spoken, chanted, or sung, with or without musical,
pictorial, or other accompaniment and may be learned from oral, printed, or
mechanically recorded sources; one of its purposes may be entertainment.1

Telling stories can help in:

 Sharing and creating a common experience in storytelling aids in the
development of a child's ability to interprete events beyond his immediate
experience. The child's world view is expanded through story experiences in
a non-threatening and loving athmosphere.
 Introduce the child to oral language patterns. The child needs wide exprience
with spoken language, if the child is to achieve success in reading.
 Develop a child's listening skills.
 Develop a positive attitude on the part of the child for books and reading.
Storytelling is an excellent means of introducing the children to the world of
 Contribute to the social and congitive development through shared
experiences ... to feel joy for another happiness or sadnes for their
 Contribute to the child's mental health. It helps the child cope with his own
conscious self by giving the child structure for his own daydreams and
 Aid in development of an ethical value system.
 Introduce well-known tales which all well-informed people should know.

 Aid in vocabulary development.
 Entertain and amuse the child.
 Help the child appreciate his own cultural heritage, as well as the heritage of

Purposes of Storytelling

Anne Pellowoski2 in her analysis of the history of storytelling The World of

Storytelling has suggested that the storytelling has its origin in play
activities, with gifted but ordinary people entertaining their particular social
group informally. Gradually these activities were included in religious rituals,
historical recitations and educational functions. She found evidence to
support many theories on the origins of storytelling, including:
 That it grew out of the playful, self-entertainment needs of humans;
 That it satisfied the need to explain the surrounding physical world.
 That it came about because of an intrinstic religious need in humans to
honor or propitiate the supernature force(s) believed to be present in the
 That it evolved from the human need to communicate experience to other
 That it fulfilled an aesthetic need for beauty, regularity, and form through
expressive language and music.
 That it stemmed from the desire to record actions and qualities of one's
ancestors, in the hope that this would give them a kind of immortality.

Golden Rules for Telling Stories

When telling a story, a teacher should....
 include language that is a challenge
 try to cater to all learning styles with activities that encourage different
 support storytelling with quest, pictures, puppets
 use himself as a source
 prepare a story outline that includes the main points
 practice the story out loud to a friend, or read into tape
 use facial expressions, mime and gestures
 keep an eye contact with the listeners
 enjoy it

Choosing a Story
When the teacher prepares himself for the class, where he will tell a
story, he has to prepare himself properly. But where and how a story can be
found. Here are some hints of choosing stories for storytelling.
The teacher should...
 choose only the best stories, stories by virtue of style,theme and plot
beg to be told.
 choose stories from all genres – legends, fantasy, biography, poetry etc.
 choose a story which speaks to him personally ( a story is not worth telling
since the teacher's emotional involvement is often a keynote to a successful
 know his intended audience – age, interests, attention span,previous
experience with stories ( trial and error may be the first guide to matching a
story with audience to find out what works well for the teacher and the
 read widely within all areas of literature .
 develop stories which fit the teacher's personal storytelling and meet his
 locate books, cassetes/records/CDs and other forms of media devoted to
 attend storytelling conferences and performances to listen the stories done
by master storytellers.

Creating a Story (4Ps)
A teacher can also create a story together with pupils, for example
pupils are supposed to create the story The Dragon. They are given pictures
of two girls, forrest, dragon and whistle. The first part has to be done in pairs
or in groups. The teacher will help them to develop a story using 4Ps, that is:

PICTURING .................................................. What do you think the dragon

looks like ?
PREDICTING ................................................. What do you think is going to
PERSONALISING........................................... Do you like walking in the
PASSING JUDGEMENT.................................. What would you tell the
children to do
(MESSAGE) next time?

Responding to a Story
Activities3 that can follow after the telling a story:
 roll plays (personalising)
 putting sentences in the correct order
 describing pictures and putting them in order
 matching the split sentences
 fill in the gaps in a story text
 dramatizing the story (puppets, mimes..)
 children mime the story as the teacher tell it
 children draw comic strip of a story
 dissapearing text

Ur, P. & A. Wright (1995): Five-Minute Activities, CUP, Cambridge, p.80
Functional Aspects of Storytelling
This is a lesson plan based on Aesop’s fable LION AND THE MOUSE

Key Words/Concepts:
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS: Lion and the Mouse (The);
Character Development; Compare/Contrast; Constructing Meaning;
Fable; Fiction Literature; Group Discussions; Inferences/Generalizations;
Listening; Plot Development; Predicting; Prior Knowledge; Response to
Text/Others; Story Elements; Universal Themes; Vocabulary
PHILANTHROPY: Caring/Sharing; Helping
SOCIAL STUDIES: Civic Responsibility/Virtue; Good Character

Introduces the idea of kind deeds and reciprocity using fables with a
moral issue at the core of the story. Reinforces that a kind deed is
never wasted and demonstrates that kindness is related to good
citizenship. Increases listening comprehension and the use of critical
thinking skills.

The learner will:
 rely on imagination for pictures instead of actual illustrations.
 orally consider the lion - mouse relationship, especially how each one
could affect the other's life in unexpected ways.
 suggest some characteristics involved in becoming a good citizen.

In the story "The Lion and the Mouse," the mouse accidentally awakens
and upsets a lion. The lion felt kind and decided to let the mouse go.
The mouse promises to repay the lion one day. The lion laughed,
thinking what could a mouse do for me. Later, the lion became caught
in a trap. When the mouse heard the lion roaring he came and quickly
chewed through the ropes to set the lion free.
Instructional Procedure(s):
Anticipatory Set:
Have you ever done something nice for another person? Do you think
you can help someone who is bigger, stronger, or older than you? The
fable, The Lion and the Mouse, tells how this happened.
 Set the stage by explaining that this story will be told orally rather than
read. Students will use their ears and imagination since there are no
storybook pictures to look at.
 Show pictures of a mouse and a lion and help students compare and
contrast them. Describe the savanna habitat and show a picture if
 Tell the story to the class and help them discuss it when you are
finished. Ask:
What happened to the mouse?
What happened to the lion?
What is a trap?
How did the mouse free the lion?
Why couldn't the lion free himself?
 Ask students to describe the lesson the story conveys. Relate the
moral of the story to good citizenship. Guide discussion to other kind
deeds the children may have done or seen. Ask, as good citizens, what
kind deeds they could do.

Have the children name other animals, making two lists as they
brainstorm. Have the children suggest how the animal pairs could help
each other. What could you do, as a good citizen, to help someone in
an unsafe situation? Have the children draw a picture of the lion and
the mouse or two other animals helping each other. Label each picture
with their description of "helping."

Educators have long known that the arts can contribute to student
academic success and emotional well being. The ancient art of
storytelling is especially well-suited for student exploration. As a folk
art, storytelling is accessible to all ages and abilities. No special
equipment beyond the imagination and the power of listening and
speaking is needed to create artistic images. As a learning tool,
storytelling can encourage students to explore their unique
expressiveness and can heighten a student's ability to communicate
thoughts and feelings in an articulate, lucid manner. These benefits
transcend the art experience to support daily life skills. In our fast-
paced, media-driven world, storytelling can be a nurturing way to
remind children that their spoken words are powerful, that listening is
important, and that clear communication between people is an art.

Why Storytelling (more reasons)?

Gaining Verbal Skills
Becoming verbally proficient can contribute to a student's ability to
resolve interpersonal conflict nonviolently. Negotiation, discussion, and
tact are peacemaking skills. Being able to lucidly express one's
thoughts and feelings is important for a child's safety. Clear
communication is the first step to being able to ask for help when it is
Both telling a story and listening to a well-told tale encourages
students to use their imaginations. Developing the imagination can
empower students to consider new and inventive ideas. Developing
the imagination can contribute to self-confidence and personal
motivation as students envision themselves competent and able to
accomplish their hopes and dreams.
Passing On Wisdom
Storytelling based on traditional folktales is a gentle way to guide
young people toward constructive personal values by presenting
imaginative situations in which the outcome of both wise and unwise
actions and decisions can be seen.


Ur, P & A, Wright (1995): Five-Minute Activities, CUP, Cambridge

Scott, W.A. & L. H. Ytreberg (1997): Teaching English to Children, Longman, Harlow
Scrivener, J. (1994): Learning Teaching, Heinemann, Oxford