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INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION
Undertaken at HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED (HZL) ZINC SMELTER DEBARI, UDAIPUR-313024
PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT DEBARI, UDAIPUR
SUBMITTED BY: GOURAV JOSHI
It is a great sense of satisfaction and a matter of privilege to me to work at HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED, DEBARI. I wish to express my heartiest thanks to Human Resource Division for providing me the opportunity to under go training in the esteemed organization. Under such a nice environment, systematic work approach and target oriented task management of this division provided me with the much-desired training experience needed for future profession. It is my pleasure to thank Mr. M L Nagda, AGM (PR), Mr. Akhilesh Shukla, Unit Head(ZSD), Mr. P K Jain, AGM (HR), to whom I owe a lot for giving me an opportunity to do my training in this organization; I also owe a special thanks to Mr. Arun Chaplot, AGM (Commercials), Mr. Suresh Chandra Sharma, Mgr (Sales) and Mr. Abhinav Gupta, AM (Fin.), Mr. A K Singh, AGM(P), for allowing me to do project under their guidance. My heartfelt thanks to Mr. G P Bhattarmakki, Mgr (Commercials), Mr. Sanjay Chaturvedi, JE (Commercials) who accepted me as a project trainee in his group and helping in the projects with words of encouragement and has shown full confidence in my abilities. The project would not be a success without the constant and valuable guidance of all the staff members at Store for the project, rendering all sorts of help as and when required.
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree of MBA.
Guides Internal: Mr. G P Bhattarmakki
External: Mr. Arun Chaplot
Mr. Abhinav Gupta
Debari. hereby. under the guidance . declare that the dissertation entitled “INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM” is an authentic work developed by me at HZL.DECLARATION I do.
AGM (Commercials) and Mr. . GOURAV JOSHI M.A. any or all contents incorporated in this dissertation have not been submitted in any form for the award of any degree or diploma of any other institution or university. Arun Chaplot. I also declare that. G P Bhattarmakki.B.(2nd sem) Table of Contents .of Mr. Mgr (Store) submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master Of Business Administration (MBA) of INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT &RESEARCHAHMEDABAD.
No. Chapter-1 Chapter-2 Chapter-3 Chapter-4 Chapter-5 Chapter-6 Chapter-7 Chapter-8 Chapter-9 Topic Introduction to the Topic Objective of Study Research Methodology Literature Review Industry Analysis Material Management an Overview Data Analysis &Findings Suggestions Appendix CHAPTER 1 .S.
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
We all depends for some commodities and services provided by other individuals or organizations. Similarly, every
organization, big or small, to varying extents, depends on materials and services from other organizations. These materials and services are obtained through exchange of money. Materials constitute an important ingredient of inputs to the activities of the several types of organizations. Industries require raw materials, components and equipments for their production, service organizations require supplies, and spare parts for maintenance, operations and so on. In most of the organizations, about 40 to 60% of the total money is spent on materials and related services. Even in a majority of manufacturing organizations it is 60 to 80% of total cost. Purchase Management- The basic purchasing principles are buying materials of right quality, in the right quantity, at the right time, at the right price, from a right source and also at the right place. Inventory Management- Maintaining stock, for a given financial investment, an adequate supply of something to meet an expected demand pattern. This could be a raw material or the spares work in progress finished products or the spares and other indirect materials. Inventory can be one of the indicators of management effectiveness on the materials management front. Inventory turnover ratio (annual demand /average inventory) is an index of business performance. A soundly managed organization will have higher inventory turnover ratio and vice-versa. Inventory management deals with the determination of optimal policies and procedures for procurement of commodities. Stores ManagementAs all the activities in any
organization cannot be carried out at one point of time, storage is an inevitable process. It increases the value of the material by simply carrying it overtime; no transformation of any characteristic is desired. Thus stores in any company have a vital role to play. All other activities involving
material are in day-day touch with the stores. The success of the business depends to large extent on the efficient storage and material control. Material pilferage, deterioration and careless handling may lead to reduced profits. Stores management is concerned with carrying the right kind of materials in right quantity, neither in excess nor in short supply, providing it quickly as and when required, keeping it safe against any kind of deterioration, pilferage or theft, and to carry out the efficient performance of all these functions at lowest possible cost. Waste Management-The diverse and seemingly boundless developments taking place in industry bring with them a whole new series of complexities associated with waste. Waste is an unnecessary input to or any undesirable output from any system encompassing all type of resources. Waste management engineering minimize is a multidisciplinary economic, wastage of activity and involving regional under principles, overall urban the
planning, management techniques and social sciences, to the system consideration. However as the material constitutes a major fraction of the total product cost, materials wasted has the critical importance. 1.1 MATERIALS MANAGEMENT - A PROFIT CENTRE
since purchasing was spending money & stores was holding huge inventories. and thereby blocking capital. so that neither too expensive or superior nor cheap or inferior material shall be selected for use in product.Materials management was treated as a cost centre in earlier years. resulting in manufacturing organizations exposed to intense competition in the market. c) Storage of materials such that there will be neither overstocking. blocking money and space. 1. b) The purchasing shall aim at minimum price to suppliers and timely procurement and shall avoid urgent purchase at higher cost.2 SAILENT FEATURES OF MATERIAL COST CONTROL: The salient features of material cost control are as under: a) The quality and specification of materials shall commensurate with the requirements of the product. Indian industries have also been working out various strategies to cut down manufacturing costs to remain competitive. a drastic change in the business environment. Progressive managements have since recognized that Materials Management can provide opportunities to reduce manufacturing costs and can be treated as a Profit Centre. . With the process of liberalization and opening up of global economy. nor running out of stock and creating interruption in production process.
. All materials issued from the stores against a particular job order or production.3. planning as well as timely buying. direct cost and indirect cost. e) Materials should be classified and accounted for both in physical units and value in such a way that information about availability in stock can be obtained promptly so as to assist production. All material specially purchased for a job order or production. so that an increase or decrease to the product and service will affect the cost proportionately.d) Wastage and losses shall be avoided at every stage of operation i. fat and sugar in biscuits. 1. In other words we can say direct material cost are relates to those materials. 1. b. which enter in to and form part of the product. Material cost relate to both direct and indirect materials.e. from storing till usage in production.3 CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIAL COST: Broadly Cost can be divided in two major categories i. Direct material cost includes: a. such as flour.e. Similarly we divide the material cost in these categories for analysis.1 Direct material cost: The direct costs are those which can be identified with or related to the product or services.
2 Indirect material cost: Indirect cost on the other hand cannot be identified or traced to a given cost object in economical way and are related to the expenses incurred for maintaining facilities or services.3. jigs and fixtures etc. Tools.c. All components or assembly parts purchased for use in the jobs or production activities directly. 1. indirect materials are those which cannot be traced as a part of the product. grease fuel oil etc. broomstick etc. Lubricating oil. b)All primary packing materials such as poly bag. In direct material cost includes: a) All materials or processed materials transferred from one process or operation to the other. such as i) ii) iii) iv) Consumable stores used in the operation. card board box etc. gunny bag. . Sundry stores of small value like cotton waste.
insurance and A) PROCUREMENT COST: Cost of procurement consists of the cost placing an order. iv) Wastage / Scrap / Obsolescence cost obsolescence. damage.1. . This involves such contributory costs as the cost of money spent in storing the inventory. This is the cost associated (or loss incurred) with either delay in meeting the demand or the ability to meet stores at all. transportation and receiving cost. handling. taxes etc. i) ii) Cost of obtaining goods (procurement cost) through purchasing or manufacturing. stationary and typing expenses. I. . The following are the expenses.Printing. .Tendering cost (Advertising). which are involved in procurement cost. . iii) Stock out cost. which minimizes the sum of the total costs associated with materials. Cost of handling the inventory (inventory carrying cost). Cell and receipt section.Staff’s salary purchase. These costs are of three types.4 CLASSIFICATION OF COST ASSOCIATED WITH MATERIALS: The optimum decision is one.C. setting up of production run.
and receipt section. -Cost of entertaining the suppliers. demurrage etc. . -Cost of source development. This attracts a huge interest rate. -Transportation cost (Freight. B) INVENTORY CARRYING COST: When stocks are carried in the warehouse. postage etc. telex. Purchasing cost can be very high if system and procedures are faulty. various costs are incurred to maintain these stocks.-Follow up cost (Telephone. This can amount as much as 18 to 20% depending up on the bank rate or other rates at which the money has been borrowed. The sum total of these costs is called the purchasing cost. Inventory carrying cost includes following expenditures: Interest: interest on the money locked up on the materials stocked (called inventories). one of the important roles of materials manager is to ensure that purchasing cost should be minimized. telegram.Receiving and inspection cost (laboratory testing etc.). When inventories are stored we are strictly storing company’s money.). The purchase cost incurred during a year divided by a number of order issued will give the cost per order. . Octroi.) -Rent/depreciation of building and infrastructure used by purchase. These costs are called as inventory carrying cost.
Though we are not paying this type of cost in cash but it indirectly incurred by downing the company’s profit/production activities due to non-availability of stress at the time of their need. By no availability of raw materials/ stores. production activities . This can be as high as 25 to 30 % under today’s conditions. • Insurance • Obsolescence • Shrinkage • Evaporation • Deterioration • Rent / Depreciation • Labor Costs • Overheads All these added up together will constitute inventorycarrying cost and this is usually expressed as a percentage of the total value of inventory held. The determination of stock out or shortage cost is approximate and arbitrary in nature but their significant should not be ignored.• Taxes: Taxes are payable. C) STOCK-OUT COST This is the cost associated with either in delay in meeting the demand or inability to meet it at all due to shortage of stock. This is very dangerous situation and we have to avoid this type of occurrences.
There could be four basic classifications as follows: a) On the basis of property: depending upon the property that effects the environment.are held up and by responsibility of materials manager to ensure the continuity of supplies of stores/ raw material. ii)Non reusable: this includes the resources that are lost with time and cannot be regained afterwards. D) Wastage / Scrap / Obsolescence cost Wastes can be classified in a variety of ways depending upon the purpose for which classification is done. . waste may of two types: i) Hazardous and ii) Non-hazardous b)On the basis of reusability: as per the characteristic of resource the waste may be: i)Reusable: the waste that can be converted in the useful resource.
Due to expansion in capacity and installation of new latest technology equipment & systems and installation of Wartsila DG Sets. so that chances of loss through damage. The motto should be utilize or realize is worth praising. some equipment/ spares are bound to be obsolete/ surplus and number of stock items is bound to be increased. leading to interruption or production and loss of sale and profit. Obsolete & surplus items at the earliest possible. Concepts & Techniques: Materials department is involved in the following activities. • Inventory (stock) control • Purchase and procurement • Stores function -Receipt and inspection -Storage issue and accounting • Material control Some of important definitions and activities are highlighted in short. risk of obsolescence etc are avoided along with unnecessary blocking of capital or paying interest on borrowed funds. viz. A. deterioration in quality. INVENTORY (STOCK) CONTROL: Stock level are maintained in such a way that there is no over-stocking. At the same time there shall be no stock-out situation. The production planning and control . Focus is needed to dilute these NMI.
calculated as maximum re-order period multiplied by maximum consumption. If however stock level falls below minimum level it will be called “danger level”. the storekeeper places requisitions with the purchase department for replenishment of stock. In case of unusual delay. stock should not reach zero level. otherwise there will be .or material control department look after this aspect of stores management by fixing maximum. Minimum Level: This represents a level at which the stock will reach at minimum level Stock is normally not allowed to fall below this level. Re-order level takes in to account the maximum consumption during the lead-time and unexpected delay in receiving fresh supply. C. This is considered as buffer stock for use in emergency. B. minimum and ordering level and reorder quantity for stock item i. Lead-time means time necessary to obtain delivery of materials from date of order.e. Re-order level is therefore. standardized items of regular use. when emergency measure should be taken to replenish stock. Reorder level This is the level at which the storekeeper initiates purchase requisition for fresh supplies of materials. Within these guidelines noted in each bin card.
evaporation etc. and if the stock exceeds this level the consumption pattern and reorder period should be reviewed. and risk of obsolescence. This level is a control indicator. For instance.stock-out situation with consequential loss of production. Maximum level: This represents stock level above which stock should not be allowed to rise. . The main purpose of this level is to ensure that capital is not blocked up unnecessarily in stores. in case of seasonal materials. Possibility of loss by deterioration. Possibility of price fluctuation. Cost of maintaining stores including insurance cost. Availability of funds. vi) Government restriction on import or procurement. i) ii) iii) iv) v) The maximum stock level is fixed after considering the following factors also: Storage facilities available. price may be low in season and high in off-season. Minimum level is therefore computed as reorder level less normal consumption during normal reorder period. D. The maximum stock level is computed as reorder-level plus reorders quantity minus consumption during reorder period.
. evaporation etc. b) Nature of the material i. say a year. This is calculated for different groups of materials separately in the following way: Cost of material used during the period Stock turn-over ratio= --------------------------------------------Average stock during the period Average stock holding is obtained by averaging: a) Opening and closing stock b) Maximum and minimum level of stock or c) Minimum stock + half of re-order quantity. the following factors are considered: a) Consumption pattern of the material. While deciding the reorder quantity. Reorder Quantity: This refers to the quantity to be covered in a single purchase order. risk of deterioration.vii) Economic order quantity. F. c) Risk of price fluctuation. E. d) Seasonal consideration as to the price and availability of supplies. Stock Turn-over and Average Stock-Holding: Stock turnover ratio indicates how many times stock is rotated.e. on an average during a particular period.
cost EOQ model is based on the following assumptions: a) Material cost per unit remains unaffected by order size. d) Production and sales can be forecast perfectly. Economic order quantity: The concept of economic order quantity or EOQ has emerged out of this behavior of carrying cost and ordering cost. c) Variable inventory carrying cost per unit and ordering cost per order remains constant through out the order.O. The formula of finding the EOQ is as follows: ________________________________ 2*Annual requirements *Cost per order E. G. g) Carrying cost and ordering cost. f) Quantum discount. = -------------------------------------------------Cost per unit of material *Carrying . b) Order will be received on the expiry of lead-time. EOQ is the quantity fixed at a point where total cost of ordering and the cost carrying the inventory will be minimum.Q.e) Storage space availability.
a amount to ‘B’ class items. The large number of items whose annual consumption value is very low are ‘C’ class items which are the balance 70 %of the items and will cover only 5%of the cost. which are around 20% of the total items and will account for about 15% percent value of the annual consumption. Selective .C. Analysis: The technique of A.C.B. In this analysis certain limits of consumption value are set for each of the categories (i. analysis is basic technique of inventory control. In this technique all item are necessary and important. while attention necessary for ‘C’ class items can be reduced to routine procedure. A. The medium consumption value items are termed as ‘B’ class items. It does not depend on the importance of items. A. This analysis does not depend on the unit cost of item.H. the number of the items and the total value-wise consumption. C) depending upon the size of the organization. B. A.B.e. analysis gives rise to selective inventory control in which maximum attention can be given to ‘A’ class items. but only on its total annual consumption. which are around of the total items and will be responsible for about 80%value of the total consumption.B.C. The small numbers of high consumption value items are called ‘A’ class items.
X.Y. Y items fall in between two categories. I. Z class items: items are within control. Further action in control may not be necessary. X class Items: a critical analysis must be done to reduce stock.control of inventories based on A-B-C analysis can follow the broad pattern. X items are those items whose stock value is highest and Z items are those which are having low value. The exercise is done once in a year during the annual stock verification. Y class items: attempts must be made to convert to Z category. Analysis: The XYZ analysis is based on the value of inventory stored.Z. This analysis helps to control obsolescence and tells how to distinguish amongst material in stores. stock. The classification helps to identify the items of which stock are very high. Steps should be taken to dispose of surplus . Control should be tightened. These are can be reviewed twice in year. Consumption and stock should be reviewed frequently. XYZ is the value of inventory available as on particular date.
stores balance is recorded after each transaction of receipt. but one cannot give guarantee of performance and one has to keep spares as insurance. issue or transfer. perpetually. the parts are stable and never failed. which are functional parts of the machines. Perpetual Inventory System: It is defined as a system of records maintained by the controlling department. The spares were invariably imported along with the machines. which reflects physical movement of stock and their current balance. In most cases. The spares. K. This facilitates regular stock cross checking physically.e. such as bin cards in stores and stores ledger in accounts.J. in such a manner that the stock is available at any point of time i. Under this system. In other words it is a technique of controlling stocks by maintains stock records. Insurance Spares: Many machines are proprietary and imported. Insurance spares are defined as parts or complete assemblies usually of high value which are not normally required for routine maintenance but which will be needed .
• ROASTER AND ACID PLANT- Zinc concentrate at DZS comes from three mines. 4. Zinc ingot is obtained after the completion of process through various departments. Further gases are passed through cyclones & hot gases from different source cooled in conveyers & sent to leaching plant silos. to avoid shutdown of a vital piece of equipment. the Rampura Agucha mines. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: The production of Zinc ingot is the main product of the production process.1 Training under different departments1. 13%. Sulphur di –oxide bearing gases are first dried in a drying tower with H2SO4 to reduce the moisture content of the . respectively temperature maintained in roaster is approximately 950degree centigrade. 37%. Zawar mines & Rajpura Dariba mines. The gases coming out of roaster are passed through waste heat boiler & get cooled to 350 degree centigrade calcine by the gases fall here & are Collected in hooper.in the event of an unforeseen breakdown. namely. Zinc concentrate is fed to roaster by variable speed belt conveyer in a particular ratio which is 50%.
The heated gases re passed through V205 Catalyst fed in a inverter where SO3 which is absorbed in absorption towers. Zinc ferrite and unconverted sulphides is leached is continuous process with spent electrolyte 9 weak sulphuric acid from electrolysis) to a PH of 5 soluble oxides get dissolved producing respective sulphates. Just 1020% acid is used in the plant. By further processing it changes into H2SO4. which consists of oxides of Zinc and other metals. 80% goes to the market & is used in the fertilizers. PURIFICATION AND CADMIUM PLANT- Neutral Leaching Calcine. Acid Leaching . This acid is by product for the company. The neutral slurry is settled in the Dorr-thickeners. Flocculants is added as a settling aid. Manganese dioxide is added to oxides ferrous and other impurities.gases. Dried gases are subsequently heated in shell &tube type heat exchanger to a temperature of 400 degree centigrade. The clear overflow is further purified for electrolysis whereas the solid residue is pumped from the bottom of thickener to Acid leaching. • LEACHING.
160& 160 cells each . First circuit of 240cells operates at 10 kilo ampere & the remaining 2 circuit of 160 cells each is operated at 15 kilo ampere each. Here zinc goes into the solution and impurities like Cu.The underflow from neutral thickener containing un reacted Zinc oxides and Zinc ferrite is leached with spent electrolyte to a pH of 2. and Sb are precipitated. The slurry is settled in dorrthickners. Col. Jarosite cake is sent to the pond and Cu-Cd cake is used as a raw material to produce cadmium. In this process most of the acid soluble oxides go into solution. • ZINC ELECTROLYSES AND MELTING PLANT- It consist of 560 number of concentrate lead lined HDP liner cells divided in three circuits of 240.8 at a temperature of about 80°C. Then they are passes through a series of fitter press to fitter the impurities. The overflow is sent to neutral leaching underflow is continuously pumped to fitters where the solids are separated filtrate is pumped back to the thickner. . Ge. Alternate reactors are provided with heating coils through which steam is passed. The purified solution is then sent to ZE plant and H2SO4 is recovered back into the leaching plant. Co. Ni. The overflow (ZnSO4 Solution) is them sent for purification.
5% Ag. These are three different circuits with each having its own DC power source. The Zinc cathode sheets obtained from stripping is weighted & melted in induction furnaces. these are namely. Gum Arabic is added to the electrolyte to improve the texture of the Zinc cathode sheets as surfactant.95% approximately. firstly Zinc plates are prepared & by that Zinc bricks are made. Gypsum removal take place in the super settler & the cooled neutral solution is stored in storage tanks. The anodes are 0.The spent electrolyte added to purified ZnSO4 solution being pumped to cell house to maintain the PH of 3. In the process. SERVICE DEPARTMENT: The departments which are indirectly engaged in the production of Zinc by providing some sort of service to the production departments. They are categorized as under: • PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT- Personnel & administration department is a crucial department as it is concerned with management & operating functions with a view to attain the organizational goals economically & effectively & meeting the individual & social goals. The Zinc is allowed to deposit for a period of 24 hours after which the electrolyte sheets are stripped out manually. The recovery efficiency of Zinc is 99. The neutral solution is then added to the recirculating cooled spent electrolyte at the rate to maintain the desired Zinc to acidity ratio of 30 liters per minute to each of the cells through a system of FRP launders. Demaj & Ajax. Finally these are castled. 2. It checks the working of the following functions: Time office .5 before being cooled in atmospheric coolers.Pb & the cathodes are of aluminum Zinc deposits on the cathodes & MnO deposits on the anodes. The cells of the concentrate provide with HDPE lining in which the electrodes are placed. Each brick weight 25 kg.
and material &minutes to have an optimum output. In brief. - Administration Welfare Establishment section workmen establishment Executive establishment • INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING CELL- Industrial engineering is a science which develops methods. To achieve this cell makes the use of: • Incentive scheme Suggestion schemes Human resource department Work study of system & matrix Value engineering Ergonomics SAFETY DEPARTMENT- Safety department look after the safety of the people working in the smelter & factory by providing all the necessary safety equipments to protect from he acid &harmful gases. processes to provide an interface between man. • STORES DEPARTMENTStore department deals with the management of material. machine. it has the following functions:- . It keeps vigilance on the safety conditions prevailing in the whole organization. It helps in controlling the inventory &keeping a check on the requirements on the various materials.
The selling price of Zinc ingot is the monthly weighted average of the price quoted by the London metal exchange. 30 days interest free plus 60 days. For any delay beyond approved credit policy interest at the rate of 24% will be charged. FINANCE DEPARTMENTThe main function of accounts department is to keep systematic record of all financial transaction. • Finance department is further divided in six sections:1. 4.The interested parties contact this office. 2. New Delhi . 6. interest bearing credit at the rate of 14% per annum will be allowed against confirm L/C &B/G all grades of Zinc without any quantity restriction. 3.KEEPING SECTION CASH SECTION CONTRACTOR SECTION EXCISE & MODVAT SECTION ESTABLISHMENT SECTION . COSTING/ BUDGETING SECTION BOOK.- Procurement of material Storage Issue of material inventory controls • SALES DEPARTMENTAll sales are affected through the central Marketing office. 5.
. The process on Ore is done here to extract the Zinc. Cadmium and other non ferrous metals found in the Ore. • The Lectures or Seminars can help students more so a Lecture or Seminar should be conducted before going into the plant. It is a chemical Industry and without being known to chemistry it is very difficult to understand the process of the plant. 4. The material identification was difficult task because the parts in the stock were more than 5000. Debari is a Smelting Plant. The risk of being contracted to any hazardous chemical is always there but as all the safety measures are taken and the safety training was given prior to the Trainees the risk is somehow eliminated. Without being known to Computer Architecture and the computer systems. • The cooperation level should be maintained high.2 Problem faced at the time of training• • • • • • Basically HZL.3 Suggestions to Improve• The Mailing system to all the Dept. • An interactive session should be conducted at the end of the Training. It was seen that in some SBUs the Mentor was not present for tackling the trainees or he or she was busy in the plant so a long wait has to be done to meet the concerned Mentor.4. The plant process of SBU 1 and SBU 2 is controlled through DCSS (Digital Control Server System) which is managed by Honeywell Company. • A person should be appointed to guide the students during there Induction. should be maintained well and the system of Induction Program should be improved.
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS & COMPANY PROFILE .
as well as Brazil and India. China. India.000 tons of metal on the market. global zinc mine production increased by 3. Europe and UK has decreased as a result of decline in mining of zinc ore and concentrates. and consumption by 3. 80% of production of zinc in world is by electro-winning process and 14% by ISP.9 million tons. Brazil. and Kazakhstan. Mexico and some other countries. former USSR have increased their production of zinc and there is increase in capacity build-up in Canada. The global production at present is about 7.6 million tons. India. China’s continued growth in demand was supported by the increased . A decline in zinc consumption in Europe and the United States during the year was offset by increased consumption in countries with emerging markets.1% to 11. particularly China. refined metal production by 5.2 million tonne (28% production is from Western Europe. with a larger surplus anticipated in 2009. China. 21 % is from Asia and erstwhile USSR and China produces about 27-28%). Iran. Peru. Metal production rose as a result of increased output in China and India. Production of zinc in USA. Peru. Manufacture of Zinc in these countries is dependent on import of concentrates.Industry Analysis 5. • (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) According to an forecast from the International Lead and Zinc Study Group.8% to 11.9% to 11. Canada.1 Global LevelThe two contemporary technologies are roast-leaching electrolysis and Imperial Smelting process (ISP). 22% from USA. This leaves an excess of 150. Increased mine production was driven by expansions in Latin America and increased output in China.8 million tons. in 2008.
electronic. paint. A wave of zinc mine closings and cutbacks (particularly in Australia. Zinc industry in India is going to witness another era of transformation with the commencement of trial production on Vedanta Resources’ expansion project. Aluminum. Zinc prices continued to decline during 2008 as the metal market remained in surplus over the year. cadmium. Mining sector is an important segment of the Indian economy. Substitutes: Aluminum. Mines in New York and Tennessee closed in 2008 because of low zinc prices.2 Indian LevelThe country is endowed with huge resources of many metallic and non-metallic minerals. and plastic coatings replace zinc for corrosion protection. Canada. magnesium. plastics. and a few smelters announced production cutbacks towards the end of the year in order to prevent an accumulation of stocks. 10 metallic.9 billion metric tons. and the United States) began around midyear as prices began to fall below operating costs. The LME cash price for zinc in October 2008 averaged $1. World Resources: Identified zinc resources of the world are about 1.production of galvanized products—especially those used in transportation (highway barriers) and communication (galvanized iron towers) infrastructure.301 per metric ton. Aluminum alloy. 5. Since Independence there has been a pronounced growth in the mineral production both in terms of quantity and value. 3 atomic and 23 minor minerals (including building and other materials). Many elements are substitutes for zinc in chemical. With the mounting pressure on imports that forcing integrated producers to . India produces a many as 86 minerals which include 4 fuels. and steel substitute for galvanized sheet. and plastics are major competitors as die-casting materials. aluminum alloys substitute for brass. an approximate 70% decline in value from its peak reached in 2006. and pigment uses. 46 non-metallic.
Zinc demand is estimated to grow at 12 to 14 per cent per annum mainly due to increase in galvanizing capacity. 5. Hindustan Zinc. the future looks bright. Anglo American Plc. The government has chalked out enormous infrastructure development plans which if in would consume a hot of galvanized steel. the London-listed metals and mining major.expand capacities in order to meet the skyrocketing demand. The main driver for this growth is the automotive and UPS/ Inverter segment. By 2010.A. The Indian zinc industry entered its transformation phase with the privatization of the largest zinc producer. As no galvanising in predicted without zinc.A.3 Major Players in Industry • Top zinc producing companies: XStarta plc. Therefore. brought new life to zinc industry which is expected not only to continue the overall industry’s growth saga but to supply to the rest of the world within no time. therefore. The Indian lead industry is estimated to grow at a pace of 8 per cent per annum. Glencore International AG. Teck Cominco Ltd. Boliden AB. The domestic zinc industry is now completely under the private sector and is in the midst of a serious expansion programme. Volcan Compania Minera S. OZ Minerals. in favour of the Sterlite Group in April 2002. zinc consumption is expected to boost in India. Vedanta Resources plc. India is expected to attain complete self sufficiency in meeting its zinc demand.. Hindustan Zinc Ltd. . which accounts for 70 per cent of zinc metal consumption in the country.
Canada. • . Antamina Top zinc producing countries: China. Greens Creek Mine. Mexico. Kazakhistan. Lisheen. USA. Isa. Iscaycruz. Lundin Mining Corp. Red Dog. • Top zinc producing mines: Century. Rampura Agucha. Tara Mine.Votorantim Metais Ltda. Mt. Peru. Australia. Brunswick #12 Mine.
The like commodity Bearings. for chemicals & mining items is located at RA Mines and for consumables Hardware. coordinators Pipes. Each unit sends their annual requirements as per Business Plan consumption norms to CPG. All policies and procedures related to materials management are decided including preparation of purchase manual at corporate office at Udaipur and followed by all the units. At Udaipur corporate office for Fuels & Lubricants. H. Coke etc. At RA mines for mining items & chemicals and at CLZS for other common consumables. LSHS. who fulfills the requirements by . 6.O.5. Packing materials. Industrial gases etc is situated at CLZS.1 CENTRALIZED AND DECENTRALIZED PURCHASE: Centralized purchase group is working at three locations.) and working under of head of commercial general division.2. ts. first is central purchase situated at head office ( for fuels FO. places order in bulk providing quantity distribution for each unit and delivery schedule is given by Units to the supplier. Decentralized purchase: At unit level a separate purchase section is also functioning. Requirements of all the units are scrutinized & consolidated and further procurement action is taken. Second is unit level purchase section under the direct control & supervision of unit materials head.
Inventory) is an index of business performance. this is called decentralized purchases. A soundly managed organization will have higher inventory turn over ratio and vice-versa. INVENTORY CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT Inventory may be defined as usable but idle resource” Inventory can be one of the indicators of the management effectiveness on the materials management front. hence maintaining inventory becomes almost necessary. Materials account for more than half the total cost of any business and organisations maintain huge amount of stocks. User department raise PR which are also consolidated if requirement is common for more than on user and procurement action is taken. except the centralized items.3.purchasing those items which are not common in use at various units and are having medium and low value. An inventory system may be defined as one in which the following costs are significant: • cost of carrying inventories (holding cost) • cost of incurring shortage (stock out cost) • cost of replenishing inventories (ordering cost) Importance of inventory management: Scientific inventory management is an extremely important problem area in the materials management function. Inventory management deals with the determination of optional policies and procedures for procurement of commodities. Inventory turn over ratio (annual demand / av. Since it is quite difficult to imagine a real work situation in which the required material will made available at the point of use instantaneously. Thus inventories could be visualized as necessary evil. 6. much of this could be reduced by following scientific .
6. depends to a large extent on the efficient storage and material control. Inventory being a symptom of poor performance we could reduce inventories by proper designing of procurement policies by reduction in the uncertainty of lead times by variety reduction and in many other ways. and to carry out the efficient performance of all these functions at lowest possible cost. It increases the value of the material by simply carrying it overtime. pilferage or theft. As such the success of the business. providing it quickly as and when required. i.e. keeping it safe against any kind of deterioration. 6.principles. spares. Stores management is concerned with carrying the right kind of materials in right quantity.4. Inventory management is highly amenable to control. As all the activities in any organization can not be carried out at one point of time. In the Indian Industries there is substantial potential for cost reduction due to inventory control. bought out parts. storage is an inevitable process.1 MAJOR FUNCTION OF STORES • Receipt: Receiving and accounting of raw material. . besides other factors. neither in excess nor in short supply. no transformation of any characteristics is desired. STORES MANAGEMENT Stores in any company has vital role to play.4. In a majority of manufacturing organizations material constitutes the major fraction of cost. equipment and other items. 60 to 80% of total cost and the capital blocked in inventories is substantial. tools.
and enforcing control measures. (a) IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM The stores management is concerned with design and control of the systems utilized in conducting the stores activities. manufacturing.2 STORES SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES: The systems and procedures of stores can be broadly categorized under four heads viz. • Verification: Verifying the bin card balance with physical quantities and initiating the purchasing cycle at appropriate time to avoid stock out situation. • Co-ordination and co-operation: To Co-ordinate and co-operate with the interfacing departments such as purchasing. pilferage or deterioration. • Records: To maintain proper records and update receipts and issues. accumulation of stocks etc. abnormal consumption. (b) receipt system. (c) storage system and (d) issue system. A large number of materials are being handled by .• Storage: provision of right and adequate storage and preservation to ensure that stock do not suffer from damage. • Retrieval: facilitating easy location and retrieval of materials keeping optimum utilization. • Control: Keeping a vigil on the discrepancies. 6.4. planning and control. • House-keeping: Keeping the stores clean and in good order so that all functions can be carried out satisfactorily. • Issue: Fulfilling the demand of consumer departments by proper issue of items on the receipt of authorized requisition. (a) Identification system.
The system of receipt starts with the placement of purchase order.a typical store. Thus the development of an unambiguous and efficient identification system is the first requirement of stores management so as to facilitate clear internal communications. Duly accepted materials sent to stores and any rejection or shortage or breakage is dealt by receipt section separately. The ‘Material Received Report’ sent for inspection to ensure that received material is as per purchase order specification. The need to develop a proper identification system to coordinate the activities of purchasing. it can not be operated on mechanical or electronic computing devices. invoice and purchase order. Moreover. The physical description of each item is usually lengthy and imprecise to be taken for the purpose of identification in day to day operation. unloading unpacking and other related activities. a copy of which is sent to stores. On actual delivery the receipt section unpack the goods and check the quantity and condition of goods and tallies with packing slip. The supplier normally sends dispatch advice at the time of dispatching goods and subsequently consignment note for clearance of goods. the use of which is increasing everyday in automating the clerical operation of stores. (b) RECEIPT SYSTEM The stores department receives the stores both from outside suppliers and internal divisions and accordingly there are separate receipt systems. inventory control and stores with possible integration with the operations of design engineering. so as to give an idea at any time about the volume of receipt and helps in the planning of receipt. . production and cost accounting is a must. This is maintained in chronological order.
no separate storeroom exists. Stores Records System: Development of appropriate The storage The storage facilities are arranged at each workstation as per facilities are open and workers have direct access to it. Entry and exit of materials from the area is permissible only with the accompaniment of authorising document. single firm can follow combination A of these systems depending upon the nature of production. usually kept in physical control by lock. (i) Closed Stores System: In such system all materials are physically stored in a closed or controlled area. no authorisation documents are needed. proper identification and speedy issue. requirement and availability of space.(C) STORAGE SYSTEM Physical System: The design of proper storage system is very important for easy location. (ii) Open Stores system: In this system. The material is stored as close to the point of use as is physically possible. recording system for stores is important to provide right information regarding the physical inventory and accounting . The commonly followed physically controlling stores materials are: closed and open stores system. operation and the use of material.
Average cost system. Issue can be of two kinds. on bin (stock) card and in the Stores ledger. STORE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM Stores accounting is important from the point of view of estimating the cost of the production for pricing decisions. • To identify areas deserving tighter document control. Accounting is to be done for the issue to production and of the stock held at the end of accounting period. LIFO. . Market value and Standard cost system. • To back up the balance sheet figures and • To minimize the pilferage and fraudulent practices. namely. The costing of material has to be done both for the materials consumed in the production and estimating the value of materials held in stock. Issue System: This is the last stage in the storage system. i.of transaction. The purposes of stock verification are as follows: to reconcile the store records and document for their accuracy and usefulness. issue to consuming department and issue to outside supplies for processing.e. issued or transferred. STOCK VERIFICATION SYSTEM Some discrepancies between the actual and the book balance of inventories are bound to occur despite the diligent stores keeping. Two records are usually kept of materials received. Some of the important and frequently used stores accounting systems are FIFO.
The material stored in various stored located in Central Stores Area according to type & nature of material. Hard wares etc • B Godown – Mechanical Spares & DG Spares • C Godown – Electrical & Instrument items. Packing materials. Valves. It should be carefully decided and planned so as to ensure maximum efficiency. 9 & 11 – Aluminium sheets. Besides this maintenance department has there own sub stores to meet out immediate requirement and for storage of damaged / repaired stores & spares. • Open Yard. Debari.STORES LOCATION The location of stores is a strategic decision which if once taken can not be easily undone.Structural & reinforcement Steel. 2. receipt section and custody section. Pipes. location of central receiving station and accessibility to rail or road links are important factors to decide the location of stores. Nil stock). handling and other costs related to stores operations and at the same time provides the needed protection to stores items.g. verity and volume of goods to be handled. Also the number and location of end users. Cables etc. The optimal location of stores minimize the total transportation. In Zinc Smelter. Stores location depends upon the nature and value of the items to be stored and frequency with which the items are received and issued. six separate godowns are located in central store yard. • A Godown – Rubber items. The group is . Heavy equipment & Spares. At present stores is having inventory of 5. The main store (central store) is divided mainly in two sections e. It would be extremely costly to change the storage location at a later stage.63 Crores and number of items is 5056 (2000 Nos. Safety items • Chemical Godown– Chemicals • Godown No.
Whenever demand arises. . All materials are codified by a 12 digit codification system. The accounting of receipt and issue of material is being maintained in SAP. The custody section checks its balance and issue material to demanding department. custody section takes the material in his charge and checks according to GR and put at designated location. When the user department returns any unused material it is also received by custody section and is stored after making necessary accounting entries through Stores Return Note. the user department raises the stores issue voucher (Reservation) subscribing the description.also divided according to nature and major group of the material. material code and quantity needed. When the material is received from receipt section.
Thus essential requirement of the system encompasses the following: . the stores receives and stores them after quality approval from user department and finally issues them to user department. production. distress purchase at higher rates. production loss. in big organization a material is created to coordinate the activities of sales.CHAPTER 7 ents procures such material of right quality and right quantity from various suppliers. Thus it is evident that a perfect coordination between these departments is absolutely necessary in order to keep the cost under control. wastage due to wrong quality etc. Otherwise situations like stock-out. stores quality control and accounts departments. purchase.
ordering position. non-moving dormant. 7. f)Arranging conversion of raw material in to components through converters or contract labor. excess storage. critical items. consumption. standardization and rationalization of all materials. codification. slow moving.3 MATERIAL CONTROL FOR COST REDUCTION: A) STAGGERD DELIVERY FOR HIGH VALUE ITEMS: Delivery schedule for high value items is given to the supplier in fraction of low quantity as minimum requirement in that schedule. g) Preparing regular reports to management indicating stock holding.3. production plan. e) Continuous updating of stock position with the information available from purchase. surplus and obsolete stocks etc. By this staggered delivery schedule the benefits of low inventory is obtained. and expected arrival as per order placed. position of finished stock and work in process.a) Classification. c) Use of standard forms and documents. by quantity value. production and dispatch departments. b) Determining standard or norm for consumption of stores as well as stock holding at various levels. stores. . stock status in stores. d) Planning of material requirements by reviewing sales plan.
For staggered delivery the ordered quantity is periodically divided according to the consumption. in SAP. Every one can see the Stock of particular material with consumption trend. action for reducing the surplus items is done.Even if any material is not surplus but lying in some unit and required in other unit. The unit contact with others & if the required material is surplus in other unit same is taken. The supplier delivers the material as per schedule. B) INTER UNIT TRANSFEER OF SURPLUS ITEMS: Items which are lying in stores of any unit as surplus and not required in the near future for such items. date of procurement etc. This not only reducing chances & costs of stock outs but also increase inventory turn over significantly. Staggered delivery is generally given for high valued items as well high consumption items. both are having depots in Udaipur. Allen DG Spares is one the biggest example of this transaction. which reduces the cost of material. This is one of the best ways to reduce the surplus item inventory . By this inventory can be controlled.These schedules are given in consultation with the user department. C) JUST IN TIME FOR LUBRICANT & LPG: Most of the lubricants procured from M/s IOCL & M/s Bharat Shell. as such we are procuring as & when required and keeping nil inventories. . than also the material is taken on IUT basis.
D) USING BY PRODUCT OF ANOTHER UNIT: Zinc Smelter.In the case of LPG also the cylinders are brought on requirement basis. This sale of the scrap reduces the net cost on material. The total realization by scrap sales is as under E) COMPUTERIZED INTEGRATED SYSTEM: . Debari using waste of other units e. required in Moore Cake Plant. Coke fines in place of Coke Breeze from CLZS. Stores receive the scrap regularly and stores in scrap yard and these are sold on regular basis.000 MT per annum. Roughly estimated value at the beginning of the financial year disposal target is prepared and time-to-time disposal action is taken. By using this waste a direct saving in material cost is being done. Auctioneer is appointed to carry out the auction activities by both open as well as bid system.g. Annual consumption is around 15. E) DISPOSAL OF SCRAP: The wastage from manufacturing operation at various places is sent by the user department to stores called scrap/ wastage.
delivery status etc. given to directly user. Lime stone Powder etc. some class of bearings. Delivery schedule is given to supplier as per plant requirements. Debari is a continuous process plant. RECOMMANDATION It is proposed to apply JIT to other chemicals and locally available items also. source of supply. and we are not maintaining the stock of these. after implementation of SAP all materials related activities are computerized and almost every hand is equipped with computer and mailing system for fastest communication. immediate quality testing and quantity verification . item at stores. consumption trend. Such type of chemical plants has its own peculiarities and JIT is difficult to achieve in many items. Though it need regular follow up with supplier. This helps in reduction in Lead Time and Inventories significantly. we take sample and after laboratory test as per our order specification. purchase price. chemicals like hydrated lime. Everyone can see all the details of materials like the stock. But still we can have some items in JIT list like Lubricants. • A Case Study Zinc Smelter.Regarding the integrated computerized system. Presently after receipt of these materials.
5.000/B Class Item: In this category.and above 5.000/-. but now the plant has already been expanded up to 88000 MT per annum. C Class Item: In this category. Six Sigma etc. The above limit was fixed long back & plant capacity was only 50. the quality audit of vendor should be done on regular interval to avoid possibilities of rejection.but the resultant of JIT is very impressive and bring down the inventory levels. The consumption is increased in comparison of last 5 . We may insist the vendors to get quality certification like ISO. Debari the above limits are used for A-B-C analysis. For quality acceptance. there item are covered the Annual Consumption of which is below 50.4 A-B-C ANALYSIS A Class Item: In this category.000 MT Zinc productions per annum.000/At present Zinc Smelter. 7.000/. those items are covered which annual Consumption of which is below Rs. ISI etc and use quality improvement tools like TQM. those items covered the annual consumption of which is higher than 50.
Therefore we propose the following limits of consumption pattern for A-B-C analysis. . A class items .In this category those items are covered for where 50.In this category those items are covered for where Annual consumption’s more than 2 lacs.000. The summary of ABC analysis is tabulated as follows: annual consumption is bellow Rs.– 7 years.000 but not higher than 2 Lacs C class items. B class items-In this category those items are covered for where annual Consumption’s more than 50.
o f I t e m s % Total Cons.Annual Consumption Limit Classif No.89 1.1 1 Total 5056 100 % 192.61 10056.00.000/C 4657 92. Value (Crore ) % Value A Above 2.000/B Between 50.92 147 2.000/.00 239.4 8 2. 98 100% 252 5.39 95.91 9524.70 .to 2 Lac Below 50.
accounting. we can fulfil the requirement of user by keeping at optimum level & we can increase company profit. lead-time and regular follow up.Stock value 2% 3% 5% 2% A B C A B C 92% 96% A Class item As per HZL norms. If we give full attention to these items through proper planning. proper attention or inventory control not possible. For proper control of inventory of A class item. A class item consumption value should be higher and the number of items in this category should be around 70 only.ABC. Thus the main key area is to control of A class.No of Ite m s ABC . . 147 items falls in this category. In this situation.
(In MT.(A) Review of some A class Item A.80 238.03.55 97. The lead time is app 10 Days. The Stock position is as under Stock Details Opening (1/4/08) Receipt during stock the Qty. However looking to the plant requirement & long transportation lead time.1 Ammonium Sulphate Average monthly requirement is 300 MT. it can be observed that monthly consumption is 300 MT app and the closing stock is 97. the stock should be monitored regularly.37 year Issue during the year Balance as on 31.95 239.80MT which is just 10 Days Stock.30 3460 3464.2 Caustic Soda Flakes . Looking to the criticality of item the stock is just sufficient.80 Value ( In lacks) 9. RECOMMANDATION The lead time is 10 Days and the stock is also just 10 Days shows the control on inventory.2009 On analysing the above data.) 102. A.66 8.
41 RECOMMANDATION We should develop more suppliers who can supply the required quality material with favorable payment terms. The required quality material is available with few suppliers. Also this reduces lead time & in turn inventory can be reduced. The monthly requirement is app 60 MT. which is very critical for process. .(In MT) 29 680 667.2009 Qty. that to on advance payment. The stock position of caustic soda flakes as under: Stock Details Opening stock (1/4/08) Receipt during the year Issue during the year Balance as on 31. The lead time is around 10 Days. Effective control on stock is required.68 41.03.Caustic soda flakes is used in DM water plant. Still the inventory is high but it is less than one month’s consumption.12 8.35 108.32 Value ( In Lacs) 4.45 110.
This analysis helps to control obsolescence and tells how to distinguish amongst material in stores. This classification helps In XYZ analysis the method of control is as follows: Sl. Can be reviewed Twice in year. which are low value items. Can be reviewed Annually. Z class Item Items are within Control. The exercise is done once a year during the annual stock taking exercise. Y Class Item Attempt must be made to convert to Z category Further action in control may not be necessary Control should be Tightened. 3. X Items are those value is highest and Z items are those. Consumption and stock Should be reviewed Frequently. 1. 2. Steps should be taken to dispose off surplus stock. X Class Item N o. A Critical analysis must done in an effort to reduce stock. XYZ is the value of inventory available as a basis on a particular date. Y items fall in between two categories.XYZ Analysis The XYZ analysis is based on the value of inventory stored. .
00.22 93.8 7 100.000/Y Between 15. 00 5.34 418.40 16.0 68 1.07 9.The stock position at the end of financial year 08-09 as per criteria of XYZ Analysis is tabulated as follows: Closing Balance Limit Cat ego ry No.000/to 1 Lacs Below 15.4 3 100.05 562. o f I t e m s % Total % Stock Value Value X Above 1.07 51.53 .000/Tota l 5056 264 Z 4724 93.7 5 74.
those items are covered whose closing balance of stock is higher than Rs.75 Laces such items out of 5056 are covered in the limit whose financial value is 74. If we succeed in controlling the inventory of this category the overall inventory is controlled and we can easily reduce the inventory to an optimum level. .Value X Y Z 74% 94% X CLASS ITEMS In this category. A.4 % of total inventory stored. of Items 1% 5% 17% X Y Z 9% XYZ . 418. 1. Study of Some X Class Items A. This also critical for DG operation. After investigation only 68 items valuing Rs.00 lack.XYZ.No.1 LSHS This is the item having highest consumption as well stock value.
12 5771. Stock Details Opening Balance (1/4/08) Qty.36 48648.97 .14 5742.69 146.38 48484.20 1260. (In Mts.03. as the consumption value is as high as 56% of total consumption. It is proposed to explore the possibility of establishing “Consumer operated Depot” so that the carrying cost shall be avoided. RECOMMANDATION The requirement of LSHS is regular as well very high. This also helps in reducing inventory drastically. The lead time is more than a month.) 18. (IN MT. This is also monitored through Critical Item statement.01 On analysing the above data.54 Value (In Lacs) 129. A.642 Value (Rs Laces) 21.09 ) Qty.08) Receipt Issue Closing Balance ( 31. The average stock value is more than one crore.) 1096.2 Cathode Aluminium Sheets This is one of the most critical and high consumption as well high value item. it is observed that daily consumption is around 140 MT but the stock is for 8 days.Stock Details Opening Stock ( 01.04.
RECOMMANDATION The delivery schedule should be monitored more closely to keep minimum inventory.12 172.711 166.279 146. .2009 on 140. More attention is needed.24 The above data shows the stock is for more than one month.Receipt during the year Issue during the year Closing Balance as 31.03.21 12.68 15.
APPENDIX & BIBILOGRAPHY .
Text and Cases By Lee L. Prentice-Hall. Tata McGraw Hill: New Delhi.. 1997.. 1984. INTERNET SITES• http://en.M. 1980..org .. Kitab Mahal: Allahabad. and Candea D. -Production and Inventory Management by Hax A. .Material Management – An Integrated Approach By Gopalkrishnan and Sunderasan M.Purchasing and Materials Management . Prentice-Hall of India.C. REPORTS AND BOOKS . - Material Management by Sharma P..W. 1997.Annual Reports of Hindustan Zinc Limited.BIBLIOGRAPHY A. New Delhi. New Delhi. and Dobler D. 1975. Sultan Chand and Sons..: Englewood-Cliffs.wikipedia.. B. .C.Essentials of Store Keeping and Purchasing By Verma M. .
com www.com/ http://www.com http://www.infomine.eecs.com www.askmehelpdesk.inventorymanagement.in .com http://www.com www.indianmetals.hzlindia.globalspec.com http://www.com www.miningtopnews.dominetruemetal.answers.com traininganddevelopment.investopedia.worldnonferrous.com www.gov.harvard.com http://mines.com www.com www.com/ www.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • www.gov www.epa.researchandmarkets.naukrihub.com www.edu www.hr-guide.indianmba.
gov .• http://minerals.er.usgs.