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PRESENT TENSE SDvlPLE a. timetables/schedules; actions recurring on a regular basis Flight 079 to Edinburgh takes off in 2017li1lUfes. The passengers b .. official plans The unions gQ on a general strike next week c. conditional clauses if they jish tomorrow they 'll have to buy some. d. timeclauses . _~. _ -"'~. '~~'~~~~'~~-"~---7'll phone you when [ arrive.




lJRESEN--rTE1\ISE COr TINUOUS: personal plans/arrangements

l:.m.. having my hair f.u{ [his afternoon. fie ~'\r,zc!fing up 0[6.30 tomorrow.



FUTURE SIMPLE (will! shall + short infinitive] wn I a. spontaneous decisions [vs. present sirnple/cour.]: OK then, 111 Se..E.YOIl this evening a! 3. b. predictions (+ believe, expect, hope, think): I think it wiif b~ a difficult game. offers; willingness: J'f/ Ril'e you a lift if you like. All righ~ lJlll'Qfer [he plants . -- .._--d. requests: Wi!! you do me a favour, please? e. TIllY! inte tions, promises: OK, 1promise I 'Ii never _10 this again f. threats: 11;' tc )IOU ever again! cr ~. facts about tile future: Christmas day il'ifl (alt Oil Wednesday this year.

a. b. c. 4.

suggestions: Shall we gQ OUi for a drink? tel's go for a walk; ~ha{f we? offers (1;' ps. sg./pl.): Shall I he/f2.You with that luggage? asking for advice: What shalf f sav if she calls?

FUTURE CONTINuOUS [wi!! -I- be + short infinitive + -L,\;G] a. activities planned to a future time We '/1be woilin';!you tomorrow outside the. station. This lime tomorrow we 'Ii be (lvinr; to Vienna. b. arrangements, routines As soon as.the holiday 's over ]'11be commutino It) work as usual. ------Weca/l ,~ive you a lift to the station; it's no trouble .. we'll he r;nin{? that way anyway.

you be


the computer





be going to + infinitive a. intentious [vs. present continuous] I'm no{goin,! to spend all my life as a librarian b. prec ictions bGSeC on evidence in the present [vs. future simple] Look at those cloud): it 's f?oing to rain. That building is r.;,'oingto..collapse soon. Jane 's pregnant: she 's r:oi!J.:?-JQ. have a bcoy this year.


to be to + infinitive: official arrangements, esp. when announced The President is ro visit Brussels next Tuesday. FUTURE PERFECT [wi!! + hare + past participle (--cd / 3rJ formj]: something win finish certain time in the future 1 hope l'll have finished this assignment bv Friri'!..~. When you finish this book if means you 0iJ hovr;_Jead all of the Set l.ook,


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