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Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services

Vincent C.S. Heung Assistant Professor, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Keywords

Hotels, China, Customer satisfaction, Hong Kong

Introduction
Mainland China has been the largest market for Hong Kong tourism since 1994, and represented 27.1 per cent of the total visitor arrivals in 1998. According to the Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA, 1999), the number of mainland Chinese travelers has been increasing steadily from 1.7 million in 1993 to 2.6 million in 1998. Hong Kong is now the number one destination for the mainland Chinese traveling abroad (Qu and Li, 1997). Hong Kong has two advantages in capturing the China market: geographical proximity; and the family ties. The China open-door policies (Heung, 1997), and the loosening of travel restrictions to the mainland visitors after reunification of Hong Kong (Ming Pao, 1998) have led to an increase in the number of mainland Chinese visitors. Growth was fostered partly by the Hong Kong government's simplified entry formalities to mainland Chinese travelers introduced in 1993 (Ram, 1993). Despite increasing numbers of mainland Chinese traveling to Hong Kong and abroad, there is a lack of understanding of the needs, expectations and satisfactions of this lucrative market. One of the main tourist products is hotel service. Knowing the satisfaction levels of the customers can help hotels improve their products and services (Lam et al., 1996; Lewis and Nightingale; 1991). Therefore, the purpose of the study is to assess mainland Chinese travelers' perceptions and satisfaction levels towards hotel services in Hong Kong. Specifically, the present study aimed to: assess mainland Chinese travelers' expectations, perceptions and satisfaction levels towards the hotel services in Hong Kong; identify the underlying dimensions of mainland Chinese travelers' perception of hotel services; and
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Abstract

examine the relative impact of each underlying dimension of hotel service perceptions on the overall satisfaction levels of the mainland Chinese travelers.

Among all the Asian markets, mainland China was least affected by the economic downturn. It provides a leading source of tourism revenue to Hong Kong. In order to fully capture this market, it is important to satisfy the needs of the mainland Chinese travelers. This study aims to measure the satisfaction levels of Chinese travelers in relation to the hotel services in Hong Kong. The satisfaction levels of the mainland Chinese travelers on 34 hotel service attributes were studied using the disconfirmation paradigm. A total of 203 mainland Chinese travelers were interviewed. The results indicated that mainland Chinese travelers were satisfied with ``Availability of personal care amenities'', ``Quietness of the room'', ``Availability of food and beverage variety'' and dissatisfied with ``Recreation facilities'' ``Availability of frequent travelers' program'' and the ``Baggage handling service''. Eight dimensions of hotel services were identified. ``Service quality and value'' and ``Augmented product quality'' dimensions were found to be more important than others in influencing their overall satisfaction levels and the likelihood of returning to the same hotels. Implications of the findings for hotel operators in Hong Kong were discussed.

Review of the literature


Customer satisfaction
In recent years, a growing number of studies have focused on customer satisfaction in the service industry (Cadotte and Turgeon, 1998; Barsky and Labagh, 1992; Almanza et al., 1994; Gundersen et al., 1996; Qu and Li, 1997). Swan and Combs (1976) were among the first to argue that satisfaction is associated with performance that fulfills (equal to or above) expectations, while dissatisfaction occurs when performance falls below expectations. The common reason for studying customer satisfaction is the profitability that is generally believed to be brought by customer satisfaction (Barsky and Labagh, 1992; Gundersen et al., 1996; Lam et al., 1996). The key benefits brought by customer satisfaction are repeat purchases, favorable word-of-mouth publicity, reduced customers' price elasticity, and increased loyalty (Fornell, 1992). Customer satisfaction is a result of comparison of the service performance with expectation (Barsky, 1992; Hill, 1986; Oliver, 1980). This cognitive comparison between pre-use expectations and post-use perception has been shown to be a predictor of satisfaction in some situations (Oliver, 1980). Customer satisfaction is therefore defined as post-purchase evaluative judgment concerning a specific product or service (Fornell, 1992; Gundersen et al., 1996).

Disconfirmation model

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315 # MCB University Press [ISSN 0959-6119]

According to the disconfirmation paradigm by Hill (1986), the key elements of the satisfaction/dissatisfaction process are: . some a priori basis of evaluation; . comparison of perceived performance with expectation; and

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Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

a post-purchase judgment that the experience was noticeably better or worse than anticipated, leading to feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

The disconfirmation paradigm is generally accepted as the construct that best explains customer satisfaction. The main components of the disconfirmation paradigm are: expectations, perceived performance, disconfirmation, and satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Based on this theory, if the perceived performance is less than expected (negatively disconfirmed), consumers will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if the perceived performance exceeds expectations (positively disconfirmed), consumers will be satisfied. Otherwise, if the perceived expectations are met with performance (confirmed), consumers are in an indifferent or neutral stage. This study draws on the most relevant hotel studies and hotel attributes which are applicable to the Hong Kong situation. In a study of hotel choice, Lewis (1984, 1985) found that quality, security and image were perceived as important in affecting a lodging choice; and leisure travelers were more concerned with quietness, service quality and location. In a later research study, Taninecz (1990) pointed out that cleanliness, comfortable mattresses and quality towels were considered to be important hotel attributes. According to Clow et al. (1994), past experience is the major factor that directly influences a guest's evaluation of security, reputation and quality of service. Knutson (1988) suggested some consistent criteria apply across different classes of hotels, such as cleanliness, location, a safe and secure environment. Recent research (Qu and Li, 1997) investigating the perceptions and satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese visitors traveling to Hong Kong revealed five factors: sufficiency of hotels, location, service, availability of facilities, and price.

Hotel service attributes

number of trips to Hong Kong and length of stay. The second section contained 34 hotel service attributes which were generated after the review of relevant literature and modified to suit the local situation. The respondents were asked to rate their expectations and perceptions of each of the 34 hotel service attributes for Hong Kong hotels on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from ``1 = very low'' to ``5 = very high''. In addition, a question on respondents' overall satisfaction was included. Respondents' overall satisfaction level was measured using a 5-point scale (1 = very dissatisfied and 5 = very satisfied). The final section of the questionnaire gathered respondents' demographic data such as age, sex, education level, profession and income. The instrument was pilot tested to ensure its validity and reliability. There were some changes in the wording of the instrument as a result of the pilot test. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 276 mainland Chinese travelers were approached, of whom 215 (78 per cent) were interviewed and questionnaires completed. The subjects were interviewed at the departure halls of Kowloon Railway Station and the China-Hong Kong Ferry Terminal. According to the Hong Kong Tourist Association (HKTA, 1999), more than 60 per cent of the mainland Chinese travellers came to Hong Kong by land and sea in 1998. Every 12th traveler who passed through the immigration and security check point was chosen for the sample. Two screening questions were asked to identify whether the respondents were mainland Chinese travelers and had stayed in hotels. After discarding the unusable questionnaires, 203 were used for analysis. The data were analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the nature of all the responses, paired t-tests were used to compare the mean score of expected level with the mean score of the perceived level on the 34 hotel service attributes. Factor analysis was employed to identify the underlying dimensions (factors) of travelers' perception of hotel services. Finally, multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the relative impact of perception dimensions in affecting travelers' overall satisfaction with the hotel services in Hong Kong.

Sample

Data analysis

Method
This study employed the disconfirmation paradigm to assess mainland Chinese travelers' satisfaction levels with the hotel services in Hong Kong. A structured questionnaire was developed for this purpose. The questionnaire consists of three sections. The first section gathered data about respondents' traveling characteristics such as purpose of visit,

Instrument

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Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

Results
Of the respondents, 60 per cent were male. More than 50 per cent (52.7 per cent) of the respondents were aged between 31-40, followed by the age groups of 41-50 and 21-30 which accounted for 22.7 per cent and 20.7 per cent respectively (Table I). Most of the respondents (61.6 per cent) had completed secondary education, with about 30 per cent educated at tertiary level or above. Office workers and managers represented more than half (52.5 per cent) of the total respondents. In terms of traveling characteristics of the respondents, more than half were for pleasure and were on their first trip to Hong Kong. About half of the respondents had stayed in Hong Kong for four to six nights.

Demographic profiles of the respondents

Table I Demographic and traveling data of the respondents Variable Percentage 60.1 39.9 0.0 3.0 1.0 9.4 61.6 29.1 52.2 9.4 17.2 10.8 7.9 2.5 66.7 22.9 6.0 0.5 4.0 4.0 11.0 27.5 25.0 11.5 13.0 2.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 51.8 25.6 12.6 4.0 6.0 37.0 45.5 14.5 3.0

Gender Male Female Age 20 or below 51-60 Above 60 Education Primary school or below Secondary school Tertiary education or above Purpose of visit Pleasure Shopping Business purpose En route Visit friends and relatives Other Number of trips First trip 2-4 trips 5-7 trips 8-10 trips More than 10 trips Profession Unskilled worker Skilled worker Office worker Management Professional Trader/proprietor Retired Student Housewife Other Personal monthly income Less than Rmb$2,001 Rmb$2,001$4,000 Rmb$4,001$6,000 Rmb$6,001$8,000 Above Rmb$8,000 Length of stay 1-3 nights 4-6 nights 7-9 nights 10 nights or above
Note: n = 203

Satisfactory attributes, indifferent attributes and unsatisfactory attributes

Pair sample t-tests were applied to the mean scores of the 34 hotel attributes. The results showed that there were 11 satisfied hotel attributes, three indifferent hotel attributes and 20 dissatisfied hotel attributes.

The ``Satisfied attributes'' are those positively disconfirmed attributes. According to the disconfirmation paradigm, they are defined as those attributes with perception scores greater than expectation scores (i.e. positive mean difference) and with a significant t-value (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the mainland Chinese travelers were satisfied with ``Availability of personal care amenities'', ``Quietness of the room'', ``Availability of food and beverage variety'', ``Availability of a reliable wake-up call'', ``Food and beverage quality'', ``In-room safety box'', ``In-room audiovisual equipment'', ``Helpfulness of the information desk'', ``Hygiene of food and beverage'', ``Cleanliness and tidiness of the hotel'' and ``Comfort of beds'' (Table II). For those attributes with a non-significant t-value (p > 0.05), they were defined as ``Indifferent hotel attributes'', regardless of a positive or negative mean. The indifferent hotel attributes were: ``The location of the hotel'', ``Room service'' and ``Hotel staff language skill'' (Table II). ``Dissatisfied hotel attributes'' were those attributes negatively disconfirmed by the respondents. With a negative mean difference, the expectation scores outweighed

Satisfied hotel attributes

Indifferent hotel attributes

Dissatisfied hotel attributes

perception scores and with a significant tvalue (p > 0.05). mainland Chinese travelers were dissatisfied with ``Recreation facilities'' and ``Availability of frequent travelers' program''. Followed by the ``Baggage

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Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

Table II Results on paired t-test between Chinese travelers' expectations and perceptions of the hotel attributes in Hong Kong Hotel attributes Perception meana SD Expectation meanb SD Mean difference

t-value

Significance (two-tailed)

Satisfied hotel attributes Availability of personal care amenities Quietness of the room Availability of food and beverage variety Availability of a reliable wake-up call Food and beverage quality In-room safety box In-room audiovisual equipment Helpfulness of the information desk Hygiene of food and beverage Cleanliness and tidiness of the hotel Comfort of beds Indifferent hotel attributes Location of hotel (ease of transportation) Room service Hotel staff language skill Dissatisfied hotel attributes Recreation facilities Availability of frequent travelers' program Baggage handling service Availability of complimentary amenities Swimming and gymnasium facilities The physical appearance of the hotel View of the hotel surrounding area Availability of transportation arrangements Availability of business center Availability of meeting facilities Reputation of the hotel Reasonable price for the room Good fire prevention system Convenient and reliable reservation system Efficiency of front desk Availability of efficient laundry service Food and beverage value for money Responsible security personnel Friendliness and helpfulness of hotel staff Hotel staff ability to provide prompt service

3.62 3.54 3.65 3.77 3.66 3.53 3.57 3.59 3.77 3.83 3.64

0.73 0.81 0.66 0.84 0.68 0.76 0.74 0.80 0.71 0.70 0.68

3.34 3.27 3.42 3.55 3.44 3.33 3.38 3.40 3.59 3.67 3.52

0.79 0.76 0.64 0.68 0.64 0.69 0.68 0.73 0.70 0.62 0.60

+0.28 +0.27 +0.23 +0.22 +0.22 +0.20 +0.19 +0.19 +0.18 +0.16 +0.12

4.134 3.389 3.753 -3.374 3.413 2.727 2.758 2.614 2.972 2.569 2.001

0.000** 0.001** 0.000** 0.001** 0.001** 0.007** 0.006** 0.010** 0.003** 0.011** 0.047**

3.32 3.26 3.25 2.83 2.56 2.82 2.68 2.97 3.05 2.94 3.02 2.97 2.95 3.21 2.87 3.23 3.15 3.27 3.10 2.96 3.25 3.20 3.40

0.85 0.72 0.82 0.72 0.82 0.75 0.76 0.74 0.62 0.70 0.82 0.63 0.55 0.66 0.71 0.67 0.74 0.80 0.65 0.72 0.76 0.95 0.75

3.42 3.33 3.32 3.63 3.35 3.54 3.38 3.60 3.54 3.42 3.44 3.39 3.32 3.53 3.16 3.51 3.42 3.54 3.37 3.20 3.49 3.43 3.58

0.74 0.62 0.71 0.69 0.78 0.71 0.76 0.73 0.78 0.73 0.65 0.73 0.65 0.63 0.72 0.73 0.71 0.68 0.64 0.77 0.73 0.82 0.74

0.10 0.07 0.07 0.80 0.79 0.72 0.70 0.63 0.49 0.48 0.42 0.42 0.37 0.32 0.29 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.18

1.622 1.202 0.899 11.551 11.013 10.794 9.623 8.836 7.396 7.364 5.687 7.075 5.970 5.516 4.294 4.206 3.979 3.938 4.625 3.700 3.874 2.965 2.937

0.106 0.231 0.370 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.003** 0.004**

Notes: Totally 34 variables; a Perception mean ranges from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high); b Expectation mean ranges from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high); ** Significance at 0.05 level; n = 203 [ 311 ]

Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

handling service'', ``Availability of complimentary amenities'', ``Swimming and gymnasium facilities'', ``The physical appearance of the hotel'', ``View of the hotel surrounding area'', ``Availability of transportation arrangement'', ``Availability of business center'', ``Availability of meeting facilities'', ``Reputation of the hotel'', ``Reasonable price for the room'', ``Good fire prevention system'', ``Convenient and reliable reservation system'', ``Efficiency of front desk'', ``Availability of efficient laundry service'', ``Food and beverage value for money'', ``Responsible security personnel'', ``Friendliness and helpfulness of hotel staff'' and ``Hotel staff ability to provide prompt service'' (Table II).

In order to identify the underlying dimensions (factors) of the perceptions of the mainland Chinese travelers on the hotel services in Hong Kong, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal component with varimax rotation. For the purpose of interpretation of factors, a loading cut-off of 0.50 was adopted in this study. Eight factors with eigenvalues equal to or greater than one were extracted. These eight factors were named as ``Service quality and value'', ``Food and beverage tangibles'', ``Augmented product quality'', ``Reliability'', ``Core product quality'', ``Availability of supplementary services'', ``Value added service'' and ``Convenience''. Table III shows the results of this process. Factor 1: service quality and value. This factor contains five items and explained 25.0 per cent of the variance with an eigenvalue of 6.75. It carried items related to the quality and value of the hotel services provided, including ``Friendliness and helpfulness of the hotel staff'', ``Helpfulness of the information desk'', ``Hotel staff language skill'', ``Baggage handling service'', and ``Reasonable price for the room''. Factor 2: food and beverage quality. Loaded with four items, this factor explained 7.6 per cent of the variance, with an eigenvalue of 2.05. This contained attributes relating to the food and beverage quality, which are ``Availability of food and beverage variety'', ``Food and beverage quality'', ``Room service'', and ``Hygiene of food and beverage''. Factor 3: augmented product quality. Four items were included in this factor which are related to the quality of the supplementary product. This factor had an eigenvalue of 1.83 and represented 6.8 per cent of variance. Attributes included in this factor were: ``Swimming and gymnasium facilities'', ``The

Underlying dimensions of tourists' perceptions

physical appearance of the hotel'', ``In-room audiovisual equipment'', and ``Recreation facilities''. Factor 4: reliability. Loaded with three items: ``Responsible security personnel'', ``Good fire prevention system'' and ``Hotel staff ability to provide prompt service'', this factor explained 4.9 per cent variance with an eigenvalue of 1.33. Factor 5: core product quality. This factor included items related to the quality of the core products of the hotel, which were ``Quietness of room'', ``Good fire prevention system'' and ``Cleanliness and tidiness of the hotel''. The factor had an eigenvalue of 1.284 and accounted for 4.8 per cent of variance. Factor 6: availability of supplementary service. This factor included the following three items: ``Availability of business center'', ``Availability of reliable wake-up call'' and ``Food and beverage value for money''. It had an eigenvalue of 1.14 and an explained variance of 4.2 per cent. Factor 7: value added service. The factor explained 4.1 per cent of the variance with an eigenvalue of 1.11. There were only two items in this factor. ``Availability of frequent traveler's program'' and ``Availability of complimentary amenities''. Factor 8: convenience. Explaining 3.7 per cent of the variance and with an eigenvalue of 1.00, this factor was loaded with three items, namely: ``Availability of meeting facilities'', ``Availability of personal care amenities'' and ``The location of hotel''.

About one-third (36 per cent) of the respondents were satisfied with the hotel performance. Nearly 30 per cent (29.1 per cent) of the respondents showed their dissatisfaction. The overall means score was 3.1. The overall satisfaction level score of the mainland Chinese travelers was then regressed against the perception dimensions derived from the factor analysis, and the results were presented in Table IV. A satisfactory result was achieved (multiple R = 0.667). The perception dimensions are adequate in predicting mainland Chinese travelers' overall satisfaction of the hotel services in Hong Kong. The relative importance of the perception factors (dimensions) in contributing to the variance of the travelers' overall satisfaction was explained by the beta coefficient. ``Service quality and value'' and ``Augmented product quality'' with Beta coefficient 0.518 and 0.353 respectively, are the most

Relative impact of the perception dimensions on overall satisfaction

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Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

important factors contributing to the travelers' overall satisfaction. ``Food and beverage tangibles'' and ``Value added service'' with Beta coefficient 0.227 and 0.203 respectively, are important factors contributing to the overall satisfaction. The other factors, ``Core product quality'', ``Availability of supplementary services'' ``Reliability'', and ``Convenience'' show a Beta value of less then 0.1 which are less important factors in influencing the travelers' overall satisfaction.

Conclusions and implications


From a practical viewpoint, it is believed that the findings of this study can make several important contributions. By measuring the satisfaction levels of the mainland Chinese travelers, hotel operators can assess the current position of the hotels in terms of whether the hotel meets guests' needs and expectations. From a diagnostic standpoint, this should indicate more precisely the sources of dissatisfaction of the hotel guests.

Table III Factor analysis results with varimax rotation of perception of hotel attributes in Hong Kong F1 F2 F3 Factor loading F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 Communality 0.596 0.572 0.634 0.628 0.540 0.790 0.669 0.646 0.555 0.698 0.634 0.616 0.592 0.748 0.725 0.658 0.750 0.704 0.703 0.719 0.621 0.620 0.815 0.760 0.742 0.599 0.535 6.752 2.046 1.828 1.331 1.284 1.140 1.105 1.001 25.007 7.577 6.772 4.931 4.757 4.223 4.093 3.709 25.007 32.583 39.355 44.286 49.043 53.266 57.359 61.068 0.731 0.741 0.677 0.705 0.692 0.563 0.640 0.586 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 [ 313 ] 0.681 0.634 0.636 0.519 0.658 0.488 0.522 0.519 0.692 0.712 0.638 0.671 0.615 0.686 0.584 0.521 0.579 0.693 0.661 0.602 0.541 0.667

Factor 1. Service quality and value Friendliness and helpfulness of hotel staff Helpfulness of the information desk Hotel staff language skill Baggage handling service Reasonable price for the room Factor 2. Food and beverage quality Availability of food and beverage variety Food and beverage quality Room service Hygiene of food and beverage Factor 3. Augmented product quality Swimming and gymnasium facilities The physical appearance of the hotel In-room audiovisual equipment Recreation facilities Factor 4. Reliability Responsible security personnel Good fire prevention system Hotel staff ability to provide prompt service Factor 5. Core product quality Quietness of room Comfort of beds Cleanliness and tidiness of the hotel Factor 6. Availability of supplementary services Food and beverage value for money Availability of business center Availability of reliable wake-up call Factor 7. Value added services Availability of frequent traveler's program Availability of complimentary amenities Factor 8. Convenience Availability of meeting facilities Availability of personal care amenities The location of hotel (ease of transportation)
Eigenvalues Percentage of variance (%) Cumulative variance Cronbach's alpha Number of items (total = 22)

0.667 0.647 0.596 0.588 0.545

Vincent C.S. Heung Satisfaction levels of mainland Chinese travelers with Hong Kong hotel services International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/5 [2000] 308315

Table IV Regression results of mainland Chinese travelers' overall satisfaction levels based on the perception dimensions

Dependent variables: mainland Chinese travelers' overall satisfaction levels with the hotel services in Hong Kong Independent variables: eight orthogonal factors representing the components of perceived hotel attributes of the mainland Chinese travelers Goodness-of-fit: Multiple R 0.667 R-square 0.445 Adjusted R-square 0.442 Standard error 0.660 Analysis of variance Regression Residual F = 19.470 Independent variable Service quality and value (F1) Augmented product quality (F3) F&B Tangibles (F2) Value added service (F7) Core product quality (F5) Availability of supplementary service (F6) Reliability (F4) Convenience (F8) (Constant)
DF 8 194 Sum of square Mean square 68.392 8.549 85.185 0.439 Sig. F = 0.000 Beta 0.331 0.204 0.135 0.159 0.065 0.035 0.012 0.004 T 4.703 3.116 1.977 2.685 1.046 0.541 0.117 0.066 3.666 Sig. T 0.000 0.002 0.049 0.008 0.297 0.589 0.860 0.947 0.000

Variables in the equations B SE B 0.518 0.110 0.353 0.113 0.227 0.115 0.203 0.076 0.098 0.094 0.056 0.103 0.017 0.007 1.606 0.098 0.103 0.438

Understanding customers' changing desires and expectations for the hotel attributes may therefore help in improving existing hotel services, developing new hotel services, and educating the customers. In fact, it is impossible for any company to meet its customers' needs and wants all at once. One of the most important bases for prioritization is to identify what the company needs to do, can afford to do, and will result in the maximum benefit. In order to provide strategic direction in customer satisfaction management and better prioritization in service improvement, it is suggested that attention should be given to the sources of dissatisfaction. There were two major limitations associated with this study that needed to be discussed. The chosen sample contained those mainland Chinese travelers who depart Hong Kong by land and sea. Mainland Chinese travelers who depart Hong Kong by air were not included. Therefore the results may not be truly representative. Moreover, since the respondents were asked about their expectations and perceptions at one setting, bias may occur. Future research is needed to examine other aspects of the mainland Chinese travelers' experience such as shopping services, transportation services and restaurant services.

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