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CentrIfuge 101
12/9/2011
Solid Bowl CentriIuge
Summary of SemInar
O Covers the basIcs of:
O 0esIgn
O DperatIon
O |aIntenance
O nformatIonal sessIon:
O Ask questIons at any tIme!!!
O PresentatIon In booklet form.
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Agenda
O PrIncIples of CentrIfugatIon
O SolId 8owl 0esIgn
O SolId 8owl DperatIon
O SolId 8owl |aIntenance
O CondItIon |onItorIng
O 7IbratIon AnalysIs
O SpecIal tems
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SettlIng Tank
O CentrIfugatIon stems from concept of the settlIng
tank...
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Pool
Depth
Pool
Depth
Pool
Depth
Settling occurs at 1 G
SettlIng 7essel
O Form the tank Into a cylInder...
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CentrIfuge
O Fotate the tank...
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Pool Depth
SolIds |ovement
O What about the solIds:
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Beach EIIluent
onveyor turns at a slightly
lower rate than bowl.
Solids
SolIds 0ewaterIng
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Beach
Straight Beach
10
o
Compound Beach
7
o
3
o
Solids
Liquid
$olids have to pass through liquid in order to exit bowl!!!
CentrIfugatIon
where:
O 0
8owl
Is In Inches
O 70414 Is a conversIon constant
O Fast and effIcIent way to obtaIn product.
O ContInuous feed and output.
O FP| has a very strong effect on total Cs:
O For 2X Cs, you need 2X the 0. FP|s would Increase by
only 41.
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(ID
Bowl
)(RPM
Bowl
)
2
70414
G
SolId 8owl Components
O FotatIng Assembly
O 8owl Shell
O Heads (SolIds and Effluent)
O 8owl (CylIndrIcal, Screen, and ConIcal SectIon)
O Conveyor
O Cear UnIt
O 0rIve Assembly
O 0rIve |otor
O 8ackdrIve
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8owl Shell Components
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EIIluent Head Solids Head Bowl
ylinder
Effluent Head
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From the inside...
How is pool depth controlled???
11luent Wiers
Deep Pond
$hallow Pond
Conveyor Components
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Conveyor Body (Hub)
Feed Trunnion Gear Trunnion
Blank-OII Plate
Accelerator
Conveyor Flight(s)
FlIght Wear ProtectIon
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Ceramic Tiles Tungsten Carbide Tiles
...with Piggyback Holder
T/C TIled Conveyor FlIghts
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Conveyor Hub
Conveyor Flight
Weld
CeramIc TIled FlIghts
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Conveyor Hub
Epoxy
Cear UnIt
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Gear Unit Housing
(2 Ring Gears)
1
st
Stage Sun
(Pinion)
1
st
Stage Planets
1
st
Stage Carrier
(2
nd
Stage Sun)
2
nd
Stage
Planets
2
nd
Stage Carrier
(Female Spline)
FotatIng Assembly
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Cear Flange
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ear Flange
ear
Trunnion
W Gear Unit Housing is the Input
W Gear Trunnion
is the Output
W Pinion is Stationary
|achIne Frame and |otor
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Machine Frame
Gear End
Pillow Block
Feed End
Pillow Block
Feed
Pipe
Feed
Pipe
Bracket
Motor
Case E Hopper 0esIgn
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Case Top
Hoppers
Solids EIIluent
HydraulIc 8ackdrIve
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Machine
Liquid End
ydraulic Backdrive
Like gear unit,
attaches to conveyors
gear trunnion and
eIIluent head.
DiIIerential speed
acquired through a
hydraulic coupling.
Oil In
Oil Out
SolId 8owl E Hydr. 8ackdrIve
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SolId 8owl DperatIon
O The F/A does the actual work of separatIon.
O Four factors affect centrIfuge performance:
O 8owl Speed (#!)
O Feed Fate ("
1
)
O Pool 0epth (o)
O 0IfferentIal (A)
O Each factor relates to resIdence tIme.
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8owl Speed
O 8owl speed determInes centrIfugal force.
O #!

doublIng FP| results In 4X the C force felt by


slurry.
O HIgher Cs Increase solIds dryness and effluent clarIty.
O Too many Cs result In the InabIlIty to convey solIds.
O FecognIzed by decreasIng effluent clarIty.
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Feed Fate
O Feed rate affects lIquId resIdence tIme.
O "
1
l/#

Increase In feed rate decreases lIquId


resIdence tIme.
O ncreased feed rate decreases effluent clarIty.
O Dver a gIven perIod, more slurry enters bowl, more solIds
dIsplace lIquId less tIme for lIghter solIds to separate from
the lIquId.
O ncreased feed rate Increases amp draw.
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Pool 0epth
O Pool depth affects lIquId resIdence tIme.
O o #

Increase In pool depth Increases lIquId resIdence


tIme.
O HIgher pool Increases effluent clarIty.
O HIgher pool decreases solIds dryness.
O 8each Is shorter, less area to dewater the solIds.
O Extremely senstve:
O Adjust 4nly after other optIons have been used.
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0IfferentIal
O 0IfferentIal affects solIds resIdence tIme.
O A #
8
decrease In dIfferentIal Increases solIds
resIdence tIme.
O 0ecrease In A Increases solIds dryness.
O Conveyor FP| approaches that of the bowl, less net motIon,
solIds move more slowly on beach more tIme to dewater.
O 0ecrease In A decreases effluent clarIty.
O |ore solIds buIld up on bowl wall.
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0IfferentIal
O 8ackdrIves effectIvely cause the gear box ratIo to
Increase, whIch speeds up the conveyor relatIve to the
bowl.
O Large amounts of torque must be overcome In order to
turn the pInIon.
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(RPM
Bowl
- RPM
Pinion
)
Gear Box Ratio
A=
0aIly ChecklIst
nspect machIne for oIl leaks.
Check for excessIve vIbratIon:
O WIth and wIthout feed.
LIsten for excessIve bearIng noIse.
nspect machIne for any loose hardware.
7erIfy proper lube oIl flow.
7erIfy proper oIl supply pressure.
Check ammeter readIngs.
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0aIly ChecklIst
7erIfy bearIng Input oIl below 100
o
F.
7erIfy bearIng ouput oIl below 155
o
F.
nspect condItIon of Isolators:
O Snubbers properly set, sprIngs In DK condItIon.
nspect condItIon of flexIble connectors.
Test fault lIght lamps.
Ensure proper backdrIve operatIon.
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|onthly ChecklIst
nspect hydraulIc hoses for abrasIon.
Check that centrIfuge Is level:
O Adjust Isolators If needed.
Femove feed tube and check for cloggIng.
nspect machIne InterIor for materIal packIng.
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Three |onth ChecklIst
FevIew operatIon procedures.
O FevIew / retraIn personnel.
nspect conveyor for flIght / tIle wear.
Check gear box oIl level.
Check drIve belt tensIon.
Hcve vbrcton cnc88 per1ormed.
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7IbratIon AnalysIs
O Why:
O 0ata transformed Into easIly read and Interpreted form.
O Dverall vIbratIon data can be broken down Into component
vIbratIons assocIated wIth specIfIc machIne parts.
O UsIng consIstent methods of data collectIon, component
vIbratIons can be tracked over tIme.
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TIme 0omaIn
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Time
AmpIitude
Waveform Components
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Time
AmpIitude
Period (T
y
) 0.9 $econds
T
g
0.3 $econds
Frequency / CP|
O f = 1 / T
O PrevIous example (Yellow 0.9, Creen 0.J):
f
y
= 1 / 0.9 = 1.11 Hz
f
g
= 1 / 0.J = J.JJ Hz
O CP| = f / 60
CP|
y
= 1.11 / 60 = 66.6 CP|
CP|
g
= J.JJ / 60 = 199.8 CP|
O These waves and others add together.
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Waveform SummatIon
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Time
AmpIitude
t x
A
y
.95
A
g
-0.4
%=A
y
+ A
g
.95 + (-.4) .55
%=.55
All Waveform Components
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AmpIitude
All waves "add" up to 1orm $& WAVFOR.
Frequency 0omaIn
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Frequency 0omaIn
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. 3.33 5.55 7.77
Frequency
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
FA$T FO&RIR TRAN$FOR
1 9 0 /9
19
( ) ( ) =

2x
W Provides a clear
and easy way to
interpret data.
CentrIfuge 7IbratIon
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ear
Pinion
ear
nd
Pillow
Block
Feed
nd
Pillow
Block
What Can 8e Pulled Dut:
O 8owl Unbalance
O Conveyor Unbalance
O 8earIng Wear / 0amage
O Cear UnIt and Components
O |echanIcal Looseness
O |IsalIgned Parts
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How Is wear recognIzed:
O 0ata from prevIous vIsIts are compared wIth data just
taken.
O A change In the amplItude of a components vIbratIon
from one tIme to the next creates a trend.
O TrendIng (In the wrong dIrectIon) IndIcates wear and
potentIal damage whIch allows repaIr or maIntenance to
be scheduled, and parts to be ordered.
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What ThIs |eans.
O Component wear can be
IdentIfIed and tracked.
O |aIntenance or repaIr can be
scheduled at your
convenIence.
O FepaIr costs wIll be reduced.
O No catastrophIc
faIlure!
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Thank you for your tIme!!!
Please present any questIons you
have to a CFE representatIve.
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