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of complex surfaces

Denis AUROUX

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Symplectic 4-manifolds

A (compact) symplectic 4-manifold (M

4

, ) is a smooth 4-manifold with a sym-

plectic form

2

(M), closed (d = 0) and non-degenerate ( > 0).

Local model (Darboux): R

4

,

0

= dx

1

dy

1

+ dx

2

dy

2

.

E.g.: (CP

n

,

0

= i

log |z|

2

) complex projective surfaces.

The symplectic category is strictly larger (Thurston 1976, Gompf 1994, ...).

Hierarchy of compact oriented 4-manifolds:

COMPLEX PROJ.

surgery

Thurston, Gompf...

SYMPLECTIC

SW invariants

Taubes

SMOOTH

Classication problems.

Complex surfaces are fairly well understood, but their topology as smooth or

symplectic manifolds remains mysterious.

1

Example: Horikawa surfaces

X

1

2 : 1

CP

1

CP

1

C

(6,12)

X

2

2 : 1

F

6

= P(O

P

1 O

P

1(6))

5

0

X

1

, X

2

projective surfaces of general type, minimal,

1

= 1

X

1

, X

2

are not deformation equivalent (Horikawa)

X

1

, X

2

are homeomorphic (b

+

2

= 21, b

2

= 93, non-spin)

Open problems:

X

1

, X

2

dieomorphic? (expect: no, even though SW(X

1

) = SW(X

2

))

(X

1

,

1

), (X

2

,

2

) (canonical K ahler forms) symplectomorphic?

Remark: projecting to CP

1

, Horikawa surfaces carry genus 2 brations.

2

Lefschetz brations

A Lefschetz bration is a C

map f : M

4

S

2

with isolated non-degenerate

crit. pts, where (in oriented coords.) f(z

1

, z

2

) z

2

1

+z

2

2

. (sing. bers are nodal)

s s

f

M

S

2 s

Monodromy around sing. ber = Dehn twist

vanishing cycle

Also consider: Lefschetz brations with distinguished sections.

Gompf: Assuming [ber] non-torsion in H

2

(M), M carries a symplectic form s.t.

|ber

> 0, unique up to deformation. (extends Thurstons result on symplectic brations)

3

Symplectic manifolds and Lefschetz pencils

Algebraic geometry:

X complex surface + ample line bundle projective embedding X CP

N

.

Intersect with a generic pencil of hyperplanes Lefschetz pencil

(= family of curves, at most nodal, through a nite set of base points).

Blow up base points Lefschetz bration with distinguished sections.

Donaldson: Any compact sympl. (X

4

, ) admits a symplectic Lefschetz pencil

f : X base CP

1

; blowing up base points, get a sympl. Lefschetz bration

f :

X S

2

with distinguished 1-sections.

(uses approx. hol. geometry: f = s

0

/s

1

, s

i

C

(X, L

k

), L ample, sup |

s

i

| sup |s

i

|)

In large enough degrees (bers m[], m 0), Donaldsons construction is canonical up to

isotopy; combine with Gompfs results

Corollary: the Horikawa surfaces X

1

and X

2

(with K ahler forms [

i

] = K

X

i

) are

symplectomorphic i generic pencils of curves in the pluricanonical linear systems

[mK

X

i

[ dene topologically equivalent Lefschetz brations with sections for some

m (or for all m 0).

4

Monodromy

r r

f

M

S

2 r

r

Monodromy around sing.

ber = Dehn twist

vanishing cycle

Monodromy: :

1

(S

2

p

1

, ..., p

r

) Map

g

=

0

Di

+

(

g

)

Mapping class group: e.g. for T

2

= R

2

/Z

2

, Map

1

= SL(2, Z);

a

=

1 1

0 1

,

b

=

1 0

1 1

1

, . . . ,

r

) for

1

(S

2

p

i

), get

(

1

, . . . ,

r

) Map

g

,

i

= (

i

),

i

= 1.

factorization of Id as product of positive Dehn twists.

With n distinguished sections:

:

1

(R

2

p

i

) Map

g,n

Map

g,n

=

0

Di

+

(, ) genus g with n boundaries.

1

. . .

r

= (monodromy at = boundary twist).

5

Factorizations

Two natural equivalence relations on factorizations:

1. Global conjugation (change of trivialization of reference ber)

(

1

, . . . ,

r

) (

1

1

, . . . ,

r

1

) Map

g

2. Hurwitz equivalence (change of ordered basis

1

, . . . ,

r

)

(

1

, . . . ,

i

,

i+1

, . . .

r

) (

1

, . . . ,

i+1

,

1

i+1

i+1

, . . . ,

r

)

(

1

, . . . ,

i

i+1

1

i

,

i

, . . . ,

r

)

(generates braid group action on r-tuples)

s

. . . . . .

1

r

i

i+1

s

. . . . . .

1

r

1

i+1

i+1

i+1

genus g Lefschetz brations with n sections / isomorphism

factorizations in Map

g,n

=

Hurwitz equiv.

+ global conj.

6

Classication in low genus

g = 0, 1: only holomorphic brations ( ruled surfaces, elliptic surfaces).

g = 2, assuming sing. bers are irreducible: r

Siebert-Tian (2003): always isotopic to holomorphic brations, i.e. built from:

(

1

2

3

4

5

5

4

3

2

1

)

2

= 1

(

1

2

3

4

5

)

6

= 1

(

1

2

3

4

)

10

= 1

1

5

2

4

3

(up to a technical assumption; argument relies on pseudo-holomorphic curves)

g 3: intractable

(families of non-holom. examples by Ozbagci-Stipsicz, Smith, Fintushel-Stern, Korkmaz, ...)

The genus 2 brations on X

1

, X

2

are dierent (e.g., dierent monodromy groups):

X

1

: (

1

2

3

4

5

5

4

3

2

1

)

12

= 1

X

2

: (

1

2

3

4

)

30

= 1

... but cant conclude from them!

7

Canonical pencils on Horikawa surfaces

On X

1

and X

2

, generic pencils in the linear systems [K

X

i

[ have ber genus 17

(with 16 base points), and 196 nodal bers

compare 2 sets of 196 Dehn twists in Map

17,16

?

Theorem: The canonical pencils on X

1

and X

2

are related by partial conjugation:

(t

1

1

, . . . , t

64

1

, t

65

, . . . , t

196

) vs. (t

1

, . . . , t

196

)

The monodromy groups G

1

, G

2

Map

17,16

are isomorphic; unexpectedly, the

conjugating element belongs to the monodromy group.

Key point: CP

1

CP

1

and F

6

are symplectomorphic; the branch curves of

1

: X

1

CP

1

CP

1

and

2

: X

2

F

6

dier by twisting along a Lagrangian

annulus.

disconnected curve

5

0

F

6

A

connected curve

C

(6,12)

CP

1

CP

1

8

Perspectives

Theorem: The canonical pencils on X

1

and X

2

are related by partial conjugation;

G

1

, G

2

Map

17,16

are isomorphic; belongs to the monodromy group.

The same properties hold for pluricanonical pencils [mK

X

i

[ (in larger Map

g,n

)

These pairs of pencils are twisted ber sums of the same pieces.

If were monodromy along an embedded loop (+ more) (X

1

,

1

) (X

2

,

2

)

(but only seems to arise from an immersed loop)

Question: compare these (very similar) mapping class group factorizations??

E.g.: matching paths (= Lagrangian spheres bering above an arc). Expect:

H

2

-classes represented by Lagrangian spheres

?

alg. vanishing cycles (ODP degenerations)

(span [

H

2

(P

1

P

1

)]

,= [

H

2

(F

6

)]

)

f

M

S

2

s s

(but... G

2

suggests where to start looking for exotic matching paths?)

9

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