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Guilderland HS


Chapter 18
The Eighteenth Century: European States, International Wars, and Social Change

Napoleon Bonaparte/Napoleon I = French military and political leader At a glance, Napoleon was a rather short man, but behind the small figure was a brilliant general who had the wits, the skills, and balls of steel. - Born in Corsica in 1769 o Annexed to France - Came to the rank of brigadier general in 1784, at the age of 25 o Saved the National Convention from the Parisian mob Made the commander of the French army in Italy Defeated the Austrians and dictated peace to them - Saw no future in striking Great Britain, so did a coup dtat o Became the dictator of France, returned France to a monarchy and crowned himself as Emperor Napoleon I, satisfying his enormous ego. - Made peace of the Catholic church o No faith, and regarded religion as a convenience o However, saw the necessity to come to terms with the Catholic church in order to stabilize his regime. Signed the Concordat Permitted the church to hold processions again and reopen seminaries Catholicism was not reestablished as the state religion The Pope could depose French bishops, but the state still nominated bishops. The clergy would still be paid by the state, as well as Protestant ministers. The Catholic Church was no longer an enemy of the French government. - Formulated the Civil Code = Code Napolon o A single set of laws that preserved most of the revolutionary gains. o Recognized the principle of equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. o Reflected the revolutionary aspirations for a uniform legal system, legal equality, and protection of property and individuals. o Men gained more power over women again Control of father over family Divorce mostly done by husbands - Rationalized the bureaucratic structure of France by developing a powerful, centralized administrative machine. o Instituted new officials, notably prefects, who were responsible for supervising all aspects of local government. - Showed a sense of growing despotism

o Shut down sixty of 73 newspapers, and manuscripts were subject to government scrutiny o A particular writer, Madame de Stael wrote works that denounced Napoleons rule as tyrannical, resulting in her exile to German states. Considered to be the last of the enlightened absolutists.

Continental System = System used to defeat England - Attempted to prevent British goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain economically and destroy its capacity to wage war. - Ultimately failed, the allied states resented the French economic hegemony o States began to cheat and other to resist o New markets in the Levant and Latin America provided compensation for the British. Napoleons Downfall - Began with his invasion of Russia o Russia had previously challenged the Continental System, which Napoleon feared that other countries would follow suite. o Russian forces retreated for hundreds of miles, torching their own crops to prevent Napoleons army to get food. Eventually stopped at Borodino, where his forces fought a costly battle Proceeded to a blazing Moscow Retreated (Great Retreat) back to Poland with only 40,000 out of 600,000 men that entered. Sad. Eventually, the Bourbon monarchy was restored to France (Louis XVIII), had little support, Napoleon got bored when he was supposedly to play ruler on the island of Elba, managed to raise another army in France, got defeated in Waterloo by the duke of Wellington (Prussia), got exiled to Saint Helena.