1
2
, t
1
2
_
where D is any oriented diagram for L, w(D) is the writhe of D, and D is
the bracket polynomial of the unoriented diagram.
9
2.1 The Kauman Bracket Polynomial
The Kauman bracket, D, assigns to an unoriented link diagram D a
Laurent polynomial in A with integer coecients [2]. It can be dened by
the three relations
(i) = 1,
(ii) D =
_
A
2
A
2
_
D,
(iii) = A +A
1
,
where the brackets in (iii) contain link diagrams that are identical except in
one place where they dier as shown [2].
Consider how the three Reidemeister moves aect the Kaufmann bracket:
Lemma 2.2 [2]. If a diagram is changed by a Type I Reidemeister move,
its bracket polynomial changes in the following way:
= A
3
= A
3
Lemma 2.3 [2]. If a diagram D is changed by a Type II or Type III Rei
demeister move, then D does not change.
The writhe of a link diagram will also not be changed by Type II or Type III
Reidemeister moves but a Type I Reidemeister move will change the writhe
by +1 or 1 [2]. In fact (for either possible orientation),
w( ) = w( ) + 1
w( ) = w( ) 1 .
Combining this with Lemmas 2.2 and 2.3 and Denition 2.1, we see that the
Jones polynomial is invariant under all three Reidemeister moves and so is
a link invariant [2].
2.1.1 An Example
An example calculation of a Jones polynomial via the Kauman bracket:
= A +A
1
10
By Lemma 2.2 we have
= (A
3
)(A
3
) = A
6
.
By Lemma 2.2 we also have
=A
3
= A
3
and
=A
3
= A
3
.
So we have
=A +A
1
=A(A
3
) +A
1
(A
3
)
=A
4
A
4
.
So
=A(A
4
A
4
) +A
1
(A
6
)
=A
5
A
3
+A
7
.
From the oriented diagram we have
w
_ _
= 3
So
(A)
3w
=A
9
(A
5
A
3
+A
7
)
=A
4
+A
12
+A
16
V
_ _
=t +t
3
t
4
.
2.2 Properties
The Jones polynomial obeys the following skein relation [2]:
_
t
1
2
t
1
2
_
V
_ _
= t
1
V
_ _
tV
_ _
Where the link diagrams are identical except in one place where they dier
as shown.
If L is an oriented link with Jones polynomial V (L), substituting t
1
for t
gives the Jones polynomial for the mirror image of L [2].
11
If K is an oriented knot formed by the composition of oriented knots K
1
and K
2
, then [2]
V (K) = V (K
1
) V (K
2
) .
2.3 Statistical Mechanics
In introducing the Jones polynomial [5], V.F.R. Jones established a rela
tionship between knot theory and statistical mechanics that has led to lots
of research [3]. The von Neumann algebra used in [5] was seen to be resem
ble the algebra of the TemperleyLieb formulation of the Potts model [16].
The YangBaxter equation is another connection between knot theory and
physics, and is now used in knot theory although originating in physics [4].
The parallel between the StarTriangle relation and Type III Reidemeister
moves is another area of interest in the connection between knot theory and
statistical mechanics [16].
In this report we are interested in the direct relation between the Jones
polynomial and the partition function of the Potts model in statistical me
chanics (the Jones polynomial is given by a special case of the partition
function [18]). This motivates us to nd general expressions of Jones poly
nomials for families of links, so that we may nd the distribution of the zeros
of Jones polynomials as the number of crossings tends to inty.
2.3.1 The Potts Model
In statistical mechnics, the Ising model is used to study systems of particles
where only particles close together interact [3] and we wish to study the
overall properties of the system [8]. The Ising model considers particles
situated at vertices on a graph, where each particle is in one of two spins
states and interactions occur along the egdes of the graph (the graphs are
often lattices) [3]. The Potts model generalises the Ising model to allow each
particle be in any one of q states [3].
As in [8], let us consider a simple Potts model where the interaction energy
between particles is constant and only interactions between particles directly
connected by an edge are considered. Given a graph G and a set S of q
elements (the spin states), then assigning an element of S to each vertex
of G we obtain a particular state of G [8]. Two possible Hamiltonians (the
energy of a particular state of G) are [8]
h
1
() = J
i,j
(
i
,
j
) and h
2
() = J
i,j
(1 (
i
,
j
))
12
where is a state of G, i and j are vertices of G in spin states
i
,
j
, is
the Kronecker delta function and J is the interaction energy (if J > 0 the
model is feromagnetic and if J < 0 it is antiferromagnetic [8]). The partition
function of the model (from which we can study the thermodynamics of the
system) is then [8]
Z
i
(G) =
e
(h
i
())
where the sum is taken over all possible . Choosing i = 1 or 2 will give the
respective Hamiltonians. And =
1
kT
, where T is the temperature of the
system and k is the Boltzmann constant [8].
The Jones polynomial can be directly related to the partition function of
the Potts model; an exact relation between the two is given in [14] and
described again here. Firstly, consider the Potts model where we take the
Hamiltonian as h
1
(w) above, and set K = J. Now let K vary so that
each pair of interacting spins, i and j, has an interaction K
i,j
. We get the
following partition function:
Z(G) =
exp
_
_
i,j
K
i,j
(
i
, j)
_
_
=
i,j
e
K
i,j
(
i
,j)
=
i,j
_
1 +
_
e
K
i,j
1
_
(
i
,
j
)
_
where the product is taken over all edges of G. This is exactly the Potts
model partition function given in [14]. The partition function is then a
multivariate polynomial in q and e
K
i,j
.
Now consider an oriented link with Jones Polynomial V (t) and its link di
agram. Shade alternate regions of the link diagram (there are two possible
shadings, the inverse of each other). Place a particle (i.e. a vertex of the
graph) in each shaded region and place interactions (i.e. edges of the graph)
along crossings. An interaction is K
+
when the crossing is + and K
when
the crossing is , as shown in Figure 1.8. A simple example of this process
is given in Figure 2.3. The Jones polynomial of the link is then related to
the partition function of the Potts model on the graph, Z(q; e
K
+
, e
K
), by
the relation [14]
V (t) = q
(M+1)/2
(t)
N
t
(3n
+
+m
+
)/2
Z
_
q; e
K
+
, e
K
_
where n
is the number of K
= m
+
+ m
), M is the
13
number of vertices of the graph (i.e. shaded regions of the link diagram),
q = t + 2 +t
1
, e
K
+
= (t)
1
and e
K
= t.
+

Figure 2.2: Sign given to crossings of the shaded link diagram
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
Figure 2.3: A shaded link diagram and the associated Potts model graph
If we choose the alternate shading on the link diagram, then we will in
terchange each K
+
and K (so m
+
and m
b a+3w
4
T[G]
_
t, t
1
_
.
17
3.3 The Chain Polynomial
3.3.1 Chain Graphs
As described in [16], we can obtain a chain graph from a graph (and then
use the chain polynomial of a chain graph to calculate the Tutte polynomial
of a graph). To obtain a chain graph from a graph:
1. Repeatedly remove vertices of degree two and join the two adjacent
vertices with a new edge.
2. Assign to each edge a label (e.g. a, b) with an associated positive
integer (e.g. n
a
= 2, n
b
= 5) that is equal to the number of edges the
new edge has replaced.
As noted above we will be obtaining standard graphs, G
L
, from the standard
diagram of a link L. We will denote by M
L
the chain graph obtained from
G
L
.
3.3.2 The Chain Polynomial
The chain polynomial, Ch[M](, {all labels}), is a polynomial that we as
sociate with a chain graph M. It can be dened using ow polynomials of
subgraphs, or chromatic polynomials of graphs obtained by inserting chains
of edges [21]. (It was actually introduced to study chromatic polynomials of
such graphs [18].) Chain polynomials can be calculated using the following
relations, given in [18] and [21]:
1. If G is a graph with no edges, then
Ch[G] = 1 .
2. If an edge labelled a is a loop (i.e. its endpoints are the same vertex)
of G, then
Ch[G] = (a )Ch[Ga] .
If an edge labelled a is not a loop of G, then
Ch[G] = (a 1)Ch[Ga] +Ch[G/a] .
Where G a is the graph obtained from G by removing the edge labelled
a, and G/a is the graph obtained from G by contracting (i.e. removing and
identify the end vertices of) the edge labelled a.
18
We are interested in using chain polynomials to calculate Tutte polynomials
for families of graphs. The following theorem connecting the chain polyno
mial to the Tutte polynomial is given with proof in [16] (we use = 1 q):
Theorem 3.2. In Ch[M], if we replace q by (1x)(1y), and replace each
label a by x
n
a
for every chain a, a polynomial
Ch[M] is obtained. Then
T[G](x, y) =
1
(x 1)
mn+k
Ch[M]
where m, n and k are the number of edges, vertices and components of the
chain graph M, respectively.
3.3.3 Properties
Lemma 3.3 [19]. If a is an edge of (a chain graph) M let H be the graph
obtained from M by deleting the edge a, and let K be the graph obtained
from M by contracting the edge a. Then
(i) Ch[H] is the coecient of a in Ch[M].
(ii) Ch[K] is obtained from Ch[M] by putting a = 1.
We can relate the Chain polynomial of a 2vetexconnected chain graph to
the Chain polynomials of two chain graphs from which it is built. The
folowing lemma is given with proof (it is presented as a corollary of a more
general theorem) in [20].
Lemma 3.4. If G is a 2vertexconnected graph as shown in Figure 3.2, and
G
1
and G
2
are formed from it as shown, then
Ch[G] = P
1
P
2
A
1
A
2
where
Ch[G
1
] = P
1
z +A
1
and Ch[G
2
] = P
2
z +A
2
.
We can generalise this to inating edges by a graph. By this we mean to
remove an edge from one graph, and replace it by another graph with a
similarly labelled edge removed. For example in Figure 3.2, we would be
inating the edge z in G
1
by G
2
, obtaining G.
Lemma 3.5. Let G
1
be a chain graph with n edges labelled z and let G
2
be a chain graph with one edge labelled z, i.e.
Ch[G
1
] =
n
i=0
c
i
z
i
and Ch[G
2
] = Pz +A .
19
z z
G
G
1
G
2
Figure 3.2: A graph G formed from two other graphs
If G is formed by inating all edges labelled z in G
1
by G
2
then
Ch[G] =
n
i=0
c
i
_
_
ni
P
i
.
Proof. See Appendix C, Section C.1.
Lemma 3.6. If G is formed by inating all edges in a sheaf chain graph by
a chain graph G
2
with Ch[G
2
] = Pz +A, then
Ch[G] =
1
1
__
P +
A
_
n
(P +A)
n
_
.
Proof. Substituting the coecients of z given in equation 3.3 into the equa
tion from Lemma 3.5 obtains
Ch[G] =
n
i=0
(1)
n1
_
n
n i
__
ni
1
__
_
ni
P
i
=
1
1
__
P +
A
_
n
(P +A)
n
_
.
3.3.4 Useful Results
The following results for chain polynomials will be useful when we later
calculate Jones polynomials of families of links.
If M is a sheaf chain graph (i.e. a chain graph consisting of two vertices
joined by n parallel edges) with edges labelled a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, then [18]
Ch[M] =
1
1
_
n
i=1
(a
i
)
n
i=1
(a
i
1)
_
. (3.1)
20
So,
Ch
_
_
a b
_
_
=
1
1
_
(b ) (a )
n1
(b 1) (a 1)
n1
_
(3.2)
where there are n 1 edges labelled a. (This result is given in [16].)
And,
Ch
_
_
z
_
_
=
1
1
[(z )
n
(z 1)
n
]
=
n
i=0
z
i
(1)
n1
_
n
n i
__
ni
1
_
(3.3)
where there are n edges labelled z.
And,
Ch
_
_
a
b
_
_
=
1
1
[(b )
n
(a )
n
(b 1)
n
(a 1)
n
] (3.4)
where there are n edges labelled a and n edges labelled b.
21
Chapter 4
Torus Links
In this chapter, we will study a family of links called the torus links. Af
ter establishing the denition and our notation, we will present the Jones
polynomials for torus knots and two types of torus links.
4.1 Denition and Notation
Torus links are knots and links that lie on the unkotted torus in S
3
[3].
We can dene a torus link by the number of times it wraps around a torus
in each direction: if it wraps around the meridian p times and around the
longitude q times then we call it the (p, q) torus link [3]. See Figure 4.1 for
a standard diagram of the (p, q) torus link. We will denote the (p, q) torus
link by T(p, q).
q
p
{
{
Figure 4.1: A standard diagram of the (p, q) torus link
Some properties of torus links:
1. T(p, q) is equivalent to T(q, p) [3].
22
2. If p and q are relatively prime (i.e. gcd(p, q) = 1) then T(p, q) is a
knot [3].
3. If p = 1 or q = 1 (the other arbitrary) then T(p, q) is the unkot [4].
4.2 Jones polynomial
4.2.1 Torus Knots
The (p, q) torus link is a knot (i.e. it has one component) when p and q are
relatively prime. In this case the Jones polynomial is [2]
V
T(p,q)
=
t
(p1)(q1)
2
1 t
2
_
1 t
p+1
t
q+1
+t
p+q
_
. (4.1)
4.2.2 (p, q) Torus Links with p = 2, 3
Where p and q are not relatively prime, the (p, q) torus knot is a link of 2
or more components.
If p = 2 then, for any q 1
V
T(2,q)
= (1)
q+1
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q
+t)
_
. (4.2)
The proof of this is given in Appendix B, Section B.2.
The Jones polynomial for a (p,q) torus knot/link with p = 3 is given in [10]
as:
V
T(3,q)
=
_
t
q1
+t
q+1
+ 2t
2q
if q 0 (mod 3),
t
q1
+t
q+1
t
2q
otherwise.
(4.3)
23
Chapter 5
Pretzel Links
In this chapter, we will study a family of links called the pretzel links.
After establishing the denition and our notation, we will obtain general
expressions for the Jones polynomials of three particular families of pretzel
links.
5.1 Denition and Notation
{
p
1
p
2
p
n
{ {
Figure 5.1: General pretzel link Figure 5.2: (2,3,2,2,5) pretzel link
A pretzel link is formed by joining tangles in a cyclic fashion, where each
tangle consists of two vertical strings twisted together. We describe a pretzel
link by the ntuple of the number of halftwists (i.e. crossings) in each tangle
(the sign given by Figure 5.3). The standard diagram of the (p
1
, p
2
, ..., p
n
)
pretzel link is given in Figure 5.1 and an example given in Figure 5.2.
Continuing the notation of [16], we will denote the (k
1
, k
2
, ..., k
n
) pretzel link
by P(k
1
, k
2
, ..., k
n
). Also denote the (
n
..
k
1
, ..., k
1
) pretzel link by P (k
1
(n)).
Similarly, denote the (
n
..
k
1
, ..., k
1
,
m
..
k
2
, ..., k
2
) pretzel link by P(k
1
(n), k
2
(m)).
24
+ve ve
Figure 5.3: Sign of halftwists in a pretzel link
5.2 Jones polynomial
5.2.1 (k(n)) Pretzel Links
In [16] the Jones polynomial (and its zeros) of P(3(n)) are studied. Here,
we will use the same methods to study the more general case of P(k(n)) for
k > 0.
{
k k k
{ {
a a a
Figure 5.4: Diagram of P(k(n)) with associated graph, G
P(k(n))
, and
associated chain graph, M
P(k(n))
(where there are n edges labelled a
and n
a
= k).
The pretzel link containing n tangles all with k > 0 halftwists, P(k(n)),
admits an associated chain graph that is a sheaf graph (i.e. a graph con
sisting of two vertices joined by n edges) with every edge having the same
label (see Figure 5.4). Then by equation 3.3 and Theorem 3.2 we have the
Tutte polynomial for the associated graph of P(k(n)):
T[G
P(k(n))
] =
1
(x 1)
n
(y 1)
_
(x
k
x +xy y)
n
+ (x
k
1)
n
(xy x y)
_
.
By inspection of the link diagram we can see that a = 2 + (k 1)n and
__
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
_
n
+
_
t + 1 +t
1
_
_
(t)
k
1
_
n
_
.
(5.1)
25
Where w depends on the signs of k and n, and the orientation given to the
components of the link.
5.2.2 (k(1), l(n 1)) Pretzel Links
In [16] the Jones polynomial (and its zeros) of P(k(1), 1(n 1)) and
P (k(1), 2(n 1)) are studied. Here, we will use the same methods to study
the more general case of P(k(1), l(n 1)) for l > 0 and k > 0.
{
k l l
{ {
b a a
Figure 5.5: Diagram of P(k(1), l(n 1)) with associated graph,
G
P(k(1),l(n1))
, and associated chain graph, M
P(k(1),l(n1))
(where there
are n 1 edges labelled a, n
b
= k and n
a
= l).
The pretzel link containing n tangles one with k halftwists and the remain
ing with l halftwists, P(k(1), l(n 1)), admits an associated chain graph
that is a sheaf graph with all but one edge having the same label (see Figure
5.5). Then by equation 3.2 and Theorem 3.2 we have the Tutte polynomial
for the associated graph of P(k(1), l(n 1)):
T[G
P(k(1),l(n1))
] =
1
(x 1)
n
(y 1)
_
(x
l
x +xy y)
n1
(x
k
x +xy y)
+(x
l
1)
n1
(x
k
1)(xy x y)
_
.
By inspection of the link diagram we can see that a = l + nk k n + 2
and
b = n. Then by Theorem 3.1 we have
V
P(k(1),l(n1))
=
(1)
w
t
2nlnk+k2+3w
4
(t 1)
n
(1 t
1
)
_
_
(t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
_
n1
_
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
_
+
_
(t)
l
1
_
n1
_
(t)
k
1
_
_
t + 1 +t
1
_
_
.
(5.2)
Where w depends on the signs of l, k and n, and the orientation given to
the components of the link.
26
5.2.3 (k(n), l(n)) Pretzel Links
{
k l
l
{
{
b a
k
{
Figure 5.6: Diagram of P(k(n), l(n)) with associated graph, G
P(k(n),l(n))
,
and associated chain graph, M
P(k(n),l(n))
(where there are n edges la
belled a, n edges labelled b, n
b
= k and n
a
= l).
The pretzel link containing 2n tangles half with k halftwists and half with
l halftwists, P(k(n), l(n)), admits an associated chain graph that is a sheaf
graph with half of the edges having the same label (see Figure 5.6). Then
by equation 3.4 and Theorem 3.2 we have the Tutte polynomial for the
associated graph of P(k(n), l(n)):
T[G
P(k(n),l(n))
] =
1
(x 1)
n
(y 1)
__
x
l
x +xy y
_
n
_
x
k
x +xy y
_
n
+
_
x
l
1
_
n
_
x
k
1
_
n
(xy x y)
_
.
By inspection of the link diagram we can see that a = ln +kn 2n +2 and
__
(t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
_
n
_
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
_
n
+
_
(t)
l
1
_
n
_
(t)
k
1
_
n _
t + 1 +t
1
_
_
.
(5.3)
Where w depends on the signs of l, k and n, and the orientation given to
the components of the link.
27
Chapter 6
Montesinos Links
In this chapter, we will study some of the family of links called the Mon
tesinos links. After establishing the denition and our notation, we will
obtain general expressions for the Jones polynomials of two particular fam
ilies of Montesinos links.
6.1 Denition and Notation
6.1.1 Rational Tangles
Figure 6.1: An example (rational)
tangle
Figure 6.2: An example (rational)
tangle
A tangle is a link with four free ends which touch a bounding sphere [3],
two examples are show in Figures 6.1 and 6.2. If we imagine the four free
ends of a tangle to be restricted to the sphere, then a tangle that we can
deform into two separate strands by only moving the free ends on the
sphere is called a rational tangle [22]. (The tangle in Figure 6.2 is a rational
tangle.) All rational tangles are equivalent to a basic tangle that can be
28
formed in the following way [22]:
1. Start with a horizontal (or vertical) tangle
2. Add a vertical (or horizontal) tangle to the bottom (or right)
3. Add a horizontal (or vertical) tangle to the right (or bottom)
4. Repeat these steps a nite number of times
(Where a horizontal (or vertical) tangle is formed by starting with two par
allel horizontal (or vertical) strands and twisting the endpoints. Each hori
zontal (or vertical) tangle has an associated integer equal to the number of
halftwists (or crossings) it contains, where sign depends as shown in Figure
6.3.) When we start with a horizontal (or vertical) tangle, then the result
is called a basic horizontal (or vertical) tangle [22].
A horizontal tangle, with associated integer +4.
A horizontal tangle, with associated integer 3.
A vertical tangle,
with associated integer +3.
A vertical tangle,
with associated integer 2.
Figure 6.3: Horizontal and vertical tangles
In this report we will use two particular rational tangles, shown in Figures
6.4 and 6.5. We will denote the rational tangle shown in Figure 6.4 by {k, l}
and in Figure 6.5 by {m, k, l}.
6.1.2 Montesinos Links
The Montesinos links are formed in a similar way to the pretzel links, but
each tangle consists of a rational tangle. The standard diagram for the
(classic) Montesinos link is given in Figure 6.6, where each box (T
1
, . . . , T
n
)
contains a rational tangle.
29
k
{
l
{
Figure 6.4: {k, l} rational tangle
l
{
k
{
m
{
Figure 6.5: {m, k, l} rational tan
gle
T
1
T
2
T
n
Figure 6.6: Standard diagram for a (classic) Montesinos link
In this report we will be using Montesinos links where all of the n tangles
are the same. We will call the Montesinos link where every tangle is the
{k, l} tangle (Figure 6.4), the ({k, l}(n)) Montesinos link and denote it by
M({k, l}(n)). Similarly, where every tangle is the {m, k, l} tangle (Figure
6.5), it is the ({m, k, l}(n)) Montesinos link and denote it by M({m, k, l}(n)).
6.2 Jones polynomial
6.2.1 ({k, l}(n)) Montesinos Links
In the family of links given by M({k, l}(n)) each tangle is as shown in
Figure 6.4. The associated graph of M({k, l}(n)) consists of n copies of
the subgraph shown in Figure 6.7, with all vertices labelled 1 identied
and all vertices labelled 2 identied. Then the associated chain graph of
M({k, l}(n)) consists of n copies of the subgraph shown in Figure 6.8, with
all vertices labelled 1 identied and all vertices labelled 2 identied.
To nd a general expression for the Jones polynomial of these links, rst
we obtain the chain polynomial of a graph from which we can build the
30
1
2
Figure 6.7: Subgraph of
G
M({k,l}(n))
a
b
1
2
Figure 6.8: Subgraph of
M
M({k,l}(n))
(n
a
= k, n
b
= 1,
l edges labelled b)
associated chain graph of M({k, l}(n)):
Ch
_
_
a
z
b
_
_
=
za
1
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
+
1
1
_
(b )
l
+ (b 1)
l
_
.
Where there are l edges labelled b. (The calculation of this is given in
Appendix C, Section C.2.) Then by Lemma 3.6 we obtain:
Ch[M
M({k,l}(n))
] =
1
1
_
(b 1)
l
(a 1) + (b )
l
(1 a)
1
_
n
1
1
_
(b 1)
l
(a ) + (b )
l
( a)
1
_
n
Setting n
a
= k and n
b
= 1, by Theorem 3.2 we have the Tutte polynomial
for the associated graph of M({k, l}(n)):
T[G
M({k,l}(n))
] =
(1)
ln+n
(1 x)
ln+n
(1 y)
n+1
__
(x 1)
l
(x
k
(x +y xy) 1) (xy y)
l
(x
k
1)
_
n
(x +y xy)
_
(x 1)
l
(x
k
1)(x +y xy) (xy y)
l
(x
k
(x +y xy))
_
n
_
By inspection of the link diagram we can see that a = kn + 2 and
b = nl.
Then by Theorem 3.1 we have
V
M({k,l}(n))
=
(1)
w+ln+1
t
n(lk)+3w
4
(t + 1)
(2+l)n+1
__
(t 1)
l
(A+t) (1 +t
1
)
l
(B +t)
_
n
(t
2
+t + 1)
+t
_
(t 1)
l
(At
2
t 1) (1 +t
1
)
l
(B t
2
t 1)
_
n
_
(6.1)
31
with A = (t)
k+2
(t)
k+1
+ (t)
k
and B = (t)
k+1
. Where w depends
on the signs of l, k and n, and the orientation given to the components of
the link.
6.2.2 ({m, k, l}(n)) Montesinos Links
In the family of links given by M({m, k, l}(n)) each tangle is as shown in
Figure 6.5. The associated graph of M({m, k, l}(n)) consists of n copies
of the subgraph shown in Figure 6.9, with all vertices labelled 1 identied
and all vertices labelled 2 identied. Then the associated chain graph of
M({m, k, l}(n)) consists of n copies of the subgraph shown in Figure 6.10,
with all vertices labelled 1 identied and all vertices labelled 2 identied.
1
2
Figure 6.9: Subgraph of
G
M({m,k,l}(n))
a
b
1
2
c
Figure 6.10: Subgraph of
M
M({m,k,l}(n))
(n
a
= k, n
b
= 1,
n
c
= 1, l edges labelled b, m edges
labelled c)
To nd a general expression for the Jones polynomial of these links, rst
we obtain the chain polynomial of a graph from which we can build the
associated chain graph of M({m, k, l}(n)):
Ch
_
a
z
b
c
_
=
z
(1 )
2
_
a
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c )
m
)
+
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
_
+
1
(1 )
2
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
1
(1 )
2
_
(1 +)((b )
l
+(b 1)
l
)
a((b )
l
(b 1)
l
)
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
Where there are l edges labelled b and m edges labelled c. (The calculation
32
of this is given in Appendix C, Section C.2.) Then by Lemma 3.6 we obtain:
Ch[M
M({m,k,l}(n))
] =
1
1
_
_
(b 1)
l
(a 1) + (b )
l
(1 a)
_
(c 1)
m
1
_
n
1
1
_
_
(b 1)
l
(a ) + (b )
l
( a)
_
(c )
m
1
_
n
Setting n
a
= k, n
b
= 1 and n
c
= 1, by Theorem 3.2 we have the Tutte
polynomial for the associated graph of M({m, k, l}(n)):
T[G
M({m,k,l}(n))
] =
(1)
(l+m+1)n
(1 x)
(l+m+1)n
(1 y)
n+1
__
((x 1)
l
(x
k
(x +y xy) 1) (xy y)
l
(x
k
1))(x 1)
m
_
n
(x +y xy)
_
((x 1)
l
(x
k
1)(x +y xy) (xy y)
l
(x
k
(x +y xy)))(xy y)
m
_
n
_
By inspection of the link diagram we can see that a = kn+2 and
b = (l+m)n.
Then by Theorem 3.1 we have
V
M({m,k,l}(n))
=
(1)
(l+m)n++1
t
(l+mk)n2+3w
4
t
mn
(t + 1)
(l+2)n+1
__
((t 1)
l
(A+t) (1 +t
1
)
l
(B +t))(t)
m
_
n
(t
2
+t + 1)
+t
_
(t 1)
l
(At
2
t 1) (1 +t
1
)
l
(B t
2
t 1)
_
n
_
(6.2)
with A = (t)
k+2
(t)
k+1
+ (t)
k
and B = (t)
k+1
. Where w depends
on the signs of l, k and n, and the orientation given to the components of
the link.
33
Chapter 7
Zeros of the Jones
Polynomial
As discussed in Chapter 2, the link between the Jones polynomial and the
Potts model partition function (and the importance of zeros of partition
functions to thermodynamic properties) motivates us to study zeros of Jones
polynomials. In particular we wish to nd the accumulation sets of zeros for
families of links as the number of crossings tends to ininity. In this chapter
we will use the general expressions for Jones polynomials found in Chapters
4, 5 and 6 to nd some of these accumulation sets.
Whilst the Jones polynomial is not a true polynomial it can always be ex
pressed as a polynomial in t multiplied by some factor [5], so we are justied
in nding zeros [18]. We will only consider the nonzero zeros of Jones poly
nomials (so we can assume t = 0 in our calculations) and our plots will
also not include any t = 0 solutions to numerical examples. Also, since
the Jones polyomial of a knot does not depend on orientation [2] and the
Jones polynomials of links only dierer by a factor of t
a
(for some integer a)
for dierent orientations [16], we do not need to consider orientation when
nding zeros in this chapter.
7.1 General Knots and Links
The Jones polynomial has the property [6]
V
L
(e
2i
3
) = (1)
n1
34
where L is a link of n components. This suggests that generally V
L
(t) may
have zeros near t = e
2i
3
[15]. For knots (where n = 1) the Jones polynomial
has the property [6]
V
K
(t) = 1 (1 t)
_
1 t
3
_
W
K
(t)
where W
K
(t) is a Laurent polnomial. So V
K
(t) has zeros approaching t =
e
2i
3
as the (minimum) number of crossings tends to innity [14] [15]. This
can be seen in the plots of zeros for particular knots and links given in this
chapter.
7.2 Torus Links
7.2.1 Torus Knots
It is shown in [14] that the zeros of T(p, q) are distributed uniformly on
the unit circle t = 1 as q for any (xed) p. An example with p = 2
is given in Figure 7.1 and with p = 5 in Figure 7.2.
7.2.2 (2, q) Torus Links
Equating equation 4.2 to zero and rearranging (and we assume t = 0), we
obtain
(t)
q
=
t
2
+t + 1
t
.
Taking the q
th
root, gives us
t
t
2
+t + 1
t
1
q
, = 1, 2, ..., n,
with = e
2i
n
. Now as q we have t
n
. So the zeros of V
T(2,q)
are distributed on the unit circle as q . A numerical example (with
q = 40) and the unit circle are shown in Figure 7.3.
7.2.3 (3, q) Torus Links
T(3, q) is a link of more than one component when q 0 (mod 3). Equating
the relevant part of equation 4.3 to zero and rearranging (and we assume
t = 0), we obtain
t
q
=
t t
1
2
.
35
Taking the q
th
root, gives us
t
t +t
1
2
1
q
, = 1, 2, ..., n,
with = e
2i
n
. Now as q we have t
n
. So the zeros of a link
V
T(3,q)
are distributed on the unit circle as q . A numerical example
(with q = 36) and the unit circle are shown in Figure 7.4.
Figure 7.1: Zeros of V
T(2,29)
and of
V
T(p,q)
as q for any xed p
Figure 7.2: Zeros of V
T(5,32)
and of
V
T(p,q)
as q for any xed p
Figure 7.3: Zeros of V
T(2,q)
with
q = 40 as q
Figure 7.4: Zeros of V
T(3,q)
with
q = 36 and as q
36
7.3 Pretzel Links
7.3.1 (k(n)) Pretzel Links
Equating the numerator of equation 5.1 to zero and rearranging (and we
assume t = 0), we obtain
_
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
(t)
k
1
_
n
= (t + 1 +t
1
) .
Taking the n
th
root and n , we obtain the set
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
 = (t)
k
1
on which the zeros of V
P(k(n))
are distributed as n . An example of the
curves in the complex plane given by the set with k = 4 is given in Figure
7.5 and with k = 5 in Figure 7.6.
Figure 7.5: Zeros of V
P(4(n))
with
n = 20 and as n
Figure 7.6: Zeros of V
P(5(n))
with
n = 20 and as n
7.3.2 (k(1), l(n 1)) Pretzel Links
Equating the numerator of equation 5.2 to zero and rearranging (and we
assume t = 0), we obtain
_
(t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
(t)
l
1
_
n1
=
((t)
k
1)(t + 1 +t
1
)
(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
.
37
Taking the (n 1)
th
root and n , we obtain the set
(t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
 = (t)
l
1
on which the zeros of V
P(k(1),l(n1))
are distributed as n . This result
is identical to that for (l(n)) pretzel links, found in the previous section.
7.3.3 (k(n), l(n)) Pretzel Links
Equating the numerator of equation 5.3 to zero and rearranging (and we
assume t = 0), we obtain
_
((t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
)((t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
)
((t)
l
1)((t)
k
1)
_
n
= (t + 1 +t
1
) .
Taking the n
th
root and n , we obtain the set
[(t)
k
+t + 1 +t
1
][(t)
l
+t + 1 +t
1
] = [(t)
k
1)][(t)
l
1]
on which the zeros of V
P(k(n),l(n))
are distributed as n . An example
with k = 2 and l = 4 is given in Figure 7.7 and with k = 4 and l = 5 in
Figure 7.8.
Figure 7.7: Zeros of V
P(2(n),4(n))
with n = 10 and as n
Figure 7.8: Zeros of V
P(4(n),5(n))
with n = 10 and as n
38
7.4 Montesinos Links
7.4.1 ({k, l}(n)) Montesinos Links
Equating the numerator of equation 6.1 to zero and rearranging (and we
assume t = 0), we obtain
_
(t 1)
l
(A+t) (1 +t
1
)(B +t)
(t 1)
l
(At
2
t 1) (1 +t
1
)(B t
2
t 1)
_
n
=
t
t
2
+t + 1
.
with A = (t)
k+2
(t)
k+1
+(t)
k
and B = (t)
k+1
. Taking the n
th
root
and n , we obtain the set
(t1)
l
(A+t)(1+t
1
)(B+t) = (t1)
l
(At
2
t1)(1+t
1
)(Bt
2
t1) .
Dividing by (1 +t
1
) we obtain the set
(t)
l
[A+t] [B +t] = (t)
l
[At
2
t 1] [B t
2
t 1]
on which the zeros of M({k, l}(n)) are distributed as n . An example
with l = 2 and k = 3 is given in Figure 7.9 and with l = 4 and k = 5 in
Figure 7.10.
Figure 7.9: Zeros of V
M({3,2}(n))
with n = 15 and as n
Figure 7.10: Zeros of V
M({5,4}(n))
with n = 10 and as n
39
7.4.2 ({m, k, l}(n)) Montesinos Links
Equating the numerator of equation 6.2 to zero and rearranging (and we
assume t = 0), we obtain
_
((t 1)
l
(A+t) (1 +t
1
)(B +t))(t)
m
(t 1)
l
(At
2
t 1) (1 +t
1
)(B t
2
t 1)
_
n
=
t
t
2
+t + 1
.
with A = (t)
k+2
(t)
k+1
+(t)
k
and B = (t)
k+1
. Taking the n
th
root
and n , we obtain the set
((t 1)
l
(A+t) (1 +t
1
)(B +t))(t)
m

= (t 1)
l
(At
2
t 1) (1 +t
1
)(B t
2
t 1) .
Dividing by (1 +t
1
) we obtain the set
(t)
m
((t)
l
[A+t] [B +t]) = (t)
l
[At
2
t 1] [B t
2
t 1]
on which the zeros of M({m, k, l}(n)) are distributed as n . An example
with l = 2, k = 3 and m = 2 is given in Figure 7.11 and with l = 2, k = 5
and m = 2 in Figure 7.12.
Figure 7.11: Zeros of V
M({2,3,2}(n))
with n = 10 and as n
Figure 7.12: Zeros of V
M({2,5,2}(n))
with n = 10 and as n
40
Chapter 8
Conclusion
After introducting the basic ideas of knot theory, we looked at the relation
between the Jones polynomial and the partition function of the Potts mdel.
This motivated us to continue the investigation of zeros of the Jones Polyno
mial. In particular, we found general expressions for the Jones polynomial
for families of links, so that we could nd accumulation sets of zeros of the
Jones polynomial as the number of crossings in the links tended to innity.
The work of Wu and Wang [14], Chang and Shrock [15] and Jin and Zhang
[16], [17] and [18], and this report concentrate on important families of
links: the torus links, the pretzel links and the Monesinos links. There
are still many links in these families whose Jones polynomials have not
been studied in this way, and future investigation into these is possible. In
particular, Montesinos knots containing more complex rational tangles and
even dierent rational tangles could be investigated.
41
Bibliography
[1] C.M. Livingston, Knot Theory, Math. Assoc. America, (1993).
[2] W.B.R. Lickorish, An Introduction to Knot Theory, Springer, (1997).
[3] C.A. Adams, The Knot Book : An Elementary Introduction to
the Mathematical Theory of Knots, American Mathematical Soci
ety, (2004).
[4] V. Manturov, Knot Theory, Chapman & Hall/CRC, (2004).
[5] V.F.R. Jones, A polynomial invariant for knots via Von Neumann
algebras,
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 12 (1987) 103111.
[6] V.F.R. Jones, Hecke algebra representations of braid groups and link
polynomials,
Annals of Mathematics, 126 (1987) 335388.
[7] L.H. Kauman, State models and the Jones polynomial,
Topology, 26 (1987) 395407.
[8] L. Beaudina, J. EllisMonaghanb, G. Pangbornc and R. Shrockd, A
little statistical mechanics for the graph theorist,
Discrete Mathematics, (2010).
[9] R.A. Landvoy, The Jones polynomial of pretzel knots and links,
Topology and its Applications, 83 (1998) 135147.
[10] Yoshihiro Hirata, Hisanori Naka and Yaichi Shinohara, On the Jones
polynomial for the torus links T
p,q
with p = 3,4,5,
Kwansei Gakuin University natural sciences review, 5 (2000) 116.
[11] Yaichi Shinohara and Kazunari Uetani, On the Jones Polynomial of
Pretzel Links,
Kwansei Gakuin University natural sciences review, 8 (2003) 116.
42
[12] C.N. Yang and T.D. Lee, Statistical Theory of Equations of State
and Phase Transitions. I. Theory of Condensation,
Physical Review, 87 (1952) 404409.
[13] C.N. Yang and T.D. Lee, Statistical Theory of Equations of State
and Phase Transitions. II. Lattice Gas and Ising Model,
Physical Review, 87 (1952) 410419.
[14] F.Y. Wu and J. Wang, Zeroes of the Jones polynomial,
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 296 (2001)
483494.
[15] S.C. Chang and R. Shrock, Zeros of Jones polynomials for families
of knots and links,
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 301 (2001)
196218.
[16] X. Jin and F. Zhang, Zeros of the Jones polynomials for families of
pretzel links,
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 328 (2003)
391408.
[17] X. Jin and F. Zhang, Jones polynomials and their zeros for a family
of links,
Physica A: Statistical and Theoretical Physics, 333 (2004) 183196.
[18] X. Jin, F. Zhang, F. Dong and E.G. Tay, On zeros of the Jones
polynomial,
http://59.77.1.114/Upload/le/bigFile/jxa/papers/zerosJones.pdf,
(2009).
[19] Ronald C. Read and Earl Glen Whitehead, Jr., Chromatic polyno
mials of homeomorphism classes of graphs,
Discrete Mathematics, 204 (1999) 337356.
[20] Ronald C. Read, Chain polynomials of graphs,
Discrete Mathematics, 265 (2003) 213235.
[21] L. Traldi, Chain polynomials and Tutte polynomials,
Discrete Mathematics, 248 (2002) 279282.
[22] J R. Goldman and L.H. Kauman, Rational Tangles,
Advances in Applied Mathematics, 18 (1997) 300332.
[23] KnotPlot 1.0, www.knotplot.com
[24] Adobe Illustrator 10
[25] Maple 12
43
Appendix A
A Knot Table
Figure A.1: A knot table
Figure A.1 is reproduced from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Knot_
table.svg (Author: Jkasd, 2008).
Figure A.1 is a table of the prime knots (not including mirror images) with
up to 7 crossings. The knots are labelled with the number of crossings, and
the subscript just denotes an order of the knots.
44
Appendix B
Jones Polynomial Results
B.1 Jones polynomials of T(2,1) and T(2,2)
Figure B.1: T(2, 2) Figure B.2: T(2, 1)
By Lemma 2.2 we have:
=A
3
= A
3
=A
3
= A
3
Then using the denition of the Kauman bracket:
=A +A
1
=A
_
A
3
_
+A
1
_
A
3
_
=A
4
A
4
The writhe of the oriented link is clear from the diagram:
w
_ _
= 2
45
So by the denition of the Jones polynomial via the Kauman bracket:
V
T(2,2)
= V
_ _
=
_
t
1
4
_
32
_
t
1
4
_
4
_
t
1
4
_
4
__
=t
3
2
_
t t
1
_
=t
1
2
t
5
2
(B.1)
By a Type I Reidemeister move on the diagram shown on Figure B.2 we can
easily see that T(2, 1) is equivalent to the unkot, so:
V
T(2,1)
= 1 (B.2)
B.2 Proof of equation 4.2
Proof. From equations B.1 and B.2 we can see that
V
T(2,2)
=t
1
2
t
5
2
= (1)
2+1
_
t
21
2
+
t
2+1
2
1 +t
((t)
2
+t)
_
and
V
T(2,1)
=1 = (1)
1+1
_
t
11
2
+
t
1+1
2
1 +t
((t)
1
+t)
_
.
Given the skein relation of the Jones polynomial, we have
(t
1
2
t
1
2
)V
T(2,q1)
= t
1
V
T(2,q)
tV
T(2,q2)
. (B.3)
Assume we have q 1 and q 2 such that
V
T(2,q1)
=(1)
(q1)+1
_
t
(q1)1
2
+
t
(q1)+1
2
1 +t
((t)
(q1)
+t)
_
and
V
T(2,q2)
=(1)
(q2)+1
_
t
(q2)1
2
+
t
(q2)+1
2
1 +t
((t)
(q2)
+t)
_
.
(B.4)
Then substituting B.4 into B.3 obtains
(t
1
2
t
1
2
)(1)
(q1)+1
_
t
(q1)1
2
+
t
(q1)+1
2
1 +t
((t)
(q1)
+t)
_
=t
1
V
T(2,q)
t(1)
(q2)+1
_
t
(q2)1
2
+
t
(q2)+1
2
1 +t
((t)
(q2)
+t)
_
46
V
T(2,q)
=t(1)
q
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q1
+t)
_
t(1)
q
_
t
q3
2
+
t
q1
2
1 +t
((t)
q1
+t)
_
+t(1)
q1
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q2
+t)
_
=(1)
q
_
t
q+1
2
+
t
q+3
2
1 +t
((t)
q1
+t)
_
(1)
q
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q1
+t)
_
(1)
q
_
t
q+1
2
+
t
q+3
2
1 +t
((t)
q2
+t)
_
=(1)
q
_
t
q1
2
+
1
1 +t
_
(t)
q1
t
q+3
2
+t
q+5
2
(t)
q1
t
q+1
2
t
q+3
2
(t)
q2
t
q+3
2
t
q+5
2
_
_
=(1)
q
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+3
2
1 +t
_
(t)
q1
1 (t)
q2
+ (t)
q2
_
_
=(1)
q
_
t
q1
2
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q
+t)
_
=(1)
q+1
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q
+t)
_
So, by induction,
V
T(2,q)
= (1)
q+1
_
t
q1
2
+
t
q+1
2
1 +t
((t)
q
+t)
_
for all q 1.
47
Appendix C
Chain Polynomial Results
This appendix will include calculations on Chain polynomials that are not
included in the main text.
C.1 Proof of Lemma 3.5
Proof. Let G
(k)
be the graph formed by inating k edges labelled z in G
1
by G
2
, so G
(n)
is G. We have
Ch[G
1
] =
n
i=0
c
i
z
i
=
_
n
i=1
c
i
z
i1
_
z +c
0
.
So by Lemma 3.4
Ch[G
(1)
] =
_
n
i=1
c
i
z
i1
_
P
A
c
0
=
_
n
i=2
c
i
z
i2
_
Pz +Pc
1
c
0
.
48
Then repeatedly applying Lemma 3.4 we obtain
Ch[G
(2)
] =
_
n
i=2
c
i
z
i2
_
P
2
_
Pc
1
c
0
_
=
_
n
i=3
c
i
z
i3
_
P
2
z +P
2
c
2
Pc
1
+
_
_
2
c
0
Ch[G
(3)
] =
_
n
i=3
c
i
z
i3
_
P
3
_
P
2
c
2
Pc
1
+
_
_
2
c
0
_
=
_
n
i=4
c
i
z
i4
_
P
3
z +P
3
c
3
P
2
c
2
+
_
_
2
Pc
1
+
_
_
3
c
0
.
.
.
Ch[G
(n
)] =P
n
c
n
+
_
_
P
n1
c
n1
+
_
_
2
P
n2
c
n2
+. . . +
_
_
n1
Pc
1
+
_
_
n
c
0
=
n
i=0
c
i
_
_
ni
P
i
.
C.2 Calculation of Some Chain Polynomials
b
a
c
d
e
f
Figure C.1: K
4
graph
a
c
d
Figure C.2: K
3
graph
The chain polynomial of the complete graph with 4 vertices, K
4
(labelled as
shown in Figure C.1), is given in [19] as
Ch[K
4
] =abcdef (adf +abc +bef +cde) (ae +bd +cf)
+ ( +
2
)(a +b +c +d +e +f) (2 + 3
2
+
3
) .
49
The complete graph with 3 vertices, K
3
(labelled as shown in Figure C.2),
can be formed from K
4
by removing edges b and e and contracting edge f.
So by Lemma 3.3 we obtain
Ch[K
3
] = acd . (C.1)
By equation 3.2 we also have
Ch
_
_
b c
_
_
=
1
1
_
(c )(b )
l
(c 1)(b 1)
l
_
=
c
1
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
+
1
1
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
(C.2)
where there are l edges labelled b.
Applying Lemma 3.4 to equations C.1 and C.2 (and relabelling d as z) we
obtain
Ch
_
_
a
z
b
_
_
=
za
1
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
()
1
1
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
=
za
1
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
+
1
1
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
(C.3)
where there are l edges labelled b.
By equation 3.1 we have
Ch
_
_ c z z
_
_
=
1
1
[(c )
m
(z )
2
(c 1)
m
(z 1)
2
] (C.4)
where there are m edges labelled c. Aplying Lemma 3.4 to equations C.3
50
and C.4 we obtain
Ch
_
_
a
z
b
c
_
_
=
z
(1 )
2
_
a
_
(b )
l
(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c )
m
)
+
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
_
+
1
(1 )
2
_
(b )
l
+(b 1)
l
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
1
(1 )
2
_
(1 +)((b )
l
+(b 1)
l
)
a((b )
l
(b 1)
l
)
_
((c )
m
(c 1)
m
)
where there are l edges labelled b and m edges labelled c.
51