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Papacostas and Prevedouros, TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND PLANNING 3 edition print 1 and 2 Corrections, additions and clarifications May

May 2002

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p. 23

left hand side of the equation at the bottom.

It reads: W sin + fs W cos + Wv /gR = It should read: W sin + fs N =

p. 24, first line. It reads: Dividing both sides by W cos yields It should read: Substituting for N and dividing both sides by W cos yields p. 37, last line. It reads: and 25th... It should read:. and 15th... p. 52, 3 para. It reads: and the rest of the curve... It should read:. and the rest on the curve... p. 61, last equation for M: 28.656 should be 28.65 S p. 153-156 A number of corrections, additions and clarifications were made. Please see page 2 of this handout.
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p. 184 Eq. 4.7.8: 144 should be 14.4. p. 185 Eq. 4.7.14: FLT = . Should be lower case f. p. 192 Table 4.7.4.1. A small error has propagated through the table. The corrected table is in page 5 of this handout. p. 195 Table 4.7.4.2. A small error has propagated through the table. The corrected table is in page 6 of this handout. p. 210 The denominator in Eq. 4.9.3 should have minus instead of plus: 1 e . p. 212 The last coefficient in Eq. 4.9.7 should be 300 instead of 600. p. 220 Exercise 1 requires pedestrian LOS which is not shown in the book but can be taken from HCM2000. p. 221 Exercise 15. Add to the last senstence: Assess the LOS of this plan for PHF=0.90. p. 223 Exercise 23. The years in the last three columns should not be crossed out. p. 229 Reference 4.2: year is 1994 instead of 1997 p. 284 A divider line between User Services 1.9 and 1.10 has been misplaced. p. 285 A separating line is missing between User Services 6.6 and 6.7. p. 289 Figure 6.5.2, text under ITS EQUIPMENT: fields should be field. p. 494 Exercise 7: Hint: The equilibrium volumes are A+B+C= 300+370+830. Prove it! p. 494 Exercise 6, data box. Replace from east and from west with eastbound and westbound, respectively. p. 614 The denominator of Eq. 14.2.6b should be x! instead of N!
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Changes to section 4.5.4 changes are highlighted As mentioned earlier, density is the measure of effectiveness that primarily determines the level of service of basic freeway segments (pipelines) as well as extended freeway segments. In the later applications, approximations of terrain and interruptions by interchanges (on- and off-ramps) are made. Once density is known, the LOS is determined based on the ranges in Table 4.5.1. Density is estimated as follows: (4.5.2) where, Vp = flow rate in pc/h/ln and is estimated with Eq. 4.5.3 S = average passenger car speed in mi/h derived from Exhibit 23-3 in HCM 2000 or with Eq. 4.5.7 (4.5.3) where, V = volume in veh/h PHF = peak hour factor N = number of lanes fHV = heavy vehicle factor and estimated with Eq. 4.5.4. Note that unlike earlier versions, HCM 2000 combines trucks and buses because there was evidence that they do not perform differently in freeway traffic (ET = EB). fdp = driver population factor; it ranges from 1 which corresponds to all-commuter motorists on the freeway (high familiarity) to 0.85 in the presence of many unfamiliar motorists such as tourists and travelers. [Revised Table 4.5.1 is included below. The spacing between rows has been corrected and values have been updated.]

TABLE 4.5.1 Freeway Segment LOS


Level of Service Free Flow Speed (mph) Criteria Density range (pc/mi/ln) Minimum speed (mph) Maximum Saturation (V/c) Maximum Flow Rate (pc/h/ln) Minimum speed (mph) Maximum Saturation (V/c) Maximum Flow Rate (pc/h/ln) A 0 11 55 0.27 600 70 0.32 770 B >11 18 55 0.44 990 70 0.53 1260 C >18 26 55 0.64 1430 68.2 0.74 1770 D >26 35 54.7 0.85 1910 61.5 0.90 2150 E > 35 45 50 1 2250 53.3 1 2400

55

70

Source: Transportation Research Board, HCM 2000

(4.5.4) where, PT = proportion of trucks and buses in traffic PR = proportion of recreational vehicles in traffic ET = passenger car equivalent for trucks and buses ER = passenger car equivalent for recreational vehicles

For specific basic (pipeline) segments one should refer to HCM 2000 tables for deriving passenger car equivalencies based on length of segment, up or downhill grade and percentage of heavy vehicle traffic. For extended freeway segments, the HCM includes the following simple passenger car equivalencies: FACTOR ET ER LEVEL TERRAIN 1.5 1.2 ROLLING TERRAIN 3.0 2.0 MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN 6.0 4.0

At this point, Vp can be estimated for subsequent use in Eq. 4.5.2. Next step is the estimation of the mean freeflow speed which also can be estimated in the field by collecting speed samples under free-flow conditions (i.e., LOS A or B.) One should be careful to not bias the speed data collection process by causing rubbernecking (e.g., highly visible crew on an overpass), lateral displacement (e.g., vehicle or observer on the shoulder) or use of radar/laser speed measuring equipment (which can be detected by in-vehicle devices.) All these introduce a downward bias to the speed sample. Alternatively, the mean free-flow speed can be estimated as follows: (4.5.5) where, FSS = mean free-flow speed in mph (shown as S in Eq. 4.5.2) BFSS = base free-flow speed, typically 70 mph (110 km/h) for urban freeways fLW = adjustment for lane width shorter than 12 ft fLC = adjustment for lateral clearance shorter than 6 ft on the right side fN = is an adjustment for less fewer than 5 lanes per direction on urban freeways fACCESS = adjustment for the density of interchanges per mile Factors fLW , fLC, fN and fACCESS can be estimated with the use of Tables in HCM 2000. Alternatively, these factors can be described by simple equations which, if substituted in Eq. 4.5.5, result in the following comprehensive equation: FSS = BFFS 1.8 1.9 x (12 W) (2.4 0.4 x LC) (7.5 1,5 x N) 2.5 + 5 x ACCESS where, W = lane width (10 or 11 ft) LC = lateral clearance (from 0 to 6 ft along 3-lane freeways; see HCM 2000 for N > 3) N = number of lanes per direction (2, 3, 4 or 5, use 5 if N > 5) ACCESS = number of interchanges per mile (from 0 to 2) With FSS on hand from Eq. 4.5.6 or from field measurements, the average passenger car speed S is derived from Exhibit 23-3 in HCM 2000 or from the following equation for 55 FSS 75 mi/h: if Vp 1,750 pc/h/ln S = FFS 7 FFS 340 Vp + 30 FFS -3400 2.6 if 1,750 < Vp 2400 S = FFS [(------------------) (---------------------------) ] 9 40 FFS 1700 S is used in Eq. 4.5.2 for the estimation of density and the determination of level of service. (4.5.7) (4.5.6)

Example 4.5 LOS Estimation An extended urban freeway segment with largely level terrain has an observed free-flow speed of approximately 110 km/h, 3 three 11 ft wide lanes per direction, 3 ft lateral clearance and about 1 interchange per mile. It has an 3

observed volume of 3,080 vph with corresponding PHF = 0.88 and 154 trucks and buses, and no recreational vehicles. An all-commuter motorist composition may be assumed. Estimate the LOS for this set of conditions. Solution Given the level terrain and 5% trucks and buses, first we apply Eq. 4.5.4: 1 fHV = --------------------------- = 0.976 1 + 0.05 (1.5 1) Then, we apply Eq. 4.5.3 to estimate VP: 3080 VP = ----------------------------------- = 1,195 pc/h 0.88 x 3 x 0.976 x 1 Estimation of the mean free-flow speed FFS with Eq. 4.5.6 is the next step; we employ Eq. 4.5.6: S = 70 5.48 3.1x(12-11) FSS = 70 1.9x(12-11)
1.8 1.77

+ 0.4x3 + 1.5x3 8.45x1 = 58.7 mph

(2.40.4x0.3) (7.5 1.5x3) + (2.5 1.5x1) = 64.9 mi/h

The average passenger car speed can be estimated with Eq. 4.5.7. In this case, Vp 1,750, so S = FFS. LOS is dermined by estimating density with Eq. 4.5.2: D = 1,195 64.9 = 18.4 pc/h/ln Referring to Table 4.5.1 we conclude that under this set of conditions the LOS is C. 4.5.5 Freeway Congestion Quantification ... ... ... SPH = 91.4 2.0 ADT 2.85 ACCESS [correction to last digit of equation numbering only] (4.5.8)

TABLE 4.7.4.1a. F I E L D D A T A Approach Movmt. V % HV width slope park bus/hr peds % turn 1 NB TH+RT 279 2 11 3.6% N N 140 33 2 SB TH+RT 249 3.5 11 -3.6% N N 120 15 3 EB TH+RT 716 8 10 0% 30 25 75 20 11 4 WB TH+RT 857 5 10 0% 30 18 90 Note: Pedestrians: 140 on the north side crosswalk, 120 on the south side crosswalk, etc.

TABLE 4.7.4.1b. S A T U R A T I O N so Approach Movmt. 1 NB TH+RT 1900 2 SB TH+RT 1900 3 EB TH+RT 1900 4 WB TH+RT 1900

FLOWS & FLOW RATIOS N w a HV g P 1 0.967 0.9 0.980 0.982 1 1 0.967 0.9 0.966 1.018 1 2 0.933 0.9 0.926 1 0.875 2 0.933 0.9 0.952 1 0.875

bb 1 1 0.950 0.964

RT 0.855 0.880 0.970 0.979

LT 1 1 1 1

pb 0.993 0.996 0.988 0.992

s 1350 1425 2353 2491

V/s 0.207 0.175 0.304 0.344

crit? 1 0 0 1

TABLE 4.7.4.1c. S I G N A L T I M I N G S Approach Movmt. a 1 NB TH+RT 1.0 10 2 SB TH+RT 1.0 10 3 EB TH+RT 1.0 10 4 WB TH+RT 1.0 10

speed G 32 32 32 32 g 0.036 -0.036 0 0 mph 30.1 33.4 39.7 41.0


V /s crit. 0.207 0.344

ft/sec 44.1 49.0 58.2 60.1 avail. time 27.4 27.4

Y 3.0 3.8 3.9 4.0 initial g 10.3 17.1 38

W 55.0 55.0 30.0 30.0

L 20 20 20 20

AR 1.7 1.5 0.9 0.8 next g 15.2 25.4 51

Y+AR 4.7 5.3 4.8 4.8

final Y+AR 5.5 5.5 4.9 4.9 final g 15.2 25.4 51.0

Y 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0

AR 1.7 1.7 0.9 0.9

Phase A B CS = Co =

Gp 15.0 7.6

check NOT OK

check OK OK

0.551 37.8

TABLE 4.7.4.1d. C A P A C I T Y A N A L Y S I S Va Approach Movmt. V PHF 1 NB TH+RT 279 0.90 310 2 SB TH+RT 249 0.90 277 3 EB TH+RT 716 0.90 796 4 WB TH+RT 857 0.90 952

g 15.2 15.2 25.4 25.4 for L=

C 51 51 51 51 8

/C 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50

c 403 426 1171 1239

X=V/c 0.77 0.65 0.68 0.77

PHF*X 0.69 0.59 0.61 0.69

X c = 65.3%

TABLE 4.7.4.1e. L E V E L Approach Movmt. 1 NB TH+RT 2 SB TH+RT 3 EB TH+RT 4 WB TH+RT

OF SERVICE D1 D2 k 16.3 15.6 9.7 10.4 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 13.2 7.5 3.2 4.6

Approach PF 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 delay 29.4 23.1 12.9 15.0 LOS C C B B delay 29.4 23.1 12.9 15.0 LOS C C B B

Intersection delay 17.2 LOS B

TABLE 4.7.4.2a. F I E L D D A T A 15-minute volumes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Movmt. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 % HV slope park bus LT 38 42 39 37 0 NB TH 124 137 141 133 4 3% N 10 RT 223 208 187 195 2.5 /hr SB LT 55 58 47 49 0.5 -3% N N TH+RT 188 192 166 147 2 EB TH+RT 66 73 68 70 2 0% N N TH+LT 37 33 51 26 3 WB TH+RT 74 78 69 66 1 0% Y 10 TH+LT 81 97 84 75 0 /hr Note: Pedestrians: 225 on the north side crosswalk, 153 on the south side crosswalk, etc. Appr. peds % turn 100 225 0 100 153 100 4 57 85 75 144 92 27 V 156 535 813 209 693 277 147 287 337

TABLE 4.7.4.2b. S A T U R A T I O N F L O W S & F L O W R A T I O S so Appr. Movmt. N w a HV g P 1 LT 1900 1 1 1 1 0.985 1 2 NB TH 1900 2 1 1 0.962 0.985 1 3 RT 1900 2 1 1 0.976 0.985 1 4 SB LT 1900 1 1 1 0.995 1.015 1 5 TH+RT 1900 2 1 1 0.980 1.015 1 6 EB TH+RT 1900 1 0.933 1 0.980 1 1 7 TH+LT 1900 1 0.933 1 0.971 1 1 8 WB TH+RT 1900 1 1 1 0.990 1 0.900 9 TH+LT 1900 1 1 1 1 1 0.900 TABLE 4.7.4.2c. S I G N A L T I M I N G S Phase initial A 0.088 B 0.115 C 0.187 D 0.226 E 0.190 CS = Co = TABLE 4.7.4.2d. C A P A C I T Y Appr. Movmt. V 1 LT 156 2 NB TH 535 3 RT 813 4 SB LT 209 5 TH+RT 693 6 EB TH+RT 277 7 TH+LT 147 8 WB TH+RT 287 9 TH+LT 337 ANALYSIS Va PHF 0.93 168 0.95 564 0.91 892 0.90 232 0.90 768 0.95 292 0.72 204 0.92 312 0.87 388 0.806 180 /s adj.1 0.088 0.027 0.160 0.226 0.190 0.691 113
V

bb 1 0.980 1 1 1 1 1 0.960 1 avail. time 72 72 72 72 72

RT 1 1 0.850 1 0.991 0.849 1 0.799 1 initial g 9.9 -1.9 17.0 25.3 21.4

LT 0.950 1 1 0.950 1 1 0.964 1 0.987

pb 1 1 1 1 0.987 0.986 1 0.980 1

s 1778 3527 3104 1823 3699 1456 1659 1272 1687 final g 9.9 -1.9 17.0 25.3 21.4 97

V /s 0.088 0.152 0.262 0.115 0.187 0.190 0.089 0.226 0.200

crit? 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

adj.2 0.088 -0.017 0.152 0.226 0.190 0.638 97

Gp 14.0 20.0 20.0

check N.A. N.A. OK OK OK

g 9.9 17.0 47.4 12.9 20.1 21.4 21.4 25.3 25.3 for L=

C 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 20

g /C 0.10 0.18 0.49 0.13 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.26 0.26

c 181 622 1521 244 769 322 367 334 442

X=V/c 0.93 0.91 0.59 0.95 1.00 0.91 0.56 0.94 0.88

PHF*X 0.86 0.86 0.53 0.86 0.90 0.86 0.40 0.86 0.76

X c = 80.4% Appr. delay 39.1 Inters. delay

TABLE 4.7.4.2e. L E V E L O F S E R V I C E D1 D2 Appr. Movmt. k 1 LT 43.0 0.44 46.3 2 NB TH 39.0 0.43 17.1 17.6 0.18 0.6 3 RT 4 SB LT 41.6 0.46 44.5 5 TH+RT 38.3 0.50 32.0 6 EB TH+RT 36.7 0.43 28.0 33.4 0.15 1.9 7 TH+LT 35.7 8 WB TH+RT 0.45 32.9 34.2 0.40 17.8 9 TH+LT

PF 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

delay 89.3 56.2 18.2 86.0 70.3 64.7 35.3 68.6 51.9

LOS F E B F E E D E E

LOS D

73.9 54.5 59.6

E D E

53.8 D