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Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Overview

Nathan Ryder

Knot Theory

Knot theory is about developing tools for distinguishing knotted curves. Fundamentally, we are looking for invariants of diagrams of knots. These take dierent forms, from simple observations of diagrams, to considering homologies or group structures generated by the knots, to polynomials.

Nathan Ryder

This Talk

We will consider two of these knot polynomials: The Kauman two-variable polynomial The HOMFLY polynomial We will look at how they can be calculated, some properties that we can deduce from the polynomials, and some extensions to the method that I outline.

Nathan Ryder

Skein relations

For a diagram D the Kauman two-variable polynomial, F (D) can be dened by the following skein relations:

z v

z v1

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

Braid

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

A k-plait has k caps at the top, and k cups at the bottom. Braid in between is from the braid group B2k .

Nathan Ryder

Plait Presentation

A k-plait has k caps at the top, and k cups at the bottom. Braid in between is from the braid group B2k . k is the bridge number of the diagram.

Nathan Ryder

k-Tangles

We have 2k endpoints along a line, and k arcs that join pairs of endpoints. The arcs lie without any restriction in the half plane.

Nathan Ryder

Motivation

Nathan Ryder

Motivation

Nathan Ryder

Motivation

Nathan Ryder

Motivation

Nathan Ryder

Motivation

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

As before, 2k endpoints and k arcs, but with the restriction that arcs cannot wind around each other, i.e., they dont link.

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

As before, 2k endpoints and k arcs, but with the restriction that arcs cannot wind around each other, i.e., they dont link.

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

As before, 2k endpoints and k arcs, but with the restriction that arcs cannot wind around each other, i.e., they dont link.

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

3 1 2 4

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

2 1

1 2 3 1

3

4 3 2

4

4

Nathan Ryder

Stacked k-Tangles

2 1

1 2 3 1

3

4 3 2

4

4

Nathan Ryder

We want to multiply stacked tangles by crossings from beneath, with the restriction that stacked tangles multiply to stacked tangles.

Nathan Ryder

We want to multiply stacked tangles by crossings from beneath, with the restriction that stacked tangles multiply to stacked tangles.

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

We want to multiply stacked tangles by crossings from beneath, with the restriction that stacked tangles multiply to stacked tangles.

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

We want to multiply stacked tangles by crossings from beneath, with the restriction that stacked tangles multiply to stacked tangles.

Nathan Ryder

We want to multiply stacked tangles by crossings from beneath, with the restriction that stacked tangles multiply to stacked tangles.

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

2 1 3 4

Nathan Ryder

Question: What are we to do if a stacked tangle does not multiply to another stacked tangle due to the action of a certain crossing? Answer: Use the Kauman skein relations to rewrite it as a linear combination of stacked tangles that will all allow the multiplication. We do this in the context of the number sequences that describe the tangles.

Nathan Ryder

We can see that arcs 1 and 2 in diagrams are related by (2121) (1212) = z(1122) z(1221) For adjacent arcs a and b (with b = a + 1) this is realised as (baba) (abab) = z(aabb) z(abba) Note that (aabb) (bbaa) and (abba) (baab). = =

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

(12214334) = (

4334)

Nathan Ryder

(12214334) = (21124334)

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

Nathan Ryder

(12214334) = (21124334) (12314234) = (21324134) z(11324234) + z(21314234) (12314324) = (21324314) z(11324324) + z(21314324)

Nathan Ryder

So (13214324) = (21324134) z(11324234) + z(21314234) +z(21124334) z(21324314) +z 2 (11324324) z 2 (21314324) Now, multiplying by 1 :

Nathan Ryder

(13214324)1 = (21324134)1 z(11324234)1 + z(21314234)1 +z(21124334)1 z(21324314)1 +z 2 (11324324)1 z 2 (21314324)1 = (12324134) vz(11324234) + z(12314234) +z(12124334) z(12324314) +vz 2 (11324324) z 2 (12314324)

Nathan Ryder

The Algorithm

Put diagram into plait presentation In general, at each stage rewrite so that we have a linear combination of tangles that all allow multiplication Perform multiplication, which is essentially just a case of moving coecients At the bottom we close o to (k 1)-tangles, and then repeat until we have a 1-tangle whose coecient is the Kauman polynomial of the knot

Nathan Ryder

(2k)! 2k

Unlike previous algorithms there is a strict bound on the number of diagrams considered, so not exponential in that respect - but only for a xed k Talk more on complexity and other results later

Nathan Ryder

Skein relations

Unlike the Kauman two-variable polynomial, HOMFLY is a polynomial for an oriented knot diagram.

v 1

Nathan Ryder

There are other algorithms that calculate HOMFLY and which are polynomial However these are concerned with other families of knots The intersection of these families with the plaits is small The algorithm that I outline can calculate much that previous algorithms could not

Nathan Ryder

We now have to consider stacked tangles which carry orientation information. We provide an ordering for the arcs as before, but number the endpoints a and a. Hence

has a numbering (1 2 314324), and this is distinct from (12 3 1 4324). We now have (2k)! number sequences rather than (2k)!/2k .

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

Nathan Ryder

Consider:

z

Logically the only sequences that can be included in rewriting at any stage will belong to the subset of the number sequences that share the same signs of endpoints. Hence we are back to considering (2k)!/2k number sequences, with a separate sequence of length 2k which carries the sign information.

Nathan Ryder

Algorithm

Put diagram into plait presentation, so that initial tangle can be represented by the sequence (1 12 2 . . . k k) At each stage rewrite so that we have a linear combination of tangles that all allow multiplication Decision for rearrangement depends on numbering in the rst instance, and then a check on the sign sequence to determine the exact nature of rearrangement Move coecients around with multiplication, and then switch relevant signs in the sign sequence Close o to (k 1)-tangles as previously, repeating until we have the 1-tangle whose coecient is the HOMFLY polynomial of the knot

Nathan Ryder

Complexity: Kauman

In the case of the Kauman polynomial we previously had an exponential algorithm, which we certainly dont have any more. There are a nite number of stacked k-tangles, and so there is a bound on the number of diagrams which we consider as number sequences. The growth of coecients is not exponential - it is denitely quadratic.

Nathan Ryder

Complexity: Kauman

Believe that the complete algorithm is degree 4 with respect to c for a xed k. Some worst case scenario calculations support this. There is a strict maximum number of rearrangements that can be required for a xed k. This suggests computation time would increase cubically after a certain point.

Nathan Ryder

Complexity: HOMFLY

By similar arguments we can claim that the algorithm for calculating HOMFLY is not exponential either. We expect that the order of complexity is similar, but it is also obvious that less work is performed in the HOMFLY algorithm. In practice an implementation of the HOMFLY algorithm will calculate the invariant more quickly than an implementation of the Kauman algorithm. In both cases, the complexity would be reduced drastically if we calculated coecients mod p for some prime p.

Nathan Ryder

Calculations

Kauman program tested on 3-plaits with 90 crossings and 4-plaits with 70 crossings. HOMFLY program tested on 3-plaits with over 200 crossings and 4-plaits with 160 crossings. Previous HOMFLY programs could cope with signicantly fewer crossings. These programs worked from the braid presentation of a knot, with a strict limit on the number of strings that could be used. New algorithm has calculated HOMFLY polynomial for knots with signicantly higher braid index than possible before.

Nathan Ryder

Limitations

In both cases have looked at calculations with k = 4 at most. In calculations the Kauman program takes signicantly longer to perform calculations than the HOMFLY program. Expected, but surprising just how much of a dierence there is. Limitations on both, with respect to c and k could be lifted by implementing in a compiled language.

Nathan Ryder

Further Calculations

Looking for interesting examples, a family or class of knots either Interesting to study Previously out of reach Would be interesting to look at HOMFLY 3-parallels of 2-plaits, but these are beyond the reach of the Maple implementation.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Implementation in a compiled language for both algorithms would allow Greater values of k: k = 6 should be feasible. Higher values for c due to better control of coecient storage in memory.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Local versus Global width is something that could be interesting to look at.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Local versus Global width is something that could be interesting to look at.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Local versus Global width is something that could be interesting to look at.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Local versus Global width is something that could be interesting to look at.

If an implementation could allow for this information we could have signicant reductions of work in some cases.

Nathan Ryder

Extensions

Could the basic idea of the algorithm be improved? |{number sequences}| > |{stacked k-tangles}| > |{basis of stacked k-tangles}| Using multiple bases? Not obvious that either approach would in principle do anything more than make the situation more complicated!

Nathan Ryder

Summary

Outlined methods for calculating the Kauman and HOMFLY polynomials of knots using stacked k-tangles These methods are an improvement on previous algorithms, as they work in polynomial time with respect to c for a xed k Using implementations of these algorithms we can calculate invariants for knots that were not previously possible

Nathan Ryder

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