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# PHSCS 651

HW # 1

9/5/11

Matt Zachreson

Exercise 1.2
Assuming that the electron moves in a circular orbit in a Coulomb eld, derive the Balmer formula for the spectrum of hydrogenic atoms from the quantum condition pi dqi = ni h and the Bohr formula E = h When taken in radial coordinates, pi is constant therefore: pi dqi = p That gives allowed radii of: n h me v To nd v we can set the centripetal force equal to the Coulomb force: r= me v 2 ke e2 = 2 r r Plugging in r and solving for v gives: ve = ke e2 n h rd = 2pr = 2me vr = nh

Now using classical kinetic energy and the Bohr Formula: 1 2 2 E = h = me v2 v1 2 Now plugging in v and using h = c1 we get the equation that gives the Balmer series for n1 = 2: me (ke e)2 1 1 1 = 2 2 2 n2 n1 c h

Exercise 1.3
Compare the behavior of de Broglie waves for particles of mass m with the changes that the wavelength and frequency of light undergo as we look at a plane electromagnetic wave from a moving frame of reference. Non-relativistic

## For the inertial observer: = For the non inertial observer:

h p

p = p mv = h h = = p p mv

The non-relativistic case presents a paradox. Relativistic Since is a length, we can use standard length contraction. Therefore between reference frames: = Momentum between reference frames is given by: p = p Therefore: = h h = = p p

So there is no contradiction when the equation is looked at relativistically. Since = , will also work in the relativistic case and not work in the non-relativistic c case.

Chapter 1: Problem 1
To what velocity would an electron (neutron) have to be slowed down, if its wavelength is to be 1 meter? Are matter waves of macroscopic dimensions a real possibility? Using the de Broglie wavelength equation and classical momentum, p = mv, gives: = Solving for v gives: h m Plugging in the proper masses and h gives v = 7.27 104 m/s for an electron and v = 3.96 107 m/s for a neutron. v= h mv

Chapter 1: Problem 2
For the observation of quantum mechanical Bose-Einstein condensation, the inter-particle distance in a gas of noninteracting atoms must be comparable to the de Broglie wavelength, or less. How high a particle density is needed to achieve these conditions if the atoms have a mass number A=100 and are at a temperature of 100 nanokelvin We can get the velocity of the particles through: 3 1 E = kT = mv 2 2 2 v= The number density will therefore be: 1 mv n= 3 = h
3

3kT m
3 2

3mkT h2

3 2

= 1.96 1010 m3