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Manuel V. Gallego Foundation Colleges, Inc.

Cabanatuan City Institute of Graduate Studies 16 July 2011 I. II. III. Review of the previous lesson (10 minutes) Processing of the Assignment (10minutes ) Lecture Discussion (40minutes )

The Concept of Concept

INTRODUCTION Concept are terms that refer to phenomena that occur in nature or in thought. They maybe abstract (e.g, hope, love, desire) or relatively concrete (e.g. airplane, body temperature, pain ). Or can be a word (e.g. grief, empathy, power, pain) two words ( e.g. job satisfaction, need fulfillment, role strain), or a phrase ( e.g. maternal role attachment, biomarkers of preterm labor, health- promoting behaviors). Finally, when they are operationalized, concepts become variables used in hypotheses to be tested in research. CONCEPT: Abstract term derived from particular attributes ( KERLINGER, 1986) Symbolic statement describing a phenomenon or a class of phenomena (KIM, 2000) Are formulated in words that enable people to communicate their meanings about realities in the world (PARSE, 1999) Given meaning to phenomena that can directly or indirectly be seen, heart, tasted, smelled or touched (FAWCETT, 1999) Are the equivalents of bricks in a wall and lead structure to science (WUEST, 1994) TYPES OF CONCEPTS CONCEPT 1. ENUMERATIVE 2. ASSOCIATIVE CHARACTERISTICS Are always present and universal Exist only in some conditions within a phenomena; may have a zero value Can be understood only through the combination or interaction of true or more enumerative or associative concepts. Relate the property of one EXAMPLES Age, height, weight Income, presence of disease, anxiety Elderly (must combine concepts of age and longevity) Mother ( must combine man, woman, and birth) Average blood




thing in terms of its destination in the population rate. Represent an entire complex entity of a phenomenon are complex and not measurable.

pressure HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

Nursing, health and environment.

SOURCES OF CONCEPTS 1. NATURALISTIC CONCEPTS are concepts seen in nature or in nursing practice such as body weight, thermoregulation, hematologic complications, depression pain and spirituality. are the result of conceptual development that is grounded in research processes. existing concepts are the final type of concept. The nursing literature is filled with adapted concepts, more or less will synthesized through derivation from other disciplines: Concepts on human needs (MASLOWS 1954) Hierarchy of needs, and stress from (SELYE 1956) Physiologic theory of the stress of life (GUYTON and HALL 1996)


EXAMPLES OF THEORETICALLY AND OPERATIONALLY DEFINED CONCEPTS CONCEPT 1. SPIRITUALITY THEORETICAL DEFINITION An awareness of ones inner self and a sense of connection to a higher being, nature, others or to some purpose greater than oneself. A complex, multidimensio nal concept in which a persons sense of well-being items from satisfaction or dissatisfaction OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Source on the spiritual perspective scale SOURCE Humpreys, J. (2000). Spirituality and distress in sheltered battered women, Image : The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32 (3), 273-278.


Score on the Quality of Life Index

Schreier, A.M. and Williams, S.A. (2004). Anxiety and quality of life in women who receive radiation or chemotherapy for breast cancer. Ecology Nursing


with the areas of life that are most important to him/her. Any intentional physical attack by a perpetrator that resulted in injury or pain.

Forum, 31 (1), 127130. Score on the abuse assessment screen Dunn, L.L. and Oths, K.S. ( 2004). Prenatal predictors of intimate partner abuse. JOENN, 33 (1), 54-63



Cognitive and behavioral efforts to massage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing and exceeding the resources of the person. A persons sense of selfworth or value.

Score on the coping health inventory for Children

Vinson,J.A.(2002). Children with asthona: Initial developing of the child resilience mode Pediatric Nursing. 28 (2). 149157

Score on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

Wesley,Y. ( 2003) Desire for Children among black women with and without HIV infection. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 35(1), 37-43.

WALKER AND AVANT 2005 CONCEPT ANALYSIS: @ conceptualizes to clarify meanings of terms and to define terms so that writers and readers share a common language. @ concept analysis should be conducted when concepts require clarification or further development to define them for a nurse scholars purposes, whether that is research,theory development,or practice.This method for concept analysis is the one most commonly sees in nursing literature, and requires an eight step approach: 1. Select a concept 2. Determine the aims or purposes of analysis 3. Identify all the uses of the concept possible

4. Determine the defining attributes 5. Identify model case 6. Identify borderline,related,contrary,invented,and illegitimate cases 7. Identify antecedents and consequences 8. Identify empirical referents CONCEPTS SYNTHESIS: @ is used when concepts require development based on observation or other forms of evidence. @ the individual must develop a way to group or order the information about the phenomenon from his or her own viewpoint or theoretical requirement.Three methods of synthesizing concepts are as follows: 1. QUALITATIVE SYNTHESIS relies on sensory data and looking for similarities,differences,and patterns among the data to identify the new concepts. 2. QUANTITATIVE SYNTHESIS- requires numerical data to delineate those attributes that belong to the concept and those that do not. 3. LITERARY SYNTHESIS- involves reviewing a wide range of literature to acquire new insights about the concept of to find new concepts. CONCEPT DERIVATION: @ is often necessary when there are few concepts currently available to a nurse that explain a problem area. @ STEPS: 1. Become thoroughly familiar with the existing literature. 2. Search other fields of interest for new ways of viewing the topic. 3. Select a parent concept that gives an insightful view of the topic. 4. Redefine the concepts in terms of the topic of interest. RODGERS According to Rodgers(2000),concept analysis is necessary because concepts are dynamic,and context dependent and possess some pragmatic utility or purpose.Furthermore,because phenomena,needs,and goals change,concepts must be continually refined and variations introduced to achieve a clearer and more useful meaning. STEPS IN RODGERS CONCEPT ANALYSIS 1. Identify the concept and associated terms. 2. Select an appropriate realm( a setting or a sample) for data collection. 3. Collect data to identify the attributes of the concept and the contextual basis of the concept (interdisciplinary,sociocultural and temporal variations). 4. Analyze the data regarding the characteristics of the concept. 5. Identify an exemplar of the concept,if appropriate. 6. Identify hypotheses and implications for further development.

IV GROUP ACTIVITY: 1. Go back to your previous grouping and as practiced,designate a leader,secretary and a presenter. 2. You have 30 minutes to do this activity,as usual you have to write the minutes of the discussion. 3. This activity will be conducted in the library. 4. Find an example of a nursing theory in a current periodical.Review the theory and classify it based on scope or level of abstraction(grand theory,middle range theory,practice theory),the purpose of the thery(describe,explain,predict,control),and the source or discipline in which the theory was developed. 5. The group output shall be presented in class after 30 minutes,you shall be graded again based on the following: 1. self 2. peer 3. group 4. teacher 6. Please photocopy the actual text of your source. NOTHING FOLLOWS

Rosalyn B. Bilog