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2008IMO

1 O l1 , l2 e O1 l1 A e O C

e O2 l2 B e O D e O1 E AD BC Q Q CDE
35 IMO

AO1 BO2 AO1 E = BO2 E AEO1 = BEO2 A, E , B


OF BO2 B, D, F

1
1
EDB = 180 EO2 B = 180 AO1 E = EAF A, E , D, F
2
2
BE gBA = BDgBF B e O1 e O C e O1 e O
BC e O1 e O AD e O2 e O Q

QC = QD = QE Q CDE
2 ABC I BC , CA, AB A1 , B1 , C1

AA1 , BB1 A2 , B2 A1 B1C1 C1 A1 B1 , C1 B1 A1 B1C1 , A1C1


A3 , B3 1 A2 A3 B1 A2 C1 2 P, Q A1 A2 A3

B1 B2 B3 I PQ 01

1 AC1 A2 AA1C1 AB1 A2 AA1 B1

C1 A2 AA2 AA2 B1 A2
C1 A2 C1 A1 C1 A3
=
=
=
=
=

A2 A3 B1 A2 C1
C1 A1 AC1 AB1 B1 A1
B1 A2 B1 A1 B1 A3
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2 A1 A2 A3 O OI , IA2 , OA2 , OA1 OI A1 A2 A1 A3 A2 =

A1C1 A2 + C1 A2 A3 + C1 A1 A3 = A1 C1 A2 +
A2OI =

1
( C1 A2 B1 + C1 A1 B1 ) = 90 + A1 C1 A2
2

1
A2 OA1 = 180 A1 A3 A2 = 90 A1 C1 A2 = 90 A2 IO
2

IA2O = 90 IA2 e O A2 IB2 B1 B2 B3 B2 I


e O B1 B2 B3 I ,P, Q
3 O X X O A, B X
O C , D CA BD CA, BD F CD, AB G

BD GX H X , F , G, H 05

2 18

X , D, G , C CFD = 90 F X , G
FG , FX GFD = DFX GFX BF H
GH = XH H GX H = H X , F , G, H
4 P, Q ABC A, B, C l : m : n l , m, n
PQ ABC DE ABC O

OPgOQ = OD 2

P, Q A, C l : n PQ e G
AG e G K , L A, K , C , L e O e G F

GAgGC = GK 2 = GF 2 GF e O F OF e G F
P, Q B, C m : n PQ e M e O

e M H OH e M H OH = OF O e G e M
O, P, Q PQ e O D, E OD 2 = OF 2 = OP gOQ
D, P, E , Q

AP BP CP
=
=
ABC P, Q
AQ BQ CQ

O PQ OPgOQ = OD 2
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5 O1 , O2 1 , 2 D E , F
D 1 , 2 l AB l A, E , O1 l

AO1 , BO2 , EF 47 IMO

AB O E 1 OB, O1 D
l OB O1 D E , D, B F , D, A
AE , BF C AF BC , BE AC D ABC

CD AB C l
EF l P P AO1 AC 1
N ND 1 A, O1 , P

CA NO1 DP
CA CP
g
g = 1 NO1 = O1 D
=
l AB K
AN O1 D PC
AN PD
CA CK
CP CK
=
=

C , P, D, K AP BC X
AN KD
PD KD
C , X , F , B C , P, D, K
6 ABCD AB CD AD, BC P, Q

APB = CPD, AQB = CQD P, Q


20

APB

CPD
4 18

Q1

CQ1 P + BQ1 P = ( 180 CDP ) + ( 180 BAP ) = 180 Q1 BC


CQ1 D = CPD = APB = AQ1 B Q1 = Q APB CPD
R1 , R2 APB =

AB 2 R1 sin R1
=
=
AC BD O
CD 2 R2 sin R2

APB CPD APB CPD


O1 , O2 O O1O2 O1O2 PQ OP = OQ
7 S1 , S2 , S3 S A1 , B1 , C1 ABC
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 20

ABC I R e S , e S1 , e S2 , e S3

r , r1 , r2 , r3

PS r
e I
e S1 e S P SI PI = R

H P,

r
H A1 ,
r1

r
H A, 1
R

e I
e S

A, A1 , P B, B1 , P C , C1 , P

AA1 , BB1 , CC1


5 18

8 AB O C , D
AB M MB < MA, MD < MC AOC , BOD

O1 , O2 K MKO 21

OO1 e O1 P OO2 e O2 Q O1O2 OK , PQ

O1O2 K PQ P, Q, M OP e O1 PA
e O PC , QB, QD e O P QD DC
E CEP = MDQ = ECP PE = PC = PA PAE QBD
P, Q, M
AC , BD N AD, BC H H NAB MH
AC , BD X , Y N , C , X , A N , D, Y , B MH N

e O ON MH OM NH O HMN
OK N MH OK NH AB T
NH gNT = NC gNA = NK gNO K , O, T , H HKO = HTO = 90
M , K , H
OK S MKO = 90 SKD + DKM = 90

DBO + DKM = 90 DKM = DAM K , A, M , D

KAB = CDK

C, A

PO

CDK = CDB KDB = ( 180 CAB ) ( 180 KOB ) = KOB CAB


= KCA CAB = OCA + OCK CAB = OAC+ KAO CAB= KAB
9 O ABCD AOB COD
6 18

BOC AOD 6

AOB, BOC , COD, AOD K , L, M , N

KLMN KL, KN AC , BD KL =

AC
BD
, KN =

3
3

KL AC
=
AOB, BOC , COD, AOD K , L, M , N
KN BD

A, K , N ; C , M , L; B, K , L; D, M , N K LM N
K L, K N AC , BD AOB = < 90

OBL = 90 K L cos ( 90 ) = AC cos K L = AC cot


K L AC KL
=
=
KLMN K LM N
K N BD KN
90
K N = BD cot

K M LN , LN KM
10 ABCD ADBC ABC C

ABC AD, BC , BC 23

uuur

BCB DC EFG AD, BC , BC H ( D, 2 )


A, E , G EB AD K BE = BK = BA EA AD, EA EF

1
1
1
1
( 180 EFG ) = EFG = BCB = ACA
2
2
2
2
ADFE DF EC = AC = AC
1
E , A, A C CA ACA = AEA
2
AEG = 90 FEG = 90

A, E , G

7 18

11 M ABC M BC , CA, AB

A, B, C A, B, C BC , C A, AB M
ABC O M , O, M O MM

MO M O MM AM O
O A, C , M , B OO BC AM

OO AM BC BM C A, CM AB
MA, MB, MC D, E , F BC , CA, AB MD, ME , MF
AE = AM = AF A MEF B, C

8 18

MDF , MDE A, B, C BC , C A, AB A, B, C
EF , FD, DE EF , FD, DE EF , FD, DE
DEF M M ABC DEF
2 M , O, M O MM
12 P, Q ABC AC , AB BP, CQ D

ABD ACD APDQ 99

ABD ACD DB DC = AB AC

ACQ B BM CQ D1 AB AC = D1 B D1C
DB DC = D1 B D1C D = D1
ABD ACD AD N1 , N

DB DC = AB AC DN = DN1
13 ABCD P 5

2 1

O P OBC

PAC , PBD, PBC , PAD S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 PA, PB, PC , PD


a, b, c, d APB = , BPC = , CPD = , APD =
9 18

sin sin sin sin =


=

1
( cos ( ) cos ( + ) + cos ( + ) cos ( ) )
2

1
( cos ( ) cos ( ) ) = sin ( + ) sin ( + )
2

S PAB gSPCD = S1S2 + S3 S4 S1 , S2 , S3 , S4

2 1

1 = S ABCD = SPAB + SPCD + S3 + S4 2 SPAB gSPCD + S3 + S4 > 1

ABCD AD BC AD =

2 1, BC = 1 2 P

AD 1 S PAD = SPBC = SPAC = SPBD =

S PAB = SPCD =

2 1

2 2
2 1

2
2

14 VABC G ( 1) AG , BG , CG A, B, C
P ( 2 ) P BC , CA, AB D, E , F
P VDEF

( 1)

VABC AL, BM , CN AG, BG, CG

A, B, C BC , CA, AB L1 , M1 , N1
BC = a, CA = b

AB = c

10 18

BL1 BL BL1 BL SVABL1 SVABL ABgAL1 ABgAL c 2


g =
g
=
g
=
g
=
L1C LC LC L1C SVACL SVACL1 AC gAL AC gAL1 b 2

CM 1 CM a 2 AN1 AN b2
BL CM AN
g
= 2;
g
= 2
g g
= 1
M 1 A MA c N1 B NB a
LC MA NB
BL1 CM1 AN1
g
g
= 1 AL1 , BM1 , CN1
L1C M1 A N1 B

( 2)

DP EF K CAL =

sin
LC BL sin ( A )
A, E , P, F ; B, D, P, F ; C , D, P, E
=
=
=
sin C AL AL
sin B
FEP = PAF = , EFP = PAE = A , FPK = B, EPK = C
FK =

sin FPK
sin B
sin B
sin
PK =
PK =
g
KE = KE
sin EFP
sin ( A )
sin ( A ) sin C

K EF P VDEF
15 ABC AB P, Q APC BQC
AQC BPC

ABC BC h r,

11 18

h 2r
B
C
= tan
tan

h
2
2
ABC I BC DE I AB, AC

D, E

h 2r DE
=
=
h
BC

BDE
CED
B
C
+ r cot
tan
+ tan
2
2
2
2 = tan B tan C
=
B
C
B
C
2
2
r cot
+ r cot
cot
+ cot
2
2
2
2

r cot

APC , BQC , AQC , BPC r1 , r2 , r3 , r4

h 2r1 h 2r2
A
APC
B
BQC
=
tan
tan
= tan
tan
h
h
2
2
2
2
h 2r3 h 2r4
A
AQC
B
BPC
tan
tan
= tan
tan

=
r3 = r4
2
2
2
2
h
h
16 ABCDE ABC AED
ABD AEC ABC AED 98
r1 = r2

12 18

ABC , AED, ABD, AEC r1 , r2 , r3 , r4

, CD
, DE
, EA
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d , 2e
R AB, BC
r1
r
= 1 + 2 = cos e + cos d cos ( e + d )
R
R
r
r
cos a + cos ( b + c ) + cos ( e + d ) = 1 + 3 = 1 + 4 = cos e + cos ( d + c ) + cos ( a + b )
R
R
bcd
d c b
= cos
cos b + cos ( d + c ) = cos d + cos ( b + c ) cos

2
2
cos a + cos b cos ( a + b ) = 1 +

b = d cos a + cos ( b + e ) = cos e + cos ( a + b )


a = e ABC AED
17 ABCD AB, DC P AD, BC Q O

ABCD BOP = DOQ AOB + COD = 180 05


BMO

13 18

BOP = DOQ =

sin
QD sin ( + AOD ) AQ
=
,
=

sinOQD OD
sinOQD
OA

sin ( + AOD ) AQ OD
sin ( + AOB ) AP OB
=
g
=
g
sin
OA QD
sin
OA BP

sin ( + AOD ) AQ OD BP
sinBOQ BQ sin ( COD ) QC
=
g g
=
,
=
sin ( + AOB ) AP OB QD
sinOQB OB
sinOQB
OC

sin ( COD ) QC OB sin ( BOC ) PC OD


=
g ,
=
g
sinBOQ
OC BQ
sinDOP
OC PD

sin ( COD ) QC OB PD
=
g g AC PQ L
sin ( BOC ) PC OD QB
sin ( + AOD ) sin ( COD )
AQ DP CL
CQ BP AL
g g = 1,
g g = 1
= 1
QD PC LA
QB PA LC
sin ( + AOB ) sin ( BOC )
cos ( AOD COD + 2 ) =cos ( AOB BOC + 2 )

AOD COD = AOB BOC


AOB + COD = 180
18 D AG AG ABCD, DEFG
O, I AO, CE , GI 30

14 18

H ( A,2 )
H ( G ,2 )
ABCD
AMNG GFED
GNMA

1
C AN E MG AO, GI K OD = GK OD GK
2
K AMNG C , K , E
19 O1 , O2 , O3 , O4 O Oi , O j ( 1 i < j 4 )
lij l12 , l23 , l34 , l14 l13 , l24

O, O1 , O2 , O3 , O4 R, r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 O1 , O2 , O3 , O4 O

A, B, C , D

OO1 = a, OO2 = b, OO3 = c, OO4 = d

O1OO2 = , O2 OO3 = O3OO4 = , O1OO4 = R = a + r1 = b + r2

l122 = O1O22 ( r1 r2 ) = a2 + b2 2ab cos ( a b ) = 2ab ( 1 cos ) = 4ab sin2


2

l12 = 2 ab sin

l23 , l34 , l14 , l13 , l24


2

l12l34 + l23l14 = l13l24 lij

15 18

sin

+
+
sin + sin sin = sin
sin
AB gCD + BC gAD = AC gBD
2
2
2
2
2
2
20 M ABC D, E , F BCM , CAM , ABM

S DEF SABC

MA, MB, MC EF , FD, DE A1 , B1 , C1 DEF O


R OM = d M O

16 18

ABC

= 4SA1B1C1

R2 d 2
R2 d 2
= 4g
S
=
SDEF SDEF d = 0
DEF
4R2
R2

M DEF M ABC ABC


21 ( 1) ABC O AB PB AB PO AC M

PC AB E OBM = BCE 07

ABC O PE O D AD PO
N BCE = BAD OBM = BAD O AB
OM = ON

( 2 ) C , D O AB B O
DC P PO AC , DA M , N OM = ON 07

A AB PO Q O PQ

O O P, Q OP = OQ P O

PCD Q O PA AC , AD PQ M , N
OM = ON
l S , T ST
O P, Q l OP = OQ P O PCD Q

17 18

O PEF CE , DF l M , N OM = ON
O l x

ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0 y = 0 ax 2 + dx + f = 0
S , T ST O d = 0

ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + ey + f = 0 P ( p, 0 ) , Q ( p, 0 ) PCD PEF

( y k ( x p) ) ( y k ( x + p) ) = 0
1

C , D, E , F

ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + ey + f + ( y k1 ( x p ) ) ( y k2 ( x + p ) ) = 0

CE , DF y = 0 ax + f + k1k2 x p
2

) = 0

M , N M , N
0 OM = ON

18 18