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Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Rational Tangles

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Tangles

Denition A tangle is analogous to a link except that it has free ends which are restricted to the boundary of a ball or box.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Rational tangles

Denition A rational tangle is a tangle made of two arcs that can be unwound completely while keeping the endpoints of the arcs on the boundary of the ball.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

To make a rational tangle, take two arcs in a ball, choose any pair of endpoints and twist them, then repeat this a nite number of times with any pairs of endpoints.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Canonical Form

Denition A rational tangle is said to be in canonical form provided that the tangle is alternating.

Figure: A tangle in canonical form and a tangle decidedly not in canonical form.

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend Rational Tangles

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Monomial Operations

Mirror Image

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Monomial Operations

Figure: A ype.

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend Rational Tangles

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Monomial Operations

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Monomial Operations

Denition The numerator closure of a tangle is the knot/link made by connecting the North endpoints to each other and the South endpoints to each other. Similarly, the denominator closure is made by connecting the East endpoints and the West endpoints.

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend Rational Tangles

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Binomial Operations

Addition

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Binomial Operations

Tangle Product

The tangle product ab = a + b.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Binomial Operations

Ramication

The ramication a, b = a + b.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Denition

Denition Two tangles are equivalent if they can be deformed to each other without moving the endpoints. Allowed deformation moves are analogous to Reidemeister moves.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Applications

Two tangles are equivalent i they can be deformed to the same canonical form.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Applications

Any rational tangle is equivalent to an alternating tangle.

Figure: A rational tangle with an extra pink kink and its equivalent alternating tangle.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Calculation

A tangle can be represented in vector form (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) where ai is the number of consecutive twists of a pair of endpoints.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Calculation

The continued fraction of a basic tangle (denoted F (t)) corresponds to this set (a0 , a1 , ..., an ) of twists as

F (t) =

1 an +

1 an1 +

1 1 an2 + ...

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Calculation

An Example

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Properties

The continued fraction of a rational tangle T is related to its inverse and mirror image as follows F(1/T)=1/F(T) F(-T)=-F(T) Flypes do not aect a tangles continued fraction. The continued fraction is a rational tangle invariant.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Conways Theorem

Conways1 Theorem

Theorem If T1 and T2 are basic tangles, then F (T1 ) = F (T2 ) implies that T1 is ambient isotopic to T2 .

Squaredancer Extraordinaire

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Calculation

Weve already dened a bracket polynomial for links and knots. The bracket polynomial for tangles is similar . . .

J =A

+ A1 ||

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Calculation

So starting with J =A + A1 ||

we dene (T ) and (T ) for some tangle T by T = (T ) || + (T ) = . So for J, we have (J) = A1 and (J) = A.

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend Rational Tangles

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Properties

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Magic

i.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Magic

Now take RT (A) and replace A, for magical reasons, with Theorem (Goldman and Kauman) F (T ) = iRT ( i). Remember, RT (A) =

(T ) (T ) .

i.

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Figure: DNA is really a series of a zillion tangles, many of which are rational!

Erica Shannon and Jennifer Townsend Rational Tangles

Introduction

Operations

Equivalence

Continued Fractions

Applications

Sources

Sources

C. Cerf, A Note on the Tangle Model for DNA Recombination, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (1998), pp 67-78. I.K. Darcy, A rational tangle primer, Available: http://www.knotplot.com . J.R. Goldman, L.H. Kauman, Rational tangles, Adv. in Appl. Math. 18 (1997), no. 3, 300-332. L.H. Kauman and S. Lambropoulou. Knotting, Linking, and Folding Geometric Objects in R3 . AMS Special Session on Knotting and Unknotting. Las Vegas, Nevada. 21 Apr. (2001), pp 223-260. J.C. Misra and S. Mukherjee, Mathematical Modelling of DNA Knots and Links. Biomathematics: modelling and simulation. World Scientic (2006), pp 195-224. Wikipedia. Y. Saka, M. Vazquez, TangleSolve: topological analysis of site-specic recombination, Bioinformatics, Available: http://bio.math.berkeley.edu/TangleSolve/tmodel/tmodel.html , (2002) 18:1011-1012

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