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1-2, 1994

**MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN THE DRYING OF SOLID P A R T I C L E S I N A BED
**

A. I. Nakorchevskii, A. N. Vylegzhanin, anti 1. V. Gaskevich UDC 664.8.047

A closed system of equations is proposed for calculating convective heat and mass transfer in the drying of solid particles by a gaseous heat transfer agent in a moving bed. As an example, the operation of a belt-type dryer with crossed interaction of a drying agent and a bed of fruit cut into circular slices is considered. Results of a numerical solution of the problem are presented in figures.

The drying of solid particles in a bed by a gaseous heat transfer agent is widely used commercially. Interacting flows are most often arranged in a counterflow (column dryers) or a crossed-flow (belt conveyers with transverse blowing) scheme. The bed to be dried is a two-phase system of the type of moist solid-humid gas, where aerodynamic and heat and mass transfer processes must be described within the mechanics of heterogeneous systems. Substantial difficulties in the mathematical description are caused by the great diversity of the possible geometrical structure of the bed. Consequently, schematization of the structure of the bed and orientation to some averaged characteristics are inevitable. The choice of averaging principles is an important step in the development of methods of the mechanics of heterogeneous media. Concepts of methods for space and time averaging are given in [1 ] and [2 ], respectively. The latter approach, which is more rigorous mathematically [3 ], will be used here. It is assumed in the description that the interacting media are nonviscous but they experience resistance in relative motion of the phases and the action of Archimedean forces (the hydraulic approach). Transfer of momentum and the kinetic component of the energy and dissipation are neglected. Only averaged parameters without the fluctuations are used. With these assumptions the equations of motion and energy have the form B/+Bj= 1,

O--t(Pi Be Wi) = - V'(Pi Bi We Ui) - Mij + Mji,

0"--/ [Pi Bi (1 - Wi) 1 = - V" [Pi Bi Ui (1 - Wi) l,

0

0

(1)

**0 0--t (Pi Bi Ui) = - (V'Ui) Pi Bi Ui + Pi Bi Gi - V" (Bi P2) + Fji, 0 O--t(Pi Bi El) = - V'(Pi Bi Ui El) - Miy Ei + Myi E] + Qyi - Bi Qi, According to the second and third equations of system (1) the relation
**

Bi) = - v - ( p i Be u i ) - M q + , (2)

i, j = 1, 2.

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev. Translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 67, Nos. 1-2, pp. 48-53, July-August, 1994. Original article submitted December 16, 1992.

1062-0125/94/6712-0721 $12.50 9 1995 Plenum Publishing Corporation

721

where the x axis corresponds to the direction of movement of the conveyer belt and the y axis corresponds to that of motion of the heat transfer agent. For this scheme the system of basic equations (1)-(3) has the form B 1 + B2 = 1. The structure of the bed must include two limiting cases of orientation vertical and horizontal. I I=.02 B2 (1 . 1. 1.p 2 0y ' P2B2U2y OU2y OP2 Oy = .W2) U2y ] = 0 . If the bed is composed of units located only in these limiting positions. the stable position of an individual element in the filling will most likely be arbitrary. 722 . the equation of motion for the second phase is not important.Ffi.Q21 9 Since the material to be dried is carried by the conveyer with the velocity Ulx with the aid of a mechanical drive.Y =lq.Pi Bi Ui'VUi + Pi Bi Gi .Ei) + Qfi .. Therefore.Bi Qi" It should be noted that for "adequate" drying M21 = 0.Pi Bi'VEi + M/i (El . which is conditioned air in this case.V (Bi P2) q. is obtained. The above equations are expressed in a specific form for each particular case.M12. the accounting for their equiprobability will result in the scheme shown in the left-hand side of Fig. ~y [. fruits are cut into circular slices. which is used to simplify the equations of motion and energy (the two last equations of system (1)): OUi Pi Bi Ot = .El) . The material is loaded onto the belt in a bed of thickness h. both of which are equiprobable.l => 0 .W1) Ulx ] = 0 .B 2 ~ - (4) OE 1 Pl B1 Ulx Ox . y). In loading the cut material onto the conveyer belt. Therefore. Nevertheles.M12 (E2 . the structure of the bed should be well known. oOo 0Oo (3) 0 Fig. any spatial orientation of this individual element is possible. 0 0x [Pl B1 (1 . and in the transportation process it is blown from above by a heat transfer agent. OEi Pi Bi Ot = . the equation of motion for the first phase is eliminated. OE2 P2 B2 U2y Oy . Before drying.0=. 0 ~xx (/91 B1 Ulx) = . Let us consider the case of steady-state drying of fruit in dryers with multirow transportation of the material by belt conveyers. 0 0 0y (P2 B2 U2y) = M12.Q21 . since it affects substantially the heat and mass transfer characteristics. Commercial operation of this type of dryer has shown that the aerodynamic resistance of the bed of material is low. 0B2 F 2 1 ' y . The technological scheme of drying requires that the equations be composed for the plane problem (x. Structural scheme of a bed of a filling.

4 3 (11) must be satisfied. Therefore.. and (11). if the volumes ~1) = 4/3~gas and 2I/(c1) = 2~g2dc are equal. 2 b) volume of filling. 0. In this case the streamlines are close to those of a flow in a spherical filling. . In our case for the steady-state process the left-hand side of (5) is U]x(OW 1/Ox). which is studied most thoroughly. (9).. Combining Eqs.-.. are required.T1) S~1) nlk21 . . nl is the volume density of particles in the spherical filling: B1 nl = 4/3~rR~ . To calculate n 1. .33. The kinetic equation of drying that is usually set up on the basis of experimental data in the following form is the main one: dW 1 at = F1 ( W I ' T1 . )" (6) M12 -- The density of the interphase heat flux Q21 is calculated as Q21 = Cr (Z2 . Equations (4) are not closed. (9) k21 is a correction factor for deviation of the actual conditions of the flow from those assumed in setting up formula (8). the condition of conservation of the number of particles in the solid phase can be used. which is possible when condition (a) is satisfied and the thickness of a circular slice 6c = 2 / 3 R o Here R is the radius of a unit. 22 (2 + u/co Ke 2 r r 2 ) . if the areas S~1) = 4nRs a n d 2 2S (1) = 4JrRc are equal. ) ' (5) where T is the temperature. With the use of the second and fourth equations of system (1).55 . the relation between the volume density of the interphase mass transfer M12 and the kinetic equation of drying is found as Pl B1 f . 1 that the scheme is invariant relative to the x and y axes and reflects a zigzag flow of the heat transfer agent past the units. The equation for the flow rate in terms of the number of particles vl has the form v 1 = n l S x U l x = const. in the sense of equivalence. (10). where the heat transfer coefficient a21 for a spherical filling can be determined by Drake's formula as . =--~-2 (8) Here S~1) = 4z~R2. circular and spherical fillings will be the same. we will find two equivalent forms of the equation for calculating the conventional radius of a solid filling: R1= ( ) 3UlxSx 4n:v1 1/'3 B11/3 or R1: ~ B~ " (12) 723 . (10) where Sx is the cross-sectional area of the bed perpendicular to the x direction. . 0. which is possible at Rs = Re. determining the problem stated. If all units of the bed are assumed to be of the same (representative) size..It is clear from Fig. . a21 = 2R1 Re 2 = U2y2R1 P2 f12 ' (7) pr 2 /~2c2 . concerning: a) a r e a of contact between the filling a n d the h e a t t r a n s f e r agent. the condition B1UlxS x = v I -~ ~ R 1 . additional relations. .W1 F1 ( W I ' T1 . On the other hand.

O <_ x <_ l .3. an equation of motion has been eliminated). in this case the relation dEi . x . x -. The algorithm is based on the possibility of treating the transformed system of equations (4) as a system that decomposes locally into a system of ordinary differential equations in the independent variables x and y that depend on the parameters y and x. T1). 2.14.38 ' 0. x ~ 7.03. y Fig. O) = U2o (X) . Solution of this problem within the descretization step is not difficult and can be performed with Euler's. G ! . M12. This determines the structure of the algorithm for numerical solution of problem (4).04 (3). y) = BlO (y). System of equations (4) and (5) is supplemented by initial-boundary conditions characterizing physical parameters of the material to be dried when loaded onto the conveyer belt and the heat transfer agent when entering the bed of material I/V (0. y) = W10 (y).q0 0. El. P2 = p2(W2. B10. (13) is taken into consideration. Consequently. m. x = 10.17./92 = t92 (W2. 22 •Az(W2. W1 = Wl (x/ Uxx. where Wlo. Adams's.52 m (2). 1 0 _< y _< h. and boundary conditions (14) are simultaneously initial conditions for system (4). x -. h is the height of the bed of filling. C b t t 17 2 3 305~ .= cidTi. Ulx ffi const. which can be expressed as a system that is solvable for the derivatives. T 1 (0. T2). U2y. B 1 (0. Ti) . As applied to t h e system of equations (4). (5). the spatial variables x and y are transformed into "timelike" one-sided coordinates.08 m (5). Together with conditions (14).0 (1). T2). U20 are functions specifying the initial distribution of the physical parameters. vl ffi const. T1. 0) = T20 (x). Uzy ( x .60 m (6). 0) -. (14) T 2 (x. this system constitutes a Cauchy problem. the preset f u n c t i o n s are: P l = P 1 (W1). W2 (x.14/20 (x). T2). Hi = Hi(Wi. Due to the specific properties of the physical statement of the problem the directions of movement of the components in the two-phase system are connected rigidly with the coordinate axes. Naturally. Y/2. and (14). B2. T20. For each of the equations a Cauchy problem is formulated in the corresponding variable. 2. W20. E2 to be found corresponds to the number of equations in system (4) (as was mentioned earlier. Changes in the temperature T 1 (a) and volume concentration BI (b) of the filling over the bed thickness in cross sections located at various distances from the beginning of the belt: x -.a B1 { . BI. The number of functions B1. K. ci = ci(Vtli. T2. 7 y 0 a03s o 0.37 .39 S 9 z~ t 3 t s 1 { 5t { 3" { 0.t07 297 29J - G 0. Q21 = Q21(OC21. Ti).56 m (4). y. T1. Equations (4) is a system of partial differential equations of the first order. i = 1. 724 . R1). Sx ffi Sx(x) . T10. l is the length of the conveyer belt. y) = TI0 (y).

U20 = 0. c.O35 g Fig. The whole algorithm consists in successive calculation of unknown functions at nodes of drying located along straight lines parallel to an axis corresponding to a particular unknown function. Wp/2= 0.t) a] W1 x exp ( .kt/(a . T10 = 293 K. the parameters T2 and W2 of the drying agent used on the upper belt are practically unchanged along the length of the installation (Fig. R10 = 0.-t"=60 [ 2 7 4 . . x -. U. l = 17.07 m.3.007 O O. p. T1) = ~ W10 exp [ . M. viscosity. x = 10.035 9 0. density. volume force.0013 1-~0 + 0. G. x = 17. W10 = 0. 3. 2a) and the volume concentration B1 of the filling (Fig. where t=xUl-X . Q. moisture content. a high intensity of blowing provides for an almost uniform (tending somewhat toward a decrease) distribution of the fruit temperature T 1 (Fig.34 m/sec and with the following approximation of the drying curves: r (t. B. T20 = 373 K.62.10 -3 m/sec./~. As an example. 2. interphase mass transfer. force of interphase interaction.60 m (4).9. W. or Runge-Kutta's method.1 .87.52 m (2). F. 3).yt) at at [ t <_ tp. gas pressure.O0~ O200 b Y @ . Changes in the temperature T2 of the heat transfer agent (a) and its moisture content W2 (b) over the bed thickness in cross sections located at various distances from the beginning of the belt: x = 0 (1). t>tp. w. Ulx = 4. Pl0 = 950 kg/m3. coordinates.56 m (3). NOTATION x. As follows from the data shown in the figures for the upper belt. k=-ln WI 0 tp ' a = tpln--~p l n ~ WpWIO . B10 = 0. Ux.04 m. t. internal energy.002 -~ .6 m. velocity and components of the velocity along x and y. 2b) throughout the thickness of the bed. as the distance from the beginning of the belt increases. 2 I i 0 0. T increases and B1 decreases.tp)2' tc = exp a (a - tp) ' Wp = 0. . thermal conductivity.7-zl 373 372 371 370 56~ a 1 Wz 0. in Figs. heat capacity. Uy.2 7 3 ) ] " . p.406. phase indicator function 725 .010 O. y. E. heat flux. 1 7 5 ( T 1 . y- k ( a .01I 0. 2 and 3 some calculated results are presented for operation of a real dryer with three-row transportation by a belt conveyer of fruits to be dried cut into circular slices at the following process parameters: h = 0. time.

Kiev (1980). A. Nakorchevskii. 114-118. Nakorchevskii. pp.(analog of the volume concentration). in: Physics of Aerodisperse Systems. Issue 33 (1990). P. the transition i -~ j. 3. A. c. s. 2. Moscow (1978). I. Nigmatulin. Heterogeneous Turbulent Jets [in Russian ]. drying agent. I. I. Fundamentals of the Mechanics of Heterogeneous Media [in Russian ]. Subscripts: 1. circle. ij. REFERENCES ~ 2. 726 . sphere. material.

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