Liaquat Ali Khan
Objectives Resolution · · · Successes · · · · Failures · · · · PRODA Failed to frame constitution Failed to handle Hyderabad crisis Unable to resolve Kashmir issue (ceasefire) Objectives Resolution Minority Pact 1950 Proper handling of coup (Rawalpindi conspiracy) Managed to keep economy going and produce surplus budgets for new state First move towards constitutional development Focused on principles of Islam and human rights Designed to deflect criticism from religious leaders
Malik Ghulam Muhammad 1951-55
Successes · 1. 2. · · Failure · · er) · Political instability dissolved assembly Forced to expel Zafarullah Khan (Foreign Minist led to riots Economic development 1951 1953 Planning Commission 5 years plan Planning Board further 5 year plan
Repealed PRODA Foreign aid wheat, CENTO
Campaigns against Ahmedis Improper handling of drought
5. · 1.·
Unable to make constitution
Major General Iskander Mirza 1955-58
Successes · · 1. education services Establishment of Defence Pacts SEATO MDAA One Unit Scheme
Ayub Khan 1958-69
Successes · · · Failure · 1965 war unable to solve Kashmir issue 1962 Constitution Positive reforms land reforms. wealth increase
Defended in 1965 war
. 4. 2. 2. · Failures · Rise of Nationalism in East Pakistan ke solid steps to protect their rights · · Undemocratic Rule (Martial Law) Political instability changed prime ministers too much they realized that they needed to ta 1956 Constitution Modernization Rural development program Industrialization Karachi airport established (1955) Telephone system expanded Provision in health.
Seats distributed according to Pakistan Fair elections
Unable to implement results of the elections
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 1972-77
Successes · · · · Failures · · 1974 · FSF in 1975 1973 dissolved Balochistan Assembly 1973 Constitution Reforms (land. health. education.· · ·
Negative reforms Presidential form of government Curtailing civil liberties
Yahya Khan 1969-71
Successes · · · · · Failures · Civil war · 1971 war with India separation of East Pakistan (immediate causes) Abolished One Unit Scheme Abolished Basic Democratic System/elections LFO Legal Framework Order one man. administrative) Controlled army Simla Agreement 1972
press freedom and political opponents/parties banned Negative reforms (industrial and administration)
c) How successfully did India and Pakistan handle the Kashmir issue between 1947 and 1988? Successes · A ceasefire was arranged in January 1948 leaving Kashmir divided between
. CAA (1979) Reforms economic. Frequent Prime Minister changes between 1956 and 1958.
· Politicians of East Pakistan wanted a greater say in running of the centr al government which increased tension.Zia-ul-Haq 1979-88
Successes · · · · · · Failures · · · · · Negative effects of Afghan Miracle Hanging of Bhutto made him unpopular PCO (1980). industrial
Economic Development (Afghan Miracle) Banned FSF Improved relations with Balochistan Islamisation Foreign Policy
Amendments of judiciary reforms 8th Amendment
took over complete power removal of Junejo and dissolved assembly
b) Why was Martial Law declared in 1958? · · The government was corrupt.
India promises to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir to determine its future.India and Pakistan. system. failure of Operation Gibraffor Indians were underestimated by Pakistan. · · · Failures · · · 1965 war 1971 war Promised plebiscite has still not been held.
b) Why did the 1965 war start?
· · ·
Hazrat Bal incident Rann of Kutch Indo-China war 1962
b) Why did Pakistan lose the 1965 war? Arms embargo · · Kashmiris did not help.D.D. Simla Agreement 1972. they were better equipped
b) Why is Ayub s reign known as a period of Controlled Democracy?
· · ·
B. indirect voting Presidential form of government Referendum/just elections for president
b) Why was Ayub forced to resign?
· · ·
1965 war. 1966 Tashkant Declaration. resigned and so system collapsed Student uprising
b) Why did Pakistan lose the 1971 war?
. rising opposition B.
.000 prisoners of war To increase the new government s international reputation
b) Why was Afghan war a miracle for Pakistan? · iets · · Pakistan was representing Muslims on the frontline in the war against Sov Economic aid Military aid
b) Why did Zia start a process of Islamisation?
· · ·
To counter the ideology of Bhutto s socialism To gain support of Islamic parties To portray his government as fighting pagan communists
b) Why is the reign of Zia called a dictatorship?
Referendum 18th Amendment
· · ·
Non-party elections PCO Constitutional Amendment Act
b) Why was Junejo removed as P.· · ·
Allies did not help Pakistani army did not want to fight against their fellow Muslims Mukti Bahinis helped the Indians
b) Why did Bhutto sign the Simla Agreement?
· · · ·
To reduce the role of army in politics To let the Kashmir issue remain an issue To release the 90.M.
Agricultural and economic reforms Land was redistributed to farmers Crop outputs were at top levels National growth rate rose more than 7% Economy grew three times faster than any other South-East Asian country New wealth was only concentrated in few hands however Farm size was reduced Constitutional reforms In 1959 Basic Democracies was introduced This was a 4-tier structure allowing elections at various levels Martial Law was lifted Foreign Policy Foreign Policy was dominated by the War with India USA imposed an arms embargo on Pakistan Failure to solve Kashmir issue Ayub dismissed Foreign Minister Bhutto
b) Why was the division of armed forces and military assets a problem to Pakista n in 1947?
· · · ·
Indian leaders were slow to distribute them Military equipment was often obsolete and out of date Pakistan had no ordinance factory. · 1. 5. 4. 2. 2. · 1. 3.· · ·
Ojhri incident All parties conference Muslim League was strong Invasions
c) Which of the following were the most important contributions of Ayub Khan s gov ernment during the Decade of Development between 1958 and 1969?
· 1. The British opposed the division of army assets
. 2. 6. 3. 3.
· Pakistan found great difficulty in getting its fair share because of the attitude of the Indians and British b) Why was there a refugee problem in Pakistan in 1947? Muslims fearful of being killed were forced to move out of India and cro ss into Pakistan · Hindus and Sikhs were also afraid of reprisal and a genuine desire to live in a Hindu nation also contributed to the refugee problem
· Violence between Hindus and Muslims increased b) Why did Mujib-ur-Rehman and Awami League demand the Six Points?
· · · · · · · ·
They wanted to rule themselves East Pakistan was poorer and suffered frequent natural disasters Awami League wanted a federal form of government It wanted full control of everything except defence and foreign policy Wanted a separate currency and fiscal policy with its own policy Wanted to negotiate its own trade agreements with other countries Wanted to have its own armed forces In effect they wanted separation from Pakistan
b) Why was Urdu chosen as the national language of Pakistan?
It was a common language Many people understood the language Especially common in the four provinces of West Pakistan
· Urdu is written in Arabic script which was a symbol of Muslim rule in sub continent · · · · It had a uniform nature It carried on the Muslim culture and traditions Language was made by Mongol soldiers who were Muslims Comprises vocabulary of many other Muslim languages
5. Pakistan withdrew from SEATO
c) Constitutional reforms were the most important of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto s domesti c policies between 1971 and 1977. Bengal was never given economic importance Its infrastructure and industries were never improved by the government All industrial developments were concentrated in Western wing
6. Establishment of one unit scheme was also a great disappointment (it intr oduced parity of seats between wings) 4. Political They were ill-treated by government
2. after Mujib sweeping 160 out 162 Bengali votes showed how West Pakistan never wanted an east Pakistani Head of State b) Why did Pakistan leave SEATO in 1972?
· · · ·
America sent no help to Pakistan in 1965 war with India Put an arms embargo on Pakistan and India Again in 1971. 22 families in West Pakistan owned 80% of all banking and insurance asset s of Pakistan · 1. Arrest of Mujib-ur-Rehman by Yahya Khan. Taxes paid by the Bengalis were invested in the industries and infrastruc ture of the West 3. All constitutions gave the Bengalis equal seats as West Pakistan even tho ugh its population was 10 million more than West s 3. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. even though most exports (jute) came from the East 2.
1. army and bureaucracy 6. Pakistan. The export benefits (foreign exchange) was always invested in the Western wing. Pakistan didn t receive any practical help from America In retaliation in 1972. 4. fewer E.c) Economic factors were more important than political considerations in the cre ation of Bangladesh in 1971. Do you agree? Give reasons. superiority complex of W. Pakistanis i n government. East Pakistan was never given political importance
5. Language issue.
2. 3. This constitution was agreed by a democratically elected assembly which g ave it power · 1.
Return of parliamentary form of government
2. Educational reforms He made education free and compulsory He took special care of backward areas On 1st September 1972 he announced nationalization of schools and college Private schools were given in the control of Provisional Education Board Health reforms Introduced his health scheme in August 1972 Introduction of Rural Health Units and Basic Health Centers Nationalized pharmaceutical companies and made medicines cheaper Banned sale of medicines under brand names
. · 1. 3. s 4. 2.1. This reform also alleviated the fears of people who thought that the gove rnment would rule all matters 3. 4.