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Concerto Concertino Concerto grosso Concerto for orchestra Sinfonia concertante Ripieno concerto Solo concerto Student concerto 1 1 9 10 11 13 15 16 18 19 19 19 23 27 34 36 41 51 55 58 60 62 66 68 69 72 73 78 82 82 83
Concertos by instrument
Bass oboe concerto Bassoon concerto Cello concerto Clarinet concerto Double bass concerto Double concertos for violin and cello English horn Flute concerto Harmonica concerto Harpsichord concerto Oboe concerto Organ concerto Piano concerto Timpani concerto Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano Trumpet concerto Viola concerto Violin concerto
Bassoon – Bassoon Concerto (Mozart) Cello – Cello Concerto (Elgar)
Clarinet – Clarinet Concerto (Mozart) Double – Double Concerto (Brahms) Flute – Flute Concerto (Simpson) Harmonica – Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (Arnold) Harpsichord – Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Oboe – Oboe Concerto (Mozart) Orchestra – Concerto for Orchestra (Bartók) Organ – Organ Concerto (Poulenc) Piano – Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff) Sinfonia – Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart) Triple – Triple Concerto (Beethoven) Trumpet – Trumpet Concerto (Haydn) Viola – Viola Concerto (Bartók) Violin – Violin Concerto (Beethoven)
86 89 92 93 93 100 101 104 105 109 110 111 112 114 116 116 118
Concertos by composer
Concertos by Christoph Graupner Concertos by Joseph Haydn
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 121 123
A concerto (from the Italian: concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicised form concertos) is a musical work usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra. The etymology is uncertain, but the word seems to have originated from the conjunction of the two Latin words conserere (meaning to tie, to join, to weave) and certamen (competition, fight): the idea is that the two parts in a concerto, the soloist and the orchestra, alternate episodes of opposition, cooperation, and independence in the creation of the music flow.
Frederick the Great playing a flute concerto in Sanssouci, C. P. E. Bach at the piano, Johann Joachim Quantz is leaning on the wall to the right; by Adolph Menzel, 1852
The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra. The popularity of the concerto grosso form declined after the Baroque period, and the genre was not revived until the 20th century. The solo concerto, however, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day.
The concerto was established as a form of composition in the Baroque period. Starting from a form called Concerto grosso introduced by Arcangelo Corelli, it evolved into the form we understand today as performance of a soloist with/against an orchestra. The main composers of concerti of the baroque were: Tommaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Pietro Locatelli, Giuseppe Tartini, Francesco Geminiani and Johann Joachim Quantz. The concerto was intended as a composition typical of the Italian style of the time, and all the composers were studying how to compose in the Italian fashion (all'italiana). The baroque concerto was mainly for a string instrument (violin, viola, cello, seldom viola d'amore or harp) or a wind instrument (oboe, trumpet, flute, or horn). During the baroque period, before the invention of the piano, keyboard concertos were comparatively rare, with the exception of the organ and some harpsichord concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach. As the harpsichord evolved into the fortepiano, and in the end to the modern piano, the increased volume and the richer sound of the new instrument allowed the keyboard instrument to better compete with a full orchestra. Cello concertos have been written since the Baroque era if not earlier. Among the works from that period, those by Antonio Vivaldi and Giuseppe Tartini are still part of the standard repertoire today.
The concerti of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach are perhaps the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of Mozart. C.P.E. Bach’s keyboard concerti contain some brilliant soloistic writing. Some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, and there are frequent cross-movement thematic references. Mozart, as a boy, made arrangements for harpsichord and orchestra of three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty, Mozart was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six sharply contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. He wrote one concerto each for flute, oboe (later rearranged for flute and known as Flute Concerto No. 2), clarinet, and bassoon, four for horn, a Concerto for Flute, Harp, and Orchestra, and a Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra. They all exploit and explore the characteristics of the solo instrument. His five violin concerti, written in quick succession, show a number of influences, notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have leanings towards folk music, as manifested in Austrian serenades. However, it was in his twenty-seven original piano concerti that he excelled himself. It is conventional to state that the first movements of concerti from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form.
In the romantic era, the concerto largely narrowed to three genres: the violin concerto, the cello concerto and the piano concerto. Virtually no major composer wrote concertos for wind instruments.
In the 19th century the concerto was a vehicle for virtuosic display flourished as never before. It was the age in which the artist was seen as hero, to be worshipped and adulated with rapture. Early Romantic traits can be found in the violin concertos of Viotti, but it is Spohr’s twelve violin concertos, written between 1802 and 1827, that truly embrace the Romantic spirit with their melodic as well as their dramatic qualities. Beethoven’s Violin Concerto is unique in its scale and melodic qualities. Recitative elements are often incorporated, showing the influence of Italian opera on purely instrumental forms. Mendelssohn opens his violin concerto (1844) with the singing qualities of the violin solo. Even later passage work is dramatic and recitative-like, rather than merely virtuosic. The wind instruments state the lyrical second subject over a low pedal G on the violin – certainly an innovation. The cadenza, placed at the start of the recapitulation, is fully written out and integrated into the structure. The great violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini was a legendary figure who, as a composer, exploited the technical potential of his instrument to its very limits. Each one exploits rhapsodic ideas but is unique in its own form. The Belgian violinist Henri Vieuxtemps contributed several works to this form. Édouard Lalo's Symphonie Espagnole (1875) displays virtuoso writing with a Spanish flavor. Max Bruch wrote three violin concertos, but it is the first, in G minor, that has remained a firm favorite in the repertoire. The opening movement relates so closely to the two remaining movements that it functions like an operatic prelude. Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto (1878) is a powerful work which succeeds in being lyrical as well as superbly virtuosic. In the same year Brahms wrote his violin concerto for the virtuoso Joseph Joachim. This work makes new demands on the player, so much so that when it was first written it was referred to as a "concerto against the violin". The first movement brings the concerto into the realm of symphonic development. The second movement is traditionally lyrical, and the finale is based on a lively Hungarian theme.
Since the Romantic era, the cello has received as much attention as the piano and violin as a concerto instrument, and many great Romantic and even more 20th century composers left examples. Antonín Dvořák’s cello concerto ranks among the supreme examples from the Romantic era while those of Robert Schumann, Carl Reinecke, David Popper, and Julius Klengel focus on the lyrical qualities of the instrument. Beethoven contributed to the repertoire with a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra while later in the century, Brahms wrote a Double Concerto for violin, cello and orchestra. The instrument was also popular with composers of the Franco-Belgian tradition: Saint-Saëns and Vieuxtemps wrote two cello concertos each and Lalo and Jongen one. Tchaikovsky’s contribution to the genre is a series of Variations on a Rococo Theme. He also left very fragmentary sketches of a projected Cello Concerto which was only completed in 2006. Elgar's popular concerto, while written in the early 20th century, belongs to the late romantic period stylistically. In addition, Ernest Bloch wrote Schelomo, Rhapsodie Hébraïque for cello solo and orchestra in the 20th century. Today's 'core' repertoire which is performed the most of any cello concertos are by Elgar, Dvořák, Saint-Saëns, Haydn, Shostakovich, Tchaikovsky and Schumann but there are many more concertos which are performed nearly as often (see below: cello concertos in the 20th century).
Beethoven’s five piano concertos increase the technical demands made on the soloist. The last two are particularly remarkable, integrating the concerto into a large symphonic structure with movements that frequently run into one another. His Piano Concerto no 4 starts, against tradition, with a statement by the piano, after which the orchestra magically enters in a foreign key, to present what would normally have been the opening tutti. The work has an essentially lyrical character. The slow movement is a dramatic dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. Concerto no 5 has the basic rhythm of a Viennese military march. There is no lyrical second subject, but in its place a continuous development of the opening material. He also wrote a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello, and orchestra. The piano concertos of Mendelssohn, Field, and Hummel provide a link from the Classical concerto to the Romantic concerto. Chopin wrote two piano concertos in which the orchestra is very much relegated to an accompanying role. Schumann, despite being a pianist-composer, wrote a piano concerto in which virtuosity is never allowed to eclipse the essential lyrical quality of the work. The gentle, expressive melody heard at the beginning on woodwind and horns (after the piano’s heralding introductory chords) bears the material for most of the argument in the first movement. In fact, argument in the traditional developmental sense is replaced by a kind of variation technique in which soloist and orchestra interweave their ideas. Liszt's mastery of piano technique matched that of Paganini for the violin. His concertos No. 1 and No. 2 left a deep impression on the style of piano concerto writing, influencing Rubinstein, and especially Tchaikovsky, whose first piano concerto's rich chordal opening is justly famous. Grieg’s concerto likewise begins in a striking manner after which it continues in a lyrical vein. Brahms's First Piano Concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended for a symphony. His Second Piano Concerto in B♭ major (1881) has four movements and is written on a larger scale than any earlier concerto. Like his violin concerto, it is symphonic in proportions. Fewer piano concertos were written in the late Romantic Period. But Grieg-inspired Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote 4 piano concertos between 1891 and 1926. His 2nd and 3rd, being the most popular of the 4, went on to become among the most famous in piano repertoire and shining examples of Russian musicianship.
Besides the usual three-movement works with the title "concerto", many 19th-century composers wrote shorter pieces for solo instrument and orchestra, often bearing descriptive titles. From around 1800 such pieces were often called Konzertstück or Phantasie by German composers. Liszt wrote the Totentanz for piano and orchestra, a paraphrase of the Dies Irae. Max Bruch wrote a popular Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra, César Franck wrote Les Djinns and Variations symphoniques, and Gabriel Fauré wrote a Ballade for piano and orchestra. Tchaikovsky's Variations on a Rococo Theme for cello and orchestra have an important place in the instrument's repertoire. Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini is widely considered to be structured similarly to a piano concerto.
Many of the concertos written in the early 20th century belong more to the late Romantic school than to any modernistic movement. Masterpieces were written by Edward Elgar (a violin concerto and a cello concerto), Sergei Rachmaninoff and Nikolai Medtner (four and three piano concertos, respectively), Jean Sibelius (a violin concerto), Frederick Delius (a violin concerto, a cello concerto, a piano concerto and a double concerto for violin and cello), Karol Szymanowski (two violin concertos and a "Symphonie Concertante" for piano), and Richard Strauss (two horn concertos, a violin concerto, Don Quixote —a tone poem which features the cello as a soloist— and among later works, an oboe concerto). However, in the first decades of the 20th century, several composers such as Debussy, Schoenberg, Berg, Hindemith, Stravinsky, Prokofiev and Bartók started experimenting with ideas that were to have far-reaching consequences for the way music is written and, in some cases, performed. Some of these innovations include a more frequent use of modality, the exploration of non-western scales, the development of atonality, the wider acceptance of dissonances, the invention of the twelve-tone technique of composition and the use of polyrhythms and complex time signatures. These changes also affected the concerto as a musical form. Beside more or less radical effects on musical language, they led to a redefinition of the concept of virtuosity in order to include new and extended instrumental techniques as well as a focus on aspects of sound that had been neglected or even ignored before such as pitch, timbre and dynamics. In some cases, they also brought about a new approach to the role of the soloist and its relation to the orchestra.
Two great innovators of early 20th-century music, Schoenberg and Stravinsky, both wrote violin concertos. The material in Schoenberg’s concerto, like that in Berg’s, is linked by the twelve-tone serial method. Bartók, another major 20th century composer, wrote two important concertos for violin. Russian composers Prokofiev and Shostakovich both wrote two concertos while Khachaturian wrote a concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody for the instrument. Hindemith’s concertos hark back to the forms of the 19th century, even if the harmonic language which he used was different. Three violin concertos from David Diamond show the form in neoclassical style. More recently, Dutilleux's L'Arbre des Songes has proved an important addition to the repertoire and a fine example of the composer's atonal yet melodic style. Other composers of major violin concertos include Jean Sibelius, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Walton, Benjamin Britten, Frank Martin, Carl Nielsen, Paul Hindemith, Alfred Schnittke, György Ligeti, Philip Glass, John Adams, and Kan-no.
In the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War, the cello enjoyed an unprecedented popularity. As a result, its concertante repertoire caught up with those of the piano and the violin both in terms of quantity and quality. An important factor in this phenomenon was the rise of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. His outstanding technique and passionate playing prompted dozens of composers to write pieces for him, first in his native Soviet Union and then abroad. His creations include such masterpieces as Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto, Dmitri Shostakovich's two cello concertos, Benjamin Britten's Cello-Symphony (which emphasizes, as its title suggests, the equal importance of soloist and orchestra), Henri Dutilleux' Tout un monde lointain, Witold Lutosławski's cello concerto, Dmitri Kabalevsky's two cello concertos, Aram Khachaturian's Concerto-Rhapsody, Arvo Pärt's Pro et Contra, Alfred Schnittke, André Jolivet and Krzysztof Penderecki second cello concertos, Sofia Gubaidulina's Canticles of the Sun, Luciano Berio's Ritorno degli Snovidenia, Leonard Bernstein's Three Meditations, James MacMillan's cello concerto and Olivier Messiaen's Concert à quatre (a quadruple concerto for cello, piano, oboe, flute and orchestra). In addition, several important composers who were not directly influenced by Rostropovich wrote cello concertos: György Ligeti, Alexander Glazunov, Paul Hindemith, Toru Takemitsu, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honegger, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Samuel Barber, Joaquín Rodrigo, Elliot Carter, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, William Walton, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Hans Werner Henze, Bernd Alois Zimmermann and Einojuhani Rautavaara for instance.
Schoenberg’s Piano Concerto is a well known example of piano concerti. In addition, Stravinsky wrote three works for solo piano and orchestra: Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments, Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra, and Movements for Piano and Orchestra. Prokofiev, another Russian composer, wrote no less than five piano concertos which he himself performed. Shostakovich composed two. Fellow soviet composer Khachaturian contributed to the repertoire with a piano concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody. Bartók also wrote three piano concertos. Like their violin counterparts, they show the various stages in his musical development. Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote concertos for piano and for two pianos while Britten's concerto for piano (1938) is a fine work from his early period. György Ligeti's concerto is a good example of a more recent piece (1985) that uses complex rhythms. Russian composer Rodion Shchedrin has written six piano concertos. Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara wrote three piano concertos, the third one dedicated to Vladimir Ashkenazy, who played and conducted the world première.
Concertos for other instruments
The 20th century also witnessed a growth of the concertante repertoire of instruments, some of which had seldom or never been used in this capacity. As a result, almost all the instruments of the classical orchestra now have a concertante repertoire. Examples include: • Alto saxophone Concerto:Creston, Dahl, Denisov, Dubois, Glazunov, Ibert, Koch, Larsson, Maslanka, Tomasi, Yoshimatsu • Bandoneón Concerto: Piazzolla • Baritone saxophone Concerto: Gaines • Bassoon Concerto: Aho, Eckhardt-Gramatté, Gubaidulina, Hétu, Jolivet, Davies, Panufnik, Sæverud, J. Williams • Bass clarinet Concerto: Bouliane • Bass oboe Concerto: Bryars
Concerto • Clarinet Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Copland, Denisov, Dusapin, Fairouz, Françaix, Hétu, Hindemith, Kan-no, Nielsen, Penderecki, Rautavaara, Stravinsky, Takemitsu, Tomasi, J. Williams • Contrabassoon Concerto: Aho, Erb • Cornet Concerto: Wright • Double bass Concerto: Aho, Bottesini, Dragonetti, Henze, Koussevitsky, Davies, Ohzawa Rautavaara, Tubin • Drum set Concerto : Beck • Euphonium Concerto: Cosma, Ewazen, Gillingham, Golland, Graham, Horovitz, Lindberg, Linkola, Sparke, Wilby. • Flute Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Denisov, Dusapin, Harman, Hétu, Ibert, Jolivet, Nielsen, Penderecki, Rautavaara, Rodrigo, Takemitsu, J. Williams • Free bass accordion Concerto: Serry, Sr. • Guitar Concerto: Arnold, Brouwer, Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Carulli, Giuliani, Hovhaness, Ohana, Ponce, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos • Harmonica Concerto: Arnold, Vaughan Williams, Villa-Lobos • Harp Concerto: Ginastera, Glière, Jongen, Milhaud, Jolivet, Rautavaara, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos • Harpsichord Concerto: de Falla, Glass, Górecki, Martinů, Poulenc • Horn Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Bowen, Carter, Davies, Glière, Gipps, Hindemith, Hovhaness, Jacob, Knussen, Ligeti, Murail, Penderecki, Strauss, Tomasi, J. Williams • Mandolin Concerto: Thile • Marimba Concerto: Creston, Larsen, Milhaud, Rosauro, Svoboda, Viñao • Oboe Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bouliane, Denisov, Harman, MacMillan, Maderna, Martinů, Penderecki, Shchedrin, Strauss, Vaughan Williams, Zimmermann • Organ Concerto: Arnold, Hanson, Harrison, Hétu, Hindemith, Jongen, Kan-no, MacMillan, Peeters, Poulenc, Rorem, Sowerby • Percussion Concerto: Aho, Glass, Jolivet, MacMillan, Milhaud, Rautavaara, Susman • Piccolo Concerto: Liebermann • Shakuhachi Concerto: Takemitsu • Sheng Concerto: Kan-no, Unsuk Chin. • Soprano saxophone Concerto: Mackey, Torke, Yoshimatsu. • Tenor saxophone Concerto: Bennett, Ewazen, Wilder. • Timpani Concerto : Druschetzky, Glass, Kraft, Rosauro • Trombone Concerto: Aho, Dusapin, Holmboe, Milhaud, Rota, Rouse, Tomasi, Rimsky-Korsakov, Grondahl • Trumpet Concerto:Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Böhme, Jolivet, Perry, Williams, Zimmermann • Tuba Concerto: Aho, Arutiunian, Holmboe, Vaughan Williams, J. Williams • Viola Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bartók, Denisov, Gubaidulina, Hindemith, Kan-no, Kancheli, Martinů, Milhaud, Murail, Penderecki, Schnittke, Takemitsu, Walton Among the works of the prolific composer Alan Hovhaness may be noted Prayer of St. Gregory for trumpet and strings. Today the concerto tradition has been continued by composers such as Maxwell Davies, whose series of Strathclyde Concertos exploit some of the instruments less familiar as soloists.
Concertos for orchestra
In the 20th century, several important composers wrote concertos for orchestra. In these works, different sections and/or instruments of the orchestra are treated at one point or another as soloists with emphasis on solo sections and/or instruments changing during the piece. Famous examples include those written by: • • • • • • • Bartók Kodály Lutoslawski Hindemith Carter Lindberg Shchedrin
Dutilleux has also described his Métaboles as a concerto for orchestra, while Britten's well-known pedagogical work The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is essentially a concerto for orchestra in all but name.
Concertos for two or more instruments
Many composers also wrote concertos for two or more soloists. In the Baroque era: • Vivaldi's concerti for 2, 3 or 4 violins, for 2 cellos, for 2 mandolins, for 2 trumpets, for 2 flutes, for oboe and bassoon, for cello and bassoon... etc. • Bach's concerti for 2 violins, for 2, 3, or 4 harpsichords as well as several of his Brandenburg concertos. In the Classical era: • Mozart's concerti for 2 pianos and 3 pianos, the Sinfonia concertante for violin and viola, and his concerto for flute and harp. • Salieri's Triple Concerto for oboe, violin and cello, and his double concerto for flute and oboe. In the Romantic era: • Beethoven's triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello. • Brahms's double concerto for violin and cello. • Bruch's double concerto for viola and clarinet. In the 20th century: • • • • • • • Malcolm Arnold's concerto for piano duet and strings, as well as his concerto for two violins and string orchestra Béla Bartók's concerto for two pianos and percussion Samuel Barber's Capricorn Concerto for flute, oboe and trumpet. Benjamin Britten's double concerto for violin and viola. Elliott Carter's double concerto for piano and harpsichord. Frederick Delius's double concerto for violin and cello. Jean Françaix's concerto for two pianos and another for two harps, as well as his Divertissement for string trio and orchestra, his Quadruple Concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and orchestra, his Double Concerto for flute and clarinet, and his Concerto for 15 Soloists and Orchestra • Philip Glass's concerto for saxophone quartet. • Hans Werner Henze's double concerto for oboe and harp. • Paul Hindemith's concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, harp, and orchestra as well as his concerto for trumpet, bassoon, and strings • Gustav Holst's Fugal Concerto for flute, oboe and string orchestra • György Kurtág's double concerto for piano and cello.
Concerto • • • • • Lowell Liebermann's concerto for flute and harp György Ligeti's double concerto for flute and oboe. Jon Lord's concerto for rock band. Witold Lutosławski's concerto for oboe and harp. Bohuslav Martinu's concerto for string quartet, concertino for piano trio and string orchestra, two concertante duos for two violins, concerto for two pianos, sinfonia concertante No. 2 for violin, cello, oboe, bassoon and orchestra with piano, and his concerto for violin and piano. Olivier Messiaen's Concert à quatre for piano, cello, oboe and flute. Darius Milhaud's Symphonie concertante for bassoon, horn, trumpet and double bass, as well as his concerti for flute and violin, and for marimba and vibraphone. Francis Poulenc's concerto for two pianos. Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto madrigal for 2 guitars and Concierto Andaluz for 4 guitars. William Russo's concerto for blues band. Alfred Schnittke's double concerto for oboe, harp, and strings as well as his Konzert zu Dritt, for violin, viola, violoncello and strings. Rodion Shchedrin's double concerto for piano and cello. Michael Tippett's triple concerto for violin, viola, and cello.
• • • • • • • •
In the 21st century: • • • • Leo Brouwer's Guitar Concerto No. 10 "Book of Signs", for two guitars Mohammed Fairouz's Double Concerto 'States of Fantasy' for violin and cello William P. Perry's Gemini Concerto for violin and piano Karl Jenkins' Over the Stone for two harps
• Anthology of 20th century violin concertos  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Concerto". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
 http:/ / www. violinconcerto. de
A concertino (or Konzertstück) is a short concerto freer in form. It normally takes the form of a one-movement musical composition for solo instrument and orchestra, though some concertinos are written in several movements played without a pause.
Listed by composer: • • • • • • • • Cécile Chaminade: Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in D major Ferdinand David: Concertino for Trombone and Bassoon Lorenzo Ferrero: Three Baroque Buildings (1997) for trumpet, bassoon and string orchestra Ferrero: Rastrelli in Saint Petersburg (2000) for oboe and string orchestra Ferrero: Two Cathedrals in the South (2001) for trumpet and string orchestra Ferrero: Guarini, the Master (2004) for violin and string orchestra Leoš Janáček: Concertino for piano and chamber ensemble Julius Klengel: Concertino for Cello in C major
• Carl Maria von Weber: Concertino in C minor/E flat for Clarinet and Orchestra • Weber: Concertino in E minor for Horn and Orchestra • Weber: Konzertstück in F minor for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 79, J. 282 (later arranged for solo piano by Franz Liszt, S. 576a) • Gilad Hochman: Concertino for String Orchestra and Flute Obbligato (2003). 
 Recording (http:/ / giladhochman. com/ audio/ concertino. htm)
The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). This is in contrast to the concerto which features a single solo instrument with the melody line, accompanied by the orchestra. The form developed in the late seventeenth century, although the name was not used at first. Alessandro Stradella seems to have written the first music in which two groups of different sizes are combined in the characteristic way. The name was first used by Giovanni Lorenzo Gregori in a set of 10 compositions published in Lucca in 1698 . The first major composer to use the term concerto grosso was Arcangelo Corelli. After Corelli's death, a collection of twelve of his concerti grossi was published; not long after, composers such as Francesco Geminiani, Pietro Locatelli and Giuseppe Torelli wrote concertos in the style of Corelli. He also had a strong influence on Antonio Vivaldi. Two distinct forms of the concerto grosso exist: the concerto da chiesa (church concert) and the concerto da camera (chamber concert). (See also Sonata for a discussion about sonatas da camera and da chiesa.) The concerto da chiesa alternated slow and fast movements; the concerto da camera had the character of a suite, being introduced by a prelude and incorporating popular dance forms. These distinctions blurred over time. Corelli's concertino group was invariably two violins and a cello, with a string section as ripieno group. Both were accompanied by a basso continuo with some combination of harpsichord, organ, lute or theorbo. Handel wrote several collections of concerti grossi, and several of the Brandenburg Concertos by Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form. The concerto grosso form was superseded by the solo concerto and the sinfonia concertante in the late eighteenth century, and new examples of the form did not appear for more than a century. In the twentieth century, the concerto grosso has been used by composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Ernest Bloch, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Bohuslav Martinů, Malcolm Williamson, Henry Cowell, Alfred Schnittke, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Andrei Eshpai, Eino Tamberg, Krzysztof Penderecki, Jean Françaix and Philip Glass. While Edward Elgar may not be considered a modern composer, his romantic Introduction and Allegro strongly resembled the instrumentation setup of a concerto grosso.
 Treccani Dizionario Biografico (http:/ / www. treccani. it/ enciclopedia/ giovanni-lorenzo-gregori_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ )
• Bennett, R. (1995). Investigating Musical Styles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Concerto for orchestra
Concerto for orchestra
Although a concerto is usually a piece of music for one or more solo instruments accompanied by a full orchestra, several composers have written works with the apparently contradictory title Concerto for Orchestra. This title is usually chosen to emphasise soloistic and virtuosic treatment of various individual instruments or sections in the orchestra, with emphasis on instruments changing during the piece. For the distinction between the Concerto for Orchestra and the Sinfonia Concertante genres (or: forms): see sinfonia concertante The best known Concerto for Orchestra is the one by Béla Bartók (1943), although the title had been used several times before. Goffredo Petrassi made the concerto for orchestra something of a speciality, writing eight of them since 1933. He finished the last one in 1972.
Concertos for Orchestra (in chronological order)
• Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 38 by Paul Hindemith (1925) • Concerto for Orchestra, by Tadeusz Szeligowski (1930) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Concerto for Orchestra, by Gian Francesco Malipiero (1931) Philharmonic Concerto, also by Paul Hindemith (1932) Concerto per orchestra in Do maggiore by Mario Pilati (1933) Concerto for Orchestra by Walter Piston (1933), which is based in part on Hindemith's work Concerto for Orchestra by Zoltán Kodály (1939) Concerto for Orchestra by Béla Bartók (1943) Concerto for String Orchestra by Grażyna Bacewicz (1948) Concerto for String Orchestra by Alan Rawsthorne (1949) Concerto No.1 for Orchestra 'Arevakal', Op. 88 by Alan Hovhaness (1951) Concerto No.7 for Orchestra, Op. 116 by Alan Hovhaness (1953) Concerto for Orchestra by Witold Lutosławski (1950–54, which won him the UNESCO 1st prize in 1963. Concerto No.8 for Orchestra, Op. 117 by Alan Hovhaness (1957) Concerto for Orchestra by Giya Kancheli (1961) Concerto for Orchestra by Grażyna Bacewicz (1962) Concerto for Orchestra by Michael Tippett (1962–63) Concerto for Orchestra No. 1 by Rodion Shchedrin (1963), subtitled "Naughty Limericks" Concerto for Orchestra by Havergal Brian (1964) Concerto for Orchestra by Roberto Gerhard (1965) Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 8 by Robin Holloway (1967) Concerto for Orchestra by Thea Musgrave (1967) Concerto for Orchestra by Elliott Carter (1969) Concerto for orchestra by Anthony Payne (1974) Second Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 40 by Robin Holloway (1978) Concerto for Orchestra by Roger Sessions (1979–81), which won him the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1982 Concerto for Orchestra by John McCabe (1982) Concerto for Orchestra by Edward Gregson (1983) (revised versions 1989 and 2001) Concerto for Orchestra by Robert Saxton (1984)
• Concerto for Orchestra by Karel Husa (1986) • 1st Concerto for Orchestra by Steven Stucky (1986–87)
Concerto for orchestra • Concerto for Orchestra by Leonard Bernstein (1986–89), which is also known as "Jubilee Games" for orchestra and baritone • Concerto for Orchestra (Variations without a theme) by Denys Bouliane (1985–95) • Concerto for Orchestra by Joan Tower (1991) • Third Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 80 by Robin Holloway (1981–94) • Concerto for Orchestra (Zoroastrian Riddles) by Richard Danielpour (1996) • Strathclyde Concerto No. 10: Concerto for Orchestra by Peter Maxwell Davies (1996), actually a series of ten concertos for soloists from the orchestra • Concerto for Orchestra (reseated) by Augusta Read Thomas (1998) • Concerto for Orchestra by Stanisław Skrowaczewski (1999) • Concerto for Orchestra by Menachem Zur (2001-2002) (revised version 2010) • Boston Concerto by Elliott Carter (2002) • Concerto for Orchestra by Jennifer Higdon (2002) • Yi°: Concerto for Orchestra by Tan Dun (2002) • Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 81 by Lowell Liebermann (2002) • Concerto for Orchestra by Magnus Lindberg (2003) • 2nd Concerto for Orchestra by Steven Stucky (2003, which won him the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 2005 • • • • • • • • • Concerto for Orchestra by David Horne (2003–04) Concerti for Orchestra by Milton Babbitt (2004) Concierto para orquestra by Agustí Charles (2004) Concerto for Orchestra by Alejandro Arguello (2004–05) Fourth Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 101 by Robin Holloway (2004–06) Concerto for Orchestra by Christopher Rouse (2007–2008) Concerto for Orchestra by Rolf Martinsson (2008) Symphony No. 5 (Concerto for Orchestra) by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (2008) Fifth Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 107 by Robin Holloway (2009–10)
For string orchestra • Concerto in D by Igor Stravinsky (1946) For chamber orchestra • Concerto for Chamber Orchestra by George Antheil (1932) • Chamber Concerto by György Ligeti (1969-70) • Concerto for Orchestra by John Woolrich (1999)
Sinfonia concertante is a musical form that emerged during the Classical period of Western music. It is essentially a mixture of the symphony and the concerto genres: a concerto in that one or more soloists (in the classical period, usually more than one) are on prominent display, and a symphony in that the soloists are nonetheless discernibly a part of the total ensemble and not preeminent. The form was developed by Joseph Bo(u)logne, Chevalier de St. George.
In the Baroque period, the differences between a concerto and a sinfonia (also "symphony") were initially not all that clear. The word sinfonia would, for example, be used as the name for an overture to a stage work. Antonio Vivaldi wrote "concertos" which did not highlight individual soloists and which were stylistically more or less indistinguishable from his "sinfonias." The Baroque genre that comes closest to the Classical sinfonia concertante is the concerto grosso; among the most famous of these are those by Arcangelo Corelli. By the Classical period (roughly 1750-1800), both the symphony and the concerto had acquired more definite meanings, and the concerto grosso had disappeared altogether. This led in the last decades of the 18th century to attempts to combine the two genres, such as those by composers of the Mannheim school. Johann Christian Bach (the so-called "London Bach" and youngest son of Johann Sebastian) was publishing symphonies concertantes in Paris from the early 1770s on. Mozart, acquainted with the Mannheim school from 1777 and probably not unaware of J.C. Bach's publications, put considerable effort into attempts to produce convincing sinfonie concertanti. His most successful are the following: • Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364 (the only one Mozart is actually considered to have finished that exists in an authentic copy). • Sinfonia Concertante for Oboe, Clarinet, Horn, Bassoon and Orchestra K. 297b (known from an arrangement, possibly inauthentic). Joseph Haydn, who wrote over 100 symphonies as well as a number of concertos for all kinds of instruments, produced three sinfonie concertanti. However, these works draw much more upon the concerto grosso tradition than the more symphonic treatment of the genre by Mozart. Beethoven did not write anything designated as a sinfonia concertante, although some feel his Triple Concerto qualifies for inclusion in the genreTriple.
Few composers still called their compositions sinfonia concertante after the classical music era. However, some works such as Hector Berlioz' Harold in Italy, for viola and orchestra approach the genre. Camille Saint-Saëns' Symphony No. 3 features an organ that is partially immersed in the orchestral sound, but also has several distinct solo passages. The second half of this work also features a semi-soloistic part for piano four hands. By the end of the 19th century, several French composers had started using the sinfonia concertante technique in symphonic poems, for example, Saint-Saëns uses a violin in Danse macabre, and César Franck a piano in Les Djinns. Richard Strauss' Don Quixote (1897) uses several soloists to depict the main characters, namely cello, viola, bass clarinet and tenor tuba. Édouard Lalo's most known work, the Symphonie Espagnole, is in fact a sinfonia concertante for violin and orchestra.
Sinfonia concertante A work in the same vein, but with the piano taking the "concertante" part is Vincent d'Indy's Symphonie Cévenole (Symphony on a French Mountain Air). Likewise, Henry Litolff wrote five Concerto Symphoniques, also with a piano obbligato,. Max Bruch explored the boundaries of the solistic and symphonic genres in the Scottish Fantasy (violin soloist), Kol Nidrei (cello soloist), and Serenade (violin soloist).
In the 20th century, some composers such as George Enescu, Darius Milhaud, Frank Martin, Edmund Rubbra, William Walton and Malcolm Williamson again used the name sinfonia concertante for their compositions. Martin's work, more reminiscent of the classical works with multiple soloists, features a piano, a harpsichord, and a harp. Karol Szymanowski also composed a sinfonia concertante (for solo piano and orchestra), also known as his Symphony No. 4 "Symphonie-Concertante." Other examples include Joseph Jongen's 1926 Symphonie Concertante Op. 81, with an organ soloist, the Sinfonia Concertante (Symphony No. 4), for flute, harp and small string orchestra by Andrzej Panufnik written in 1973, and Peter Maxwell Davies's Sinfonia Concertante for wind quintet, timpani and string orchestra of 1982. The Czech composer Bohuslav Martinů wrote two works in this genre: Sinfonia Concertante for Two Orchestras, H. 219 (1932) and Sinfonia Concertante No. 2 in B-flat major for Violin, Cello, Oboe, Bassoon and Orchestra with Piano, H. 322 (1949). In fact, all of the composer's symphonies feature a piano, as do most of his orchestral works, but the two afore-mentioned works were the only two in his output which he labelled concertante symphonies. Prokofiev called his work for cello and orchestra Symphony-Concerto, stressing its serious symphonic character, in contrast to the light character of the Classical period sinfonia concertante. Britten's Cello Symphony and Zwilich's Symphony No. 4 also showcase a solo cello within the context of a full-scale symphony. Also P. D. Q. Bach produced a (spoofical) "Sinfonia Concertante" utilizing lute, balalaika, double reed slide music stand, ocarina, left-handed sewer flute, and bagpipes.
1. For example, in the explanatory notes from the booklet to the CD "BEETHOVEN - Triple Concerto/Choral Fantasia" (Capriccio Classic Productions No. 180240, 1988).
The ripieno concerto is a somewhat later type of Baroque music, the term concerto here reverting to its earlier meaning of work for an ensemble. The word ripieno is from the Italian for "padding". The concerto ripieno was sometimes referred to as a "concerto à quatre" (or "à cinque" if the orchestra included two viola parts, a standard scoring in the 17th century). These were merely compositions for the ripieno alone (i.e. for string orchestra and continuo), with either no solo parts or clearly subsidiary ones. Beginning with the six ripieno concertos of Giuseppe Torelli’s op. 5 (1692), this genre enjoyed an efflorescence that extended until about 1740.
Most ripieno concertos fall into one of two distinct classes: a sonata type and a sinfonia type. The sonata type generally mirrors the form and style of the "sonata da chiesa" in its use of four-movement slow-fast-slow-fast cycles and predominantly fugal texture. The more modern sinfonia type was firmly established in Torelli’s second publication to include concertos, op. 6 (1698), and in Giulio Taglietti’s Concerti a Quattro op. 4 (1699), which turn to the three-movement (fast-slow-fast) pattern and more homophonic texture familiar to us from the solo concerto and opera sinfonia. The opening movements also parallel the solo concerto in utilizing ritornello form (without solo sections), in which the opening material recurs from one to several times in various keys, the last statement normally in the tonic. Finales are most often binary in form and dancelike in style. The sinfonia type gradually merged with the early concert symphony beginning in the 1720s, doubtless in part because the term concerto was by that time acquiring an indelible association with the notion of tutti-solo contrast. A special class of 20th century concertos is the concerto for orchestra. These works are not for the most part ripieno concertos in the Baroque sense but rather display pieces in which the orchestra itself is the virtuoso, from soloists to sections of the orchestra, choirs or tutti. Examples of this genre, best known through Bartok’s popular work of 1943, include compositions by Hindemith (1925), Walter Piston (1933), Zoltan Kodaly (1939–40), Michael Tippett (1962–63), and Elliott Carter (1969). In the latter piece, Carter dramatically personifies or characterizes the various concertino groupings, a technique he had previously explored in his Double Concerto for harpsichord and piano (1961) and his Piano Concerto (1964–65).
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music
A solo concerto is a concerto in which a single soloist is accompanied by an orchestra. It is the most frequent type of concerto. It originated in the Baroque Period (approximately 1600-1750) as an alternative to the traditional concertino (solo group of instruments) in a concerto grosso. A typical concerto has three movements, traditionally fast, slow and lyrical, and fast. There are many examples of concertos that do not conform to this plan.
The earliest known solo concertos are nos. 6 and 12 of Giuseppe Torelli’s op. 6 of 1698. These works employ both a three-movement cycle and clear (if diminutive) ritornello form, like that of the ripieno concerto except that sections for the soloist and continuo separate the orchestral ritornellos. Active in Bologna, Torelli would have known of the operatic arias and the numerous sonatas and sinfonias for trumpet and strings produced in Bologna since the 1660s. He himself composed more than a dozen such works for trumpet, two dated in the early 1690s. Other early violin concertos are the four in Tomaso Albinoni’s op. 2 (1700) and the six in Torelli’s important op. 8 (1709 - the other six works in this set are double concertos for two violins). The most influential and prolific composer of concertos during the Baroque period was the Venetian Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741). In addition to his nearly 60 extant ripieno concertos, Vivaldi composed approximately 425 concertos for one or more soloists, including about 350 solo concertos (two-thirds for solo violin) and 45 double concertos (over half for two violins). Vivaldi’s concertos firmly establish the three-movement form as the norm. The virtuosity of the solo sections increases markedly, especially in the later works, and concurrently the texture becomes more homophonic. Concertos for instruments other than violin began to appear early in the 18th century, including the oboe concertos of George Frideric Handel and the numerous concertos for flute, oboe, bassoon, cello, and other instruments by Vivaldi. The earliest organ concertos can probably be credited to Handel (16 concertos, ca. 1735-51), the earliest harpsichord concertos to Johann Sebastian Bach (14 concertos for one to four harpsichords, ca. 1735-40). In the latter case, all but probably one of the concertos are arrangements of existing works, though Bach had already approached the idea of a harpsichord concerto before 1721 in the Brandenburg Concerto no. 5.
The Classical period brought the triumph of the solo concerto over the group or multiple concerto, assisted by the continued rise of the virtuoso soloist and the growing demand for up-to-date works for performance by amateurs. The former trend appears most obviously in the large number of violin concertos written by violinists for their own use. The Classical period also witnessed the rise of the keyboard concerto. Until about 1770, the preferred stringed keyboard instrument was usually the harpsichord, but it was gradually supplanted by the piano. The most important composers of keyboard concertos before Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were Bach’s sons. Vienna saw the production of many keyboard concertos. The last decades of the 18th century brought the rise of traveling piano virtuosos. The concertos of this period show a broad transition from Baroque to Classical style, though many are more conservative than contemporaneous symphonies. Most are in three movements, though a significant minority adopt lighter two-movement patterns such as Allegro-Minuet and Allegro-Rondo. Dance and rondo finales are also frequent in three-movement concertos.
Solo concerto Joseph Haydn’s concertos are mostly from his early career. Exceptions are the Piano Concerto in D, the Cello Concerto in D, and the Trumpet Concerto. Of Mozart’s 23 original piano concertos, 17 date from his Viennese period. They are the crowning achievement of the concerto in the 18th century. Most of the works he wrote for Vienna are of a type that Mozart called grand concertos. These were intended for performance at his own subscription concerts, which were held in sizeable halls. They call for an orchestra that is much larger than a typical concerto of the time, especially in the expanded role assigned to the winds. The orchestra is rendered fully capable of sustaining a dramatic confrontation with the virtuosity and individuality of the soloist. Mozart’s approach in these concertos is often clearly symphonic, both in the application of formal symphonic principles, and in a Haydnesque interest in thematic unity in the later concertos. The range of styles and expression is greater than that of most other concertos of the period, from the comic-opera elements of K.467 to the Italianate lyricism of K.488, the tragic character of K.466 and 491 to the Beethovenian heroism of K.503. Ludwig van Beethoven’s five piano concertos date from between about 1793 and 1809, (there is an early work from 1784). They are longer than Mozart's concertos, and call for even more virtuosity from the soloist. Beethoven’s Violin Concerto (1806) exhibits similar achievements - Mozart’s five violin concertos are all early works written in Salzburg in 1775.
Early Romantic concertos include Mendelssohn’s two piano concertos (1831–37) and his important Violin Concerto (1844) and Schumann's concertos for piano (1845), cello (1850), and violin (1853). The form of these works is predominantly in the Classical three-movements. Later works in this mould include examples by Johannes Brahms (two for piano - No. 1 from 1858 and No. 2 from 1878 which adds a fourth movement - and one for violin of 1878), Edvard Grieg (piano, 1868), Max Bruch (most famously his Violin Concerto No. 1, 1868), and Antonín Dvořák (piano, violin, cello, 1876–95). In France this tradition is represented primarily by Camille Saint-Saëns (ten concertos for piano, violin, and cello, 1858–1902), in Russia by Anton Rubinstein and Tchaikovsky (three piano concertos, one for violin, 1874–93). A more overtly virtuosic trend appeared in the concertos of brilliant violinists in the 19th century including Louis Spohr and Niccolò Paganini and pianists Frédéric Chopin (two concertos, 1829–30) and Franz Liszt (two concertos, original versions 1839-49). The movement structure in most of these works is in the by-now conventional ritornello-sonata type perfected by Mozart and Beethoven. Liszt’s two concertos, however, are unconventional, in that the first concerto's five sections are connected both formally and thematically, and the second utilizes a still freer sectional structure. The first concerto in particular shows the influence of such continuous composite forms as those of Weber’s Konzertstuck and Schubert’s Wanderer Fantasy. The virtuosity required by all these concertos was facilitated by—and helped to spur—technical developments in the instruments themselves.
Numerous works of the 20th century were written in the vein of the 19th century Romantic concertos - and often using its forms and styles - including concertos by Sergei Rachmaninoff (four piano concertos, 1890–1926), Jean Sibelius (violin, 1903), Edward Elgar (violin 1909-10, cello 1919), Carl Nielsen (violin, flute, clarinet), Sergei Prokofiev (five for piano, 1911–32; two for violin 1916-17 and 1935), William Walton (viola, violin, cello), Dmitri Shostakovich (two each for piano, violin, and cello), and Francis Poulenc (organ). The virtuoso tradition mirrored in these concertos is also obvious, though in radically original guise, in the concertos of Béla Bartók. Rachmaninov, Prokofiev and Bartók were all piano virtuosos. The composers of the Second Viennese School also produced several prominent concertos: Alban Berg’s Chamber Concerto for piano, violin, and 13 winds (1923–25), not fully serial but incorporating many elements of Arnold Schoenberg’s new system; Anton Webern’s Concerto for nine instruments (1931–34), originally intended as a piano
Solo concerto concerto; Berg’s important Violin Concerto (1935); and Schoenberg’s own Violin Concerto (1935–36) and Piano Concerto (1942). The neoclassical movement of the period following World War I produced a long series of works that returned to pre-Romantic conceptions of the concerto. Igor Stravinsky’s Concerto for Piano and Winds (1923–24) is in this idiom, but his subsequent concertos are more specifically neo-Baroque in character. His Violin Concerto (1931), for example, comprises a Toccata, two Arias, and a Capriccio, and the soloist is treated more as a member of the ensemble than as a virtuoso protagonist. The solo concertos of Paul Hindemith (8 for various instruments, 1939–62) are more traditional than Stravinsky's in their treatment of the relationship between soloist and orchestra. Though hardly neoclassical in the usual sense, Richard Strauss’ Horn Concerto no. 2 (1942, written some 60 years after his first) and Oboe Concerto (1945) also reach back to an earlier era, finding nostalgic inspiration in the wind concertos of Mozart. A tendency related to the neoclassical rejection of Romantic and traditional features is the use of jazz elements in many 20th century concertos. George Gershwin was a pioneer for such works, in for example his Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and Concerto in F for piano (1925) . Jazz is a source of inspiration for Aaron Copland’s Piano Concerto in G (1929–31), Stravinsky’s Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945).
The New Harvard Dictionary of Music
A student concerto is a concerto for any instrument written for musicians who have not yet reached the virtuosity that a more advanced musician may have. One example of a student concerto is Friedrich Seitz's Student Concerti for violin.
Concertos by instrument
Bass oboe concerto
The bass oboe, a relative of the oboe having the same note compass as the latter, is able to play any work written for oboe - it will, however, sound an octave lower. In addition a very small number of concertos have been written for the bass oboe and for a related instrument with the same range, the Heckelphone. These include the following:
• Concerto for Bass Oboe, The East Coast, by Gavin Bryars • Concerto for Heckelphone and Orchestra (1979), opus 60 by Hans Mielenz • Concertino for Heckelphone and String Orchestra by Henri Wolking
A bassoon concerto is a concerto for bassoon accompanied by a musical ensemble, typically orchestra. Like bassoon sonatas, bassoon concerti were relatively uncommon until the twentieth century, although there are quite a few bassoon concerti from the Classical period. Some contemporary bassoon concerti are scored for solo bassoon and wind or string orchestras.
• • • • • Michel Corrette, Concerto in D Major Le Phénix for four bassoons and continuo Caspar Förster, Concerto  Johann Gottlieb Graun, Concerto in C Major  Christoph Graupner, Four Bassoon Concerti in C Major, GWV 301 , C Minor,    GWV 307 , G Major, GWV 328 and B flat Major, GWV 340  Franz Horneck, Concerto in E flat Major • • • • • František Jiránek, Bassoon Concerti in G Minor and F Major Antonín Jiránek, Four Bassoon Concerti Johann Melchior Molter, Concerto in B flat Major,  MWV 6.35 Antonín Reichenauer, Three Bassoon Concerti in C  Major, F Major, and G Minor Antonio Vivaldi, 37 Bassoon Concerti, RV  466-504 (RV 468 and 482 incomplete)
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Johann Christian Bach, Two Bassoon Concerti in E flat Major (W  C82) and B flat Major (W C83) Capel Bond, Bassoon Concerto No. 6 in B flat Major (1766) Bernhard Henrik Crusell, Bassoon Concertino in B flat Major Franz Danzi, Three Bassoon Concerti in F Major, C Major and G Minor François Devienne, Five Bassoon Concerti Luigi Gatti, Bassoon Concerto in F Major, L7:e4
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Bassoon Concerto (1774)
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Johann Baptist Georg Neruda, Concerto in C Major Johann Heinrich Christian Rinck, Concerto 
Antonio Rosetti, Bassoon Concerti (C69, C73-C75) Carl Stamitz, Bassoon Concerto in F Major Johann Baptist Vanhal, Bassoon Concerto in C Major, Concerto for Two Bassoons and Orchestra Anselm Viola, Concerto in F Major (1791) Johann Christoph Vogel, Concerto in C Major
Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Bassoon Concerto in F Major, S. 63/WoO • 23 Leopold Kozeluch, Two Bassoon Concerti in B flat Major, P V:B1 and C Major, P V:C1 Gustav Heinrich Kummer, Concerto in F Major  •
• • • Ferdinand David, Concertino, Op. 12 (1838) Johann Nepomuk Fuchs, Concerto in B flat Major Ludwig Milde, Concerto in A Minor • • • Giachino Rossini, Bassoon Concerto (attributed to Rossini, authenticity  questionable) Carl Maria von Weber, Bassoon Concerto in F Major, Op. 75 (1811) Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, Suite-concertino in F Major, Op. 16 (1932)
• • • • • • Dieter Acker, Concerto (1979, rev. 1980) Murray Adaskin, Concerto (1960) Raffaele d'Alessandro, Concerto, Op. 75 (1956) David Amram, Concerto (1970) Allyson Applebaum, Concerto (1995) Tony Aubin, Concerto della Brughiera (1965)  • • • • • • John Joubert, Concerto, Op. 77 (1973) Ernest Kanitz, Concerto (1962) Jouni Kaipainen, Concerto (2005) Yuri Kasparov, Concerto (1996) Manfred Kelkel, Concerto, Op. 13 (1965) 
Carson Kievman, Concerto for Bassoon (and Fire Alarm System)  for bassoon and percussion ensemble (1973) Lev Knipper, Concerto for Bassoon and Strings (1969) Rudolf Komorous, Concerto Ezra Laderman, Concerto (1954) Lars-Erik Larsson, Concertino, Op. 45, No. 4 (1955) Ray Luke, Concerto (1965) Mathieu Lussier, Double Concerto for Trumpet (or Flute) and  Bassoon Ernst Mahle, Concertino (1980) Jeff Manookian, Concerto  (2008) 
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Tzvi Avni, Concerto (2002) Conrad Baden, Concerto, Op. 126 (1980) Henk Badings, Concerto for Bassoon, Contrabassoon and Wind Orchestra (1964) Larry Bell, Concerto, Op. 45 The Sentimental Muse (1997) Alain Bernaud, Concertino (1962) Umberto Bertoni, Concerto
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Bernard van Beurden, Concerto for Bassoon and Wind Ensemble Judith Bingham, Concerto (1998) Marcel Bitsch, Concertino for Bassoon and Orchestra (1948) Alexander Blechinger, Concerto, Op. 111 Daniel Börtz, Concerto for Bassoon and Band (1978-79)
Per Mårtensson, Concerto (2002) Peter Maxwell Davies, Strathclyde Concerto No. 8 (1993) Chiel Meijering, "Neo-Geo" Concerto Francisco Mignone, Concertino (1957) Oskar Morawetz, Concerto (1995)
Eugène Bozza, Concertino for Bassoon and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 49 (1946) Colin Brumby, Concerto
• Victor Bruns, Four Bassoon Concerti, Op. 5 (1933), Op. 15 (1946), Op. 41 (1966) and Op. 83 (1986), and Contrabassoon Concerto, Op. 98 (1992) Glen Buhr, Concerto (1996) Henri Büsser, Concertino, Op. 80 Frits Celis, Concertino, Op. 38 for bassoon, violin, viola and cello (1992) André Chini, Goëlette de jade Concerto for Bassoon and Strings (1999-2000) Wilson Coker, Concertino for Bassoon and String Trio (1959)
Marjan Mozetich, Concerto for Bassoon and Strings with Marimba  (2003) Ray Næssén, Concerto for Bassoon and Wind Band Andrzej Panufnik, Concerto (1984) (in memory of Jerzy Popiełuszko) Boris Papandopulo, Concerto Jiří Pauer, Concerto (1949)
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Jean-Louis Petit, Les Paradis Se Rencontrent, Ils Ne Se Fabriquent Pas Concertino for Bassoon and Mandolin Orchestra with  Contrabass (2002), Concertino for Bassoon and Orchestra Craig Phillips, Concerto (2002) Johnterryl Plumeri, Concerto Arthur Polson, Concerto Amando Blanquer Ponsoda, Concerto (1977) Augusto Rattembach, Concierto con algo de Tango Alan Ridout, Concertino 
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Dinos Constantinides, Concerto, LRC 154a Andrzej Dobrowolski, Concerto (1953) Franco Donatoni, Concerto (1952) Pierre Max Dubois, Concerto Ironico (1968) Jack Curtis Dubowsky, Concerto (2005) 
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Sophie Carmen Eckhardt-Gramatté, Triple-Concerto for Trumpet,  Clarinet, Bassoon, Strings and Timpani, E. 123 (1949); Concerto  for Bassoon and Orchestra, E. 124/125 (1950) Helmut Eder, Concerto, Op. 49 Anders Eliasson, Concerto (1982) John Fairlie, Concerto Jindřich Feld, Concerto (1953) John Fernström, Concerto, Op. 80 (1945) Eric Fogg, Concerto (1931) Bjørn Fongaard, Concerto for Bassoon and Orchestra, Op. 120, No. 12; Concerto for Bassoon and Tape, Op. 131, No. 10 Jean Françaix, Divertissement for Bassoon and String Orchestra (1942), Concerto for Bassoon and 11 String Instruments (1979) Stephen Frost, Concerto (1999, rev. 2004) Anis Fuleihan, Concertino (1965) Launy Grøndahl, Concerto (1942)  
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Jean Rivier, Concerto (1964) Marcel Rubin, Concerto
Nino Rota, Concerto (1974-77) Harald Sæverud, Concerto, Op. 44 (1964) Stellan Sagvik, Svensk (ängermanlänsk) Concertino, Op. 114e (1982) Friedrich Schenker, Concerto (1970) Gunther Schuller, Concerto "Eine Kleine Fagottmusik" (1985) Maurice Shoemaker, Concerto (1947) 
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Thomas Sleeper, Concerto (1993)
Gunnar Sønstevold, Concertino (1973) Michał Spisak, Concerto (1944)   Concertino for Two
Sofia Gubaidulina, Concerto for Bassoon and Low Strings (1975)
Allan Stephenson, Concerto (1990), Bassoons and Orchestra (1999)
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Aharon Harlap, Concerto (2004)
Franklin Stover, Double Concerto for Bassoon, Contrabassoon and Orchestra (2010) Stjepan Šulek, Concerto (1958) Christopher Theofanidis, Concerto (1997-2002) Henri Tomasi, Concerto (1961) Marc Vaubourgoin, Concerto (1963)  
Bernard Heiden, Concerto (1990) Jacques Hétu, Concerto (1979) Frigyes Hidas, Concerto for Bassoon and Wind Ensemble (1999) Paul Hindemith, Concerto for Bassoon and Trumpet (1949) Peter Hope, Concertino Caleb Hugo, Concerto 
Stanley Weiner, Concerto, Op. 21 (1969) John Williams, The Five Sacred Trees (1995) Guy Woolfenden, Concerto (1999) León Zuckert, Concerto (1976) Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, Concerto (1992)  
Bertold Hummel, Concerto, Op. 27b Gordon Jacob, Concerto (1947) André Jolivet, Concerto (1951)
Gerhard Wuensch, Concerto (1976)
Other famous pieces for bassoon and orchestra include Berwald's Konzertstück , Elgar's Romance, Villa-Lobos's Ciranda Das Sete Notas, and Weber's Andante e Rondo Ongarese (sometimes considered a concerto).
 http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_C_major_(Graun,_Johann_Gottlieb)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_C_major,_GWV_301_(Graupner,_Christoph)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_C_minor,_GWV_307_(Graupner,_Christoph)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_G_major,_GWV_328_(Graupner,_Christoph)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_B-flat_major,_GWV_340_(Graupner,_Christoph)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_E-flat_major_(Horneck,_Franz)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_B-flat_major,_MWV_6. 35_(Molter,_Johann_Melchior)  Reichenauer on IMSLP (http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Category:Reichenauer,_AntonÃn)  List of compositions by Antonio Vivaldi  List of compositions by Johann Christian Bach  Rinck Concerto, ed. Lottridge (http:/ / www. reallygoodmusic. com/ rgm. jsp?page=itemDetail& iid=129247)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Bassoon_Concerto_in_F_major_(Kummer,_Gotthelf_Heinrich)  Rossini Bassoon Concerto liner notes (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2002/ dec02/ Rossini_Bassoon. htm)  Acker Concerto (http:/ / www. schott-music. com/ shop/ 1/ show,8804. html)  Kelkel Concerto (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ title/ concerto-pour-basson-et-orchestre-op-13/ oclc/ 02278172)  Kievman works list (http:/ / silvertone. princeton. edu/ ~carson/ comp98. html)  Knipper Concerto (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=NFiz-SmmgXg)  Works by Mathieu Lussier (http:/ / www. trevcomusic. com/ onlinecatalog/ compositions/ ?composerid=2262)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Concerto_for_Bassoon_and_Orchestra_(Manookian,_Jeff)  Maurice Allard, Bitsch Concertino (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=SC7TkRgGNCg)  Börtz Concerto (http:/ / www. edition-peters. com:80/ product/ modern/ bassoon-concerto-piano-reduction/ ep66806a)  Marjan Mozetich Recordings (http:/ / www. mozetich. com/ Recordings. html)  Petit bassoon works (http:/ / jean_louis. petit. perso. sfr. fr/ compositeur/ catalogue/ catalogue/ basson. html)  Craig Phillips (http:/ / craigphillipscomposer. com/ Home. html)  Terry Plumeri Conducting Repertoire (http:/ / terryplumeri. com/ page. php?sec=4)  Dubowsky Bassoon Concerto No. 1 (http:/ / www. sheetmusicplus. com/ title/ Bassoon-Concerto-No-1-Bassoon-Piano/ 19251105)  Eckhardt-Gramatté Triple-Concerto (http:/ / www. musiccentre. ca/ apps/ index. cfm?fuseaction=score. FA_dsp_details& bibliographyid=7197& dsp_page=13)  Eckhardt-Gramatté Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / www. musiccentre. ca/ apps/ index. cfm?fuseaction=score. FA_dsp_details& bibliographyid=7189& dsp_page=1)  Rivier Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / magic. msu. edu:80/ record=b2296147a)  Frost Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / www. frostmusic. co. uk/ page6. html)  Thomas Sleeper Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / www. sleepermusic. com/ BassoonConcerto. html)  Grøndahl Concerto (http:/ / www. edition-peters. com:80/ product/ bassoon-concerto/ ed13)  Michał Spisak (http:/ / www. usc. edu/ dept/ polish_music/ composer/ spisak. html)  Allan Stephenson Horn Concerto, Piccolo Concerto, Bassoon Concerto, Brass Quintet (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2000/ july00/ stephenson2. htm)  Aharon Harlap (http:/ / www. classical-composers. org/ comp/ harlap)  Theofanidis Concerto program notes & audio samples (http:/ / www. theofanidismusic. com/ programnotes_Bassoon_Concerto. html)  Maurice Allard, Vaubourgoin Concerto (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=bHBR5hfa8m0)  Hugo Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=8AFzDI2L62w)  Woolfenden Bassoon Concerto (http:/ / www. arielmusic. co. uk/ bassoon_concerto. html)  Ellen Taafe Zwilich Work List (http:/ / www. presser. com/ Composers/ info. cfm?Name=ELLENTAAFFEZWILICH#Works)  http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Konzertstück_for_Bassoon_and_Orchestra_(Berwald,_Franz)
A cello concerto (sometimes called a violoncello concerto) is a concerto for solo cello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. These pieces have been written since the Baroque era if not earlier. However, unlike the violin, the cello had to face harsh competition from the older, well-established viola da gamba. As a result, few important cello concertos were written before the 19th century – with the notable exceptions of those by Vivaldi, C.P.E. Bach, Haydn and Boccherini. Its full recognition as a solo instrument came during the Romantic era (Schumann, Saint-Saëns, Dvořák). From then on, cello concertos have become more and more frequent. Twentieth century composers have made the cello a standard concerto instrument, along with the already-rooted piano and violin concertos; among the most notable concertos are those of Elgar, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Barber and Hindemith. Most post-World War II composers (Ligeti, Britten, Dutilleux, Lutoslawski and Penderecki among others) have written at least one. One special consideration composers must take with the cello (as well as all instruments with a low range) is with the issue of projection. Unlike instruments like the violin, whose high range projects fairly easily above the orchestra, the cello's lower notes can be easily lost when the cello is not playing a solo or near solo. Because of this, composers have had to deliberately pare down the orchestral component of cello concertos while the cello is playing in the lower registers.
Selected list of Cello Concertos
Cello concertos near the center of the "repertoire". The original list of cello concertos has been moved to List of compositions for cello and orchestra. • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach • Cello Concerto in A minor • Cello Concerto in B-flat major • Cello Concerto in A major • Samuel Barber • Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 22 (1945) • Ernest Bloch • Schelomo, Rhapsodie Hebraïque for violoncelle et grand orchestre • Luigi Boccherini • Cello Concerto in D major, G. 479 • Cello Concerto in B-Flat major, G. 482 • Henri Dutilleux • Tout un Monde Lointain... (1970) • Antonín Dvořák • Cello Concerto No. 1 in A major, Op. posth • Cello Concerto No. 2 in B minor, Opus. 104 (1894–1895) • Edward Elgar • Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85 (1918–1919) • George Enescu • Concertante Symphony, Op. 8 • Gerald Finzi
Cello concerto • Cello Concerto, Op. 40 (1955) • Joseph Haydn • Cello Concerto No. 1 in C major • Cello Concerto No. 2 in D major • Several others although their authenticity is disputed • Paul Hindemith • Cello Concerto in E-flat major, Op. 3 (1916) • Kammermusik No. 3 for cello and 10 instruments, Op. 36/2 (1925) • Cello Concerto in G (1940) • Arthur Honegger • Cello Concerto (1934) • Dmitri Kabalevsky • Cello Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 49 (1949) • Cello Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 77 (1964) • Aram Khachaturian • Cello Concerto in E minor (1946) • Concerto-Rhapsody in D minor (1963) • Édouard Lalo • Cello Concerto in D minor (1876) • György Ligeti • Cello Concerto (1966) • Witold Lutosławski • Cello Concerto (1969–70) • Nikolai Myaskovsky • Cello Concerto in C minor, Op. 66 (1944) • Krzysztof Penderecki • Cello Concerto No. 1 (1972) • Cello Concerto No. 2 (1982) • Georg Matthias Monn (1717 - 1750) • Cello Concerto in G minor • Sergei Prokofiev • Cello Concerto, Op. 58 • Symphony-Concerto, Op. 125 (revision of Op. 58) • Cello Concertino in G minor, Op. 132 (incomplete) (1952) • Einojuhani Rautavaara • Cello Concerto No. 1 (1968) • Cello Concerto No. 2 Towards the Horizon (2010) • Camille Saint-Saëns • Cello Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 33 (1872) • Cello Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 119 (1902) () • Robert Schumann
Cello concerto • Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 129 (1850) • Dmitri Shostakovich • Cello Concerto No. 1 in E-flat major, Op. 107 (1959) • Cello Concerto No. 2 in G major/minor, Op. 126 (1966) • Alfred Schnittke • Cello Concerto No. 1 • Cello Concerto No. 2 • Carl Stamitz (1745-1801) • Cello Concertos 1-3 • Giuseppe Tartini • Cello Concerto in A major • Cello Concerto in D major • Henri Vieuxtemps • Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. 46 • Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 50 • Heitor Villa-Lobos • Cello Concerto No. 1 • Cello Concerto No. 2 • Antonio Vivaldi • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cello Concerto RV 398 in C major Cello Concerto RV 400 in C major Cello Concerto RV 401 in C major Cello Concerto RV 402 in C minor Cello Concerto RV 403 in D major Cello Concerto RV 404 in D major Cello Concerto RV 405 in D minor Cello Concerto RV 406 in D minor (related to RV 481) Cello Concerto RV 407 in D minor Cello Concerto RV 408 in E-flat major Cello Concerto RV 410 in F major Cello Concerto RV 411 in F major Cello Concerto RV 412 in F major Cello Concerto RV 413 in G major Cello Concerto RV 414 in G major Cello Concerto RV 415 in G major Cello Concerto RV 416 in G minor Cello Concerto RV 417 in G minor Cello Concerto RV 418 in A minor Cello Concerto RV 419 in A minor Cello Concerto RV 420 in A minor Cello Concerto RV 421 in A minor Cello Concerto RV 422 in A minor
• Cello Concerto RV 423 in B-flat major • Cello Concerto RV 424 in B minor
Cello concerto • Double Concerto for Cello and Bassoon RV 409 in E minor • Double Concerto for 2 Cellos RV 531 in G minor • William Walton • Cello Concerto (1956) • Charles Wuorinen • Five: Concerto for Amplified Cello and Orchestra (1987) • Chamber Concerto for Cello and 10 Players (1963) • Isang Yun • Concerto for Cello and Orchestra (1975/76)
Selected list of other concertante works
• • • • • Ludwig van Beethoven • Triple Concerto for Piano, Violin and Cello in C major Johannes Brahms • Double Concerto in A minor for Violin and Cello, Op. 102 • Benjamin Britten • Cello Symphony (1963) Max Bruch • Kol Nidrei Joseph Haydn • Sinfonia Concertante for Oboe,Bassoon,Violin & Cello • • • • Antonín Dvořák • Rondo in G minor, Op. 94, 1893  • Silent Woods, Op. 68, No. 5 Gabriel Fauré • Elégie for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 24 Olivier Messiaen • Concert à quatre for Piano, Cello, Flute and Oboe (1990–1992) Richard Strauss • Don Quixote, Op. 35 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky • Variations on a Rococo Theme, Op. 33
 http:/ / www. mmguide. musicmatch. com/ artist/ artist. cgi?ARTISTID=1089026& TMPL=LONG  http:/ / dvorak. musicabona. com/ ~dvorak/ 123/
A clarinet concerto is a piece for clarinet and orchestra (or concert band). Albert Rice has identified a work by Giuseppe Antonio Paganelli as possibly the earliest known concerto for solo clarinet; its score appears to be titled "Concerto per Clareto" and may date from 1733. It may, however, be intended for soprano chalumeau. There are earlier concerti grossi with concertino clarinet parts including two by Johann Valentin Rathgeber, published in 1728. Famed publishing house Breitkopf & Härtel published the first clarinet concerto in 1772. The instrument's popularity soared and a flurry of early clarinet concertos ensued. Many of these early concertos have largely been forgotten, though German clarinettist Dieter Klocker specializes in these "lost" works. Famous clarinet concertos of the classical era include those of Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber and Louis Spohr. Relatively few clarinet concertos, or wind instrument concertos generally, were produced during Romantic music era, but the form became more popular in the twentieth century, with famous clarinet concertos from Carl Nielsen, Copland, and the more recent ones by John Corigliano, Kalevi Aho and John Williams.
the clarinet was not created until the classical period.
• Johann Georg Heinrich Backofen (1768 - 1830?) • Concerto in B♭ major for clarinet and orchestra, Op. 3 (1809?) • Sinfonie Concertante in A major, op. 10 for Two Clarinets and Orchestra (1810?) • Clarinet Concerto in E Flat Major, Opus 16 (1809?) • Clarinet Concerto in E Flat Major, Opus 24 (1821?) • Concerto in F major for Basset-horn and Orchestra • Heinrich Joseph Bärmann (1784–1847) • Concertstück in G minor for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concertino in C minor for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concertino in E-flat major op. 27 for Clarinet and Orchestra (1828?) • Carl Bärmann (1810–1885) • Konzertstück for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Joseph Beer (1744–1812) • Clarinet Concerto No.1 • two other clarinet concertos and two double concertos • Max Bruch • Concerto for Clarinet, Viola, and Orchestra in E minor, op. 88 (1910) • Matthäus (Frédéric) Blasius • Concerto nr. 1 in C major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Casimir Anton Cartellieri • Concerto no. 1 in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concerto no. 3 in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concerto for 2 Clarinets & Orchestra in B Flat Major • Bernhard Henrik Crusell • Clarinet Concerto No. 1 (date unknown)
Clarinet concerto • Clarinet Concerto No. 2 (1808) • Clarinet Concerto No. 3 (1807) () • Johan Sebastian Demar's Concerto in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • François Devienne • Concertino in B-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra op.25 • Franz Anton Dimler • Concerto in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Gaetano Donizetti • Concertino for Clarinet and Orchestra in B-flat major • Joseph Leopold Eybler (1765–1846) • Concerto in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra (1798) • Josef Fiala • Concertante in B-flat major for Clarinet and Cor Anglais • Karl Andreas Goepfert (1768–1818) • Concerto in E-flat Major, op. 14 • Concerto in B-flat Major, op. 20 • Concerto in E-flat Major, op. 35 • Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754–1812) • Clarinet Concerto in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra (1782-1784?) • Concerto in E-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra (1782- 1784?) • Leopold Kozeluch (1747–1818) • two clarinet concertos in E-flat major • Franz Krommer • Concerto in E♭ for clarinet and orchestra • two concertos for two clarinets and orchestra, both in E♭ • Konzertstück for two clarinets and orchestra • Karol Kurpinski • Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra • Ludwig August Lebrun • Concerto in one movement in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Jean-Xavier Lefèvre • Clarinet Concertos No. 4 and No.6 (1796) • Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner • Concertino in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • John Mahon (1748–1834) • Clarinet Concerto No. 2 in F major • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 17891) • Clarinet Concerto (1791) • Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major for Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, French Horn, and Orchestra • Iwan Müller (1786–1854) Concertante op. 23 in E-flat major for two Clarinets and Military Band • Carlo Paessler (1774–1865) • Concerto con variazioni in E-flat major for Clarinet and Strings • Concerto in C minor for Clarinet and Orchestra
Clarinet concerto • Concerto in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Ignaz Pleyel (1757–1831) Concerto in C major for Clarinet in C • František Xaver Pokorný (1729–1794) • Concerto in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Antonín Reicha (1770–1836) • Concerto in G minor for Clarinet and Orchestra • Introduction and Variations on a Theme by Dittersdorf in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Carl Gottlieb Reissiger (1798 - 1859) • Concertino in E-flat major op. 63 for Clarinet and Orchestra • Julius Rietz (1812 - 1877) • Concerto in G minor op.29 for Clarinet and Orchestra • Alessandro Rolla (1757 - 1841) • Concerto for Bassethorn and Orchestra • Antonio Rosetti (1750 - 1792) • Concerto nr. 1 in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concerto nr. 2 in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • two additional clarinet concertos • Gioachino Rossini (1792 - 1868) • Introduction, Theme and Variations in E-flat major/B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Variations for Clarinet and Small Orchestra in C major (1809) • Concerto no. 1 in C minor/A-flat major/E-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Introduction, Theme and Variations in B minor/B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Fantasie in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concerto no. 2 in E-flat major/A-flat major/E-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Theodor von Schacht (1748 -1823) • Clarinet Concerto in B-flat major for clarinet and orchestra • Georg Abraham Schneider • Concerto no. 1 for basset horn and orchestra, op. 90. (1820?)  • Concerto no. 2 for basset horn and orchestra, op. 105. • Pedro Étienne Solère (1753 - 1817) • Concerto in E-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Concerto in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concerto Espagnol in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Louis Spohr (1784–1859) • • • • • • Clarinet Concerto No. 1 C Minor, op. 26 (1808) Clarinet Concerto No. 2 in E-flat Major, op. 57 (1810) Clarinet Concerto No. 3 in F Minor, WoO 19 (1821) Clarinet Concerto No. 4 in E Minor, WoO 20 (1828) Fantasia and Variations on a Theme by Danzi for Clarinet and Orchestra Potpourri for Clarinet and Orchestra (1811) "Description of Spohr Potpourri on Naxos CD" . Retrieved 15 April 2009.)
• Variations on a Theme from "Alruna" for Clarinet and Orchestra (1809) • Carl Stamitz (1745–1801)
Clarinet concerto • 11 Clarinet Concertos • Franz Xaver Süßmayr (1766–1803) • Concerto movement in D major for Basset Clarinet and Orchestra • Franz Wilhelm Tausch (1762–1817) • Concertante op. 26 nr. 2 in B-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Concertante op. 27 nr. 1 in B-flat major for two Clarinets and Orchestra • Concerto in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Johann Vogel (1756–1788) • Concerto in B-flat Major  • Carl Maria von Weber (1786–1826) • Concertino for clarinet and orchestra • Clarinet Concerto No. 1 • Clarinet Concerto No. 2 (all 1811) • Peter von Winter (1754–1825) • Concerto in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra • Michèl Yost (1754–1786) • • • • Concerto no.11 in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra Concerto no.8 in E-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra Concerto no.9 in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra Concerto no.7 in B-flat major for Clarinet and Orchestra
Other concertos from the classical era include those by Deshayes, Fuchs, Jan Kalous, Joseph Lacher, Lang, Philipp Meissner, Pfeilsticker, J.B. Wanhal, Wenzel Pichel, Johan Stich, and J.C. Stumpf.
• Donato Lovreglio's (1847 - 1907) • Fantasia Da Concerto Su Motivi De La Traviata (Fantasia for Clarinet and Orchestra on the Opera, La Traviata) for Clarinet and Orchestra (Original music/opera by Giuseppe Verdi) • Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847) • Concert Piece No. 1 for Clarinet, Basset Horn, and Orchestra in F minor, Op. 113 (1833) • Concert Piece No. 2 for Clarinet, Basset Horn, and Orchestra in D minor, Op. 114 (1833) • Saverio Mercadante (1795–1870) • Clarinet Concerto in B-flat major • Clarinet Concerto in E-flat major • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844–1908) • Concertstück for Clarinet and Military Band (1878) • Louis Schindelmeisser (1811–1864) • Sinfonia Concertante for four Clarinets and Orchestra, op. 2 (1833) • Sergey Ivanovich Taneyev (1856–1915) • Canzona for Clarinet and Strings in F minor
• • • • • • • • • • • • • John Adams's Gnarly Buttons (1996) Kalevi Aho's Clarinet Concerto (2005) Joan Albert Amargós' Clarinet Concerto Malcolm Arnold's Clarinet Concerto No. 1 (1948) and Clarinet Concerto No. 2 (1974) Jacob Avshalomov's Evocations, Concerto for Clarinet and Chamber Orchestra Nicolas Bacri's Concerto da Camera op.61 (1999) for Clarinet and String Orchestra Radamés Gnattali's Choro for Clarinet in B-flat and Orchestra Jean Balissat's Cantabile for Clarinet and Strings (1995) Michael Berkeley's Clarinet Concerto (1991) Leonard Bernstein's Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs (1946) Jean Binet's Petit Concert for Clarinet and Strings (1950) Howard Blake's Clarinet Concerto Jacques Bondon
• Concerto d'Octobre for Clarinet and String Orchestra • Concerto des Offrandes for Clarinet and Orchestra • Eugène Bozza Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Benjamin Britten's Movement for Clarinet and Orchestra (1942/3) Max Bruch's Concerto for Clarinet, Viola, and Orchestra in E minor, Op. 88 (1911) Ferruccio Busoni's Concertino for Clarinet and String Orchestra, op. 48 (1918) Ann Callaway's Concerto for Bass Clarinet and Chamber Orchestra (1985–1987) (Laureate Press, distr. MMB Press) John Carbon 's Clarinet Concerto (1993) Elliott Carter's Clarinet Concerto (1996) Aexis Chalier's Concertino for Clarinet and Strings (2001/02) Arnold Cooke's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra Aaron Copland's Clarinet Concerto (1948) John Corigliano's Clarinet Concerto (1977) Peter Maxwell Davies's Strathclyde Concerto No. 4 (1990) and "The Seas of Kirk Swarf" for bass clarinet and strings (2007). Claude Debussy's Premiere Rapsodie Norman Dello Joio's Concertante for Clarinet and Orchestra Edison Denisov's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1989) Einar Englund's Clarinet Concerto Dietrich Erdmann's Concerto for bass clarinet and orchestra. Richard Festinger's Equinox for Clarinet and Small Orchestra (2009) Gerald Finzi's Clarinet Concerto (1949) Jean Françaix's Clarinet Concerto (1968) Armin Fries's Concerto for Clarinet and Strings (1956) Gunnar de Frumerie's Concerto op. 51 (1957–1958) for Clarinet, Strings, Harp and Percussion Berthold Goldschmidt's Clarinet Concerto Osvaldo Golijov's "Dreams and Prayers of Isaac the Blind" for solo clarinetist (soprano clarinets, basset horn, and bass clarinet) and string quartet, later arranged for solo clarinetist and string orchestra. Todd Goodman's Concerto for bass clarinet and orchestra.
• Kimmo Hakola's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (2001) • Paul Hindemith's Clarinet Concerto (1947) • James Hook's Clarinet Concerto in E-flat major
Clarinet concerto • • • • • • • • • Anthony Iannaccone's Concertante for Clarinet and Orchestra (1995) Gordon Jacob's mini-concerto for Clarinet and String Orchestra Shigeru Kan-no's Bassetklarinette Koncerto (2006) Ando Kovach's Concerto for Clarinet and Strings (1995) Helmut Lachenmann's Accanto (1976) Magnus Lindberg's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (2002) Ian McDougall's Concerto for Clarinet & String Orchestra William Thomas McKinley's Concerto for Clarinet no. 3 The Alchemical (1994) Elizabeth Maconchy
• Concertino no. 1 for Clarinet and Orchestra • Concertino no. 2 for Clarinet and Orchestra • Donald Martino's Triple Concerto for clarinet, bass clarinet, and contrabass clarinet. • Krzysztof Meyer's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (2002) • Thea Musgrave • Clarinet Concerto (1979) • Concerto for bass clarinet and orchestra. • Lior Navok's Clarinet Concerto (1996), • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carl Nielsen's Clarinet Concerto (1928) Jim Parker's Concerto for Clarinet and Strings Krzysztof Penderecki's Clarinet Concerto Lorenzo Perosi's Concerto per clarinetto e orchestra Lyubomir Pipkov's Concerto for Clarinet and Chamber Orchestra Walter Piston's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1967) Marcel Poot's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977) Einojuhani Rautavaara's Clarinet Concerto (2001) Alan Rawsthorne's Concerto for Clarinet and String Orchestra Andrew Rindfleisch's "The Light Fantastic" for bass clarinet and wind ensemble (2003). Jean Rivier's Concerto for Clarinet and String Orchestra Paul Rosenbloom's Concertante Variations for Clarinet and Chamber Orchestra. Jonathan Russell's Double bass clarinet concerto. Josef Schelb's Concerto for bass clarinet and orchestra. Armin Schibler's Concertino for Clarinet and Strings op.49 (1956) Tobias Schwencke's Concerto for Clarinet solo and 15 Strings Mátyás Seiber's Concertino for Clarinet and String Orchestra Elie Siegmeister's Clarinet Concerto Frederick Speck's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1993) Charles Villiers Stanford's Clarinet Concerto in A minor op. 80 Frank Graham Stewart's Concerto for B-flat Clarinet and Orchestra (1993) Igor Stravinsky's Ebony Concerto for clarinet and jazz band (1945) Aurel Stroe's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra Toru Takemitsu's Fantasma/Cantos for clarinet and orchestra Josef Tal's Concerto for clarinet and orchestra Boris Tchaikovsky's Concerto for clarinet and chamber orchestra (1957) Frank Ticheli's Clarinet Concerto (2010)
• Franz Tischhauser The Beggar's Concerto for Clarinet and Strings • Henri Tomasi's Concerto for Clarinet and String Orchestra • Joan Tower's Clarinet Concerto
Clarinet concerto • • • • • • • • • August Verbesselt's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1982) Sándor Veress' Clarinet Concerto Douglas Weiland's Clarinet Concerto, op. 30 (2001) Norma Wendelburg's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra John Williams's Clarinet Concerto (1991)Williams Concerto Site  Isang Yun's Clarinet Concerto (1981) Marcin Zielinski's Concertino for Clarinet Solo and Strings Marilyn J. Ziffrin's Clarinet Concerto İstemihan Taviloğlu's Clarinet Concerto Clarinet and Orchestra
 Rice, Albert R. (1992). The Baroque Clarinet. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 99–101.  Rice, Albert R. (1992). The Baroque Clarinet. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 93–94.  Hoeprich, Erich (2008). The clarinet (http:/ / books. google. nl/ books?id=Hnh0G2wrJvsC& pg=PA81& lpg=PA81& dq=joseph+ beer+ clarinet#v=onepage& q=joseph beer clarinet& f=false). Yale University Press. p. 81 & 82. ISBN 978-0-300-10282-6. .  "Dieter Klocker Discography" (http:/ / www. cduniverse. com/ classical. asp?performer=Dieter+ Klocker). .  http:/ / www. haydn. dk/ mhc_crusell. php  Hoeprich, Eric (2008). The Clarinet. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 135.  "Basset Horn Concerto, Op.90 (Schneider, Georg Abraham)" (http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Basset_Horn_Concerto,_Op. 90_(Schneider,_Georg_Abraham)). IMSLP. . Despite the title, the solo part does not use the notes below low written E characteristic of a basset horn; in modern terms these would be concertos for alto clarinet in F.  http:/ / www. naxos. com/ mainsite/ blurbs_reviews. asp?item_code=8. 550688& catNum=550688& filetype=About%20this%20Recording& language=English  Marina Frolava-Walker. "Rimsky-Korsakov: (1) Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov." Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed December 1, 2006), grovemusic.com (http:/ / www. grovemusic. com/ ) (subscription access).  "John Adams List of Works" (http:/ / www. earbox. com/ listofworks. html). . Retrieved 20 January 2007.  "The Official Leonard Bernstein Web Site: Music for Performance" (http:/ / www. leonardbernstein. com/ catalogue. php). . Retrieved 20 January 2007.  Antony Beaumont. "Busoni, Ferruccio." Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed December 1, 2006), grovemusic.com (http:/ / www. grovemusic. com/ ) (subscription access).  http:/ / www. johncarbon. com  "Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, John Corigliano" (http:/ / www. schirmer. com/ default. aspx?TabId=2420& State_2874=2& workId_2874=26969). G. Schirmer, Inc.. . Retrieved 31 January 2007.  "The saint and the shebeen" (http:/ / www. theherald. co. uk/ features/ features/ display. var. 1483249. 0. 0. php). The Herald. 20 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-06-22.  "Oakland Symphony performs a clarinetist's 'Dream'" (http:/ / www. insidebayarea. com/ music/ ci_5485528). Inside Bay Area. 2007-03-21. . Retrieved 2007-03-21.  "Beaver Valley Philharmonic: Mozart, Goodman in season finale" (http:/ / www. lppac. org/ newsid. php?id=54). Lincoln Park Performing Arts Center. 2008-04-17. . Retrieved 2007-04-19.  Giselher Schubert. "Hindemith, Paul." Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed December 1, 2006), grovemusic.com (http:/ / www. grovemusic. com/ ) (subscription access).  "Clarinet Concerto—Thea Musgrave, Composer" (http:/ / www. theamusgrave. com/ html/ clarinet_concerto. html). Thea Musgrave web site. . Retrieved 31 January 2007.  http:/ / www. liornavok. com/ music. asp?name=Clarinet+ Concerto+ (concerto+ for+ clarinet)+ & id=13  http:/ / www. mytempo. com
• UNM clarinet repertoire list (http://music.unm.edu/department_areas/woodwind/clarinet/repertoire.htm)
Double bass concerto
Double bass concerto
A double bass concerto is a piece of music for solo double bass with an orchestra. The first concerti for solo bass were written in the late classical period by Domenico Dragonetti and Johannes Matthias Sperger. Several concerti were also written by Johann Baptist Vanhal, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and Joseph Haydn, although Haydn's has since been lost. Giovanni Bottesini made enormous contributions to the solo double bass repertoire, and among his many works are two virtuostic concerti for double bass and orchestra. In the 20th century, many composers created new works for the instrument, including Serge Koussevitsky, Eduard Tubin, Hans Werner Henze, and John Harbison. The double bass has not been a popular choice for a solo instrument, mainly due to the difficulties of balancing the soloist and orchestra so that the former is not overshadowed. The low register of the double bass makes it difficult to project; to help resolve this problem, many composers (most notably Bottesini) wrote solo parts in the high register of the instrument. Few major composers of the classical and romantic eras were disposed to writing double bass concerti, as there were few instrumentalists capable of taking on the demands of playing as a soloist; it was only through the efforts of virtuosi like Dragonetti, Bottesini, and Koussevitsky that the double bass began to be recognized as a solo instrument. As the twentieth century began, the standard of double bass technique improved by a significant degree, making it a more popular choice for composers.
Selected list of works for double bass and accompaniment
• Kalevi Aho • Double Bass Concerto (2005) • Giovanni Bottesini • Concerto No. 1 in F♯ minor • Concerto No. 2 in B minor • Concerto No. 3 in A major (concerto di bravura) • Antonio Capuzzi • Concerto in D (F) major • Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf • Concerto in E♭ major • Concerto No. 2 in E Major • Domenico Dragonetti • Concerto in G major, D290 • Concerto in D dur • Concerto in A major no 3 • Concerto in A major no 5 • Concerto in A major (Nanny) • Hans Werner Henze • Double Bass Concerto (1966) • Franz Anton Hoffmeister • Concerto No. 1 in D major • Concerto No. 2 in D major • Concerto No. 3 in D major • Jiří Hudec • Burleska for double bass and orchestra (1981)
Double bass concerto • Gordon Jacob • Concerto for Double Bass (1972) • Serge Koussevitsky • Concerto in F♯ minor, Op. 3 (1902) • Virgilio Mortari • Concerto per Franco Petracchi • Edouard Nanny • Concerto in E minor • Einojuhani Rautavaara • Angel of Dusk, concerto for double bass and orchestra (1980) • Anthony Ritchie • Whalesong (2006) • Nino Rota • Divertimento Concertante for double bass and orchestra (1968–1973) • Johannes Matthias Sperger • Concerto in D major, No. 15 • Eduard Tubin • Double Bass Concerto (1948) • Johann Baptist Vanhal • Concerto in E♭ major • Aldemaro Romero • Concierto risueño • Serge Lancen • Concerto pur contrebasse et cordes • Fernand Fontaine • Concerto As dur
Double concertos for violin and cello
Double concertos for violin and cello
This article is about all Double Concertos for Violin and Cello. For the Brahms concerto, see Double Concerto (Brahms). This is a list of musical compositions for violin, cello and orchestra, ordered by surname of composer Please see the related entries for concerto, cello and cello concerto for discussion of typical forms and topics. Also see the list of solo cello pieces and List of compositions for cello and piano.
• Kurt Atterberg • Concerto in G minor and C major for violin, violoncello and string orchestra. Op. 57. (1959–60)
• Johann Christian Bach • Symphonies concertantes for violin, cello and orchestra in A major (C.79) and B-flat major (C.46)  • Alexander Bakshi • Winter in Moscow; Ice-covered ground … for violin, cello and string orchestra (1994) • Rainer Bischof • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1980) • Konrad Boehmer • Il combattimento for violin, cello, and orchestra (1989–90) • Johannes Brahms • Double Concerto in A minor for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1887) • Cesar Bresgen • Concertino, for violin, cello and small orchestra
• Friedrich Cerha • Double Concerto, for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1976) • Gordon Shi-Wen Chin • Double concerto for Violin and Cello (2006)
• Richard Danielpour • A Child's Reliquary (Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra) (2000) • In the Arms of the Beloved (Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra) (2001) • Johann Nepomuk David • Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra op. 68 (1971) • Frederick Delius • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1915–16) • Gaetano Donizetti
Double concertos for violin and cello • Double Concerto (Concertino) for Violin, Cello and Orchestra in D minor (reconstruction by J. Wojciechowski)
• Thierry Escaich • "Miroir d'ombres", Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (2006)
• Mohammed Fairouz • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra States of Fantasy (2010)
• Philip Glass • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (2010)
• Daron Hagen • Masquerade for violin, cello and orchestra (2007) • Lou Harrison • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Gamelan (1982) • Leopold Hofmann • Concerto in G major for violin, cello and string orchestra • David Johnstone • Double Concertante for Solo Violin, Solo Cello and Chamber Orchestra (16 mins) (2009)
• Julius Klengel • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra No.1 • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra No.2, Op.61 (1924)
• Ezra Laderman • Concerto for violin and violoncello and orchestra (Edition - Schirmer) (1986) • Henri Lazarof • Partita di Madrigal Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (25 min) (2001)
Double concertos for violin and cello
• Tigran Mansurian • Double Concerto for violin, cello and string orchestra (1978) • Marko Mihevc • Fidlfadl for Violin solo, Cello solo, and string orchestra (2003) • Romance for Violin solo, Cello solo, and string orchestra (2003) • Norbert Moret • Double Concerto for Violin and Cello (1981) • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Cello and Orchestra K. 364 in E flat major (1779) arranged (original for violin, viola and orchestra)
• Mark O'Connor • Double Concerto for violin, cello and Orchestra (For the Heroes) - Three movements
• Hans Pfitzner • Duo for Violin, Cello and Small Orchestra (or piano)
• Josef Reicha • Concerto in D major for Violin, Cello and Orchestra, Op.3 • Robert Xavier Rodríguez • Favola Concertante, Ballet and Double Concerto for Violin, Cello, and String Orchestra (1975) • Julius Röntgen • Double Concerto for violin and cello (1927) • Ned Rorem • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra • Miklós Rózsa • Theme and Variations for violin, cello and orchestra (Op. 29a is a version of the slow movement for smaller orchestra.) Sinfonia Concertante, Op. 29 Tema con Variazoni, Op. 29a (1958)
Double concertos for violin and cello
• Camille Saint-Saëns • La Muse et le Poète for Violin, Cello and Orchestra, op. 132 (1910) - A symphonic poem with violin and cello solo • Helmut Schmidinger • “… the sound of the wings, as they brushed one another …”  - Concerto for Violin, Violoncello and String Orchestra (2009/2010) • Alfred Schnittke • Concerto Grosso No. 2, for violin, violoncello and orchestra (1981–82) • Roger Sessions • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1970-1)  • David Soldier • Ultraviolet Railroad concerto for violin, cello and orchestra (1992) • Carl Stamitz • Sinfonia Concertante in D major for violin, cello and orchestra
• Ivan Tcherepnin • Double Concerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra (1996)
• Henri Vieuxtemps • Duo brilliant, for Violin, Cello and Orchestra, Op. 39 • Antonio Vivaldi • Double Concerto ("Il Proteo, o sia Il mondo al rovescio") for Violin, Cello, Strings and continuo in F major, RV 544 • Double Concerto ("All'inglese"), for Violin, Cello, Strings & Continuo in A major, RV 546 • Double Concerto for violin and cello and strings and continuo in B flat major RV 547 • Concerto for Violin, Cello and Strings in B-flat major Op. 20, No. 2 • Concerto for Violin, Cello and Strings in F major PV 308 • Concerto for Violin, Cello and Strings in A major PV 238 • Antonín Vranický (also spelled Anton Wranitzky) • Two Concertos for Violin and Cello and orchestra
Double concertos for violin and cello
• Robert Ward • Dialogues for violin, cello and orchestra (1983)
• Eugène Ysaÿe • Poème nocturne, for Violin, Cello and Orchestra, op. 29 (1927)
• Ellen Taaffe Zwilich • Concerto for violin, violincello and orchestra
Other Double Concertos
• Antonio Vivaldi • Concerto for bassoon, cello and orchestra in e minor RV 409 • Edison Denisov • Concerto for bassoon, cello and orchestra (1982) • Michael Nyman • Double Concerto for saxophone, cello and orchestra (1996-9)
 "Review of Recording of JC Bach's Complete Symphonies Concertantes" (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2007/ Oct07/ JCBach_set_7772922. htm). MusicWeb International. October 2007. . Retrieved 2007-11-11.  Benedek, Tamás (1994). "Notes to Recording of Donizetti Double Concerto" (http:/ / www. naxos. com/ mainsite/ blurbs_reviews. asp?item_code=8. 557492& catNum=557492& filetype=About this Recording& language=English). Naxos Records. . Retrieved 2007-12-10.  http:/ / www. helmutschmidinger. at/ werkverzeichnis/ werkkapitel/ kap312. htm  "Publisher List with Sessions' Double Concerto" (http:/ / www. presser. com/ sessions. html). Theodore Presser. . Retrieved 2007-11-11.
• Anthology of 20th century violin concertos (http://www.violinconcerto.de) • Shar Music Catalogue (http://www.sharmusic.com/)
A number of concertos and concertante works have been written for cor anglais (English horn) and string, wind, chamber, or full orchestra. English-horn concertos appeared about a century later than oboe solo pieces, mostly because until halfway through the 18th century different instruments (the taille de hautbois, vox humana and the oboe da caccia) had the role of the tenor or alto instrument in the oboe family. The modern English horn was developed from the oboe da caccia in the 1720s, probably in Silesia. The earliest known English-horn concertos were written in the 1770s, mostly by prominent oboists of the day, such as Giuseppe Ferlendis, Ignaz Malzat (and his non-oboist brother Johann Michael Malzat) and Joseph Lacher . Few of these works have survived. Among the oldest extant English-horn concertos are those by Josef Fiala (a period transcription of a piece originally for viola da gamba) and Anton Milling. It is known that Milling's concerti were performed in 1782 by the Italian oboist Giovanni Palestrina at a concert in Hamburg  . Many solos in orchestral works were written for the English horn and a decent amount of chamber music appeared for it as well. However, few solo works with a large ensemble were written for the instrument until well into the 20th century. Since then the repertoire has expanded considerably. Of the 270+ concertos listed below only 35 predate the Second World War.
Composer Title Year  Accompaniment Length (min.) 8' Publisher Record label
Raffaele d'Alessandro William Alwyn
Serenade, op. 12
strings and timpani
Lyrita; Chandos; Naxos
Keith Amos Louis Applebaum Jesús Arámbarri Henk Badings Carles Baguer Matthias Bamert Jeanne Barbillion Siegfried Barchet Arnold Bax
Princess of the peacocks Five Snapshots Ofrenda a Falla American Folks Song Suite Concerto  
1995 1999 1946 1975 1801 1966
strings strings strings winds orchestra strings strings 4'
Concertino Cortège funèbre Concertino Concertante for Three Solo  Instruments and Orchestra Concerto in F major Legende Recuerdo 
strings orchestra 29' Chapell
Hänssler Classic Chandos
Vincenzo Benatti Ortwin Benninghoff Warren Benson Alexandre Béon
1790 2001 1965 1912
orchestra strings winds orchestra
Air Lointain (Poème Symphonique)  Bucolica
Hans Willy Bergen
Bernbach; M.M. Cole and Peters
Elegy Three poems 1949 1965 strings strings 8' CNC
Lorne Betts Oliver Corcoran Binney Yohanan Boehm Jo van den Booren Teresa Borràs i Fornell Siegfried Borris Neil Bramson Colin Brumby Victor Bruns Anthony Burgess Eurico Carrapatoso Elliott Carter André Casanova Romeo Cascarino Frits Celis Sergio Cervetti Emmanuel Chabrier Julius Chajes Brian Cherney Brian Cherney Barney Childs
Concerto, op. 19 Suite Dionysienne, op. 10 Concerto, op. 116
1958 1964 1994
orchestra strings strings 13' 20'
IMP Donemus Tritó
Concertino Concertion Scena for cor anglais Concerto, op. 61 Concerto—OS6.3 Cinco peças de carácter Pastoral 
1949 2006 1988 1978 1988 2005 1988 1969 1945 1997 1974 1875 1958 1992 2001 1955
strings strings strings orchestra orchestra strings strings marimba orchestra strings orchestra strings orchestra strings orchestra harp orchestra strings harp percussion orchestra strings orchestra orchestra orchestra harp strings 21' 18' 14' 8' 7' 8'30 9'
Peters Da Capo Phylloscopus Breitkopf Saga ABC Classics
Merion United Music Lyra Naxos Phaedra
Musique concertante Blades of Grass Kareol, op. 61b Duelle Lamento Melody and dance In the stillness of September 1942 La Princesse lointaine Concerto 
Schirmer Transcontinental Doberman-Yppan Doberman-Yppan ACE
Naxos Archer Centrediscs Centrediscs
1941 2006 2006 1969  1998 1993
Dinos Constantinides Threnos of Creon Robert Cummings Arthur Cunningham Michael Daugherty Gion Antoni Derungs David Diamond Concerto Dim du mim Spaghetti western Elegia, op. 131/a
Presser Peer Music Pizzicato Equilibrium
Elegy in memory of William Faulkner (No. 1 of Elegies for flute, EH, and string orch.) Altayan Nocturne, op. 30 Concerto, op. 37 Orpheus Concertino in G major, In. 608 Indian summer Il Cygnet Girondelle
Igor Dibak Caspar Diethelm Gerd Domhardt Gaetano Donizetti Will Eisma Roderick Elms Eberhard Eyser
1984 1963 1994 1816 1981 2003 1995
strings percussion harp strings strings orchestra orchestra orchestra strings 4' SMIC 11' Peters; Litolff Donemus Dutton 8+ recordings
1790 1961 1780  2000 1948 1810  1976 2006 1995  1986 orchestra strings orchestra 12' Cesky Hudebni Fond Philips KrausHaus
Giuseppe Ferlendis George Fiala Josef Fiala
Concerto in C
Introduction et fugato Concerto in E-flat
Juraj Filas Ernst Fischer Anton Fladt Bjørn Fongaard Matt Fossa Tommy Fowler Luca Francesconi
Ora pro nobis, Fantaisie concertante First piece of “Drei Stücke” > Idylle Concertino 
orchestra orchestra orchestra orchestra strings timpany orchestra orchestra 9' 21' 4'
Bim Editions Robert Forberg Befoco NMIC
Concerto, op. 120, No. 7 Festive Dances Concerto Plot in fiction
Metier; Attaca(2x); Megadisc BVHaast
Luca Francesconi Isadore Freed Peter Racine Fricker Eugenia Frothingham Kenneth Fuchs Peter Paul Fuchs Peter Paul Fuchs Anis Fuleihan Raphael Fusco Kenji Fusé John Linton Gardner René Gerber Timothy Goplerud Ursula Görsch Gabriel Ian Gould Matthias Grimminger Richard Gross Urho Hallaste Joseph Hallman
Secondo Concerto Concertino
1991 1953 1950 1974
orchestra orchestra strings orchestra
Concertante No.1, op. 13 Soliloquy
Eventide Fantasy Partita concertante, op. 43 Le cor anglais s'amuse Capriccio Concertante Elegy The Last Prelude, op. 247 Concertino Concerto Konzertstuck Watercolors Konzert 
1985 1974 1981 1969 2007 1998 2003 1976 2001 1988 1998 1995
orchestra strings strings orchestra orchestra strings strings orchestra orchestra orchestra orchestra orchestra
21' 12' 10' Belwin & Mills
MS 22' Gallo
Interlude Lyyrillinen sarja (Lyric Suite) Divine Discontent
1952 1962 2007
strings strings strings harp percussion strings orchestra strings strings 25' 14'
ACFE FMIC Hallman
Ted Hansen A. Oscar Haugland Nico Hermans Jennifer Higdon
Contrasts Concertino Ode Soliloquy
1980 1996 1985 1989
Seesaw TrevCo Donemus Lawdon
Music, op. 50 1943 orchestra
Edward Burlingame Hill Sydney Phillip Hodkinson Bernard Hoffer Anders Hultqvist Gordon Jacob
The Edge of the Old One Concerto Variation n.31: concerto Rhapsody Partita Podvecerni hudba Méditation op. 21 
1989 1993 1948
orchestra orchestra strings 9' SMIC Steiner & Bell; Galaxy Golden Crest
Stanislav Jelínek Ivo Jirasek Joseph Jongen Joseph Kaminski Maurice Karkoff
strings 1985 1901 1958 1991 strings orchestra strings orchestra Israeli Music Institute SMIC
Variations on an Israeli theme Lieder ohne Worte: Stimmungsbilder, op. 188 Champagne in a Teapot Pietà What an English horn player thinks Colored Field Intermezzo Fantasi över en svensk vallåt Rondo Vision pastorale, op. 15/1 Elegie und Scherzo
Elena Kats-Chernin Ulysses Kay Garrison Keillor Aaron Jay Kernis Uuno Klami Erland von Koch Erland von Koch Jan Koetsier Karl Michael Komma Leslie Kondorossy Marek Kopelent Karl-Heinz Köper William Kraft Bernhard Krol Bernhard Krol Herbert Küster Oddvar S. Kvam Otomar Kvěch
1997 1950 2006 1994 1937 1975 1983 1937 1998
orchestra strings orchestra orchestra orchestra strings strings strings orchestra 12’ 41' 4' 7'
Boosey & Hawks Pembroke
Schirmer FMIC SMIC WarnerCh Donemus
Serenade, op. 11 Concertino Der Schwan von Pesaro Concerto 
1946 1984 1979 2002 1972 1980
orchestra orchestra orchestra orchestra mandolin orchestra strings strings 19’ 12' 20’ Breitkopf und Härtel Köper Verlag Presser Trekel Bote & Bock Bosworth 7' 10' NMIC NMIC US-Wc 12' Billaudot Skarbo Praga
Serenata amorosa, op. 57 Consolazione concerto, op. 70 Bukolische serenade & Notturno Elegy, op. 8  
1959 2004 1959 1990
strings timpany orchestra strings timpany harp strings
Cassandra and the Trojan Horse
Harold Laudenslager Elegy (In memoriam) Aubert Lemeland L'automne et ses envols d'étourneaux, op. 145 Divertissement, op. 25 From Erebus and black night Luminous Voice The World's Ransoming
Dimitrios Levidis Gerald Levinson Ivana Loudova James MacMillan
1911 1979 1985 1996
orchestra orchestra orchestra orchestra 22'
Durdilly-Hayet Philharmusic C F Peters LSO;Bis
1962 orchestra 20' Bruzzichelli BVHaast; Col Legno BVHaast; Col Legno
Johann Michael Malzat Johann Michael Malzat Fritz Mareczek John Marvin Nicholas Maw Hardy Mertens
Concerto in E-flat
Concerto in F
Sommerabend am Berg Concerto Concerto Tone poem "Queen of Sheba", op. 125 Concerto in B-flat Elm St, Fairbury, Illinois Monologue Abendempfindung im Gebirge, op. 12
1956 2006 2005 1984
orchestra orchestra orchestra winds 20'
Gerig; Peters Fish Creek Faber
Anton Milling Walter Mourant Alexandros Mouzas Bernhard Eduard Müller Hans Müller-Talamona Vazgen Muradian Gösta Nystroem Leroy Osmon Ian Parrott Gustaf Paulson Gustaf Paulson Krzysztof Penderecki Alain Perron
1780 1954 2001 1880
strings strings orchestra orchestra 7' 13'
Molinari ACA Naxos Merseburger
Concerto, op. 80 Ett litet intermezzo A Lonely Moment Wakens Concerto Concerto nr 1, op. 99 Concerto nr 2, op. 103 Adagietto from the "Paradise Lost"
1993 1937 2005 1954 1958 1959 1979
orchestra strings harp strings orchestra strings timpany strings strings 5' SMIC RBC Novello SMIC SMIC MS Dux
Vienna Modern Masters Grenadilla; New World
Concerto, op. 137 Child birth Tanti anni prima
Bryony Phillips Astor Piazolla Giuseppe Pilotti Walter Piston
1949 1984 1806 1952
orchestra orchestra orchestra harp strings 9' 5' Berliner AMP 8+ records Torofon Capriccio; Delos; Naxos
Konzertstuck in F  Fantasy
Juan Bautista Plaza David L. Post Archibald James Potter Mel Powell
Elegía Concerto Madra Líath na Mara (Grey Dog of the Sea)  Cantilena concertante
1923 1999 1977
strings orchestra orchestra 19' MMC (2x)
Concerto 1986 orchestra
Alexander Radvilovitch Anton Reicha
Scène (Recitative and Rondo)
McGinnis & Marx; Amadeus Emerson 15' 23' 14' 18' 18' Shawnee Boosey & Hawkes ACE
Alan Ridout Richard Rijnvos Ned Rorem Ronald Roseman Arnold Rosner Arne Running Marjorie M. Rusche Josef Rut Herman Sandby François Sarhan
Concertino Riflesso sull'acqua  Concerto  
1979 2007 1992 1983 1967 1982 1974 1983 1950 2004
strings orchestra orchestra strings harp strings strings orchestra strings harp strings orchestra 12' 15'
Concertion (or Chanson) Five meditations, op. 36 Concertino, op. 4  Concerto Concerto Romance Cinq pièces: "Études pour la Fleur inverse“ Concerto Chamber Concerto Abendländisches Lied  Casi un Tango Concerto The Swan of Tuonela, op. 22/3 Concerto
Josef Schelb Harold Schiffman Wolfgang-Andreas Schultz José Serebrier Larry Shackley Jean Sibelius Stanislaw Skrowaczewski Vilnis Šmīdbergs Hale Smith Robert Edward Smith Vladimír Soukup Simeon Stafford Jack Stamp Christopher Stanichar Hans Steinmetz David Stock Wolfgang Stockmeier Jan Stoeckart Allan Burrage Stout
1970 1986 1989
strings orchestra orchestra
19' 17' 18' Astoria
2002 2006 1893 1969
strings orchestra orchestra orchestra
125+ records Desto; Phoenix
Concerto Symphony Recitative and Aria Concerto
1983 1995 2008
strings winds orchestra
Sonata Andante Elegy Poem
1966 2006 1990 2005
strings piano orchestra winds strings 6' Trevco Da Capo Klavier
Liebesruf eines Faun Evensong Sonata
1954 1985 1969
orchestra winds strings 9'
Forberg; Trevco Peters Möseler
harp strings strings celesta tom-tom orchestra
Intermezzo, op. 4
Chorale from 15th Century, op. 52f Concerto Orpheus 1993 2006 1969 strings orchestra orchestra Peters 4'
Tomas Svoboda Keith Templeman Johannes Paul Thilman John Thow Roger Trefousse Paul Turok Paul Turok Pēteris Vasks
Bellini Sky Column Canzone Concertante, op. 57 Concerto, op. 73 Concerto
2005 1979 1980 1985 1989
orchestra strings orchestra strings orchestra
20' 10' 13’ 15’ 21’ Schirmer Fischer Schott Wergo; Conifer; RCA
Giulio Viozzi Berthe di Vito-Delvaux Henk de Vlieger Lodewijk de Vocht Gustave Vogt Gustave Vogt Zbynek Vostrak Alarich Wallner Fried Walter
Arioso e burlesca Piece Concertante, op. 105
strings orchestra 9’
1992 1908 1830 1835 1983 1971 1957
orchestra strings orchestra orchestra strings percussion orchestra strings harp glockenspiel orchestra strings strings orchestra harp orchestra orchestra strings percussion strings strings orchestra orchestra orchestra
Herderswijze ("Shepherd's tune") Adagio 
F-Pn 16.683 Richault 13'
Prière de Zingarelli, Lettre A  Kristaly (Crystals), op. 65 Konzert 
Guy Warrack John Weinzweig Elliot Weisgarber
Lullaby Divertimento n.11 Autumnal Music
1950 1990 1973 2006 1946 1955 1962 2003 1944 1965 1892 1947
6' 13' 15'
Novello CMC CMC CMC
Joseph Pollard White Concerto Michel Wiblé Michel Wiblé Michel Wiblé Peter Wiegold Alec Wilder Robert Wittinger Hugo Wolf Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari Pavel Zemek Richard Zettler Nocturne Ballade Rapsodia Earth, receive an honoured guest Air Consonante, op. 5 Italian serenade 
18' 4' USA Sony; Newport
8' 27’ Leuckart; Peters CPO; Koch; Tactus (2x)
Concertino in A-flat, op. 34
Double and triple concertos
Composer Title Year Other soloist(s) Accompaniment Length (min.) Publisher Record label
Benjamin Ashkenazy Robert George Barrow Stefano Bellon Michael Berkeley Victor Bruns
Izkor, in memoriam Glen Gould, op. 9 Sinfonia concertante
trumpet, double bass 2006 flute 2004 viola
Alfabeto deserto Tristessa
orchestra orchestra 22' OUP Chandos
Concerto, op. 74
strings, percussion orchestra orchestra 5'
Diana Burrell Luigi Cherubini
Dunkelhvide Månestråler Ave Maria: Offertorium
1996 contralto 1816 soprano
UMP Fentone; Kalmus Boosey & Hawks Donemus Ricordi 9+ recordings
Aaron Copland Quiet City
Jan van Dijk Franco Donatoni Antal Dorati
Suite pastorale, op. 199 Holly
1953 oboe 1990 oboe, oboe d'amore 1985 oboe, oboe d'amore 1962 flute, violin
Johannes Driessler Roderick Elms Harold Farberman Josef Fiala Eugene Goossens Percy Grainger
Concerto da camera I, op. 51
Boosey & Hawks 7' Cortelu Dutton
Cygncopations - Reverie et Danse Shapings
2003 vibraphone 1983 percussion (2)
Concertante in B flat Concert piece op.65 
1780 clarinet 1958 2 harps
Musica Rara Mills
Arte Nova ABC
Colleen Dhas (The Valley Lay Smiling) Concertino pastorale Serenade Gulbenkian-Concerto
1904 flute, guitar
Cala; Chandos; Koch
Jozef Gresak Gary Hayes Harald Heilmann Arthur Honegger Alan Hovhaness Charles Ives
1965 oboe, horn 1984 trumpet 1974 trombone
orchestra strings orchestra FGC
Concerto da Camera
1944 flute, trumpet
strings, percussion strings, piano
EMI, Sony, Unicorn Kanchana
Milko Kelemen Interplay
1998 oboe, oboe d'amore
Episodi 1982 oboe strings 15' Editio Musica Köper Hungaroton
Karl Heinz Köper David I. Krivitsky Riccardo Malipiero Ignaz? Malzat Ignaz? Malzat Clark McAlister Louis Moyse Knut Nystedt
1974 bass clarinet, bassoon 1989 piccolo trumpet
1982 oboe, oboe d'amore 1792 English horn 1799 bassoon  1996 double bass
Arietta e rondo Variazione e cantabile Elegia para Quijote y Quijana Marlborian concerto No. 2 Concertino, op. 29 
orchestra orchestra winds 21' Maecenas Albany
1969 flute 1952 clarinet
orchestra strings 19' NMIC Norsk Komponist Forening
Alessio Prati André Previn Augusto B. Rattenbach
Misero pargoletto (aria) Reflections Doppio concerto
1786 alto 1981 cello 1969 clarinet
orchestra orchestra orchestra 13' Chester Angel
João Guilherme Abertura Concertante Ripper Irving Robbin Concerto for oboes and strings
1983 oboe, oboe d'amore 1999 oboe oboe 2002 soprano, viola
Alec Roth Helmut Sadler Nicola Scardicchio Othmar Schoeck Max Schubel Max Schubel Rodion Shchedrin Heinrich Simbriger Robert Starer
Departure of the Queen of Sheba Dialog-Szenen Kemit, canti e danze del giovane Horus Serenade, op. 27
strings strings orchestra 20' Latzina Latzina
Breitkopf & Härtel
Elation "Uniesienie" Aquirelle Shepherd's Pipes of Vologda (Hommage to Bartók), op. 91 Elegie, op. 94
2002 bariton, cello 2003 cello 1995 oboe, horn
orchestra orchestra strings
8' 13' 8' Schott
Opus One Opus One
Concerto a quattro
1983 oboe, clarinet, bassoon 1996 oboe
Suite in G minor after Loeillet
strings, harpsichord strings winds
Gleb Taranov Ivan Tcherepnin
Concerto piccolo Triple Concertino 
1937 flute, bassoon 1997 trombone, contrabass clarinet 2004 bass clarinet, viola
Triple Concerto in D-major 2005 oboe, oboe d'amore 1971 harpsichord 2000 soprano saxophone 2000 harp strings, harpsichord strings strings 15' 16' Salabert JDA Thuri
František Xaver Thuri Tôn-Thât Tiêt
Hy Vong 14
Michael Touchi Tango Barroco
Eugenio Toussaint John Veale
1993 oboe 1973 oboe 1993 2 oboes, bassoon
orchestra orchestra strings
14' 15' 17'
Lengnick Doron Meriden
Mathieu Vibert Nocturne Graham Whettam Isang Yun Les Roseaux Au Vent
Bote & Bock
• William Wallace McMullen, Soloistic English Horn Literature from 1736-1984 , Pendragon Press, 1994 • Sandro Caldini, The English Horn Bibliography  at the international Double Reed Society's website. • David Lindsey Clark, Appraisals of Original Wind Music , Greenwood Publ. 1999, pp 148–152.
References and notes
 Michael Finkelman, " Die Oboeinstrumente in tiefer Stimmlage, Teil 5 (http:/ / portraits. klassik. com/ musikzeitschriften/ template. cfm?SEITE=1& START=1& AID=522)", Tibia 99 (1999): 618-24.  Years in italics are estimates, which may be off by as much as 10 years.  Dan Stolper, Oboists in the news (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ publications/ DR/ PUBIDRS2/ DR26. 1/ 19. pdf), The Double Reed 26 (1), page 20, 2003  This concerto may be lost (see ca:Corn anglès and ca:Carles Baguer (in Catalan)  First movement is for EH and orchestra (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ work/ c424547)  Soloist alternates between oboe and English horn  Last finished composition by the composer  Carter's own adaptation of his pastoral for English horn and piano. In 1937 Carter also wrote a Concerto for English horn and orchestra, but did not finish it and the manuscript has been destroyed  Lorraine Duso, Michael Daugherty's Spagetti Western (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ Publications/ DR/ DR23. 3. pdf/ Spaghetti), The Double Reed, Vol. 23 No. 3, 1998  This is an arrangement of one of Ferlendis' published oboe concertos, mistaken by Saint-Foix as a period arrangement of his lost English horn concerto.[version by Marcia Kraus (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ publications/ DR/ DR15. 1/ DR15. 1. Kraus. PDF), first version of 1987, final version of 2006)  This piece was originally a concerto for viola da gamba, which the composer played. There is a period arrangement for basset horn. The English horn version is a 20th-century idea.  Composition date unknown; composer lived from 1775 to 1850.  Norwegian oboe music (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ publications/ Journal/ JNL18/ JNL18. Register. Orch. html)  Soloist alternates between piccolo oboe (musette), oboe and English horn  The orchestral score does not appear to survive, and may never have been produced. MS with piano: US-NYpl.  Mike Silverton Three Concerti for English Horn (http:/ / www. dramonline. org/ albums/ three-concerti-for-english-horn/ notes), Liner notes  Robert Pusey Oboe and English horn music by Gordon Jacob (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ publications/ DR/ DR4. 3/ jacob. html), The Double Reed Vol. IV, No. 3, 1981  Otomar Kvěch - Cassandra and the Trojan Horse (http:/ / www. rozhlas. cz/ nakladatelstvi/ news/ _zprava/ 221166)  Soloist alternates between oboe, oboe d'amore, and English horn  Soloist alternates between oboe d'amore, and English horn  http:/ / www. musicediting. de/ BME/ Images/ Josef%20Haydn%20-%20LP%20Inhalt. pdf  http:/ / www. cmc. ie/ composers/ pdfs/ 104. pdf  http:/ / www. richardrijnvos. com/ works/ orchestra/ no41/ riflesso_sull_acqua. htm  Daniel Stolper, Tom Stacy, Ned Rorem and a New Concerto (https:/ / www. idrs. org/ publications/ DR/ DR17. 2/ DR17. 2. Stolper. Stacy. html), The Double Reed, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1992
 http:/ / www. arnerunning. com/ ehorch. html  http:/ / www. wolfgangandreasschultz. de/ abldlied. htm  Using the pseudonym Julius Steffaro  Orchestration of Sonate in F minor by Carlo Yvon (http:/ / www. henkdevlieger. nl/ yvon. htm)  2nd movement of otherwise lost Concerto. Charles David Lehrer, An Introduction to the 16 Oboe Concertos of Gustave Vogt (http:/ / www. idrs. org/ Publications/ Journal/ JNL16/ JNL16. Lehrer. Vogt. html)  http:/ / www. idrs. org/ scores/ Lehrer/ DRArch/ 27VogtZingarelli. html  Wolf originally orchestrated his serenade for English horn and orchestra, but in the final version (finished by Max Reger in 1903), the solo English horn was replaced by a solo viola (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NcIRAAAAYAAJ)  At 1:53 minutes hardly a "concerto".  Joseph Stevenson, review (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ work/ c220400) at allmusic.com  http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AJj_ijFLjv4C  http:/ / idrs2. colorado. edu/ caldini/ cor%20anglais. html  http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=G4d733-Tlt4C
A flute concerto is a concerto for solo flute and instrumental ensemble, customarily the orchestra. Such works have been written from the Baroque period, when the solo concerto form was first developed, up through the present day. Some major composers have contributed to the flute concerto repertoire, with the best known works including those by Mozart, and Vivaldi. Traditionally a three-movement work, the modern-day flute concerto has occasionally been structured in four or more movements. In some flute concertos, especially from the Baroque and modern eras, the flute is accompanied by a chamber ensemble rather than an orchestra. The 20th century saw the flute concerto championed by the famous French flutist Jean-Pierre Rampal.
The following concertos are presently found near the centre of the mainstream Western repertoire for the flute.
Michel Blavet • Concerto in A minor Georg Philipp Telemann • Concerto in F major
Jean-Marie Leclair • Concerto in C major
Antonio Vivaldi • • • • • • • Concerto in F major for Flute ("La Tempesta di Mare"), RV 433 (Op. 10, No. 1), RV 98 and RV 570 Concerto in G minor for Flute ("La Notte"), RV 439 (Op. 10, No. 2) Concerto in D major for Flute ("Il Gardellino"), RV 428 (Op. 10 No. 3) Concerto in G major for Flute, RV 435 (Op. 10, No. 4) Concerto in F major for Flute, RV 434 (Op. 10, No. 5) Concerto in G major for Flute, RV 437 (Op. 10, No. 6) Concerto in C major for 2 Flutes, RV 533
Giovanni Battista Pergolesi • Flute Concerto in G major
Johann Joachim Quantz (1697–1773) - author of over 300 concertos for the flute. • • Concerto in G major Concerto in C minor
C.P.E. Bach (1714–1788) • • • • Flute Concerto in D major Flute Concerto in G major H.445 (Wq.169) Flute Concerto in D minor H.426 Flute Concerto in A major H.438 (Wq.168) Leopold Hoffmann • Concerto in D major
Franz Anton Hoffmeister • Flute Concerto D major
Franz Krommer • Flute Concerto Op.86
Franz Benda (1709–1786) • • Concerto in G minor Concerto in A minor
Bernhard Molique • Concerto in D minor for Flute and Orchestra
Leopold Mozart • Flute Concerto in G major
Domenico Cimarosa • Concerto for Two Flutes in G Major (1783)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • • • Concerto for Flute and Harp Flute Concerto No. 1 Flute Concerto No. 2 - originally written as an Oboe Concerto but now also firmly part of the flute repertoire.
Franz Danzi • • • • Concerto No. 1 in G major Concerto No. 2 in D minor Concerto No. 3 in D minor Concerto No. 4 in D major
Andreas Romberg • Flute Concerto
François Devienne • • • • Concerto No. 2 in D major Concerto No. 3 in G major Concerto No. 7 in E minor Concerto No. 10 in D major Antonio Rosetti • • • Flute Concerto in G major Flute Concerto in C major Flute Concerto in F major
Frederick the Great (1712–1786) • Concerto in D major
Christoph Willibald Gluck • Concerto in G major
Joseph Haydn • Flute Concerto in D major
Antonio Salieri • • Concerto for Flute, Oboe and Orchestra (1774) Concertino da camera for Flute and Strings (1777)
Franz Paul Lachner • Flute Concerto in D minor
Karl Stamitz • Concerto in G major
Peter von Winter • • Flute Concerto No. 1 in D minor Flute Concerto No. 2 in D minor
Franz Doppler • Camille Saint-Saëns Odelette, Op. 62
Concerto in D minor for two flutes and orchestra •
Bernhard Romberg • Concerto in B minor 0202 2000 Strings
Carl Reinecke • Concerto in D major, Op. 283
Saverio Mercadante • • • • Concerto in D major Concerto in E major Concerto in E minor Concerto in F major (2 movements)
Carl Gottlieb Reissiger • Concertino in D major for Flute and Orchestra
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky • Concertstuck for flute and strings TH 247 (unfinished)
François Borne • Carmen Fantasie Brillante
Reconstructed by James Strauss published by Falls House Press (USA)
Peter Benoit • Flute Concerto (Symphonic Tale)
Samuel Adler • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1977) Howard Hanson • Serenade for Solo Flute, Harp and String Orchestra
Kalevi Aho • Flute Concerto
Carl Nielsen • Flute Concerto (1926)
Robert Aitken • Concerto for Flute and String Orchestra (Shadows V). (1999)
Krzysztof Penderecki • Flute Concerto (1992)
Leonard Bernstein • Halil, nocturne for flute, percussion, and strings
William P. Perry • Summer Nocturne for Flute and Orchestra (1988)
Rutland Boughton • Concerto for Flute and Strings
Walter Piston • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1971)
Pierre Boulez • ...explosante-fixe..., for MIDI-flute, chamber orchestra and electronics (1972–1993)
Yves Prin • Le Souffle d'Iris (1986)
Robert J. Bradshaw • Concerto No. 2 for Catherine, for flute, violin, orchestra and/or piano
Einojuhani Rautavaara • Flute Concerto Dances with the Winds
Jean Rivier • Flute Concerto
Joaquín Rodrigo • Concierto pastoral, for flute and orchestra (1978)
Henry Brant • Ghosts & Gargoyles Concerto for flute solo with flute orchestra (2002)
John Carmichael • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra: Phoenix Concerto 2222-4331 perc, harp, string, timpani
Ned Rorem • Flute Concerto
Christopher Rouse • Flute Concerto
John Corigliano • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra: Pied Piper Fantasy
Aulis Sallinen • Flute Concerto Harlekiini, Op. 70 (1995)
Edison Denisov • Flute Concerto (1975)
R. Murray Schafer • Flute Concerto (1984)
Jindřich Feld • Flute Concerto (1954)
Ole Schmidt • Concerto for Flute and Strings
Morton Feldman • Flute and Orchestra (1978)
Toru Takemitsu • Toward the Sea II, for alto flute, harp, and string orchestra
Jean Françaix • • Double Concerto for Flute, Clarinet and Orchestra Flute Concerto (1967)
Werner Thärichen • Concerto for Flute and String Orchestra, Op. 29
Otar Gordeli • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, Op. 8
Joan Tower • Flute Concerto
Charles Tomlinson Griffes • Poem for Flute and Orchestra
Heather Schmidt • Flute Concerto (2003)
Chris Harman • Concerto for flute and orchestra, Catacombs (1999–2000)
Melinda Wagner • Concerto for Flute, Strings and Percussion (Pulitzer Prize winner 1999)
Jacques Hétu • Concerto pour flûte •
Herbert Willi Flute Concerto
Jacques Ibert • Flute Concerto (1934)
Isang Yun • Flute Concerto
Andre Jolivet • Concerto (1949)
Gordon Jacob • • Concerto for Flute and String Orchestra op.1 Concerto for Flute and String Orchestra op.2
Aram Khachaturian • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra - originally written as a Violin concerto but now firmly part of the flute repertoire.
Eric Ewazen • Concerto for Flute and Chamber Orchestra
Lowell Liebermann • • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra Op.39 (1992) Concerto for Flute, Harp and Orchestra Op.48 (1995)
Harald Genzmer • Flute Concerto
György Ligeti • Double Concerto, for flute, oboe and orchestra
Peter Paul Koprowski • Flute Concerto
Dietrich Manicke • Flute Concerto
Jeff Manookian • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra
Jim McGrath • Flute Concerto
Aaron Avshalamov • Flute Concerto
Olivier Messiaen • Concert à quatre ("Quadruple concerto"), for piano, flute, oboe, 'cello and orchestra (1990–91)
Mark Bosch • Flute Concerto
Arthur Foote • Nocturne and Scherzo for Flute and String Orchestra
Charles Wuorinen • Chamber Concerto for Flute and 10 Players
Sir Malcolm Arnold • • Concerto for Flute and Strings Flute Concerto No. 2
Eduardo Angulo • • Flute Concerto Double Concerto for Flute and Harp
Leonid Bashmakov • Concerto for Flute and Orchestra Impressioni marine
Michael Mower • Concerto for Flute and Wind Band
Thorkell Sigurbjornsson • Liongate for Flute and Orchestra
Since the 1940s, a number of concertos (as well as non-concerto works) have been written for the harmonica, both as a solo instrument as well as in conjunction with other solo instrument(s), and accompanied by string orchestra, chamber orchestra, A chromatic harmonica full orchestra, band, or similar large ensemble. Nearly all harmonica concertos are composed for the chromatic harmonica, with the exception of the 2001 concerto for the diatonic harmonica by Howard Levy. Such works include: • Malcolm Arnold: Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra, Op. 46 (1954) • composed for Larry Adler • Milton Barnes - Concerto for Harmonica and Strings • composed for Tommy Reilly • Arthur Benjamin - Harmonica Concerto (1953) • composed for Larry Adler • Robert Russell Bennett - Concerto (1974) • Jean Berger - Caribbean Concerto (1940) • composed for Larry Adler • Francis Chagrin - Romanian Fantasy (1956) • composed for Larry Adler • Henry Cowell Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (1962) • composed for John Sebastian • Norman Dello Joio - Concertino for Harmonica and Orchestra (1948) • composed for John Sebastian
Harmonica concerto • • • • • • • • Brett Deubner - Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra Leo Diamond - Skin Diver Suite (1956) Robert Farnon - Prelude and Dance for Harmonica and Orchestra (1966 - for Tommy Reilly) Walter Girnatis - Concertino Sigmund Groven: Legends, for Harmonica and Strings (2003) Richard Hayman - Concerto (1978) Hugo Herrmann - Concertino (1948) Alan Hovhaness - Concerto No. 6, op. 114 (1953-4)
• composed for John Sebastian • Gordon Jacob - Divertimento (1957) • composed for Larry Adler • Gordon Jacob - Five Pieces for harmonica and piano (1957; also arranged for harmonica and orchestra) • composed for Tommy Reilly • Gordon Jacob: Introduction and Galop for Two Harmonicas and Strings (1976, for Tommy Reilly and Sigmund Groven) • Egil Kapstad: Prelude for Harmonica and Orchestra (2008, for Sigmund Groven) • George Kleinsinger - Street Corner Concerto (1942) • composed for John Sebastian • Karl-Heinz Köper - Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra, Op. 12 (1961) • composed for Tommy Reilly • Oddvar S.Kvam: Colours, for Harmonica and Strings (1996, for Sigmund Groven) • Serge Lancen - Concerto (1958) • composed for Larry Adler • Alan Langford: Concertante for Harmonica and Strings (1981, for Tommy Reilly) • Howard Levy - Concerto for Diatonic Harmonica and Orchestra • the first concerto for diatonic harmonica and orchestra • Frank Lewin - Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (1960) • composed for John Sebastian • George Martin: Three American Sketches for Harmonica and Strings (1980, for Tommy Reilly) • George Martin: Adagietto for Harmonica and Strings (1985, for Tommy Reilly) • Darius Milhaud - Suite anglaise for harmonica (or violin) and orchestra, Op. 234 (1942) • • • • • • • • • • • • composed for Larry Adler James Moody - Toledo, Spanish Fantasy for Harmonica and Orchestra (1960, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Little Suite for Harmonica and Orchestra (1960, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Period Piece for Harmonica and Orchestra (1964, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Innis Fallen for Harmonica and Orchestra (1965, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Divertissement for Harmonica and Orchestra (1967, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Cosmos, for Harmonica and Orchestra (1970, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: From Other Days, for Harmonica and Strings (1970, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Quintet for Harmonica and String Quartet (1972, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Suite dans le style français, for harmonica and harp (1979, for Tommy Reilly) James Moody: Jacaranda for Harmonica and Orchestra (1984, for Tommy Reilly) A. J. Potter - Concertino (1967)
• Les Reed: Niagara Suite for Harmonica and Orchestra (1985, for Tommy Reilly) • William Russo - Street Music, A Blues Concerto
Harmonica concerto • Terje Rypdal: Modulations for Harmonica and Orchestra (1981, for Sigmund Groven) • Henri Sauguet - The Garden's Concerto (1970) • • • • • • • composed for Claude Garden Max Saunders: Sonatina for Harmonica and Piano (1978, for Tommy Reilly) Max Saunders: Invention for Two Harmonicas, Strings and Harp (1976, for Tommy Reilly and Sigmund Groven) Kenneth Sivertsen: The Oak Tree, for Harmonica and Strings (1995, for Sigmund Groven) Øistein Sommerfeldt: Harmonica Fantasia (1979, for Sigmund Groven) Henning Sommerro: Concertino for Harmonica and Orchestra (2008. for Sigmund Groven) Michael Spivakovsky - Concerto (1951)
• composed for Tommy Reilly • Siegfried Steinkogler - Harmonica Concerto (2001, for Sigmund Groven) • Vilem Tausky - Concertino (1963) • composed for Tommy Reilly • Alexander Tcherepnin - Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra, Op. 86 (1953) • composed for John Sebastian • Fried Walter: Ballade and Tarantella for Harmonica and Orchestra (1961, for Tommy Reilly) • Fried Walter: The Adventures of Corporal Smith, for Harmonica and Big Band (1968, for Tommy Reilly) • Fried Walter: Duettino for two Harmonicas and Orchestra (1969 for Tommy Reilly and Sigmund Groven) • Francis Ward: Kaleidoscope for Harmonica and Orchestra (1964, for Tommy Reilly) • Ralph Vaughan Williams - Romance in D-flat for harmonica, piano, and strings (1951) • composed for Larry Adler • Heitor Villa-Lobos - Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (1955) • composed for John Sebastian • Graham Whettam - Fantasy (1953) • composed for Tommy Reilly • Graham Whettam - Concerto Scherzoso, Op. 9 (1951) • composed for Larry Adler • Graham Whettam - Second Concerto, Op. 34 • composed for Tommy Reilly • Rudolf Wurthner - Intermezzo Giocoso (1957) • Corky Siegel • • • • Corky Siegel's Chamber Blues – Chamber Blues (1994 – Alligator) Complementary Colors – Chamber Blues (1998 – Gadfly) Corky Siegel's Traveling Chamber Blues Show – Chamber Blues (2005 – Alligator) A good portion of Chamber Blues material is written as a harmonic concerto. i.e. Opus 7, Opus 8, Opus 12 Filisko's Dream, Opus 13 Unfinished Jump, Opus 17, Opus 18, Opus 19, Opus 20, Opus 21, Opus 22, Five Planets in Harmonica Convergence, .. all for Harmonica and String Quartet with East Indian Tabla is some cases.
• Classical Harmonica  • http://www.chamberblues.com
 http:/ / www. ksanti. net/ free-reed/ history/ harmonica. html
A harpsichord concerto is a piece of music for an orchestra with the harpsichord in a solo role (though for another sense, see below.) Sometimes these works are played on the modern piano; see piano concerto. For a period in the late 18th century, Joseph Haydn and Thomas Arne wrote concertos which could be played interchangeably on both harpsichord, fortepiano and (in some cases) pipe organ.
The Baroque harpsichord concerto
Harpsichord concertos were written throughout the Baroque era, notably by Johann Sebastian Bach: see harpsichord concertos (J. S. Bach). The harpsichord was a very common instrument, but it was never as popular as string or wind instruments in the concerto role, probably due to its relative lack of volume when in an orchestra. In this context, harpsichords were more usually employed as a continuo instrument, playing a harmonised bass part in nearly all orchestral music, the player often also directing the orchestra. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No.5 in D major, BWV 1050, may be the first work in which the harpsichord appeared as a concerto soloist. In this piece, its usual continuo role is alternated with prominent solo obbligato episodes in all three movements. In the first movement the harpsichord, after rapid scales up and down the length of its range, embarks on a solo cadenza which lasts for 3–4 minutes, while the orchestra is silent.
The concerto for solo harpsichord
It was also popular at this time to adapt Italian concertos for other instruments (such as violin and orchestra) for solo harpsichord (or organ), something that Bach did with many of Vivaldi's concertos. Bach's Italian concerto BWV 971 is in this transcription style, though it was written as an original piece for harpsichord. The concerto transcriptions Bach made for harpsichord are listed as BWV 972–987 (see List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach).
The new harpsichord concerto
With the revival of the harpsichord in the 20th century, harpsichordists commissioned new pieces for the new 'revival' instrument: Wanda Landowska commissioned concerti from Francis Poulenc and Manuel de Falla. Though the 'revival instruments' have now fallen out of favour, concerti continue to be written for harpsichord, though are now more likely to be played on a copy of a historical instrument, perhaps with a small orchestra or some amplification to ensure it can be well heard. Philip Glass has also written a concerto for harpsichord.
List of harpsichord concertos
• Johann Sebastian Bach (all 1720s-1740s) composed several Harpsichord concertos. For a detailed description and samples of the harpsichord concertos see the dedicated article Harpsichord concertos (J. S. Bach) • Thomas Arne - 6 Favourite Concertos for harpsichord, piano or organ (late 18th century) • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach - about 50 keyboard concertos, including one for harpsichord and fortepiano. • Johann Christian Bach - 6 Concertos for Harpsichord, Op. 1; 5 Concertos for Harpsichord; Concerto for Harpsichord in F minor; 6 Concertos for Keyboard, Op. 7; 6 Concertos for Keyboard, Op. 13 • Gianluca Bersanetti - Concerto for Four Harpsichords and Strings in G minor (2009) • Hendrik Bouman - Concerto for Harpsichord and String Orchestra in D major (1998) • Manuel de Falla - Concerto for harpsichord (1926) • Joseph Dillon Ford Concerto for Harpsichord (2006) • Philip Glass - Concerto for Harpsichord and Chamber Orchestra (2002) • Henryk Górecki - Harpsichord Concerto (1980) • Frank Martin - Harpsichord Concerto (1951–52) • Bohuslav Martinů - Harpsichord Concerto (1935) • Georg Matthias Monn - Harpsichord concerto in G minor, Harpsichord concerto in D major (18th Century) • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Harpsichord concertos Nos 1–4 (KV. 37, 39, 40 and 41), arrangements of sonata movements by other composers. • Francis Poulenc - Concert champêtre (1927–28) • Roberto Gerhard - Concerto for harpsichord, percussion and strings (mid 20th century) • Walter Leigh - Concertino for Harpsichord and String Orchestra (1934) • Jean-Jacques Coetzee - Concerti for Harpsichord, Opus 2 (2008) and Opus 5 (2009) • Michael Nyman - Concerto for Harpsichord and Strings (1995) Several other works feature the harpsichord as a solo instrument alongside others, including: • Elliott Carter - Double Concerto (1959–61, for harpsichord, piano and orchestra) • Alfred Schnittke - Concerto Grosso No. 1 (1977, for two violins, harpsichord, prepared piano and orchestra) • Frank Martin - Petite symphonie concertante for harp, harpsichord, piano and double string orchestra.
• http://piano-concertos.org/- a list of classical and romantic piano concertos
A number of concertos (as well as non-concerto works) have been written for the oboe, both as a solo instrument as well as in conjunction with other solo instrument(s), and accompanied by string orchestra, chamber orchestra, full orchestra, band, or similar large ensemble. These include concertos by the following composers:
• • • • • • Tomaso Albinoni Johann Sebastian Bach Joseph-Hector Fiocco Christoph Graupner George Frideric Handel • • • • Alessandro Marcello Johann Joachim Quantz Alessandro Scarlatti Georg Philipp Telemann Antonio Vivaldi
Arcangelo Corelli (arranged by John Barbirolli from other works by Corelli) •
• • • • • • • • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach • Johann Christian Bach Ludwig van Beethoven Carlo Besozzi Domenico Cimarosa Josef Fiala Joseph Haydn • • • • • • • William Herschel Ignaz Holzbauer Johann Nepomuk Hummel Franz Krommer Ludwig August Lebrun Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Antonio Rosetti Antonio Salieri Carl Stamitz
Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf •
• • • • • • • • • • Vincenzo Bellini Jan Kalivoda August Klughardt Bernhard Molique Ignaz Moscheles Antonio Pasculli Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (oboe and band) Richard Strauss Stanislas Verroust Carl Maria von Weber (with winds)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kalevi Aho William Alwyn David Amram Hendrik Andriessen Louis Andriessen Malcolm Arnold Tadeusz Baird Leonardo Balada Samuel Barber Sally Beamish David Bedford Richard Rodney Bennett Luciano Berio Lennox Berkeley Michael Berkeley John Biggs Benjamin Britten Anthony Burgess Elliott Carter Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco John Corigliano Henry Cowell Peter Maxwell Davies Edison Denisov Antal Doráti Bill Douglas Joël-François Durand Ross Edwards Edward Elgar Morton Feldman Lukas Foss Jean Françaix John Gardner • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Eugene Goossens Helen Grime John Harbison Jonathan Harvey Christos Hatzis Hans Werner Henze Frigyes Hidas Jennifer Higdon Heinz Holliger Gustav Holst Arthur Honegger Jacques Ibert Gordon Jacob John Joubert Jouni Kaipainen Graeme Koehne Thomas Oboe Lee György Ligeti Robert Linn Malcolm Lipkin Bent Lorentzen Witold Lutosławski Salvatore Macchia Bruno Maderna Ursula Mamlok Frank Martin Bohuslav Martinů Nicholas Maw Darius Milhaud Anthony Milner Paul Moravec David Mullikin • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Thea Musgrave Arne Nordheim Sean Osborn Krzysztof Penderecki Haim Permont Osmo Tapio Räihälä Bernard Rands Alan Rawsthorne Wolfgang Rihm George Rochberg Christopher Rouse Edwin Roxburgh Andrey Rubtsov Poul Ruders Harald Sæverud Esa-Pekka Salonen Sven-David Sandström Peter Schickele Alfred Schnittke Leif Segerstam Roger Steptoe Hilary Tann John Tavener Joan Tower Ralph Vaughan Williams Carl Vine Gwyneth Walker Grace Williams Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari John Woolrich Marco Aurelio Yano Isang Yun Bernd Alois Zimmermann Ellen Taaffe Zwilich Michael Zev Gordon •
Arthur Benjamin (on themes of Domenico Cimarosa) •
Dominic Muldowney •
 http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ world/ 2003-03-02-beethoven_x. htm
An organ concerto is a piece of music, an instrumental concerto for a pipe organ soloist with an orchestra. The form first evolves in the 18th century, when composers including George Frideric Handel, Antonio Vivaldi and Johann Sebastian Bach wrote organ concertos with small orchestras, and with solo parts which rarely call for the organ pedal board. A few Classical and Romantic works are extant. Finally, there are some 20th- and 21st-century examples, of which the concerto by Francis Poulenc has entered the repertoire, and is quite frequently played. The organ concerto form is not usually taken to include orchestral works that call for an organ used as an extra orchestral section, examples of which include the Third Symphony of Camille Saint-Saëns, Gustav Holst's The Planets or Richard Strauss's Also sprach Zarathustra.
List of organ concertos
G. F. Handel (1685-1759)
Handel wrote organ concertos as interludes for his oratorios—playing the organ part himself while directing the orchestra. Some are arrangements of his earlier works, or of works by other composers. For more details see the list of Handel's concertos. Many alternatives exist, so it is difficult to precisely number his organ concertos, however it is generally accepted that he wrote 16: 1. HWV 289 - Op. 4 No. 1 in G minor: larghetto, allegro, adagio, andante 2. HWV 290 - Op. 4 No. 2 in B flat major: tempo ordinario, allegro, adagio, allegro ma non troppo 3. HWV 291 - Op. 4 No. 3 in G minor: adagio, allegro, adagio, allegro 4. HWV 292 - Op. 4 No. 4 in F major: allegro, andante, adagio, allegro 5. HWV 293 - Op. 4 No. 5 in F major: larghetto, allegro, alla siciliana, presto 6. HWV 294 - Op. 4 No. 6 in B flat major: andante, allegro, larghetto, allegro moderato 7. HWV 306 - Op. 7 No. 1 in B flat major: andante, allegro, largo, adagio, allegro 8. HWV 307 - Op. 7 No. 2 in A major: overture, tempo ordinario, tempo ordinario II, allegro 9. HWV 308 - Op. 7 No. 3 in B flat major: allegro, fuga, spiritoso, minuets 1 & 2 10. HWV 309 - Op. 7 No. 4 in D minor: adagio, allegro, adagio, allegro 11. HWV 310 - Op. 7 No. 5 in G minor: allegro ma non troppo, adagio, andante, minuet, gavotte 12. HWV 311 - Op. 7 No. 6 in B flat major: pomposo, adagio, tempo ordinario 13. HWV 295a - F major (No. 13): largo, allegro, larghetto, allegro HWV 295b - second version: larghetto, allegro, larghetto, allegro 14. HWV 296a - A major (No. 14) : largo e staccato, andante, grave, allegro HWV 296b - second version, Pasticcio Konzert: andante, adagio, grave, andante allegro, a tempo ordinario 15. HWV 304 - D minor (No. 15) : andante, adagio, allegro 16. HWV 305a - F major (No. 16) : concerto, allegro, andante, andante allegro HWV 305b - second version: overture, allegro, andante, andante allegro Organ concertos arranged from Concerto Grossi, Op.6: 1. HWV 297 - D minor, after HWV 328: overture, air, allegro, allegro, allegro moderato 2. HWV 298 - G major, after HWV 319: a tempo giusto, allegro, adagio, allegro, allegro
Organ concerto 3. HWV 299 - D major, after HWV 323 : larghetto e staccato, allegro, presto, largo, allegro, minuet un poco larghetto 4. HWV 300 - G minor, after HWV 324 : largo e affettuoso, a tempo giusto, musette larghetto, allegro, allegro
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
• • • • • • • • • D minor for violin, organ and strings, RV541 F major for violin, organ and strings, RV542 (allegro, lento, allegro) C major for violin, cello, organ and strings, RV554a F major for 2 violins, 2 organs and double orchestra, RV584 (incomplete) C minor for violin, organ and strings, RV766 F major for violin, organ and strings, RV767 C major for violin, organ and strings, RV774 (incomplete) F major for violin, organ and strings, RV775 (incomplete) C major for 2 organs and strings, RV793 (incomplete)
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
There is no clearly named "organ concerto" (i.e., for organ and orchestral ensemble) by Bach, but several cantata movements contain extensive organ solo parts. One example is Cantata 146, whose first and second movements are adapted from the keyboard concerto BWV 1052. . Cantata 35 contains two instrumental Sinfonias with organ solo, the first of which agrees with the fragmentary keyboard concerto BWV1059. . (A recording of a reconstruction of this as an organ concerto was made by Ton Koopman.  Bach's admiration for Vivaldi and the Italian style led to several transcriptions of instrumental concertos for solo organ:
BWV key source after Johann Ernst de Saxe-Weimar Transcription of a concerto for violin, strings and continuo after Antonio Vivaldi Based on Op. 3 No. 8 for 2 violins and basso continuo (RV 522) after Antonio Vivaldi Based on Op. 7 No. 5 for violin and basso continuo (RV 208) After Johann Ernst de Saxe-Weimar after Vivaldi or W.F. Bach Based on Op. 3 No. 11 - RV 565 by Vivaldi or Op. XII by W.F. Bach movements allegro, grave (E minor), presto
BWV 592 G major
BWV 593 A minor
allegro, adagio (D minor) senza pedale a due claviere, allegro
BWV 594 C major
allegro, adagio (A minor), recitativ, allegro - cadenza allegro Uses the first movement only. allegro - grave - fuga, largo e spiccato, finale allegro
BWV 595 C major BWV 596 D minor
BWV 597 E flat major unknown composer
Michel Corrette (1709-1793)
The French organist-composer Michel Corrette wrote six concertos. • • • • • • Concerto No. 1 in G major: allegro, aria I, aria II, allegro Concerto No. 2 in A major: allegro, adagio, allegro Concerto No. 3 in D major: adagio, aria, andante, adagio, allegro Concerto No. 4 in C major: allegro, aria, allegro Concerto No. 5 in F major: allegro, aria, allegro Concerto No. 6 in D minor: allegro, andante, presto
Thomas Arne (1710-1778)
The English composer Thomas Arne composed six concertos. • • • • • Concerto No. 1 in C major: largo ma con spirito, andante, allegro, minuetto Concerto No. 2 in G major: allegro, lento, moderato, allegro, con spirito Concerto No. 3 in A major: con spirito, con spirito, minuetto, moderato Concerto No. 4 in B flat major: con spirito, minuetto, giga moderato Concerto No. 5 in G minor: largo, allegro con spirito, adagio, vivace
• Concerto No. 6 in B flat major: allegro, moderato, ad libitum, allegro, minuetto
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788)
The German composer C. P. E. Bach wrote examples, including the following. • • • • Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 4 in B flat major: con spirito, minuetto, giga Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 5 in G minor: largo, allegro con spirito, adagio, vivace Concerto for organ and orchestra No. 6 in B flat major: allegro moderato, minuetto - variations Concerto for organ, strings and basso continuo in G major: allegro di molto, largo, presto
Antonio Soler (1729-1783)
The Spanish composer Antonio Soler wrote six concertos for two organs (without other instruments): • • • • • • Concerto No. 1 in C major: andante, minué Concerto No. 2 in A minor: andante-allegro, tempo di minué Concerto No. 3 in G: andantino, minué Concerto No. 4 in F: afectuoso, andante non largo, minué Concerto No. 5 in A: cantabile, minué Concerto No. 6 in D: allegro-andante-allegro-andante, minué
Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (1839-1901)
• Organ Concerto No. 1 in F Major  • Organ Concerto No. 2 in G Minor 
Alexandre Guilmant (1837-1911)
Félix-Alexandre Guilmant Alexandre Guilmant,  wrote one of his organ sonatas (1874) in two versions , one as a symphony for organ and orchestra: • Sonata No. 1 in D Minor / Symphonie No. 1 in D Minor for Organ and Orchestra: Introduction et Allegro / Pastorale (Andante quasi allegretto) / Final (Allegro assai)
20th and 21st centuries
• Marcel Dupré (1886–1971): Concerto in E minor Op. 31 (1931) • Hans Gál (1890–1987): Concertino for Organ and String Orchestra Op. 55 (1954) • Paul Hindemith (1895–1963): • Kammermusik No. 7, concerto for organ and wind band, Op. 46 No. 2 (1927) • Concerto for organ and orchestra (1963) • Francis Poulenc (1899–1963): Concerto for organ in G minor (1938) • Flor Peeters (1903-1986): Concerto for Organ and Orchestra, op.52 • Normand Lockwood (1906–2002): Concerto for Organ and Brasses • Jean Langlais (1907–1991): • Concerto No. 1 for organ or harpsichord and orchestra (1949) • Concerto No. 2 for organ and string orchestra (1961) • Concerto No. 3 Réaction for organ, string orchestra and timpani (1971) • Samuel Barber (1910–1981): • Toccata Festiva, for organ and orchestra Op. 36 • Charles Chaynes (b. 1925): Concerto for organ, strings, timpani and percussion after the Spiritual Canticle of St. John of the Cross (1973) • Jean Guillou (b. 1930): Invention for organ and orchestra (concerto No. 1) Op. 7 Concerto Héroïque for organ and orchestra (concerto No. 2) Op. 10 Concerto No. 3, for organ and string orchestra Op. 14 Concerto No. 4, for organ and orchestra Op. 31 Concerto No. 5, Roi Arthur for organ and string quintet Op. 35 Concerto 2000 for organ and orchestra Op. 62 Concerto No. 6 for organ and orchestra (triple woodwind, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, tuba, percussion, strings) Op. 68 • Concerto No. 7 for organ and orchestra Op. 70 • Thierry Escaich (b. 1965): • Concerto for organ and orchestra (Concerto No. 1, 1995) • Concerto for organ, string orchestra percussions (Concerto No. 2, 2006) • Daniel E Gawthrop (b. 1949): Concerto for Organ and Orchestra (premiere 2004) • Stephen Paulus (b. 1949): • • • • Concerto for Organ, Chorus and Orchestra Concerto for Organ, Strings and Percussion (1992) Grand Concerto for Organ and Orchestra (2004) Double Concerto for Piano and Organ with Strings and Percussion (c. 2010) • • • • • • •
• Eugenio Maria Fagiani (b. 1972): • Concerto for Organ and string orchestra Op. 98 (2009) • Frederik Magle (1977): • Concerto for organ and orchestra "The Infinite Second" (1994)
• Concerto pour orgue See the French Wikipedia page for a more complete list.
       http:/ / www. classical. net/ music/ comp. lst/ works/ bachjs/ cantatas/ 146. php http:/ / www. classical. net/ music/ comp. lst/ works/ bachjs/ cantatas/ 035. php http:/ / www. bach-cantatas. com/ NVP/ Koopman-NV3. htm http:/ / www. carus-verlag. com/ index. php3?BLink=KKWerk& WerkID=7490& Action=kkwerk http:/ / www. carus-verlag. com/ index. php3?BLink=KKWerk& WerkID=7489& Action=kkwerk http:/ / www. guilmant. nl/ http:/ / www. guilmant. nl/ opus_3544. html
A piano concerto is a concerto written for piano and orchestra. See also harpsichord concerto; some of these works are occasionally played on piano. Joseph Haydn and Thomas Arne wrote concertos for fortepiano or harpsichord, at the period of time when they were in common usage (the late 18th century).
Classical and romantic
As the piano developed and became accepted, Performance of a piano concerto involves a piano on stage with the composers naturally started writing concerti for it. This orchestra happened in the late 18th century and so corresponded to the Classical music era. The most important composer in the development of the form in these early stages was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart's body of masterly piano concerti put his stamp firmly on the genre well into the Romantic era. Mozart wrote many of his 27 piano concertos for himself to perform (he also wrote concerti for two and three pianos). With the development of the piano virtuoso many composer-pianists did likewise, notably Ludwig van Beethoven, Carl Maria von Weber, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, Camille Saint-Saëns, Sergei Rachmaninoff and Sergei Prokofiev, and also the somewhat lesser-known Johann Nepomuk Hummel and John Field. Many other Romantic composers wrote pieces in the form, well known examples including the concerti by Robert Schumann, Edvard Grieg, Johannes Brahms, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Edward Elgar made sketches for a piano concerto but never completed it. In the 19th century, Henry Litolff blurred the boundary between a piano concerto and symphony in his five works entitled Concerto Symphonique, and Ferruccio Busoni added a male choir in the last movement of his hour-long concerto. In a more general sense, the term "piano concerto" could extend to the numerous often programmatic concerted works for piano and orchestra from the era – Beethoven's Choral Fantasy, Liszt's Totentanz and Ruins of Athens Variations, and Richard Strauss's Burleske are only a few of the hundreds of such works. The few well-known piano concerti which dominate today's concert programs and discographies account for only a minority of the repertoire which proliferated on the European music scene during the 19th century.
20th century and contemporary
The piano concerto form survived through the 20th century into the 21st, with examples being written by Arnold Schoenberg, Béla Bartók, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Maurice Ravel, George Gershwin, Michael Tippett, Charles Wuorinen, York Bowen, Dmitri Shostakovich, Samuel Barber, Witold Lutosławski, Gian Francesco Malipiero, Peter Mennin, György Ligeti, Elliott Carter, Selim Palmgren, and others. In parts of other 20th century symphonic works the piano is given occasional prominence like any other instrument of the orchestra, as in the Symphony in Three Movements by Igor Stravinsky, Samuel Barber's violin concerto, and the Symphony No.3 by Michael Tippett. Works for piano left-hand and orchestra The German Paul Wittgenstein, who lost his right arm during World War I, on resuming his musical career asked a number of composers to write pieces for him which required the pianist to use his left hand only. The Czech Otakar Hollmann, whose right arm was injured in the war, did likewise but to a lesser degree. The results of these commissions include concertante pieces for orchestra and piano left hand by Bortkiewicz, Britten, Hindemith, Janáček, Korngold, Martinů, Prokofiev, Ravel, Franz Schmidt, Richard Strauss, and others.
Works for two and more pianos and orchestra
Concertos and concert works for two pianos have been written by Bach (two to four pianos, BWV 1060-65, actually harpsichord concertos, but often performed on pianos), Mozart (two, K 242 (originally for three pianos and orchestra) and K 365), Mendelssohn (two, 1823-4), Bruch (1912), Béla Bartók (1927/1932, a reworking of his Sonata for two pianos and percussion), Poulenc (1932), Arthur Benjamin (1938), Darius Milhaud (1941 and 1951), Bohuslav Martinů (1943), Ralph Vaughan Williams (c. 1946), Roy Harris (1946), Gian Francesco Malipiero (two works, both 1957), Walter Piston (1959), Luciano Berio (1973), and Harald Genzmer (1990). Apart from the Bach and Mozart examples, works for more than two pianos and orchestra are considerably rarer, but have been written by Carl Czerny (Quatuor Concerto for four pianos and orchestra, op. 230), Morton Gould (Inventions for four pianos and orchestra, 1954), Peter Racine Fricker (Concertante for three pianos, timpani, and strings, 1956), and Wolfgang Fortner (Triplum for three pianos and orchestra, 1966)
A classical piano concerto is often in three movements. 1. A quick opening movement in sonata form including a cadenza (which may be improvised by the soloist). 2. A slow, free expressive movement 3. A faster rondo Examples by Mozart and Beethoven follow this model, but there are many others which do not. Beethoven's fourth concerto includes a last-movement cadenza, and many composers have introduced innovations – for example Liszt's single-movement concerti.
 Maurice Hinson, Music for Piano and Orchestra, an annotated guide, Indiana University Press, 1993
• Hyperion's Romantic Piano Concerto Series (http://www.hyperion-records.co.uk/s.asp?s=S_1) (a commercial website selling recordings on CD) • Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra (http://classyclassical.blogspot.com/2005/09/ rachmaninoffs-works-for-piano-and.html) An analysis of Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra including the Piano Concertos and the Paganini Rhapsody. • Classical and Romantic Piano Concertos (http://piano-concertos.org/), an extensive list of Classical and Romantic piano concertos, and other music for piano and orchestra from the same period. • Music for Piano and Orchestra: The Recorded Repertory (http://www.siue.edu/~aho/discography/ Discography.pdf), An exhaustive list of recorded works for piano and orchestra.
A timpani concerto is piece of music written for timpani with orchestral accompaniment. It is usually in three parts or movements. The first timpani concertos were written in the Baroque and Classical periods of music. Important concertos from these eras include Johann Fischer's Symphony for Eight Timpani and Georg Druschetzky's Concerto for Six Timpani. During the Romantic Period, the timpani concerto was largely ignored. The timpani concerto was revived in the 20th century and the timpani concerto repertoire increased significantly. Important works of the Modern era are William Kraft's Concerto for Timpani and Orchestra, Ney Rosauro's Concerto for Timpani and Orchestra, and Philip Glass's Fantasy Concerto for Two Timpanists and Orchestra.
Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano
Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano
A triple concerto is a concerto for piano trio (consisting of violin, cello and piano) and orchestra. Below is a list of concertos for piano trio and orchestra. Please see the related entries for violin concerto, cello concerto, piano concerto and double concerto for violin and cello. Ordered alphabetically by composer surname.
• Fikret Amirov • To the Memory of Ghadsibekov, poem for violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1949) • Lera Auerbach • Serenade for a Melancholic Sea for violin, cello, piano and string orchestra op. 68 (2002) (Dedicated to Gidon Kremer)
• Henk Badings • Concertino (1942) • Ludwig van Beethoven • Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano in C major, Op. 56, more commonly known as the Beethoven Triple Concerto (1804) • Wilhelm Georg Berger (1929–1993) • Concerto for Violin, Cello Piano and Orchestra, Op. 64 (1984)
• Alfredo Casella • Triple Concerto op.56 (1933)  • Paul Constantinescu • Triplu concert (1963)
• Lorenzo Ferrero • Concerto for violin, violoncello, piano and orchestra, (1995) • Benjamin Frankel • Serenata Concertante for piano trio and orchestra, one movement (in parts,) op. 37, (1960)
Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano
• Giorgio Federico Ghedini • Concerto dell´Albatro (The albatross concerto) for violin, cello, piano, and orchestra (with narrator) (1945)
• Daron Hagen • Orpheus and Eurydice for violin, cello, piano and orchestra (2006) • Bernard Heiden • Triple concerto (1957)  • Alun Hoddinott • Triple concerto op. 124 (1986)  • Vagn Holmboe • Concerto for violin, cello and chamber orchestra (once called Chamber concerto no. 4) M.139 (1942) 
• Paul Juon • Concerto (Episodes concertantes) for violin, violoncello, and piano with orchestra [d minor] op.45 (1911)
• Gian Francesco Malipiero • Concerto a tre (1938) • Bohuslav Martinů • Concertino H.232 with string orchestra (1933)  • Concert H.231 (1933) • Emánuel Moór • Triple Concerto op.70 
• Marga Richter • Variations and Interludes on Themes from Monteverdi and Bach for violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1992)
• Alexander Tcherepnin • Triple Concerto op.47 (1931) • Triple Concerto op.47-bis (1967)
Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano
• Kevin Volans • Trio Concerto (2005) • Jan Václav Voříšek • Grand Rondeau concertant op.25 (1825)
• Wolfram Wagner • Concerto for Violin, Cello, Piano and orchestra (1997) • Robert Ward • Dialogues (1986, also arranged for piano trio)  • Stanley Weiner • Triple concerto, opus 71 
• Ellen Taaffe Zwilich • Triple concerto for violin, cello and piano and Orchestra (1995, premiered 1996) 
 Woolf, Jonathan (October 2006). "Review of a Recording of Casella's Violin and Triple Concertos" (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2006/ Oct06/ casella_71099. htm). MusicWeb. .  "Publisher catalog reference for Bernard Heiden's concerto" (http:/ / www. schirmer. com/ default. aspx?TabId=2420& State_2874=2& workId_2874=28880). Schirmer. . Retrieved 2007-11-10.  Lewis, Geraint (August 1989). "Hoddinott and the Symphony". The Musical Times (The Musical Times Publications Ltd.) 130 (1758): 459. ISSN 0027-4666. JSTOR 1193599.  Rapoport, Paul (1996). The compositions of Vagn Holmboe : a catalog of works and recordings with indexes of persons and titles. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen. p. 37. ISBN 87-598-0813-6.  Barnett, Rob (June 2003). "Review of 1997 Recording of Martinů Trio Concertino" (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2003/ Jun03/ martinu_trios_centaur. htm). MusicWeb. . Retrieved 2007-11-03.  Baker, Theodore; Alfred Remy (1919). Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 3rd Edition, Revised and Enlarged (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=H2kNAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA621& lpg=PA621& dq=moor+ opus+ 70& source=web& ots=NLQtPXLorv& sig=GPiKUhTXgZq710P3Cfg5CFlb6tY). New York: G. Schirmer. p. 621. OCLC 752566. .  Farrell, Peter (June 1988). "Music Reviews". Notes: 2nd Series (Music Library Association) 44 (4): 831–2. JSTOR 941061.  "U.S. Distributor Catalog Page for Stanley Weiner's Triple Concerto" (http:/ / www. schirmer. com/ default. aspx?TabId=2420& State_2874=2& workId_2874=34371). Schirmer. . Retrieved 2007-11-10.  "Ellen Taaffe Zwilich page with Information on Triple concerto" (http:/ / www. presser. com/ Composers/ info. cfm?Name=ELLENTAAFFEZWILICH). Theodore Presser Company. . Retrieved 2007-11-10.
• Anthology of 20th century violin concertos (http://www.violinconcerto.de) • Triple concerto on the page of Daron Hagen (http://www.daronhagen.com/new/works/index.html) • Altenberg Piano Trio Repertoire Page (http://www.altenbergtrio.at/?site=repOtherEnsembles& repcat=tripelkonzerte)
A trumpet concerto is a concerto for solo trumpet and instrumental ensemble, customarily the orchestra. Such works have been written from the Baroque period, when the solo concerto form was first developed, up through the present day. Some major composers have contributed to the trumpet concerto repertoire, with the best known work being Joseph Haydn's Trumpet Concerto in E-flat. Traditionally a three-movement work, the modern-day trumpet concerto has occasionally been structured in four or more movements. In some trumpet concertos, especially from the Baroque and modern eras, the trumpet is accompanied by a chamber ensemble rather than an orchestra.
Selected list of Trumpet Concertos
The following concertos are presently found near the centre of the mainstream Western repertoire for the trumpet.
Johann Sebastian Bach • Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 George Friedrich Handel • Trumpet Concerto in D minor Antonio Vivaldi • Concerto for 2 Trumpets in C Giuseppe Torelli • Trumpet Concerto in D G.9 Valentin Rathgeber • Concerto for 2 Trumpets in E flat Op. 6 No. 15 Jeremiah Clark • Suite in D (Orchestral Suite with Prominent Trumpet Solos)
Joseph Haydn • Trumpet Concerto in E-Flat Major (keyed trumpet) Michael Haydn • Trumpet Concerto in C Major (natural trumpet) Johann Nepomuk Hummel • Trumpet Concerto in E Major (keyed trumpet) Leopold Mozart • Trumpet Concerto in D Major (natural trumpet)
Amilcare Ponchielli • Concerto per tromba in Fa Oskar Böhme • Concerto in F Minor (originally in E minor)
Alexander Arutunian • Trumpet Concerto in A-Flat Major Vagn Holmboe • Trumpet Concerto Duke Ellington • Concerto for Cootie William P. Perry • Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra R. Murray Schafer • The Falcon's Trumpet
The viola concerto is a concerto contrasting a viola with another body of musical instruments, usually an orchestra or chamber music ensemble. Early examples of the viola concerto include, among others, Georg Philipp Telemann's concerto in G major, and several concertos by the Stamitz clan including Carl Stamitz. The first concertante work to use the viola without caution (though extreme virtuosity only later became identified as the desired characteristic in a concerto soloist) was the violin and viola Sinfonia Concertante of Mozart. The viola has not enjoyed wide popularity as a solo instrument and, like the cello, suffers from problems of projection against an orchestral ensemble. According to some, (such as Alfred Einstein, among others), the essence of the concerto is not the display of virtuosity but conflict and resolution, and the viola is less suited than the piano, or even the violin, to balance itself against an orchestra that is not deliberately underused by the composer. One must also consider that in the past, viola players were often violinists retreated in ranks, and as such, viola soloists were few until fairly recently. Composers like William Walton, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Paul Hindemith were among the first to begin composing solo viola works for newer and more capable players. These players in turn arranged works originally for other instruments, (an example being Lionel Tertis's arrangement of Edward Elgar's cello concerto).
Selected list of concertos and concertante works
Samuel Adler • Viola Concerto (1999) ()
Bohuslav Martinů • Rhapsody-Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (1952)
Necil Kazım Akses • Viola Concerto (1977)
Darius Milhaud • Viola Concerto with orchestra of soloists, Op. 108 (1929; a revised version — a version for larger orchestra was premiered by Monteux, conducting, Paul Hindemith, viola in Amsterdam) Concertino d'été, Op. 311 (1951) Viola Concerto No. 2, Op. 340 (1955; for William Primrose) () Air (from Sonata No. 1), Op. 242 (1944)
• • • • Alessandro Appignani • • Viola Concerto (2008) • •
Paul Müller-Zürich • Viola Concerto in F minor, Op. 24 (1934)
Malcolm Arnold • Viola Concerto with small orchestra, Op. 108 (1971)
Thea Musgrave • Lamenting with Ariadne for Viola and Chamber Orchestra
Johann Sebastian Bach • Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 (Solo part for two violas)
Gösta Nystroem • Viola Concerto Hommage à la France (1940)
Simon Bainbridge • Viola Concerto (1976) ()
Krzysztof Penderecki • Viola Concerto (1983)
Béla Bartók • Viola Concerto (unfinished, compl. Tibor Serly)
Allan Pettersson • Viola Concerto (1979)
Arnold Bax • Phantasy for Viola and Orchestra (1920)
Walter Piston • Viola Concerto (1957)
Jiří Antonín Benda • Viola Concerto in F major (about 1775)
Quincy Porter • Viola Concerto (1948) ()
Hector Berlioz • Harold in Italy
Alessandro Rolla • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Concertino in E-flat major for Viola and Orchestra (or String Quartet), BI. 328/546 Introduction and Divertimento in F major for Viola and Large Orchestra (incomplete), BI. 329 Divertimento in F major for viola and orchestrad'archi, BI. 330 Rondo in G major for viola and string orchestra, 2 oboes and 2 horns, BI.331 Divertimento in G major for viola and orchestra, BI. 332 Adagio and Thema with Variations in G major for viola and orchestra, BI. 333 Concerto in C major for viola and orchestra, BI. 541 Concerto in D major for viola and orchestra, BI. 542 Concerto in D major for viola and orchestra, BI. 543 Concerto in E-flat major for viola and orchestra, BI. 544 Concerto in E-flat major for viola and orchestra, BI. 545 Concerto in E-flat major for viola and orchestra, BI. 547 Concerto in E major for viola and orchestra, BI. 548 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 549 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 550 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 551 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 552 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 553 Concerto in F major for viola and orchestra, BI. 554 Concerto in B-flat major for viola and orchestra, BI. 555
Valentin Bibik • • Concerto No. 1 for Viola and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 53 (1984) Concerto No. 2 for Viola and Orchestra, Op. 104 (1994)
Antonio Rolla (1798–1837) • Variazioni Brillanti in F major for Viola and Orchestra, Op. 13 (1822)
• Boris Blacher • Viola Concerto (1954) • Julius Röntgen • • • • Triple concerto in B-flat major, for violin, viola, cello and strings (1922) Triple concerto for violin, viola and cello (1930) Introduction, Fugue, Intermezzo and Finale for violin, viola, cello
Ernest Bloch • • Suite for Viola and Orchestra (1919) Suite hébraïque
Hilding Rosenberg • Viola Concerto (three versions - 1942, 1964, both for viola and strings, 1945 for larger orchestra) ()
Max Bruch • • Romance for viola and orchestra, Op. 85 Concerto for Clarinet, Viola and Orchestra, Op. 88
Miklós Rózsa • Viola Concerto, Op. 37 (1979) ()
Revol Bunin • Viola Concerto, Op. 22 (1953)
Edmund Rubbra • Viola Concerto in A minor, Op. 75
Willy Burkhard • Viola Concerto, Op. 93 (1953/54)
Ahmet Adnan Saygun • Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (1977)
Diana Burrell • Viola Concerto “...calling, leaping, crying, dancing...” (1994)
Alfred Schnittke • Viola Concerto (1985)
Henri Casadesus • • Concerto in B minor in the style of George Frideric Handel Concerto in C minor in the style of Johann Christian Bach
Joseph Schubert • • Viola Concerto in C major Viola Concerto in E-flat major
Rebecca Clarke • Sonata for Viola and Orchestra (1919) ()-- the sonata for viola and piano orchestrated in 2004-5 by Ruth Lomon
Peter Sculthorpe • Elegy for Viola and Strings (2006)
Gyula Dávid • Viola Concerto (1950)
Tibor Serly • Rhapsody for Viola and Orchestra
Edison Denisov • Viola Concerto (1986)
Anton Stamitz • Concerto in B-flat major (recordings on Panton and on Koch Schwann CDs, and on a 1980 Supraphon LP. A score was published by Schött in Mainz and New York in 1972.) Concerto in F major for viola and strings (1779) (Score published by Schött in 1970. Referred to as concerto no. 2.) Concerto in G major (published by Breitkopf und Härtel in 1971. Referred to as concerto no. 3. See also the comment under Carl Stamitz.) Concerto in D major (published by Breitkopf und Härtel in 1973. At least one of Anton Stamitz' concertos was published earlier by Sieber in Paris during the 18th century.)
• • •
Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf • Viola Concerto in F major
Carl Stamitz • • • Concerto No. 1 in D major (1774) Concerto No. 2 in B-flat/A major Concerto No. 3 in A major
Cornelis Dopper • Nocturne for Viola and Orchestra (1937)
Johann Stamitz • Concertos (at least one, in G major, published by Litolff in 1962. May have been meant for viola d'amore.)
Morton Feldman • The Viola in My Life IV (1971)
Georg Philipp Telemann • Most famously, a Concerto in G major (catalogued as TWV 51:G9) played by many students
• Cecil Forsyth • Viola Concerto in G minor (1903)
Johann Baptist Vanhal • • Viola Concerto in C major  Viola Concerto in F major (according to the Duke university Vanhal page both were originally for violoncello or bassoon)
Benjamin Frankel • Viola Concerto, Op. 45 (1967)
William Walton • Viola Concerto in A minor (1928–29, revised in 1961. Premiered by Paul Hindemith)
Srul Irving Glick (1934–2002) • Concerto for Viola and Strings
John Williams • Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (2009)
Evgeny Golubev • Viola Concerto, Op. 57 (1962)
Ralph Vaughan Williams • • Suite for Viola and Orchestra Suite Flos Campi for Viola, Chorus and Orchestra (technically not a concerto)
Morton Gould • Viola Concerto (1945)
Carl Friedrich Zelter • Viola Concerto E-flat major
John Harbison • Viola Concerto (1988) ()
Hans Henkemans • Viola Concerto (1954, premiered 1956) ()
Paul Hindemith • • • • Kammermusik No. 5 for Viola and Small Orchestra Konzertmusik for Viola with Chamber Orchestra Der Schwanendreher Trauermusik for Viola and Strings
Franz Anton Hoffmeister • • Viola Concerto in B flat major Viola Concerto in D major
Alan Hovhaness • Talin for Viola and Strings, Op. 93, No. 1 (1951–52)
Johann Nepomuk Hummel • Fantasy for Viola and Orchestra, Op. 94
Gordon Jacob • • Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (1925) Viola Concerto No. 2 (1979) ()
Joseph Jongen • Suite, Op. 48 (1915)
Giya Kancheli • Viola Concerto Mourned by the Wind (1986)
Nigel Keay • Viola Concerto (2000) ()
Erland von Koch • Viola Concerto, Op. 33 (1946 rev. 1966)
Victor Legley • Viola Concerto, Op. 78 (1971) ()
Zdeněk Lukáš (born 1928) (Kabeláč student) • Viola Concerto (1983) 
Jef Maes • Viola Concerto (1943)
• • • • Viola website, hosting information about the viola.  Michael Haydn page with Many Classical and Early-Romantic Worklists  Viola Fan Club and Repertoire List  Viola in music  - The role of viola in music. Information, description of works, videos, free sheet music, MIDI files, RSS update.
 http:/ / www. recordsinternational. com/ RICatalogFeb03. html  http:/ / www2. potsdam. edu/ CRANE/ martinka/ milhaud. htm  http:/ / www. ump. co. uk/ bainbridge. htm  http:/ / www. newmusicbox. org/ first-person/ nov99/ quincyporter. html  http:/ / web. telia. com/ ~u48022134/ worklist_1942-1943. html  http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ rosza/ rosza. htm  http:/ / www. rebeccaclarke. org/ june8. html  http:/ / library. duke. edu/ music/ vanhal/ wanhal7. html  http:/ / www. schirmer. com/ Default. aspx?TabId=2420& State_2874=2& workId_2874=24173  http:/ / www. klassiekemuziekgids. net/ componisten/ henkemans. htm  http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ Classpedia/ Jacob. htm  http:/ / www. nigelkeay. com/ violaconcerto. htm  http:/ / www. cebedem. be/ composers/ legley_vic/ en. html  http:/ / www. zdenek-lukas. cz/  http:/ / www. viola. com/  http:/ / www. haydn. dk/ index. php  http:/ / www. ne. jp/ asahi/ rumi/ viola/ vfc/ vfcmainpage. html#_HOME_  http:/ / www. viola-in-music. com
A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. Such works have been written since the Baroque period, when the solo concerto form was first developed, up through the present day. Many major composers have contributed to the violin concerto repertoire, with the best known works including those by Bach, Barber, Bartók, Beethoven, Berg, Brahms, Bruch, Dvořák, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Paganini, Prokofiev, Saint-Saëns, Schoenberg, Shostakovich, Sibelius, Tchaikovsky, and Vivaldi. Traditionally a David Oistrakh playing a violin concerto three-movement work, the violin concerto has been structured in four movements by a number of 20th Century composers, including Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, and Berg (in the latter, the first two and last two movements are connected, with the only break coming between the second and third). In some violin concertos, especially from the Baroque and modern eras, the violin (or group of violins) is accompanied by a chamber ensemble rather than an orchestra—for instance, Vivaldi's L'estro Armonico, originally scored for four violins, two violas, cello, and continuo, and Allan Pettersson's first concerto, for violin and string quartet.
Selected list of violin concertos
The following concertos are presently found near the center of the mainstream Western repertoire. For a more comprehensive list of violin concertos, see List of compositions for violin and orchestra. • John Adams • Violin Concerto (1993) • The Dharma at Big Sur (2003) • Johann Sebastian Bach • • • • • • Violin Concerto in A minor, BWV 1041 (1717–1723) Violin Concerto in E major, BWV 1042 (1717–1723) Double Violin Concerto in D minor, BWV 1043 (1723) Violin Concerto in D minor, BWV 1052 (a reconstruction of a lost work) Violin Concerto for 3 violins in D major, BWV 1064 (a reconstruction of a lost work) Violin Concerto in G minor, BWV 1056 (a reconstruction of a lost work)
• Samuel Barber • Violin Concerto, Op. 14 (1939) • Béla Bartók • Violin Concerto No. 1 (1908) • Violin Concerto No. 2 (1938) • Ludwig van Beethoven • Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61 (1806) • Alban Berg
Violin concerto • Violin Concerto "To the memory of an angel" (1935) • Johannes Brahms • Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 77 (1878) • Max Bruch • Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26 (1867) • Antonín Dvořák • Violin Concerto in A minor, Op. 53 (1879–1880) • Edward Elgar • Violin Concerto in B minor, Op. 61 (1910) • Philip Glass • Violin Concerto No. 1 (1987) • Violin Concerto No. 2 (2009) • Alexander Glazunov • Violin Concerto in A minor, Op. 82 (1904) • Sofia Gubaidulina • Offertorium, concerto for violin and orchestra (1980–86) • In tempus praesens, concerto for violin and orchestra (2007) • Joseph Haydn • Violin Concerto No. 1 in C major (1760) • Violin Concerto No. 3 in A major • Violin Concerto No. 4 in G major • Hans Werner Henze • Violin Concerto No. 1 (1947) • Violin Concerto No. 2 (1971) • Violin Concerto No. 3 (1996, rev. 2002) • Aram Khachaturyan • Violin Concerto in D minor (1940) • Édouard Lalo • Symphonie espagnole in D minor, Op. 21 (1875) • György Ligeti • Violin Concerto (1990) • Felix Mendelssohn • Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 64 (1844) • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • • • • • Violin Concerto No. 1 in B-flat major, K. 207 (1773) Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 211 (1775) Violin Concerto No. 3 in G major, K. 216, Strassburg (1775) Violin Concerto No. 4 in D major, K. 218 (1775) Violin Concerto No. 5 in A major, K. 219, Turkish (1775), with alternative Adagio in E, K.261 (added 1776)
• Carl Nielsen • Violin Concerto (1911)
Violin concerto • Niccolò Paganini • • • • Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major, Op. 6, MS 21 (ca. 1811–17) Violin Concerto No. 2 in B minor, Op. 7, MS 48, La Campanella (1826) Violin Concerto No. 3 in E major, MS 50 (ca. 1826–30) Violin Concerto No. 5 in A minor (1830)
• Walter Piston • Violin Concerto No. 1 (1939) • Violin Concerto No. 2 (1960) • Sergei Prokofiev • Violin Concerto No. 1 in D major, Op. 19 (1917) • Violin Concerto No. 2 in G minor, Op. 63 (1935) • Camille Saint-Saëns • Violin Concerto No. 2 in C major, Op. 58 (1858) • Violin Concerto No. 3 in B minor, Op. 61 (1880) • Arnold Schoenberg • Violin Concerto, Op. 36 (1936) • Robert Schumann • Violin Concerto, WoO 23 (1853) • Dmitri Shostakovich • Violin Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 77 (1948, rev. 1955 as Op. 99) • Violin Concerto No. 2 in C-sharp minor, Op. 129 (1967) • Jean Sibelius • Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 47 (1904) • Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky • Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 35 (1878) • Joan Tower • Violin Concerto (1992) • Antonio Vivaldi — many, particularly: • L'estro Armonico, Op. 3 (1711)—twelve concertos, No. 6 (A minor) frequently played by students • La stravaganza, Op. 4 (ca. 1714) • The Four Seasons (ca. 1725)—four concertos, the first four numbers of Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione, Op. 8 • Charles Wuorinen • Concerto for Amplified Violin and Orchestra (1972) • Rhapsody for Violin and Orchestra (1984) • Spin5 for Violin and 18 players (2006)
Selected list of other works for violin and ensemble
• Béla Bartók • Violin Rhapsody No. 1 • Violin Rhapsody No. 2 Ludwig van Beethoven • Romance No. 1 in G major, Op. 40 (1798–1802) • Romance No. 2 in F major, Op. 50 (1798–1802) Max Bruch • • • Romance in A minor, Op. 42 (1874) Scottish Fantasy, Op. 46 (1880) Adagio Appassionato in C-sharp minor, Op. 57 (1890) • Schwedische Tanze, Op. 63/2 (1892) • In memoriam, Op. 65 (1893) • Serenade in A minor, Op. 75 (1899–1900) • Konzertstück in F-sharp minor, Op. 84 (ca. 1911) Édouard Lalo • Symphonie espagnole, Op. 21 (1874) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • • • • Concertone in C major, for two violins and orchestra, K. 190 (1774) Adagio in E major, K. 261 (1776) Rondo in B-flat major, K. 261a (1776) Rondo in C major, K. 373 (1781) • • Camille Saint-Saëns • Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, Op. 28 (1863) • Havanaise, Op. 83 (1887) Pablo de Sarasate • Zigeunerweisen, Op. 20 (1878) • Carmen Fantasy, Op. 25 (1883) • Navarra for two violins and orchestra, Op. 33 (1889) • Miramar-Zortzico, Op. 42 (1899) • Introduction and Tarantella, Op. 43 (1899) Franz Schubert • Konzertstück in D major, D. 345 (1816) • Rondo in A major, D. 438 (1816) • Polonaise in B-flat major, D. 580 (1817) Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky • • • Sérénade mélancolique Souvenir d'un lieu cher (written for violin and piano in 1878; arranged for violin and orchestra by Alexander Glazunov in 1896) Valse-Scherzo
• Maurice Ravel • Tzigane
• Anthology of 20th century violin concertos 
Bassoon – Bassoon Concerto (Mozart)
The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major, K. 191/186e, written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire bassoon repertory. Nearly all professional bassoonists will perform the piece at some stage in their career, and it is probably the most commonly requested piece in orchestral auditions – it is usually requested that the player perform the excerpts from concerto's first two movements in every audition. Although the autograph is lost, the exact date of the finishing is known: 4 June 1774 . Mozart wrote the bassoon concerto when he was 18 years old, and it was his first concerto for a wind instrument. Although it is believed that it was commissioned by an aristocratic amateur bassoon player Thaddäus Freiherr von Dürnitz, who owned seventy-four works by Mozart, this is a claim that is supported by little evidence. Scholars believe that Mozart wrote perhaps three bassoon concerti, but that only the first has survived.
The concerto is scored for a solo bassoon and an orchestra consisting of 2 oboes, a bassoon, 2 horns in F and strings.
The piece itself is divided into three movements: • I. Allegro • II. Andante ma Adagio • III. Rondo: tempo di menuetto The first movement is written in the common sonata form with an orchestral introduction. The second movement is a slow, lyrical movement that contains a theme which was later featured in the Countess's aria "Porgi, Amor" at the beginning of the second act of Mozart's opera Le nozze di Figaro. The final movement is in rondo form and is probably reminiscent of a dance of the time.
 Eisen, Cliff: 'Concerto', Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 August 2006), <http://www.grovemusic.com.turing.library.northwestern.edu>  Sleeve note of the Supraphon CD (SU 3678-2 001) (http:/ / www. supraphon. cz/ cs/ katalog/ databaze-titulu/ detail-titulu/ ?idtitulu=2002735)  Mozart, W. A.; Giegling, Franz (foreword) (2003). Konzert in B für Fagott und Orchester. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag. p. VII. ISMN M-006-45809-7  Waterhouse, William: 'Bassoon', Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 August 2006), <http://www.grovemusic.com.turing.library.northwestern.edu>
Bassoon Bassoon Concerto (Mozart)
• Konzert in B für Fagott und Orchester KV 191 (186e): Score (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/nma_cont. php?vsep=137&gen=edition&l=1&p1=133) and critical report (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/ nma_cont.php?vsep=138&l=1&p1=31) (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe • Bassoon Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Cello – Cello Concerto (Elgar)
Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85, his last notable work, is a cornerstone of the solo cello repertoire. Elgar composed it in the aftermath of the First World War, by which time his music had gone out of fashion with the concert-going public. In contrast with Elgar's earlier Violin Concerto, which is lyrical and passionate, the Cello Concerto is for the most part contemplative and elegiac. The first performance was a débâcle because Elgar and the performers had been deprived of adequate rehearsal time. The work did not achieve wide popularity until Elgar and Beatrice Harrison making an early recording of the concerto (1920). the 1960s, when a recording by Jacqueline Note the acoustic recording horns. du Pré caught the public imagination and became a classical best-seller. Elgar made two recordings of the work with Beatrice Harrison as soloist. Since then, leading cellists from Pablo Casals onward have performed the work in concert and in the studio.
The piece was composed during the summer of 1919 at Elgar's secluded cottage "Brinkwells" near Fittleworth, Sussex, where during previous years he had heard the sound of the artillery of World War I rumbling across the Channel at night from France. In 1918, Elgar underwent an operation in London to have an infected tonsil removed, a dangerous operation for a 61-year-old man. After regaining consciousness after sedation, he asked for pencil and paper, and wrote down the melody that would become the first theme from the concerto. He and his wife soon retired to the cottage in an attempt to recover from their health problems. In 1918, Elgar composed three chamber works, which his wife noted were already noticeably different from his previous compositions, and after their premieres in the spring of 1919, he began realising his idea of a cello concerto. The concerto had a disastrous premiere, at the opening concert of the London Symphony Orchestra's 1919–20 season on 27 October 1919. Apart from the concerto, which the composer conducted, the rest of the programme was conducted by Albert Coates, who overran his rehearsal time at the expense of Elgar's. Lady Elgar wrote, "that brutal selfish ill-mannered bounder ... that brute Coates went on rehearsing." The critic of The Observer, Ernest Newman, wrote, "There have been rumours about during the week of inadequate rehearsal. Whatever the explanation, the sad fact remains that never, in all probability, has so great an orchestra made so lamentable an exhibition of itself. ... The work itself is lovely stuff, very simple – that pregnant simplicity that has come upon Elgar's music in the last couple of years – but with a profound wisdom and beauty underlying its simplicity." Elgar
Cello Cello Concerto (Elgar) attached no blame to his soloist, Felix Salmond, who played for him again later. Elgar said that if it had not been for Salmond's diligent work in preparing the piece, he would have withdrawn it from the concert entirely. In contrast with the First Symphony, which received a hundred performances worldwide in just over a year from its premiere, the Cello Concerto did not have a second performance in London for more than a year.
This work is scored for Solo Cello, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets in A, 2 Bassoons, 4 Horns in F, 2 Trumpets in C, 3 Trombones, Tuba, Timpani, and strings. The work has four movements: 1. 2. 3. 4. Adagio — Moderato (approx. 8:00) Lento — Allegro molto (approx. 4:30) Adagio (approx. 4:50) Allegro — Moderato — Allegro, ma non troppo — Poco più lento — Adagio. (approx. 11:30) The piece represented, for Elgar, the angst, despair, and disillusionment he felt after the end of the War, and an introspective look at death and mortality. It was a significant change in his style, as he wrote much of his previous works in a noble and jovial style, inspired by the English way of life and the pre-war renaissance of European art. The first movement is in ternary form with introduction. It opens with a recitative in the solo cello, immediately followed by a short answer from the clarinets, bassoons and horn. An ad lib modified scale played by the solo cello follows. The viola section then presents a rendition of the main theme in Moderato, then Fragment of the manuscript of the passes it to the solo cello who repeats it. The string section plays the theme a opening of the second movement of third time and then the solo cello modifies it into a fortissimo restatement. The the concerto orchestra reiterates, and the cello presents the theme a final time before moving directly into a lyrical E major middle section. This transitions into a similar repetition of the first section. This section omits the fortissimo modified theme in the solo cello. The slower first movement moves directly into the second movement. The second movement opens with a fast crescendo with pizzicate chords in the cello. Then, the solo cello plays what will be the main motive of the Allegro molto section. Pizzicato chords follow. A brief cadenza is played, and sixteenth-note motive and chords follow. Then a ritardando leads directly to a scherzo-like section which remains until the end. The slow third movement starts and ends with a lyrical melody, and one theme runs through the entire movement. The end flows directly into the finale (again with no pause). The fourth movement begins with another fast crescendo and ends at fortissimo. The solo cello follows with another recitative and cadenza. The movement's main theme is noble and stately, but with undertones and with many key-changes. Near the end of the piece, the tempo slows into a più lento section, in which a new set of themes appears. The tempo slows further, to the tempo of the third movement, and the theme from that movement is restated. This tempo continues to slow until it becomes stagnant, and the orchestra holds a chord. Then, at the very end of the piece, the recitative of the first movement is played again. This flows into a reiteration of the main theme of the fourth movement, with tension building until the final three chords, which close the piece.
Cello Cello Concerto (Elgar)
Elgar and Beatrice Harrison made a truncated recording in 1920, using the acoustic recording process. The first electrical complete recording (using a single carbon microphone) was made in 1928, by Harrison, Elgar and the London Symphony Orchestra. A notable later recording was made by Jacqueline du Pré in 1965 with Sir John Barbirolli and the London Symphony Orchestra for EMI. During a break in the recording session, the 20-year-old du Pré left the studio, returning to find a large audience of local musicians and critics who had heard that a star was in the making. On hearing her recording, Mstislav Rostropovich is said to have removed the work from his own repertoire. Du Pré's recording has been praised for its passion as well as a secure technique. Barbirolli himself had an association with the concerto from its first days: he was a member of the cello section of the orchestra at its 1919 premiere; and he was the soloist at one of its earliest performances, with the Bournemouth Municipal Orchestra under Sir Dan Godfrey. The BBC Radio 3 feature "Building a Library" has presented comparative reviews of all available versions of the concerto on three occasions. The Penguin Guide to Recorded Classical Music, 2008, has three pages of reviews of the work. The only recording to receive the top recommendation of both the BBC and The Penguin Guide is du Pré's 1965 recording with the LSO and Barbirolli. Other recordings commended by both the BBC and The Penguin Guide are by Beatrice Harrison (1928); Steven Isserlis (1988); Yo-Yo Ma (1985) and Truls Mørk (1999). 
 The Violin Sonata in E minor, Op. 82; the String Quartet in E minor, Op. 83; and the Piano Quintet in A minor, Op. 84.  Steinberg, M. The Concerto: A Listener's Guide, Oxford (1998) pp. 185–89.  Lloyd-Webber, Julian, "How I fell in love with E E's darling", (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ culture/ music/ 3665153/ How-I-fell-in-love-with-E-Es-darling. html) The Daily Telegraph, 17 May 2007; and Anderson, Keith, Liner notes to Naxos CD 8.550503, Dvořák and Elgar Cello Concertos (1992), p. 4  Newman, Ernest, "Music of the Week", The Observer, 2 November 1919  Reed, p. 131  Stevenson, Joseph. "Felix Salmond: Biography" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ q50431/ biography). Allmusic. . Retrieved 2007-06-23.  The Observer, 16 January 1921, p. 15  Lebrecht, pp. 208–09  See, e.g., March, p. 424  Some sources state that Barbirolli gave the second performance of the concerto, but the original soloist, Felix Salmond, gave the work its second performance, with the Hallé in Manchester on 20 March 1920, and Beatrice Harrison also played the solo part before Barbirolli did: see Kennedy p. 40. Reviewing Barbirolli's 1921 performance, The Musical Times commented, "Signor Giovanni Barbirolli was not entirely equal to the demands of the solo music, but his playing unquestionably gave a considerable amount of pleasure." See The Musical Times, 1 March 1921, p. 195  Beatrice Harrison (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio3/ building/ data2/ rev_218_602. shtml), Building a Library, BBC Radio 3, accessed 24 October 2010  Steven Isserlis (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio3/ building/ data2/ rev_218_603. shtml), Building a Library, BBC Radio 3, accessed 24 October 2010  Yo-Yo Ma (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio3/ building/ data2/ rev_1039_2492. shtml), Building a Library, BBC Radio 3, accessed 24 October 2010  March, pp. 424–26
Cello Cello Concerto (Elgar)
• Kennedy, Michael. Barbirolli, Conductor Laureate: The Authorised Biography, MacGibbon and Key, London, 1971. ISBN 0-261-63336-8 • Lebrecht, Norman (2007). The Life and Death of Classical Music, New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-9658-9 • March, Ivan (ed) (2007). The Penguin Guide to Recorded Classical Music 2008. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-141-03336-5 • Reed, W.H. (1946). Elgar. London: Dent. OCLC 8858707.
• Guide to the Concerto from Elgar.org - includes a Musical Tour and a History (http://www.elgar.org/3cellcon. htm) • VIDEO: Elgar Cello Concerto third movement (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6UmdmmUqZk) performed by Julian Lloyd Webber (http://www.julianlloydwebber.com/) and conducted by Yehudi Menuhin • Elgar Cello Concerto (http://www.emiclassics.com/grocreleasedetails.php?rid=20916#) performed by Jacqueline du Pré with Sir John Barbirolli • • • • Elgar Cello Concerto (http://www.natalieclein.com) performed by Natalie Clein with Vernon Handley Elgar Cello Concerto (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HeMHbjUHVo) performed by Jian Wang (cellist) Cello Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85 (1919) (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/classical/elgar/notes/ note_celloconc.shtml) • Discovering Music Elgar's Cello Concerto (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/discoveringmusic/pip/80tke/)
Clarinet – Clarinet Concerto (Mozart)
Mozart's Clarinet concerto in A major, K. 622 was written in 1791 for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. It consists of the usual three movements, in a fast–slow–fast form: 1. Allegro 2. Adagio 3. Rondo: Allegro It was also one of Mozart's final completed works, and his final purely instrumental work (he died in the December following its completion). The concerto is notable for its delicate interplay between soloist and orchestra, and for the lack of overly extroverted display on the part of the soloist (no cadenzas are written out in the solo part).
Mozart originally wrote the work for basset clarinet, a special clarinet championed by Stadler that had a range down to low (written) C, instead of stopping at (written) E as standard clarinets do. As most clarinets could not play the low notes which Mozart wrote to highlight this instrument, Mozart's publisher arranged a version of the concerto with the low notes transposed to regular range, and did not publish the original version. This has proven a problematic decision, as the autograph no longer exists, having been pawned by Stadler, and until the mid 20th century musicologists did not know that the only version of the concerto written by Mozart's hand had not been heard since Stadler's lifetime. Once the problem was discovered, attempts were made to reconstruct the original version, and new basset clarinets have been built for the specific purpose of performing Mozart's concerto and clarinet quintet. There can no longer be any doubt that the concerto was composed for a clarinet with an extended
Clarinet Clarinet Concerto (Mozart) range.  In this context it is worth noting two other works written for Stadler and his instrument by composers closely linked to the Mozart–Stadler circle that used the extended range of Stadler's instrument: the clarinet concerto by Franz Xaver Süssmayr (famous for having completed Mozart's Requiem) and that by Joseph Leopold Eybler. In recent years, the restored original version has been recorded by a number of different artists.
The concerto was given its premiere by Stadler in Prague on October 16, 1791. Reception of his performance was generally positive. The Berlin Musikalisches Wochenblatt noted in January 1792, "Herr Stadeler, a clarinettist from Vienna. A man of great talent and recognised as such at court... His playing is brilliant and bears witness to his assurance." There was some disagreement on the value of Stadler's extension; some even faulted Mozart for writing for the extended instrument.
First movement: Allegro
Originally written as a sketch for basset horn, the movement opens with an orchestral statement of the main theme. The theme is taken up by the soloist, and the music quickly takes on a more melancholy feel. At the end of this section, the pauses in the solo part are occasionally taken as a point to perform an eingang (cadenza), although no context is offered for a true cadenza. The main theme reappears transposed, and leads to the novel feature of the soloist accompanying the orchestra with an Alberti bass. Further development leads to dramatic turn, which, after a tutti, leads back into the main theme. The Alberti bass and arpeggios for the soloist recur before the movement ends in a relatively cheerful tutti in A major. The second half of the double exposition of this movement (frequently called simply "the exposition" by clarinetists since it is the only part they play) appears on almost every professional orchestral clarinet audition. • • • • • • • Orchestral ritornello: bars 1–56 Solo exposition: bars 57–154 Ritornello: bars 154–171 Development: bars 172–227 Ritornello: bars 227–250 Recapitulation: bars 251–343 Ritornello: bars 343–359
Second movement: Adagio
The second movement, marked Adagio, is written in ternary form (i.e. ABA). (It was popularized by the film Out of Africa.) It opens with the soloist playing the movement's primary theme with orchestral repetition. The development, in which the solo part is always prominent, exploits both the chalumeau and clarion registers, while the restatement of the opening culminates in a cadenza.
Clarinet Clarinet Concerto (Mozart)
Third movement: Rondo: Allegro
The closing rondo has a cheerful refrain, with episodes either echoing this mood or recalling the darker colours of the first movement. It is a blend of sonata and rondo forms that Mozart developed in his piano concertos, most noticeably the A major Piano Concerto, K. 488. The opening refrain (bars 1–56) features the soloist in dialogue with the orchestra, much more so than in his piano concertos. In many ways, this is a dialogue of one-upmanship—the more definitive the statement made by the orchestra, the more virtuosic the response by the clarinet. The first episode (bars 57–113) features chromaticism and dramatic lines custom-written for the basset clarinet with its low extension. The refrain (114–137) is heard again in a slightly simpler manner, and the music modulates to F♯ minor. The second episode (bars 137–187) contains "one of the most dramatic showcases for the basset clarinet in the entire concerto, featuring spectacular leaps, together with dialog between soprano and baritone registers." After this episode there is no refrain. The third episode (bars 188–246) is a recapitulation of the first, but instead of a simple restatement, it modulates four times. This allows the soloist frequent opportunities to display chromatic figurations, and the composer to demonstrate his creativity in the reworking of the material. The refrain (bars 247–301) is heard for the final time, exactly as presented in the opening, before proceeding to the coda (bars 301–353). Here the rondo theme is developed dramatically, using the full range of the clarinet. Mozart uses leaps, trills, and figurations. In the end, the more cheerful mood returns, and the concerto ends with a tutti untouched by the melancholy seen elsewhere in the work.
 Hacker, Alan (April 1969). "Mozart and the Basset Clarinet". The Musical Times (Musical Times Publications Ltd.) 110 (1514): 359–362. doi:10.2307/951470. JSTOR 951470.  Ness, Arthur (1963). The Original Text of Mozart's Clarinet Concerto. Cambridge, MA: Master's thesis, Harvard University.  Adelson, Rob (Fall 1997). "Reading between the (Ledger) Lines: Performing Mozart's Music for the Basset Clarinet" (http:/ / ccdl. libraries. claremont. edu/ u?/ ppr,168). Performance Practice Review 10 (2): 152–191. . Retrieved 2007-01-25.  Lawson, Colin (1996). Mozart: Clarinet Concerto. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47929-5.  Rosen, Charles (1997). The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=vGdcINvz9n4C& dq=isbn=0393040208). New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-04020-8. OCLC 35095841. . Retrieved 2008-01-13.
• Konzert in A für Klarinette und Orchester KV 622: Score (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/nma_cont. php?vsep=139&gen=edition&l=1&p1=3) and critical report (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/ nma_cont.php?vsep=140&l=1&p1=4) (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe • BBC Discovering Music (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/discoveringmusic/pip/iyzdt/) • Clarinet Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Double Double Concerto (Brahms)
Double – Double Concerto (Brahms)
The Double Concerto in A minor, Op. 102, by Johannes Brahms is a concerto for violin, cello and orchestra.
Origin of the work
The Double Concerto was Brahms' final work for orchestra. It was composed in the summer of 1887, and first performed on 18 October of that year in the Gürzenich in Köln, Germany. Brahms approached the project with anxiety over writing for instruments that were not his own. He wrote it for the cellist Robert Hausmann and his old but estranged friend, the violinist Joseph Joachim. The concerto was, in part, a gesture of reconciliation towards Joachim, after their long friendship had ruptured following Joachim's divorce from his wife Amalie.  (Brahms had sided with Amalie in the dispute.) The concerto also makes use of the musical motif A-E-F, a permutation of F-A-E, which stood for a personal motto of Joachim, Frei aber einsam ("free but lonely"). Thirty-four years earlier, Brahms had been involved in a collaborative work using the F-A-E motif in tribute to Joachim: the F-A-E Sonata of 1853.
The composition consists of three movements in the fast-slow-fast pattern typical of classical instrumental concertos: 1. Allegro (A minor) 2. Andante (D major) 3. Vivace non troppo (A minor → A major)
Performance and criticism
Joachim and Hausmann repeated the concerto, with Brahms at the podium, several times in its initial 1887-88 season, and Brahms gave the manuscript to Joachim, with the inscription "To him for whom it was written." Clara Schumann reacted unfavourably to the concerto, considering the work "not brilliant for the instruments". Richard Specht also thought critically of the concerto, describing it as "one of Brahms' most inapproachable and joyless compositions". Brahms had sketched a second concerto for violin and cello but destroyed his notes in the wake of its cool reception. Later critics have warmed to it: Donald Tovey wrote of the concerto as having "vast and sweeping humour". It has always been hampered by its requirement for two brilliant and equally matched soloists.
Richard Cohn has included the first movement of this concerto in his detailed discussion of various composers' use of triadic progressions. Cohn has also analysed such progressions mathematically.
• • • • • • Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals, Pau Casals Orchestra Barcelona cond. Alfred Cortot (1929). Jascha Heifetz and Emanuel Feuermann, Philadelphia Orchestra cond. Eugene Ormandy (1939). Adolf Busch and Herman Busch, French National Radio Orchestra cond. Paul Kletzki (live Strasbourg 1949). Georg Kulenkampff and Enrico Mainardi, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande cond. Carl Schuricht (1947). Nathan Milstein and Gregor Piatigorsky, Philadelphia Robin Hood Dell Orchestra cond. Fritz Reiner (1951). Jascha Heifetz and Gregor Piatigorsky, RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra cond. Alfred Wallenstein.
• Gioconda de Vito and Amadeo Baldovino, Philharmonia Orchestra cond. Rudolf Schwarz (1952). • Jean Fournier and Antonio Janigro, Vienna State Opera Orchestra cond. Hermann Scherchen. • Alfredo Campoli and André Navarra, Hallé Orchestra cond. John Barbirolli.
Double Double Concerto (Brahms) • Josef Suk and André Navarra, Czech Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Karel Ančerl (c.1963). • Willi Boskovsky and Emanuel Brabec, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Wilhelm Furtwängler (1950 live recording). • Wolfgang Schneiderhan and Enrico Mainardi, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Karl Böhm. • Wolfgang Schneiderhan and János Starker, Orchestra of Radio-Symphonie Berlin cond. Ferenc Fricsay. • Henryk Szeryng and János Starker, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra cond. Bernard Haitink. • Emmy Verhey and János Starker, Amsterdam Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Arpad Joó. • Isaac Stern and Leonard Rose, Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra of New York cond. Bruno Walter. • Isaac Stern and Yo-Yo Ma, Chicago Symphony Orchestra cond. Claudio Abbado. • Isaac Stern and Yo-Yo Ma, New York Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Zubin Mehta • Gidon Kremer and Mischa Maisky, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Leonard Bernstein. • David Oistrakh and Pierre Fournier, Philharmonia Orchestra cond. Alceo Galliera. • David Oistrakh and Mstislav Rostropovich, Cleveland Orchestra cond. George Szell. • David Oistrakh and Mstislav Rostropovich, Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Kirill Kondrashin (live 1963). • Salvatore Accardo and Siegfried Palm, Orchestra Sinfonica di Roma della RTV Italiana cond Bruno Maderna (live 1961 Milan). • Zino Francescatti and Samuel H. Mayes, Boston Symphony Orchestra cond. Charles Munch (live rec. April 1956) • Zino Francescatti and Pierre Fournier, Columbia Symphony Orchestra cond. Bruno Walter. • Zino Francescatti and Pierre Fournier, BBC Symphony Orchestra cond. Colin Davis. • Christian Ferras and Paul Tortelier, Philharmonia Orchestra cond. Paul Kletzki. • Yehudi Menuhin and Paul Tortelier, London Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Paavo Berglund (1984). • Yehudi Menuhin and Maurice Gendron, London Symphony Orchestra cond. Istvan Kertesz (Bath Festival 1964). • Yehudi Menuhin and Leslie Parnas, Casals Festival Orchestra cond. Pablo Casals (1969). • Yan Pascal Tortelier and Paul Tortelier, BBC Symphony Orchestra cond. John Pritchard (1974). • Itzhak Perlman and Yo-Yo Ma, Chicago Symphony Orchestra cond. Daniel Barenboim. • Vadim Repin and Truls Mørk, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra cond. Riccardo Chailly. • Gil Shaham and Jian Wang, Berliner Philharmoniker cond. Claudio Abbado.
 Cheltenham Symphony Orchestra: program notes (http:/ / www. cheltenhamsymphonyorchestra. info/ prognotes. htm)  He disguised his reservations with joyless joking in his letter to Clara Schumann: "...I have had the amusing idea of writing a concerto for violin and cello. If it is at all successful it might give us some fun. You can well imagine the sort of pranks one might play in such a case," he wrote, adding "I ought to have handed on the idea to some who knows the violin better than I do." Litzmann, Schumann/Brahms Letters 8/1887, quoted by Jan Swafford, Johannes Brahms: a biography 1997:539.  For Hausmann he had written the Second Cello Sonata the previous summer.  "This concerto is a work of reconciliation— Joachim and Brahms have spoken to each other again for the first time in years", Clara Schumann noted in her journal after a rehearsal in Baden-Baden in September 1887.  Schwartz, Boris (Autumn 1983). "Joseph Joachim and the Genesis of Brahms's Violin Concerto" (http:/ / mq. oxfordjournals. org/ cgi/ reprint/ LXIX/ 4/ 503). The Musical Quarterly LXIX (4): 503–526. doi:10.1093/mq/LXIX.4.503. . Retrieved 2008-03-16.  Musgrave, Michael (July 1983). "Brahms's First Symphony: Thematic Coherence and Its Secret Origin". Music Analysis (Music Analysis, Vol. 2, No. 2) 2 (2): 117–133. doi:10.2307/854245. ISSN 0262-5245. JSTOR 854245.  Wollenberg, Susan (February 1993). "Reviews of Books: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Konzerts: Festschrift Siegfried Kross zum 60. Geburtstag (eds. Reinmar Emans and Matthias Wendt". Music & Letters 74 (1): 77–81. doi:10.1093/ml/74.1.77. ISSN 0027-4224. JSTOR 735204.  Stein, George P. (October 1971). "The Arts: Being through Meaning". Journal of Aesthetic Education (Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 5, No. 4) 5 (4): 99–113. doi:10.2307/3331623. ISSN 0021-8510. JSTOR 3331623.  Cohn, Richard (March 1996). "Maximally Smooth Cycles, Hexatonic Systems, and the Analysis of Late-Romantic Triadic Progressions". Music Analysis (Music Analysis, Vol. 15, No. 1) 15 (1): 9–40. doi:10.2307/854168. ISSN 0262-5245. JSTOR 854168.
Double Double Concerto (Brahms)
 Cohn, Richard (Spring 1997). "Neo-Riemannian Operations, Parsimonious Trichords, and Their Tonnetz Representations". Journal of Musical Theory (Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 41, No. 1) 41 (1): 1–66. doi:10.2307/843761. ISSN 0022-2909. JSTOR 843761.  HMV DB1311-1314/Victor V-8208-8211.  HMV/Victor 78rpm:Naxos CD  Music and Arts MACD 108  Decca 78rpm AK2025-2028: Archipel CD ARPCD 0301  Naxos CD 8.111051  RCA LD(S)2513  Student of Camillo Oblach's at the G.B. Martini School of Music, Bologna, Baldovino was cellist with the Trio Italiano d'Archi and the Trio di Trieste: see (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ amadeo-baldovino) here.  HMV BLP 1028  Fournier and Janigro played together with Paul Badura-Skoda in a trio ensemble.  Westminster LP WLP 5117.  (Pye Golden Guinea GGC 4009).  Supraphon LP SUA ST 50573.  Cellist of the Barylli Quartet, Brabec was teacher of Nikolaus Harnoncourt at Vienna.  Dynamic IDIS Hist. CD IDI 6554  Schneiderhan succeeded Georg Kulenkampff as violin in the trio ensemble with Mainardi and Edwin Fischer after Kulenkampff died.  Orfeo CD C 359941B  CD DG 4775341  Australian Eloquence CD 4643092  Brilliant classics CD 93249  Philips LP ABL 3139/3289.  CBS Masterworks Mk 42387  DGG DVD 000983409  HMV/EMI SXLP 30185  HMV ASD 3312  BBC CD L41972  Palm was a pupil of Mainardi's, and a President of the European String Teachers' Association: see interview (http:/ / www. cello. org/ Newsletter/ Articles/ palm. htm) here.  Movimento Musica srl Milano (WEA Italiana) 01.017 33/30 DP  Samuel H. Mayes (http:/ / www. cello. org/ heaven/ bios/ mayes. htm)  Music and Arts, West Hill Radio Archive WHRA 6017  CBS LP SBRG 72087  BBC CD L41492  Testament CD SBT 1337  EMI EG 27 0268 1  BBC CD L4252 2  Leslie Parnas (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ leslie-parnas)  Doremi CD DHR 7844  BBC CD L42362  Warner Classics CD Maestro 2564673668  CD DG 4777470  CD DG 4695292
• History of the Double Concerto (http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/brahms_double_con.html) • Adaptation of the work as a Cello Concerto (http://www.sikorski.de/3041/en/a_cello_concerto_by_brahms. html) • Andrews University Symphony Orchestra, November 13, 1999 notes (http://www.andrews.edu/~mack/pnotes/ nov1399.html,) • Double Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Copyist's manuscript with composer's annotations (http://www.juilliardmanuscriptcollection.org/composers. php#/works/BRAH) at The Juilliard Manuscript Collection
Flute Flute Concerto (Simpson)
Flute – Flute Concerto (Simpson)
The Flute Concerto by Robert Simpson was composed in 1989 and dedicated to Susan Milan, the flautist who commissioned the work and gave its premiere in May 1992 at the Malvern Festival with the City of London Sinfonia conducted by Richard Hickox.
The work is in one movement with a running time of approximately twenty-five minutes. The orchestra used by Simpson is a small one, with seven woodwind players, two horns, timpani and strings. The work can broadly be divided into three distinct parts  :
In a 6/8 meter, the work begins with a phrase from muted first violins that forms the basis of the entire work. The shape given out by the sequence of intervals present in A - B - C♯ - D♯ - D - D♯ - B - C - D is developed throughout the entire one movement structure. The flute enters several bars later with a variation on this phrase with light accompaniment from the orchestra, often consisting of just a single line with the dynamic level remaining at pianissimo for a considerable period of time. After several minutes a climax is reached, leading into a brief secondary part of the Allegretto where the tempo remains the same but the meter is changed to common time. Gradually the music becomes more agitated before breaking away into the following section, Allegro non troppo.
2. Allegro non troppo
A one-in-a-bar scherzo, it begins softly with strings before the flute enters, accompanied by chamber-like subdued textures from the orchestra. The soloist has dialogue with both the woodwinds and the timpani during this section, giving the impression of dry wit. This section too climaxes near its end, before ending softly and mysteriously, leading into the final Adagio.
The strings introduce the Adagio, its mood contemplative and introspective (reminiscent of some of the slow string writing in Simpson's Ninth Symphony and later string quartets). The flute and woodwinds take over this theme in turn. After a passage accompanied by divided cellos, the work reaches its final, extended climax as the flautist is instructed to sit with the string soloists for the very final part of the piece where the conductor is required to sit out. The last five minutes are essentially chamber music - the flute and string soloists forming a quintet, closing peacefully.
 Robert Simpson Flute Concerto - Full score, published by Rosehill Music
Harmonica Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (Arnold)
Harmonica – Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (Arnold)
The Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra, Opus 46, is a concerto featuring a harmonica soloist, composed by the English musician Malcolm Arnold. The piece was composed in 1954 for the American harmonica virtuoso Larry Adler, and was premiered on August 14, 1954 at the Royal Albert Hall, with accompaniment by the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The concerto was one of the first of a number of "serious" pieces composed for the harmonica after the Second World War (in addition to works by Darius Milhaud, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Heitor Villa-Lobos). The concerto has a duration of nine minutes and is cast in three movements: • Grazioso • Mesto • Con brio
• The World Guide to Musical Instruments, Max Wade-Matthews, Anness Publishing Ltd., 2001 • Official Malcolm Arnold Website 
 http:/ / www. malcolmarnold. co. uk/
Harpsichord – Harpsichord concertos (Bach)
The harpsichord concertos, BWV 1052-1065, are concertos for harpsichord, strings and continuo by Johann Sebastian Bach. There are seven complete concertos for a single harpsichord, (BWV 1052-1058), three concertos for 2 harpsichords (BWV 1060-1062), two concertos for 3 harpsichords (BWV 1063-1064), and one concerto for 4 harpsichords, (BWV 1065). Two other concertos include solo harpsichord parts: the concerto BWV 1044, which has solo parts for harpsichord, violin and flute, and Brandenburg concerto no.5, BWV 1050, with the same scoring. In addition there is a single 9-bar concerto fragment for a single harpsichord (BWV 1059) which adds an oboe to the strings and continuo. All of Bach's harpsichord concertos (with the exception of the Brandenburg concerto) are thought to be arrangements made from earlier concertos for melodic instruments probably written in Köthen. In many cases, only the harpsichord version has survived.
From 1729 to 1741, Bach was director of the Collegium musicum in Leipzig, a student musical society, founded by Georg Philipp Telemann in 1703 and run before Bach by Balthasar Schott. The Collegium musicum often gave performances at Zimmermann's coffee-house. It was for these occasions that Bach produced his harpsichord concertos, among the first concertos for keyboard instrument ever written. It is thought that the multiple harpsichord concertos were heard earlier than those for one harpsichord, perhaps because his sons C. P. E. Bach and W. F. Bach (both excellent harpsichord players) were living at home until 1733 and 1734, respectively. It is likely that Johann Ludwig Krebs, who studied with Bach until 1735, also played harpsichord in the Collegium musicum. The concertos for one harpsichord, BWV 1052-1059, survive in an autograph score (now in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Mus. ms. Bach P 234) which is not a fair copy but a draft, or working score, and has been dated to about
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) 1738. Bach may of course have played the works much earlier, using the parts from an original melody-instrument concerto and extemporising a suitable harpsichord version while playing. The works BWV 1052-1057 were intended as a set of six, shown in the manuscript in Bach's traditional manner beginning with 'J.J.' (Jesu Juva) and ending with 'Finis. S. D. Gl.' (Soli Deo Gloria). Aside from the Brandenburg concertos, it is the only such collection of concertos in Bach's oeuvre. The concerto BWV 1058 and fragment BWV 1059 are contained at the end of the score, and are an earlier attempt at a set of (headed J.J.) which was abandoned for one reason or another. Bach's harpsichord concertos were, until recently, often underestimated by scholars, who did not have the convenience of hearing the benefits that historically informed performance has brought to works such as these: for instance Albert Schweitzer wrote 'The transcriptions have often been prepared with almost unbelievable cursoriness and carelessness. Either time was pressing or he was bored by the matter.' Recent research has demonstrated quite the reverse to be true; he transferred solo parts to the harpsichord with typical skill and variety. Bach's interest in the harpsichord concerto form can be inferred from the fact that he arranged every suitable melody-instrument concerto as a harpsichord concerto, and while the harpsichord versions have been preserved the same is not true of the melody-instrument versions.
Concertos for single harpsichord
The set of 6 harpsichord concertos
Concerto I in D minor, BWV 1052 1. Allegro 2. Adagio 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 22 minutes This harpsichord concerto is thought to be based on a lost violin concerto in D minor which was later arranged as an organ concerto in 1728 for use in two of Bach's cantatas; the first two movements for the sinfonia and first choral movement of Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal in das Reich Gottes eingehen, BWV 146 and the last movement is in Ich habe meine Zuversicht, BWV 188. The original is probably one of Bach's earliest concertos and is very virtuosic, in a similar manner to Antonio Vivaldi's Grosso Mogul violin concerto, RV 208, which Bach knew and transcribed for solo organ, BWV 594. The harpsichord transcription was made by transferring the ripieno string parts without alteration and considerably augmenting the solo part for harpsichord to make it as comparatively virtuosic as the original must have been, as well as adding chords to fill in the harmony and figurative developments in the left hand. This is particularly notable in the first and third movements; in the second movement, however, the left hand almost exactly duplicates the ripieno continuo part, and the right hand plays a melody that is probably taken directly from the original violin part. The first and third movements share a similar harmonic structure based upon which the movements can be divided into four sections. The opening section of both movements gives the theme in the tonic (D minor) followed by a statement of the theme in the relative major (F major). The second section modulates to the dominant (A minor) and then its relative major (C major). The third section modulates to the subdominant (G minor) and its relative major (B flat major). Finally, the fourth section gives a recapitulation of the theme in the tonic, with no subsequent major key statement. This concerto has remained the most popular of the collection from the 19th century onwards; Felix Mendelssohn played it and Johannes Brahms wrote a cadenza for it; the first publication of it was in 1838 by the Kistner Publishing House. It was often played and recorded with the piano in the 20th century, though with the rise of
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) historically informed performance from the 1960s, it is now regularly played on the harpsichord again. There also exists a version of this harpsichord concerto transcribed by C. P. E. Bach in 1733 or 1734, listed as BWV 1052a; it is not executed particularly well but shows that the process was studied in Bach's household. Concerto II in E major, BWV 1053 1. Allegro 2. Siciliano 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 19 minutes This harpsichord concerto is thought to be based on a concerto for a wind instrument, probably oboe or oboe d'amore, and from stylistic considerations, it may have dated from Bach's time in Leipzig. It exists, like BWV 1052, in a later transcription in his cantatas Gott soll allein mein Herze haben, BWV 169 and Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen, BWV 49, from which further inferences can be made about the original concerto. Bach changed his method of arrangement with this work, significantly altering the ripieno parts from the original concerto for the first time, limited much more to the tutti sections. The lower string parts were much reduced in scope, allowing the harpsichord bass to be more prominent, and the upper strings were likewise modified to allow the harpsichord to be at the forefront of the texture. Concerto III in D major, BWV 1054 1. Allegro 2. Adagio e piano sempre 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 17 minutes The surviving violin concerto in E major, BWV 1042 was the model for this work, which was transposed down a tone to allow the top note e''' to be reached as d''', the common top limit on harpsichords of the time. The transcription process was based on the same principles as BWV 1053. Concerto IV in A major, BWV 1055 1. Allegro 2. Larghetto 3. Allegro ma non tanto Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 14 minutes Probably based on a lost concerto for oboe d'amore, this is a mature and formally concentrated work. There exists a figured bass continuo part for this concerto, which was added later, probably for a particular occasion at which a second harpsichord, chamber organ or theorbo filled out the harmony of the continuo bass.
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Concerto V in F minor, BWV 1056 1. Allegro moderato 2. Largo 3. Presto Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 10 minutes The outer movements probably come from a violin concerto which was in G minor, and the middle movement is probably from an oboe concerto in F major; this movement is also the sinfonia to the cantata Ich steh mit einem Fuß im Grabe, BWV 156. Concerto VI in F major, BWV 1057 1. Allegro 2. Andante 3. Allegro assai Scoring: harpsichord solo, flauto dolce (recorder) I/II, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 17 minutes A transcription of Brandenburg concerto no.4, BWV 1049; because it also involves parts for two solo recorders, this is a concerto grosso. The harpsichord mainly plays the original violin part, but also takes on the material of the recorders-violin trio in the slow movement, plays with the recorders in four-part harmony, plays a reduction of the fugal material with the strings in the last movement, and, when doing nothing else, plays a lavishly written-out continuo. Bach probably placed this concerto as the last of the set intentionally, as the pinnacle of the series, due to the richness of instrumental color produced by the three families of instruments, and the extraordinarily varied and effective harpsichord part.
The abandoned first set
Concerto in G minor, BWV 1058 1. Allegro 2. Andante 3. Allegro assai Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 14 minutes Probably Bach's first attempt at writing out a full harpsichord concerto, this is a transcription of the violin concerto in A minor, BWV 1041. It seems Bach was dissatisfied with this work, the most likely reason being that he did not alter the ripieno parts very much, so the harpsichord was swamped by the orchestra too much to be an effective solo instrument. Bach did not continue the intended set which he had marked with a 'J.J.' at the start of this work; he abandoned the next harpsichord concerto, the fragment BWV 1059, which was to be based on an oboe concerto, after 10 incomplete bars.
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Concerto in D minor, BWV 1059 1. No Tempo Indication Scoring: harpsichord solo, oboe, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 20 seconds Fragment consisting of 9 bars. Taken from the opening Sinfonia of the Cantata, BWV 35 “Geist und Seele wird verwirret” (1726) In the cantata, Bach uses an obbligato organ not only in the two sinfonias (which evidently form the first and last movements of a lost instrumental concerto, possibly for oboe) but also in the aria No. 1, whose siciliano character likewise points to its original function as a concerto movement. Bach intended to write this out as a harpsichord concerto but abandoned the endeavor after only 9 bars. Some modern scholars have constructed a proposed harpsichord or oboe concerto from BWV 35.
Concerto for harpsichord, flute, and violin
Concerto in A minor, BWV 1044 1. Allegro 2. Adagio ma non tanto e dolce 3. Alla breve Scoring: harpsichord solo, violin solo, flute solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 22 minutes Though this is a concerto for three instruments (hence it is occasionally called Bach's triple concerto), the harpsichord has the most prominent role and greatest quantity of material; there are several cadenzas and virtuosic passages for the instrument; the scoring is identical to that of Brandenburg concerto no.5, BWV 1050, though the character is quite different. The first and third movements are adapted from the prelude and fugue in A minor for solo harpsichord, BWV 894, which have been developed with added tutti sections. The middle movement is from the trio sonata for organ in D minor, BWV 527, which has been expanded to four voices; only the solo instruments play, and the flute and violin share the melody and accompaniment, switching roles on the repeat of each half.
Concertos for multiple harpsichords
Concertos for two harpsichords
Concerto in C minor, BWV 1060 1. Allegro 2. Adagio 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord I/II solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 14 minutes While the existing score is in the form of a concerto for harpsichord and strings, Bach scholars believe it to be a transcription of a lost double concerto in D minor; a reconstructed arrangement of this concerto for two violins or violin and oboe is classified as BWV 1060R. The subtle and masterful way in which the solo instruments blend with the orchestra marks this out as one of the most mature works of Bach's years at Köthen. The middle movement is a cantabile for the solo instruments with orchestral accompaniment.
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Concerto in C major, BWV 1061 1. Allegro 2. Adagio ovvero Largo 3. Fuga Scoring: harpsichord I/II solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 19 minutes Of all Bach's harpsichord concertos, this is probably the only one that originated as a harpsichord work, though not in an orchestral guise. The work originated as a concerto for two harpsichords unaccompanied (in the manner of the Italian Concerto, BWV 971), and the addition of the orchestral parts may not have been by Bach himself. The string orchestra does not fulfil an independent role, and only appears to augment cadences; it is silent in the middle movement. The harpsichords have much dialogue between themselves and play in an antiphonal manner throughout. Concerto in C minor, BWV 1062 1. — 2. Andante 3. Allegro assai Scoring: harpsichord I/II solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 15 minutes The well-known concerto for two violins in D minor, BWV 1043 is the basis of this transcription. It was transposed down a tone for the same reason as BWV 1054, so that the top note would be d'''.
Concertos for three harpsichords
Concerto in D minor, BWV 1063 1. Ohne Satzbezeichnung 2. Alla Siciliana 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord I/II/III solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 14 minutes Scholars have yet to settle on the probable scoring and tonality of the concerto on which this was based, though they do think it is, like the others, a transcription. Bach's sons may have been involved in the composition of this work. Bach's sons may have also been involved in the performances of this particular concerto, as Friedrich Konrad Griepenkerl wrote in the foreward to the first edition that was published in 1845 that the work owed its existence "presumably to the fact that the father wanted to give his two eldest sons, W. Friedemann and C.Ph. Emanuel Bach, an opportunity to exercise themselves in all kinds of playing." It is believed to have been composed by 1733 at the latest.
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Concerto in C major, BWV 1064 1. Allegro 2. Adagio 3. Allegro assai Scoring: harpsichord I/II/III solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 17 minutes This concerto was probably based on an original in D major for three violins, and shows some similarity with that for two violins/harpsichords, BWV 1043/1061, in the interaction of the concertino group with the ripieno and the cantabile slow movement.
Concerto for four harpsichords
Concerto in A minor, BWV 1065 1. Allegro 2. Largo 3. Allegro Scoring: harpsichord I/II/III/IV solo, violin I/II, viola, continuo (cello, violone) Length: c. 10 minutes Bach made a number of transcriptions from Antonio Vivaldi's concertos, especially from his op.3 set, entitled L'estro Armonico; he adapted them for solo harpsichord and solo organ, and for the concerto for 4 violins in B minor, op.3 no.10, RV 580, he decided upon the unique solution of using four harpsichords and orchestra. This is thus the only harpsichord concerto by Bach which was not an adaptation of his own material. The middle movement has the four harpsichords playing differently-articulated arpeggios in a very unusual tonal blend, while Bach provided some additional virtuosity and tension in the other movements.
 Oxford Composer Companions guide to Bach (ed. Boyd)  Bach: The Concertos for 3 and 4 Harpsichords - Trevor Pinnock and the English Concert, from the CD booklet written by Dr. Werner Brieg, 1981, Archive Produktion (bar code 3-259140-004127)
• Werner Breig, Bach: Concertos for Harpsichord, ISMN: M-006-20451-9 (1999, Bärenreiter) • Werner Breig, notes to recordings of the complete harpsichord concertos by Trevor Pinnock and The English Concert (1981, Archiv Produktion); lengths also taken from these recordings
• • • • • • • Harpsichord Concerto No.1, BWV 1052: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.2, BWV 1053: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.3, BWV 1054: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.4, BWV 1055: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.5, BWV 1056: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.6, BWV 1057: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. Harpsichord Concerto No.7, BWV 1058: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
• Harpsichord Concerto No.8, BWV 1059: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Harpsichord Harpsichord concertos (Bach) • Concerto for Flute, Violin and Harpsichord, BWV 1044: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 2 Harpsichords, BWV 1060: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 2 Harpsichords, BWV 1061: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 2 Harpsichords, BWV 1062: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 3 Harpsichords, BWV 1063: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 3 Harpsichords, BWV 1064: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Concerto for 4 Harpsichords, BWV 1065: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Program notes (http://www.laco.org/performances/127/?program=1) from the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra
Oboe – Oboe Concerto (Mozart)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Oboe Concerto in C major, K. 314 was originally composed in Spring or Summer 1777 for oboist Giuseppe Ferlendis (1755–1802) from Bergamo, then reworked by the composer as a concerto for flute in D major in 1778. The concerto is a widely-studied piece for both instruments and is one of the more important concerti for the oboe.
As with his Flute Concerto No. 1, the piece is arranged for a standard set of orchestral strings, two oboes, and two horns. The piece itself is divided into three movements: • I. Allegro aperto • II. Adagio non troppo • III. Rondo: Allegretto
Flute Concerto No. 2
The Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major is an adaptation of the original oboe concerto. Dutch flautist Ferdinand De Jean (1731–1797) commissioned Mozart for four flute quartets and three flute concerti; which Mozart only completed three quartets and only one new flute concerto. Instead of creating a new second concerto, Mozart rearranged the oboe concerto he had written a year earlier as the second flute concerto, although with substantial changes for it to fit with what the composer deemed flute-like. However, De Jean did not pay Mozart for this concerto because it was based on the oboe concerto. 
While the original version for oboe had been lost before Alfred Einstein wrote Mozart: His Character, His Work, the oboe origin of the flute concerto was suspected then, in part because of references in letters to a now-missing oboe concerto, as Einstein wrote, and of similar details in the orchestral string lines which suggested a transposition was used. Also, Einstein noted the two scores in D Major and C Major of the K. 314 Concerto in the Library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, which led to the belief that the oboe concerto was the origin of the flute concerto. The orchestra parts of the composition and solo oboe part in C were rediscovered by Bernhard Paumgartner in Salzburg, in 1920.
Oboe Oboe Concerto (Mozart)
 Mozart, W. A.; Giegling, Franz (foreword) (2003). Konzert in C für Oboe und Orchester. Klavierauszug. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag. p. IV. ISMN M-00645740-3  Riordan, George. The History of the Mozart Concerto K. 314 (http:/ / idrs. colorado. edu/ Publications/ Journal/ JNL23/ 5_K314. pdf). International Double Reed Society & University of Colorado, College of Music.  Flute Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 314 (K. 285d) (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ flute-concerto-no-2-in-d-major-k-314-k-285d). Allmusic.  Freed, Richard. Flute Concerto No. 2 in D major, K. 314 (http:/ / www. kennedy-center. org/ calendar/ index. cfm?fuseaction=composition& composition_id=3221). John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. October 5–7, 2006
• Oboe Concerto in C KV 314 (285d): Score (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/nma_cont.php?vsep=137& gen=edition&l=1&p1=97) and critical report (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/nma_cont. php?vsep=138&l=1&p1=7) (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe • Flute Concerto No. 2 in D KV 314 (285d): Score (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/nma_cont. php?vsep=137&gen=edition&l=1&p1=53) and critical report (http://dme.mozarteum.at/DME/nma/ nma_cont.php?vsep=138&l=1&p1=20) (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe • Performance of Flute Concerto by the Gardner Chamber Orchestra with soloist [[Paula Robison (http://traffic. libsyn.com/gardnermuseum/mozart_k314.mp3)]] from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in MP3 format
Orchestra – Concerto for Orchestra (Bartók)
Concerto for Orchestra, Sz. 116, BB 123, is a five-movement musical work for orchestra composed by Béla Bartók in 1943. It is one of his best-known, most popular and most accessible works. The score is inscribed "15 August – 8 October 1943", and it premiered on December 1, 1944 in Boston Symphony Hall by the Boston Symphony Orchestra conducted by Serge Koussevitzky. It was a great success and has been regularly performed since. It is perhaps the best-known of a number of pieces that have the apparently contradictory title Concerto for Orchestra. This is in contrast to the conventional concerto form, which features a solo instrument with orchestral accompaniment. Bartók said that he called the piece a concerto rather than a symphony because of the way each section of instruments is treated in a soloistic and virtuosic way. The piece is also known for a scathing parody of the "invasion theme" of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony, a work which Bartók disliked for a number of reasons, located within the Intermezzo fourth movement.
The work was written in response to a commission from the Koussevitzky Foundation (run by the conductor Serge Koussevitzky) following Bartók's move to the United States from his native Hungary, which he had fled because of World War II. It has been speculated that Bartók's previous work, the String Quartet No. 6 (1939), could well have been his last were it not for this commission, which sparked a small number of other compositions, including his Sonata for Solo Violin and Piano Concerto No. 3. Bartók revised the piece in February 1945, the biggest change coming in the last movement, where he wrote a longer ending. Both versions of the ending were published, and both versions are performed today.
Orchestra Concerto for Orchestra (Bartók)
Bartók makes extensive use of classical elements in the work; for instance, the first and fifth movements are in sonata-allegro form. The work combines elements of Western art music and eastern European folk music, especially that of Hungary, and it departs from traditional tonality, often using non-traditional modes and artificial scales. Bartók researched folk melodies, and their influence is felt throughout the work; for example, the second main theme of the first movement, as played by the 1st oboe, resembles a folk melody, with its narrow range and almost haphazard rhythm. The drone in the horns and strings also indicates folk influence (see example). The piece is scored for 3 flutes (one doubling piccolo), 3 oboes (one doubling The second theme of the first movement (measure 155). The harp, which plays a cor anglais), 3 clarinets (one doubling bass quarter note (F sharp) in the last measure, is omitted. clarinet), 3 bassoons (one doubling contrabassoon), 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tam-tam, 2 harps and strings.
I. Introduzione. Andante non troppo - Allegro vivace
The first movement, called Introduzione by Bartók, is a slow introduction of Night music type that gives way to an allegro with numerous fugato passages. This movement is in sonata allegro form.
II. Giuoco Delle Coppie. Allegretto scherzando
The second movement, called Game of Pairs (but see note below), is in five sections, each thematically distinct from each other, with a different pair of instruments playing together in each section. In each passage a different interval separates the pair—bassoons are a minor sixth apart, oboes are in minor thirds, clarinets in minor sevenths, flutes in fifths and muted trumpets in major seconds. The movement prominently features a side drum which taps out a rhythm at the beginning and end of the movement. While the printed score has the second movement as Giuoco delle coppie (Game of the couples), Bartók's manuscript had no title at all for this movement at the time the engraving-copy blueprint was made for the publisher. At some later date, Bartók added "Presentando le coppie" (Presentation of the couples) to the manuscript, and addition of this title was included in the list of corrections to be made to the score. However, in Bartók's file blueprint the final title is found, and because it is believed to have been the composer's later thought, it is retained in the revised edition of the score. The original 1946 printed score also had an incorrect metronome marking for this movement. This was brought to light by Sir Georg Solti as he was preparing to record the Concerto for Orchestra and the Dance Suite. Solti writes: When preparing these two works for the recording I was determined that the tempi should be exactly as Bartók wrote and this led me to some extraordinary discoveries, chief of which was in the second
Orchestra Concerto for Orchestra (Bartók) movement of the Concerto for Orchestra. The printed score gives crotchet equals 74, which is extremely slow, but I thought that I must follow what it says. When we rehearsed I could see that the musicians didn't like it at all and in the break the side drum player (who starts the movement with a solo) came to me and said "Maestro, my part is marked crotchet equals 94", which I thought must be a mistake, since none of the other parts have a tempo marking. The only way to check was to locate the manuscript and through the courtesy of the Library of Congress in Washington we obtained a copy of the relevant page, which not only clearly showed crotchet equals 94, but a tempo marking of "Allegro scherzando" (the printed score gives "Allegretto scherzando"). Furthermore Bartók headed it "Presentando le coppie" (Presentation of the couples), not "Giuoco delle coppie" (Game of the couples). I was most excited by this, because it becomes a quite different piece. The programme of the first performance in Boston clearly has the movement marked "Allegro scherzando" and the keeper of the Bartók archives was able to give us further conclusive evidence that the faster tempo must be correct. I have no doubt that thousands of performances, including my own up to now, have been given at the wrong speed!
III. Elegia. Andante non troppo
The third movement, called Elegia by Bartók, is another slow movement, typical of Bartók's so-called "Night music". The movement revolves around three themes which primarily derive from the first movement.
IV. Intermezzo Interrotto. Allegretto
The fourth movement, called Intermezzo interrotto by Bartók, consists of a flowing melody with changing time signatures, intermixed with a theme parodying and ridiculing the march tune in Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7 "Leningrad". The theme is itself interrupted by glissandi on the trombones and woodwinds. In this movement, the timpani are featured when the second theme is introduced, requiring 12 different pitches of the timpani over the course of 20 seconds. The general structure is "ABA–interruption–BA."
V. Finale. Presto
The fifth movement, called Finale by Bartók and marked presto, consists of a whirling perpetuum mobile main theme competing with fugato fireworks and folk melodies. This is also written in sonata allegro form.
    Cooper, David (1996). Bartók: Concerto for Orchestra. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521485053. Bartók, Béla. "Explanation to Concerto for Orchestra," for the Boston premiere at Symphony Hall. Bartók, Béla (2004). Concerto for Orchestra (Score). New York: Boosey & Hawkes. ISBN 0851621899. Peter Bartók, "Preface to the Revised Edition, 1993", in Béla Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra: Full Score, revised edition, [iii–v] (London, New York, Bonn, Sydney, Tokyo: Boosey & Hawkes, 1993). The citation is on p. [iv].  Sir Georg Solti, Liner notes from London LP LDR 71036, Bartók Concerto for Orchestra and Dance Suite, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, recorded January 1980.  Griffiths, Paul (February 22, 1999). "A Peacetime Hearing of the Shostakovich 'Leningrad,' Forged in War" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1999/ 02/ 22/ arts/ music-review-a-peacetime-hearing-of-the-shostakovich-leningrad-forged-in-war. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 30 March 2010.
• Concerto for Orchestra: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Organ Organ Concerto (Poulenc)
Organ – Organ Concerto (Poulenc)
The Concerto for Organ, Timpani and Strings in G minor is a concerto composed by Francis Poulenc for the organ between 1934 and 1938. It has become one of the most frequently performed pieces of the genre not written in the Baroque period.
History of composition
The organ concerto was commissioned by Princess Edmond de Polignac in 1934, as a piece with a chamber orchestra accompaniment and an easy organ part that the princess could probably play herself. The commission was originally given to Jean Françaix, who declined, but Poulenc accepted. Poulenc quickly abandoned this idea for something much more grandiose and ambitious; his earlier harpsichord concerto and double-piano concerto were simpler, more light-hearted pieces. As he wrote in a letter to Françaix, "The concerto...is not the amusing Poulenc of the Concerto for two pianos, but more like a Poulenc en route for the cloister." The death of a colleague and friend, the young critic and composer Pierre-Octave Ferroud, in the spring of 1936 made Poulenc go on a pilgrimage to the Black Virgin of Rocamadour, where he rediscovered his Christian faith. This new religious conviction not only nurtured an interest in religious music, which he began to compose, but also highly influenced his incomplete Organ Concerto. Indeed, Poulenc referred to it as being on the fringe of his religious works. Poulenc himself had never actually composed for the organ before, and so he studied great baroque masterpieces for the instrument by Johann Sebastian Bach and Dieterich Buxtehude; the work's neo-baroque feel reflects this. Poulenc was also advised about the instrument's registration and other aspects by the organist Maurice Duruflé. Duruflé was also the soloist in the private premiere of the work on 16 December 1938, with Nadia Boulanger conducting, at Princess Edmond's salon. The first public performance was in June 1939 at the Salle Gaveau in Paris, with Duruflé once again the soloist and Roger Désormière conducting.
As the full title of the piece denotes, the piece is scored for a solo organ, timpani and a string orchestra. The piece uses such comparatively small forces, relative to Poulenc's other concertos (the Concert champêtre used a full orchestra as accompaniment), so that the piece could be played in a quite small space with an organ, such as Princess Edmond's salon, that were quite popular in France at the time. The piece would have been premiered on a Cavaillé-Coll instrument, as the company supplied many organs to private contractors, one of whom was the de Polignac.
The piece is just over 20 minutes in duration and consists of a single continuous movement with seven tempo marks. Respectively, these are: Andante, Allegro giocoso, Subito andante moderato, Tempo allegro. Molto agitatio, Très calme: Lent, Tempo de l'allegro initial and Tempo d'introduction: Largo. Each movement often differs substantially in style, tone and texture. For example, the opening movements are loud and quite violent, with substantial organ chords; yet the following middle movements are much calmer, softer and more emotional.
Organ Organ Concerto (Poulenc)
Organist Michael Murray Peter Hurford Simon Preston Philippe Lefebvre Ian Tracey Conductor Robert Shaw Charles Dutoit Seiji Ozawa Record Label Telarc Decca Records Record Release Date 1990 1993
Deutsche Grammophon 1995 1998 2000 2001 2001 2003 2007
Jean-Claude Casadesus Naxos Records Yan Pascal Tortelier Chandos Records Apex Records Linn Records EMI Classics Ondine Records
Marie-Claire Alain Jean Martinon Gillian Weir Maurice Duruflé Olivier Latry David Hill Georges Prêtre Christoph Eschenbach
    (http:/ / www. spinningdogrecords. com/ ndckd180. html) (http:/ / www. classicalarchives. com/ work/ 110480. html#tvf=tracks& tv=about) Apex Records Publication 8573 892442 (http:/ / www. classicalarchives. com/ work/ 110488. html#tvf=all& tv=about)
Piano – Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)
The Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18, is a concerto for piano and orchestra composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff between the autumn of 1900 and April 1901. The second and third movements were first performed with the composer as soloist on 2 December 1900. The complete work was premiered, again with the composer as soloist, on 9 November 1901, with his cousin Alexander Siloti conducting. This piece is one of Rachmaninoff's most enduringly popular pieces, and established his fame as a concerto composer.
Piano Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)
At its 1897 premiere, Rachmaninoff's first symphony, though now considered a significant achievement, was derided by contemporary critics. Compounded by problems in his personal life, Rachmaninoff fell into a depression that lasted for several years. His second piano concerto confirmed his recovery from clinical depression and writer's block. The concerto was dedicated to Nikolai Dahl, a physician who had done much to restore Rachmaninoff's self-confidence.
The work is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B♭ (I mov.) and A (II & III mov.), 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in B♭, 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass), tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, solo piano, and strings. It is written in three-movement concerto form.
Rachmaninoff in the early 1900s
Moderato: C minor
The opening movement begins with a series of bell-like tollings on the piano that build tension, eventually climaxing in the introduction of the main theme. In this first section, the orchestra carries the Russian-character melody while the piano makes an accompaniment made of arpeggios riddled with half steps. After the statement of the long first theme, a quicker transition follows until the more lyrical second theme, in E flat major, is presented.
First eight bars of the concerto
The agitated and unstable development borrows motives from both themes changing keys very often and giving the melody to different instruments while a new musical Main theme first played by the two violin sections, viola section and first clarinet idea is slowly formed. The music builds in a huge climax as if the work was going to repeat the first bars of the work, but the recapitulation is going to be quite different. While the orchestra restates the first theme, the piano, that in the other occasion had an accompaniment role, now plays the march-like theme that had been halfly presented in the development, thus making a considerable readjustment in the exposition, as the main theme, played by the orchestra has become an accompaniment. This is followed by a piano solo, which leads into a descending chromatic passage and concluding with an eerie French horn solo. From here the last minutes of the movement are placid until drawn into the agitated coda, and the movement
Piano Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff) ends in C minor fortissimo.
Adagio sostenuto - Più animato - Tempo I: C minor → E major
The second movement opens with a series of slow chords in the strings which modulate from the C minor of the previous movement to the E major of this movement. The piano enters, playing a simple arpeggiated figure. The main theme is initially introduced by the flute, before being developed by an extensive clarinet solo. The motif is passed between the piano and other soloists before the music accelerates to a short climax centred on the piano. The original theme is repeated, and the music appears to die away, finishing with just the soloist in E major.
Allegro scherzando: E major → C minor → C major
The last movement opens with a short orchestral introduction that modulates from E (the key of the previous movement) to C, before a piano solo leads to the statement of the agitated first theme. After the original fast tempo and musical drama ends, a lyrical theme is introduced by the oboe and violas. This second theme maintains the motif of the first movement's second theme. After a long period of development tension is built up considerably. Near the end, Rachmaninoff restates the second theme in loud, fortissimo orchestration. After this, a fast, ecstatic coda draws the piece to a close, ending in C major.
The Moderato provides the basis for Frank Sinatra's "I Think of You" and "Ever and Forever". Muse's "Space Dementia", "Butterflies and Hurricanes", "Megalomania", "Ruled by Secrecy" and "Neutron Star Collision (Love Is Forever)" all contain references to this movement. The Adagio sostenuto theme appears in Eric Carmen's 1975 ballad "All by Myself". Carmen first composed the song's interlude, then took the verse from Rachmaninoff and the chorus from his own "Let's Pretend". Carmen explained that Rachmaninoff was his "favorite music". This movement also provides the basis for Amici Forever's "Nostalgia" from the album Defined. The opening chords of Adagio sostenuto also appears in the orchestrated version of Aria di Mezzo Carattere from Final Fantasy VI. The Allegro scherzando provides the basis for Frank Sinatra's 1945 "Full Moon and Empty Arms" and The Gospellers's "Sky High," which was also the opening theme for hit anime Nodame Cantabile Paris Hen Arc.
• • • • The concerto is significantly featured in David Lean's 1945 film Brief Encounter Billy Wilder's 1955 film The Seven Year Itch More recently, it was featured prominently in Clint Eastwood's 2010 film Hereafter Concerto was featured briefly in a 1956 Soviet film Spring on a Street Across the River (Весна на Заречной улице) in a radio broadcast performed by Lev Oborin. • The concerto is significantly featured in both the Japanese anime (2007) and award-winning TV versions (2008) of Nodame Cantabile
Piano Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)
 Harrison, Max (2006). Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. London: Continuum. pp. 92–99. ISBN 0-8264-9312-2.  "Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra" (http:/ / classyclassical. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 09/ rachmaninoffs-works-for-piano-and. html). Classy Classical. . Retrieved February 27, 2011.  "Brief Encounter theme is UK's top classic" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2005/ mar/ 29/ arts. artsnews1). The Guardian. March 29, 2005. . Retrieved February 27, 2011.  Norris, Geoffrey (1993). The Master Musicians: Rachmaninoff (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=aPc2AAAACAAJ). New York City: Schirmer Books. pp. 113–115. ISBN 0-02-870685-4. .  Steinberg, Michael (1998). The Concerto. Oxford University Press. p. 357–358. ISBN 0-19-513931-3.  "Full Moon and Empty Arms" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,798001,00. html). Time. 23 June 1947. .  "An Interview with Eric Carmen Conducted by Gordon Pogoda in 1991" (http:/ / www. ericcarmen. com/ eric/ interviews. htm), ericcarmen.com, , retrieved 21 September 2010  http:/ / www. kino-teatr. ru/ kino/ movie/ sov/ 909/ annot/
• Schirmer, G (1996). Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1; Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2 (Orchestra reduction for second piano). Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. pp. 101–163. ISBN 0-486-29114-6. • Yungkans, Jonathan (2001-03-14). "The Second Piano Concerto" (http://inkpot.com/classical/rachpfc2.html). The Flying Inkpot. Retrieved 2007-10-15. • Kuenning, Geoff (2000). "Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Minor" (http://www.lasr.cs.ucla.edu/ geoff/prognotes/rachmaninoff/pianoCon2.html). Symphony of the Canyons. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
• Anderson, W. R. (1947), Rachmaninov and his pianoforte concertos: A brief sketch of the composer and his style, London: Hinrichsen Edition Limited, pp. 9–14 • Chung, So-Ham Kim (1988) (Dissertation), An analysis of Rachmaninoff's Concerto No. 2 in C Minor opus 18: Aids towards performance (http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1235232062), The Ohio State University, retrieved 4 August 2010 • Coolidge, Richard (August 1979), "Architectonic Technique and Innovation in the Rakhmaninov Piano Concertos", The Music Review 40 (3): 188–193 • Culshaw, John (1950), Rachmaninov: The Man and His Music, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 78–84 • Evans, Edwin, ed. (1942), Serge Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2, Opus 18: Analysis, New York: Boosey & Hawkes • Slenczynska, Ruth (October 1973), "The Performer's Corner: The Opening of the Rachmaninoff Second Concerto", Clavier 12 (7): 18 • Tsukkerman, Viktor (1965), "Zhemchuzhina Russkoy Liriki (Pearls of Russian Lyricism)" (in Russian), Sovetskaya Muzika (1): 25–35 • Veinus, Abraham (1945), The Concerto, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., p. 248
• Piano Concerto No. 2: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Sinfonia Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart)
Sinfonia – Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart)
The Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364 (320d), was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. At the time of its composition in 1779, Mozart was on a tour of Europe that included Mannheim and Paris. The composition's complex orchestral dynamics reflects the increasing technical competence of the European orchestra of that era and was strongly influenced by Mozart's visit to the Mannheim court orchestra during his European tour of 1777 to 1779. Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre and this work can be considered his most successful realization in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto.
The piece is scored in three movements for solo violin, solo viola, two oboes, two horns, and strings, the latter including two sections of violas. The solo viola part is written in D major instead of E flat major, and the instrument tuned a semitone sharper (scordatura technique), to give a more brilliant tone. This technique is uncommon when performed on the modern viola and is used mostly in performance on original instruments. It has also been arranged for cello in place of the viola part.
• I. Allegro maestoso, common time • II. Andante, 3/4, in C minor • III. Presto, 2/4
This Sinfonia Concertante has influenced many arrangers to use these themes. In 1808 an uncredited arrangement of the piece for string sextet Grande Sestetto Concertante was published by Sigmund Anton Steiner. All six parts are divided equally among the six players; it is not presented as soloists with accompaniment. The opening two melodic phrases of "The Windmills of Your Mind," a song from the 1968 film The Thomas Crown Affair, were adopted from the opening of the second movement of the Sinfonia Concertante. The Sinfonia Concertante was mentioned in William Styron's 1979 novel Sophie's Choice; after a stranger molests Sophie on the subway, she hears the Sinfonia Concertante on the radio, which brings back memories of her childhood in Krakow and snaps her out of her depression. Variations on the slow second movement were used for the soundtrack to the 1988 Peter Greenaway film Drowning by Numbers by composer Michael Nyman. The original piece is also heard after each of the drownings in the screenplay. The American composer and bassist Edgar Meyer was so interested in this work that in 1995 he wrote a double concerto for double bass, cello and orchestra that, while very different in style, closely mirrors the structure of Mozart's Sinfonia concertante. The andante movement of this piece was featured in Nuri Bilge Ceylan's 2002 film Uzak.
Sinfonia Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart)
• Mordden, Ethan. A Guide To Orchestral Music: A Handbook for Non-Musicians (Oxford, 1980). • Smith, Erik. Notes to Mozart Sinfonia Concertante K364 (L.P. DECCA 1964)
• Mozart Sinfonia Concertante: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Sinfonia Concertante in Es für Violin, Viola und Orchester: Score  and critical report  (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe • Viola in music  - Sinfonia concertante for violin, viola and orchestra • Grande Sestetto Concertante  - Grande Sestetto Concertante for String Sextet after the Sinfonia Concertante, K.364. Edited by Christopher Hogwood.
    http:/ / dme. mozarteum. at/ DME/ nma/ nma_cont. php?vsep=135& gen=edition& l=1& p1=57 http:/ / dme. mozarteum. at/ DME/ nma/ nma_cont. php?vsep=136& l=1& p1=29 http:/ / www. viola-in-music. com/ Mozart_Sinfonia_Concertante. html http:/ / www. allthingsstrings. com/ article/ 151/ 151,4142,InPrint-1. asp
Triple – Triple Concerto (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano in C Major, Op. 56, more commonly known as the Triple Concerto, was composed in 1803 and later published in 1804 under Breitkopf & Hartel. The choice of the three solo instruments effectively makes this a concerto for piano trio and the only concerto Beethoven ever wrote for more than one solo instrument. A typical performance takes approximately thirty-seven minutes. Beethoven's early biographer Anton Schindler claimed that the Triple Concerto was written for Beethoven's royal pupil, the Archduke Rudolf (Rudolf von Habsburg-Lothringen). The Archduke, who became an accomplished pianist and composer under Beethoven's tutelage, was only in his mid-teens at this time, and it seems plausible that Beethoven's strategy was to create a showy but relatively easy piano part that would be backed up by two more mature and skilled soloists. However, there is no record of Rudolf ever performing the work—it was not publicly premiered until 1808, at the summer "Augarten" concerts in Vienna—and when it came to be published, the concerto bore a dedication to a different patron: Prince Lobkowitz (Franz Joseph Maximilian Fürst von Lobkowitz).
The concerto is divided into three movements: 1. Allegro 2. Largo (attacca) 3. Rondo alla polacca The first movement is broadly scaled and cast in a moderate march tempo, and includes decorative solo passage-work and leisurely repetitions, variations, and extensions of assorted themes. A common feature of this, is a dotted rhythm (short-long, short-long) that lends an air of graciousness and pomp, that is not exactly "heroic" but would have conveyed a character of fashionable dignity to contemporary listeners; and perhaps a hint of the noble "chivalric" manner that was becoming a popular element of novels, plays, operas, and pictures. The jogging triplets that figure in much of the accompaniment also contribute to this effect. In this movement, as in the other two movements, the cello enters solo with the first subject. Unusual for a concerto of this scale, the first movement
Triple Triple Concerto (Beethoven) begins quietly, with a gradual crescendo into the exposition, with the main theme later introduced by the soloists. Another unusual trait is the exposition which modulates to A minor, instead of the expected G major. The slow movement, in A-flat major, is a large-scale introduction to the finale, which follows it without pause. The cello and violin share the melodic material of the movement between them while the piano provides a discreet accompaniment. Dramatic repeated notes launch into the third movement, which is a polonaise (also called "polacca"), an emblem of aristocratic fashion during the Napoleonic era, which is, thus, in keeping with the character of "polite entertainment" that characterizes this concerto as a whole. The bolero-like rhythm also characteristic of the polonaise, can be heard in the central minor theme of the final movement. In addition to the violin, cello, and piano soloists, the concerto is scored for one flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings.
• Triple Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Trumpet – Trumpet Concerto (Haydn)
Joseph Haydn's Concerto per il Clarino, Hob.: VII e, 1 (Trumpet Concerto in E flat major) was written in 1796, when he was 64 years old, for his long time friend Anton Weidinger.
Anton Weidinger reputably had developed a keyed trumpet which could play chromatically throughout its entire range. Before this, the trumpet was commonly valveless and could only play a limited range of harmonic notes by altering lip pressure. These harmonic notes were clustered in the higher registers, so previous trumpet concertos could only play melodies at very high pitches (e.g., Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 2). Haydn's concerto includes melodies in the lower register, exploiting the capabilities of the new instrument. There were attempts all over Europe around the mid-classical era to expand the range of the trumpet using valves, and Weidinger's idea of drilling holes and covering them with flute-like keys proved reasonably unpopular, due to their poorer quality of sound. Thus the natural trumpet still had continual use in the classical orchestra whilst the keyed trumpet had barely any repertoire. The valved trumpets used today started to appear in the 1830s.
The work is composed in three movements (typical of a concerto), and they are marked as follows: • I. Allegro (sonata) • II. Andante (sonata) • III. Finale-Allegro (rondo) In addition to the solo trumpet, the concerto is scored for an orchestra consisting of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 (presumably natural) trumpets (which generally play in support of the horns or timpani rather than the solo trumpet), timpani and strings.
Trumpet Trumpet Concerto (Haydn)
• Trumpet Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
Viola – Viola Concerto (Bartók)
Béla Bartók's Viola Concerto, Sz. 120, BB 128 was written in July – August 1945, in Saranac Lake, New York, while he was suffering from the terminal stages of leukemia. It was commissioned by William Primrose. Along with the Piano Concerto No. 3, it is his last work, and he left it incomplete at his death. The concerto was premiered in 1950 by the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra with Antal Doráti conducting and William Primrose playing the solo part. The concerto has been completed three times: once by Bartók's friend and pupil, Tibor Serly (1949); once by Peter Bartók (son of the composer), Paul Neubauer, and Nelson Dellamaggiore (1995); and once by Csaba Erdelyi (copyright laws limit the availability of the Erdelyi version to retail stores in New Zealand and over the Internet). The score suggests three movements with interconnecting passages, somewhat in the character of a ritornello, and this is how the completed versions run; however, Bartók mentioned in an unsent letter to Primrose that he intended the work to have four movements in all. The scherzo movement, which would have been the 2nd, was cut out by the composer, but some passages in the manuscript could be part of this scherzo. Bartók did not complete either the instrumentation or even the final texture so large passages are relatively devoid of detail. Stylistically, the work is similar to the Third Piano Concerto which was written at the same time. Compared to his earlier works they are harmonically restrained, somewhat conservative in most respects and with an elegiac quality which had always been a strong component of his music but which intensified in his late years.
Analysis (Serly edition)
The first movement is marked Moderato and is in sonata form as follows. Exposition (mm. 1-81) The first tonal area and primary theme are in mm. 1-40. The A diminished tonality implied by the beginning introduction is the first hint at a B♭ tonal center. The primary theme is a 4-bar antecedent to an 8-bar phrase that is never presented fully. The second tonal area and "middle theme" are in mm. 41-60. This starts off with one of the few cadences in the whole piece. C minor is the first key. This section has a denser texture, faster successive attack activity, and mostly scalar melodic motion (in contrast to the leaping melodic motion of the primary theme). This figure traverses through many tonal areas through the use of sequencing, ending with an extended B pedal (approx. mm. 52-61). The third tonal area and secondary theme are in mm. 61-80. This starts on an E in the viola part, and with an E held in the bass, and ends with a D♯ trill in the solo viola part inn measure 80. For a more in depth look at the first movement refer to "Finding Emotion in Batok's Viola Concerto" written by Jennifer Reed Mueller and published in the Journal of the American Viola Society, Fall 2009 Volume 25, Number 2.
Viola Viola Concerto (Bartók) Development (mm. 81-147) The Development begins with the primary theme from bar 1. This time, however, the 2nd Horn plays the first note. This variation technique is typical of Bartok's works. He aspired to always avoid any literal repetition of thematic material, and altered subsequent repetitions by using techniques such as ornamentation, elaboration, varied instrumentation, and new harmonization. The primary theme is developed. In measure 87, the opening interval is a tritone, instead of a minor 6th. In measure 95, the viola part is inverted, with an implied starting pitch of B dim., which foreshadows the eventual C resolution in the coda. Measure 102 is in B major. Measure 116 is an intervalic and harmonic inversion of measure 112. A cadenza begins in measure 127. Recapitulation (mm. 147-207) The first tonal area and primary theme are in mm.147-162. This time the primary theme is played by the flute while the viola noodles around. The chord is an F7 chord, giving further weight to the B♭ tonality of the primary theme. The second tonal area and "middle theme" are in mm. 162-185. A cadence starts this "middle theme." E minor is the first key. The mediant alteration from the C minor of the Exposition is interesting, because since this theme is between the primary and secondary areas, it is only harmonically shifted halfway in the Recapitulation. This time the harmonic sequencing is by thirds instead of by fifths, as in the Exposition. (c, g, d, a in Exposition and e, g♯, c, a in Recapitulation). The third tonal area and secondary theme are in mm. 185-207. This starts on an A in the viola part this time, which is the type of transposition one typically expects of the secondary theme in the Recapitulation of a sonata form piece. Coda (mm. 207-230) The Coda starts with the Consequent portion of the 8-bar theme from the opening of the piece. The opening viola line is pentatonic, in that there are no 'A's or 'D's. This is strongly in C with elements of both minor and major. The second half of the 4 bar phrase also has mode alterations. This movement ends on a C major triad.
In the Serly edition, the second movement begins with an introduction. This lento parlando introduction has been left out by the other editions, as it might have belonged to the incomplete or abandoned scherzo movement. The movement is marked Adagio religioso.
The third movement also begins with an introduction. The fifth-based chord played at the beginning is repeated in the middle of the movement, when a folk melody is introduced. The movement is marked Allegro vivace.
 Rodman, Michael. "Viola Concerto (completed in 1949 by Tibor Serly), Sz. 120, BB 128" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ work/ c7785). Allmusic. . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
• Malcolm Gillies: "Bela Bartók", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed June 25, 2005), (subscription access) (http://www.grovemusic.com) • Maurice, Donald. Bartók's Viola Concerto: The Remarkable Story of His Swansong. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-515690-0
Violin Violin Concerto (Beethoven)
Violin – Violin Concerto (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61, was written in 1806. The work was premiered on 23 December 1806 in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna. Beethoven wrote the concerto for his colleague Franz Clement, a leading violinist of the day, who had earlier given him helpful advice on his opera Fidelio. The occasion was a benefit concert for Clement. However, the first printed edition (1808) was dedicated to Beethoven’s friend Stephan von Breuning. It is believed that Beethoven finished the solo part so late that Clement had to sight-read part of his performance. Perhaps to express his annoyance, or to show what he could do when he had time to prepare, Clement is said to have interrupted the concerto between the first and second movements with a solo composition of his own, played on one string of the violin held upside down; however, other sources claim that he did play such a piece but only at the end of the program. The premiere was not a success, and the concerto was little performed in the following decades. The work was revived in 1844, well after Beethoven's death, with performances by the then 12-year-old violinist Joseph Joachim with the orchestra conducted by Felix Mendelssohn. Ever since, it has been one of the most important works of the violin concerto repertoire, and it is frequently performed and recorded today.
The work is in three movements: 1. Allegro ma non troppo (D major) 2. Larghetto (G major) 3. Rondo. Allegro (D major) It is scored, in addition to the solo violin, for single flute, and pairs of oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and timpani along with strings. Cadenzas for the work have been written by several notable violinists, including Joachim. The cadenzas by Fritz Kreisler are probably most often employed. More recently, composer Alfred Schnittke provided controversial cadenzas with a characteristically 20th-century flavor; violinist Gidon Kremer has recorded the concerto with the Schnittke cadenzas. The first movement starts with four beats on the timpani as the opening notes, and it has a duration of about 25 minutes. The entire work itself is approximately 45 minutes in duration.
Perhaps due to the Violin Concerto's lack of success at its premiere, and at the request of Muzio Clementi, Beethoven revised it in a version for piano and orchestra, which was later published as Opus 61a. For this version, which is present as a sketch in the Violin Concerto's autograph alongside revisions to the solo violin part, Beethoven wrote a lengthy, somewhat bombastic first movement cadenza which features the orchestra's timpanist along with the solo pianist. This and the cadenzas for the other movements were later arranged for the violin by the 20th-century violinists Max Rostal and Wolfgang Schneiderhan. More recently, it has been arranged as a concerto for clarinet and orchestra, by Mikhail Pletnev.
Violin Violin Concerto (Beethoven)
    Eulenburg pocket score, preface, p.3 Eulenburg pocket score, p. 3 Steinberg, M. The concerto: a listener's guide, page 81. Oxford University Press, 1998. Ludwig van Beethoven. Konzert für Violine & Orchester D-dur Opus 61.[Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Wien, Mus. Hs. 17.538] Edited, with commentary (in German) by Franz Grasberger. Graz, 1979.  Music Web International (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2000/ oct00/ beethovenviolinclarinet. htm)
• Beethoven, Ludwig van: Concerto for Violin and orchestra in D major op. 61. Score. Eulenburg 2007. EAS 130 • Beethoven, Ludwig van: Konzert für Violine & Orchester D-dur Opus 61. (Facsimile edition of autgraph full score) Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Wien, Mus. Hs. 17.538. Edited, with commentary (in German) by Franz Grasberger. Graz, 1979.
• Violin Concerto: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project. • Complete performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=6519828) • Complete performances (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=beethoven violin concerto) from the Internet Archive by Jascha Heifetz/Arturo Toscanini & Fritz Kreisler/John Barbirolli. • Theme from third movement (http://www.8notes.com/school/riffs/violin/beethoven_violin_concerto.asp) • The new Bärenreiter edition of Beethoven’s violin concerto (http://www.neokitsch.com/2010/12/ the-new-barenreiter-edition-of-beethoven’s-violin-concerto/)
Concertos by composer
Concertos by Christoph Graupner
The following is a complete list of concertos by Christoph Graupner, as given in Christoph Graupner : Thematisches Verzeichnis der Musikalischen Werke (thematic catalogue of Graupner's instrumental works).
List of concertos
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GWV 301 — Bassoon Concerto in C major GWV 302 — Concerto for oboe d'amore in C major GWV 303 — Concerto for 2 chalumeaux in C major GWV 304 — Concerto for 2 violins in C major GWV 305 — Concerto for 2 flutes in C major GWV 306 — Concerto for chalumeau, bassoon and cello in C major GWV 307 — Bassoon Concerto in C minor GWV 308 — Trumpet Concerto in D major GWV 309 — Trumpet Concerto in D major GWV 310 — Flute Concerto in D major GWV 311 — Flute Concerto in D major GWV 312 — Flute Concerto in D major GWV 313 — Concerto for oboe d'amore in D major GWV 314 — Concerto for viola d'amore in D major GWV 315 — Concerto for 2 flutes in D major GWV 316 — Concerto for 2 flutes in D major GWV 317 — Concerto for viola d'amore & viola in D major GWV 318 — Concerto for 2 trumpets in D major GWV 319 — Concerto for 2 violins in E flat major GWV 320 — Flute Concerto in E major GWV 321 — Concerto for 2 flutes in E minor GWV 322 — Concerto for 2 flutes in E minor GWV 323 — Recorder Concerto in F major GWV 324 — Oboe Concerto in F major GWV 325 — Concerto for 2 chalumeaux in F major GWV 326 — Concerto for 2 oboes di selva in F major GWV 327 — Concerto for chalumeau, flute & viola d'amore in F major GWV 328 — Bassoon Concerto in G major GWV 329 — Flute Concerto in G major GWV 330 — Concerto for 2 flutes in G major GWV 331 — Concerto for 2 flutes in G major GWV 332 — Concerto for 2 horns in G major GWV 333 — Concerto for flauto d'amore, oboe d'amore & viola d'amore in G major
• GWV 334 — Concerto for 2 violins in G minor • GWV 335 — Concerto for 2 violins in G minor • GWV 336 — Concerto for viola d'amore in G minor
Concertos by Christoph Graupner • • • • • • • • • • • • GWV 337 — Violin Concerto in A major GWV 338 — Concerto for 2 violins in A major GWV 339 — Concerto for viola d'amore & viola in A major GWV 340 — Bassoon Concerto in B flat major GWV 341 — Concerto for 2 oboes in B flat major GWV 342 — Concerto for 2 oboes in B flat major GWV 343 — Concerto for chalumeau, oboe & viola d'amore in B flat major GWV 344 — Concerto for 2 flutes & 2 oboes in B flat major GWV 725 — Concerto for flute & viola d'amore in D minor GWV 726 — Concerto for viola d'amore in G major GWV 727 — Flute Concerto in A major GWV 728 — Concerto for flauto d'amore in A major
• Graupner: Ritratti a colori (Concertos). Antichi Strumenti, orchestra. (Stradivarius 33581) • Graupner: Instrumental and vocal music Vol. 1. Les idées heureuses, orchestra. (Analekta 3162) • Graupner: Instrumental and vocal music Vol. 2. Les idées heureuses, orchestra. (Analekta 3180) • Graupner: Instrumental and vocal music Vol. 3. Les idées heureuses, orchestra. (Analekta 9115)
 Oswald Bill And Christoph (editors), Christoph Graupner : Thematisches Verzeichnis der Musikalischen Werke (1683-1760), Stuttgart: Carus Verlag, 2005. ISBN 389948066X
• The Christoph Graupner Society Homepage (http://www.christoph-graupner-gesellschaft.de/) • Extensive online bibliography for research on Christoph Graupner (http://elib.tu-darmstadt.de/lhb/graupsite/ Graupner06.html) • ULB Library (http://www.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/ulb/graupsite/Graupner01.html) Graupner's music manuscripts and archives in Darmstadt, Germany • Kim Patrick Clow's webpage (http://www.christophgraupner.info) dedicated to promoting Graupner's work. • Free scores (http://icking-music-archive.org/ByComposer/Graupner.php) by Christoph Graupner in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA)
Concertos by Joseph Haydn
Concertos by Joseph Haydn
The following is a partial list of concertos by Joseph Haydn (1732–1809). In the Hoboken catalogue of Haydn's works, concertos for most instruments are in category VII which a different letter for each solo instrument (VIIa is for violin concertos, VIIb is for cello concertos, etc.). The exceptions are the concertos for keyboard and for baryton which are placed in categories XVIII and XIII, respectively.
• • • • Violin Concerto No. 1 in C major, Hob. VIIa/1 (ca. 1765) Violin Concerto No. 2 in D major, Hob. VIIa/2 (1765, lost) Violin Concerto No. 3 in A major, Hob. VIIa/3 (ca. 1770) Violin Concerto No. 4 in G major, Hob. VIIa/4 (1769)
Other Concertos (Hob. VIIa:A1/B1/B2/D1/G1) are not authentic are not by Joseph Haydn. - D1 - Concerto, en ré majeur, pour violon et orchestre (2 hautbois, 2 cors, 2 violons, alto et basse) (work by Carl Stamitz?) - G1 - Concerto, en sol majeur, pour violon et cordes (2 violons, alto et basse) (work by Michael Haydn?) - A1 - Concerto, en la majeur, pour violon et …(work by Giornovichi?) - B1 - Concerto, en si bémol majeur, pour violon et cordes (2 violons, alto et basse) (by Michael Haydn) - B2 - Concerto, en si bémol majeur, pour violon et cordes (2 violons, alto et basse) (by Christian Cannabich)
• • • • • Cello Concerto No. 1 in C, Hob. VIIb/1 (1761-5) Cello Concerto No. 2 in D, Hob. VIIb/2 (Op. 101) (1783) Cello Concerto No. 3 in C, Hob. VIIb/3 (lost) Cello Concerto No. 4 in D, Hob. VIIb/4 (spurious, written by G.B. Constanzi? in 1772?) Cello Concerto No. 5 in C-Major, Hob. VIIb/5 (spurious, written by David Popper in 1899)
For violone (double bass)
• Violone Concerto in D, Hob. VIIc/1 (lost; may have been burned and destroyed?)
• • • • • Horn Concerto in D major, Hob. VIId/3 (lost) Concerto for Two Horns in E flat, Hob. VIId/2 (lost) Horn Concerto No. 1 in D, Hob. VIId/3, 1762 Horn Concerto No. 2 in D, Hob. VIId/4 (doubtful), 1781 Concerto for Two Horns in E flat, Hob. VIId/6 (attrib.; maybe Hob. VIId/2?)
Concertos by Joseph Haydn
• Trumpet Concerto in E flat, Hob.:VIIe/1, (1796)
• Flute Concerto in D, Hob. VIIf/1, (1780?) • Flute Concerto in D, Hob. VIIf/D1 (spurious, by Leopold Hoffman) Haydn also wrote several more concertos, which all have been lost.
• Oboe Concerto in C major, Hob. VIIg:C1 (179?) (spurious)
For 2 lire organizzate
These concertos were written for Ferdinand IV, King of Naples whose favorite instrument was the lira organizzata -- an instrument similar to the hurdy gurdy. Modern performances use flute and oboe (or two flutes) as the soloists. • Concerto No. 1 in C major, Hob.:VIIh/1, (1786) • Concerto No. 2 in G major, Hob.:VIIh/2, (1786) • Concerto No. 3 in G major, Hob.:VIIh/3, (1786) "Romance" movement later adapted to become the "Military" movement of Symphony No. 100 • Concerto No. 4 in F major, Hob.:VIIh/4, (1786) • Concerto No. 5 in F major, Hob.:VIIh/5, (1786) second and third movement later adapted to be part of Symphony No. 89
There are 3 concertos for baryton known but lost or have doubtful authenticity. • Concerto for baryton in D, Hob. XIII:1 (before 1770) • Concerto for baryton in D, Hob. XIII:2 (before 1770) • Concerto for 2 barytons in D, Hob. XIII:3 (before 1770)
For harpsichord, organ or piano
• • • • • • • • • • • Keyboard Concerto No. 1 in C, Hob. XVIII/1 (1756) Keyboard Concerto No. 2 in D, Hob. XVIII/2 (1767) Keyboard Concerto No. 3 in F with French horns and strings, Hob. XVIII/3 (1771) Keyboard Concerto No. 4 in G, Hob. XVIII/4 (1770) Keyboard Concerto No. 5 in C with strings, Hob. XVIII/5 (1763) Keyboard Concerto No. 6 in F with violin and strings (Double Concerto), Hob. XVIII/6 (1766) Keyboard Concerto No. 7 in F, Hob. XVIII/7 (exists with a different slow movement as the piano trio Hob. XV/40) Keyboard Concerto No. 8 in C, Hob. XVIII/8 (1766) Keyboard Concerto No. 9 in G, Hob. XVIII/9 (1767) Keyboard Concerto No. 10 in C, Hob. XVIII/10 (1771) Keyboard Concerto in F, Hob. XVIII/F2
• Keyboard Concerto No. 11 in D, Hob. XVIII/11 (1779–80)
Concertos by Joseph Haydn
 HC Robbins Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works, 5 vols, (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976-) v. 1, Haydn: the Early Years, 1732-1765  IMSLP Score (http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ Cello_Concerto,_Hob. VIIb:5,_C_Major_(Haydn,_Joseph))  Pictures of lire organizzatta (http:/ / matthias. loibner. net/ lira/ lira. html)
• The New Grove Encyclopedia of Music and Musicians offers a complete list, with the current best-estimate dating, of Haydn's concertos and other works. The listing is repeated in the spin-off volume by Webster and Feder, The New Grove Haydn.
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461933853 Contributors: 20thcviolinconcertos, 4meter4, Adeliine, Afasmit, Agrewell, Alakazam, Alegoo92, Amire80, Andre Engels, Anetode, Applovr, AresAndEnyo, ArglebargleIV, Arjayay, AstroNomer, AtheWeatherman, Atomic29, Avneel12345, BD2412, Badagnani, Bdesham, Bjornredtail, BlackCLEOsheep, Blazaki, Bmclaughlin9, Bob Burkhardt, Bonnie108, Boodg, Bookgrrl, Boris Crépeau, Bryan Nguyen, Bwv1004, C'est moi, Camembert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CarinaT, Chris the speller, ChrisCork, Citicat, Condição, Courcelles, Crochet, Dachshund, Danfling, Danielbaer, Dano37, Defrosted, Deskford, Doshea3, Dr. Helix, Dysprosia, Equilibrial, Euclio, Ex penumbrae, Facts707, Fastily, Favonian, Finell, Flewis, Foothillpark, Graaf, Gracenotes, Graham1973, Graham87, Grahbudd, Hairfarmer, Hamiltondaniel, Hashar, Headbomb, Hephaestos, Hetar, Hikitsurisan, Hintersatz, Hut 8.5, Hyacinth, Infophile, JLaTondre, Jdilworth771, Jeremy Visser, Jimfbleak, Jlhughes, Jmsofia, Johnbod, KFtpt, Karol Langner, Keinstein, Kerotan, Kleinzach, Kman543210, Kostaki mou, Koyaanis Qatsi, Krdan, Kwiki, La Pianista, Largerpolishman, Larsie, Lividore, Lovely Chris, Lumenor, Lupin, Mani1, Mann jess, Marcus2, Maristoddard, Mcoverdale, MegX, MegaSloth, Megamanartist, Metebelis, Michael Bednarek, Michael Hardy, MichaelTinkler, Missmarple, Monterey Bay, Mordant21, Mr Stephen, Mr. Comodor, Nat682, Noetica, Nono64, Ocaasi, Opus33, Ostracon, PBS-AWB, PamD, Pavel Vozenilek, Peer, Peh179, Perlnerd666, Perrymusic, Philip Trueman, Phronima, Pjs012915, Qantasplanes, Radgeek, RandomP, Ranveig, Ratpick, Raul654, Redheylin, Richardf., RobertG, Robin klein, Rolf-Peter Wille, Romanempire, SBN4004, Sam Hocevar, Sam42, Sasquatch, Sbba111, Schissel, Scwiers, SeanMD80, Seb az86556, Shadowjams, Simon12, Singularity, Sketchee, Smyth, Snowolf, Snoyes, Sodium, Someone else 90, Spidey104, Spiritia, Springeragh, Starmac88, Starwiz, Steinbach, Stephen MUFC, Stevouk, StradivariusTV, Swanstone, TarisWerewolf, Tassedethe, The Rationalist, Thingg, Timichal, Toddlertoddy, TrumpetMan202, Twoageman, Ulric1313, Ulso, Un chien andalou, Uw Nitsuj, Vamoose, Vaux, Vicfung3, Vidgmchtr, Violncello, Vlmastra, Wenli, WereSock, Wikijens, Xav71176, Xover, Youandme, Zenkai251, Zfr, Zoicon5, 601 anonymous edits Concertino Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=448068059 Contributors: 1029384k, Bruce1ee, Cote d'Azur, DavidRF, Funper, Graham87, Headbomb, Hu, JackofOz, Jamiemusic, Maelnuneb, Pegship, Phronima, Redheylin, Twirk88, Vejvančický, Vlmastra, 11 anonymous edits Concerto grosso Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461627962 Contributors: AParker1, Alex.muller, Andres, Antandrus, Badagnani, Bjankuloski06en, BlackCLEOsheep, Bobby Davro, Camembert, Cferrero, Classickol, DavidRF, Dimitris, Djoko, Doktor Who, Earlypsychosis, EldKatt, Francis Schonken, Graham87, Hammer1980, Harland1, Headbomb, Heron, Hornandsoccer, Ironcymru, Isnow, Japanese Searobin, Jerome Kohl, Jlhughes, Jokestress, Joniscool98, Karol Langner, Kleinzach, Lethesl, Louietyj, Martin Kozák, Mgclapé, Mgoetze, Mozart2005, Myanw, Neilthecellist, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Phronima, R. fiend, Razorflame, Redheylin, Rettetast, Rigadoun, Samwb123, Sketchee, Spiritia, Temporaluser, Twang, Uw Nitsuj, Viktorianec, Violncello, Znusgy, 48 anonymous edits Concerto for orchestra Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=453649344 Contributors: 0424mae, Camembert, Colindownes, Crculver, Dono, FordPrefect42, Francis Schonken, Headbomb, JackofOz, Jeong-Hun Jeong, Kombelpeter, Mahlerite, MegA, Puuropyssy, RCS, RobertG, Tassedethe, Tokyo Dream, TotalLunarEclipse, Violncello, 34 anonymous edits Sinfonia concertante Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=453985322 Contributors: Afasmit, BrunoMaggiore, CSWarren, Classickol, Danielbaer, Darwinek, DavidRF, Dream Reverie, FoeNyx, Francis Schonken, Fredrik, Gardnerja, Gnayshkr3020, GreatWhiteNortherner, Headbomb, J Lorraine, Keinstein, Lethesl, Mahlered, MegA, Melodia, Michael Slone, Missmarple, Mnd, OboeCrack, Oliphaunt, Opus33, Pladask, Redheylin, Rhebus, Rigadoun, Schissel, Sketchee, Swanstone, TarisWerewolf, Violncello, Zslack, Андрей Романенко, 38 anonymous edits Ripieno concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451589208 Contributors: Cwmhiraeth, Download, Gopal81, Headbomb, Hmains, Johnlp, Malcolma, Shsimon.rm, 2 anonymous edits Solo concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387673566 Contributors: Allstarecho, BlackCLEOsheep, CARAVAGGISTI, Camw, Chris the speller, Headbomb, Hmains, Kozuch, Leofric1, Malcolma, Megapixie, Merosonox, Mike Rosoft, Rigadoun, RobertG, Shsimon.rm, 4 anonymous edits Student concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387673570 Contributors: Brequinda, Bruce1ee, DavidRF, Fashionslide, Headbomb, HorsePunchKid, PigFlu Oink, Pimlottc, Springeragh, ViolinGirl, Violncello Bass oboe concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418264685 Contributors: Dano37, Headbomb, JackofOz, OboeCrack, 3 anonymous edits Bassoon concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=460884561 Contributors: Afasmit, AtOMiCNebula, Avicennasis, Badagnani, Casadesus, Clarin, ComposerDJR, DavidRF, Graham87, Headbomb, Kschwerdt514, Lesnail, Lumenor, Mahummel, Missmarple, Mozetich, Pegship, Redheylin, Risker, Springeragh, 258 anonymous edits Cello concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=461278575 Contributors: Applovr, Atavi, Babelcello, Badagnani, Bjornredtail, Casadesus, Chircu, Classickol, DavidRF, Defrosted, Flcelloguy, Frosty0814snowman, Gerda Arendt, Hapless Hero, Headbomb, JackofOz, Jang Yoon, JohnWYC, Karol Langner, Kelovy, Lesnail, Lumenor, Maestroukr, Martpol, Michael Bednarek, Mintleaf, Missmarple, Naddy, Niteowlneils, Nono64, Nuclearmound, Passionatecellist, Pavel Vozenilek, Rchillyard, RobertG, Ryguillian, Schissel, Screetchy cello, Springeragh, Stevouk, Swanstone, Violncello, Welsh, 89 anonymous edits Clarinet concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459966393 Contributors: Agp1, Alfa, Antandrus, Badagnani, Belvdme, Bingo-101a, Blummyd, Boodg, Camembert, CharlotteWebb, Classickol, Colonies Chris, DavidRF, Deb, Dialdfordumbass, Dmr2, Etan J. Tal, Graham1973, Graham87, Headbomb, Hstokar, JackofOz, Jerome Kohl, John pirie, Jokestress, Karol Langner, Liornavok, Marlewo, Merlin9909, Michael Bednarek, Missmarple, Nerdypoo, Qst, Qwyrxian, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Robert.Allen, Rsholmes, Schissel, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Springeragh, Tassedethe, Template namespace initialisation script, Tomaxer, Wahoofive, Xav71176, 70 anonymous edits Double bass concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417296486 Contributors: Badagnani, Classickol, Darobsta, Grahamdrucker, Grimey109, Headbomb, Hrdinský, Luna Santin, Malcolma, Markjdb, Rettetast, Rich Farmbrough, Virtuosito, Woahritz Mededink, 16 anonymous edits Double concertos for violin and cello Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462876924 Contributors: (RT), 20thcviolinconcertos, After Midnight, Ammianus77, CanisRufus, CenturionZ 1, Choalbaton, Dafoeberezin3494, Edward Wong George, Gaius Cornelius, Headbomb, Hyacinth, ILike2BeAnonymous, JackofOz, Jonathan.s.kt, Jordiferrer, Missmarple, Pschmidinger, Rjwilmsi, Rozsaphile1, Schissel, Springeragh, Swanstone, Tassedethe, Thehelpfulone, Vcsam, Violncello, Wahoofive, Welsh, 16 anonymous edits English horn Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=453831918 Contributors: 4meter4, Afasmit, Bender235, Cgingold, JaGa, Jerome Kohl, Rothorpe, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Sluzzelin, Tassedethe, Ulric1313, 12 anonymous edits Flute concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=458220485 Contributors: 4meter4, Aclarinet62, Badagnani, Classickol, Courcelles, Czaikowski, Dano37, DavidRF, Dbolton, Deskford, Fluteflute, GAVVA23212, GirasoleDE, Headbomb, Howdydooty, Hyacinth, JackofOz, Jerome Kohl, Matthead, Stevouk, TF537, Tassedethe, 82 anonymous edits Harmonica concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451589431 Contributors: Badagnani, Headbomb, Rob, Siegel-schwall, 2 anonymous edits Harpsichord concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426040230 Contributors: Aotake, Badagnani, Betacommand, Brynhilde, Camembert, Chris53516, Clavecin, Cryptic, DannyDaWriter, Dillonford, Graham87, Headbomb, JackofOz, Jj, Karol Langner, Kleinzach, LilHelpa, Lord Sealand, Marcus2, Milesflint, Missmarple, Opus33, Outriggr, RobertG, StradivariusTV, Violncello, Woohookitty, 25 anonymous edits Oboe concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451589444 Contributors: Afasmit, Badagnani, GirasoleDE, Graham87, Headbomb, JHunterJ, JackofOz, John Cardinal, Leofric1, Lisztrachmaninovfan, MegA, Move3e, Shoemaker's Holiday, Strikerforce, Tassedethe, The Stickler, 16 anonymous edits Organ concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=428266081 Contributors: Chris the speller, Danmuz, DavidRF, Egemont, Flewis, GFHandel, Gerda Arendt, Graham87, Headbomb, JackofOz, Keanur, Mathsci, MatthewVanitas, Otolemur crassicaudatus, RobertG, Rohrwerk, Thiseye, 20 anonymous edits Piano concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455238446 Contributors: Alton, Applovr, Arthena, Bleh fu, Camembert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Chris53516, Clavecin, Crculver, Danij84, Darwinek, Defrosted, Funion987, Geogre, Graham87, Grahbudd, Headbomb, Hstokar, Infrogmation, JackofOz, Jre58591, Karol Langner, Keinstein, Kenkoo1987, Leszek Jańczuk, Lisztrachmaninovfan, Lloyd Arriola, Maximilian Caldwell, MegA, Mfearby, Michael Bednarek, Missmarple, P0lyglut, Prismsplay, RobertG, Schissel, SimonP, Softlavender, Springeragh, TYelliot, Tim Bell, Tokyo Dream, TotalFailure, Violncello, WikHead, Wiki alf, 93 anonymous edits Timpani concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=402016544 Contributors: Boodg, Cgingold, Eeekster, Headbomb, Hmains, Malcolma, Volvo B9TL, 11 anonymous edits Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=447304651 Contributors: 20thcviolinconcertos, B.gilmore, Birchcliff, CenturionZ 1, Cote d'Azur, Dafoeberezin3494, Docu, Graham87, Headbomb, ILike2BeAnonymous, JackofOz, Kleinzach, Rjwilmsi, Rothorpe, Schissel, Springeragh, Swanstone, Tassedethe, Thedarkestclear, Андрей Романенко, 6 anonymous edits
Article Sources and Contributors
Trumpet concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462291547 Contributors: Bjankuloski06en, DavidRF, Dbolton, Headbomb, Hhowey, KFtpt, Rich Farmbrough, TptmasterHalifax, Willi Gers07, 10 anonymous edits Viola concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=452317830 Contributors: 4meter4, AdamChapman, Adso de Fimnu, Allentoff, Badagnani, Basboy, Bkn-od, Bratsche@gnome.org, Casadesus, CenturionZ 1, Cje, Clarkesociety, Classickol, Cliffa, Compuguy1088, Conal Grealis, David.daibhidh, Diz syd 63, Gingermint, Headbomb, Hmains, J Lorraine, JackofOz, Karol Langner, Kenneth.martinson, Kiwa, Marcparella, Markjdb, Missmarple, Namerest, Nigel Keay, Pirelite, Qwerty334, Qwyrxian, Rich Farmbrough, Schissel, Spod mandel, Stevouk, Swanstone, Toccata quarta, Zootweek, 53 anonymous edits Violin concerto Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464996249 Contributors: 20thcviolinconcertos, 4twenty42o, Acjelen, Antandrus, Applovr, Badagnani, Beckus, Brisellirc, Camembert, Casadesus, CenturionZ 1, CharlieRCD, Chick Bowen, Classickol, Cohaniuc, Colonies Chris, DCGeist, Dano37, Davfoster88, Defrosted, FordPrefect42, GTBacchus, Graham1973, Graham87, Headbomb, Hec395, Hstokar, Iokseng, Ixfd64, JackofOz, Josquin, Jubinx, KINU, Karol Langner, Kunstderfuge, Lovejonian, Lumenor, Marcus2, Michael Bednarek, Mindreau, Mindspillage, Mirror Vax, Missmarple, Ocean Shores, PJtP, Robertgreer, Rrburke, Rufe, S.dedalus, Schissel, SinisterStrauss, Sluzzelin, Springeragh, Stevesf92990, Swanstone, Thestrad1713, Xingquan, XxPantherNovaXx, 180 anonymous edits Bassoon – Bassoon Concerto (Mozart) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451184633 Contributors: 4meter4, Bsnjon, Casadesus, CenturionZ 1, DavidRF, Dsmdgold, Fvasconcellos, Gerda Arendt, Graham87, Grm wnr, Headbomb, Jetman, Leonard Vertighel, Lesnail, Linkofspades, MikeCapone, Missmarple, RaminusFalcon, Raul654, Ross280, Sjones23, Starwiz, Tijd-jp, Vejvančický, Willi Gers07, 19 anonymous edits Cello – Cello Concerto (Elgar) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462645017 Contributors: Ajmyatt, Antandrus, Bkonrad, Bornintheguz, CenturionZ 1, Colonies Chris, Crawdaddio, Cyrus XIII, DTOx, DavidRF, Dono, Drewheasman, Elitism, Emeraldimp, Excuse My Dust, Fram, GJ, Graham87, Headbomb, Hux, JackofOz, Japanese Searobin, Johnhousefriday, Joyous!, Katechanhk, Leonard Vertighel, Lethesl, Lipmingarolnick, Niall Guinan, Nunquam Dormio, Orenburg1, RobertG, SMLRN, Sallyrob, SamuelTheGhost, Schissel, Sharkface217, Sketchee, Smerus, Springeragh, Ssilvers, Thincat, Tim riley, Toddlertoddy, VampWillow, Vstrad7, Wetman, Wolf530, Ziga, 43 anonymous edits Clarinet – Clarinet Concerto (Mozart) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463350872 Contributors: Akumiszcza, Al Pereira, Antandrus, Arnehans, Ashdurbat, Atavi, Belvdme, Briguychau, CRH5889, CSWarren, Canley, Chilli2012, Cpl Syx, Crochet, Darev, DavidRF, DeadEyeArrow, Diotti, Dr. Friendly, DrG, EricWesBrown, Eusebeus, FordPrefect42, Fritsebits, Frysun, GFHandel, Graham87, Grendelkhan, Gurkha, Headbomb, Japanese Searobin, Leonard Vertighel, Lesnail, Lrkleine, MegX, Missmarple, Moose6589, Morn, Nikkimaria, PawelQ, Porsche997SBS, Ralphwaldo, Raul654, RelHistBuff, Rick Block, Rsholmes, SarekOfVulcan, Schissel, Shadowjams, Sjhan81, SoLando, Starwiz, Stemonitis, Stubblyhead, Swalker10859, Themfromspace, Visium, Willbee, Willi Gers07, Zeisseng, 弦楽五重奏, 69 anonymous edits Double – Double Concerto (Brahms) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463121888 Contributors: Blehfu, Camembert, Casadesus, ColoradoSprings, DJRafe, DTOx, DavidRF, Eebahgum, Etoilebleu06, Graham87, Grm wnr, Headbomb, Hyacinth, JackofOz, Japanese Searobin, Jetman, Jro571, Leonard Vertighel, Lilac Soul, P Ingerson, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, Schissel, Scutter7282, Shiftworker, Sketchee, Solti, Springeragh, SteveJothen, Swanstone, Szalax, TJRC, Tassedethe, Tomkeene, Wetman, Wired361, Zapane, 10 anonymous edits Flute – Flute Concerto (Simpson) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=387674573 Contributors: DavidRF, Fabrictramp, H.Sdraulig, Headbomb, Koavf, Malcolma, Sallicio, 1 anonymous edits Harmonica – Concerto for Harmonica and Orchestra (Arnold) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=440132877 Contributors: CharlesMartel, JackofOz, Metebelis, Rjwilmsi, Schissel, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, TexasAndroid, 5 anonymous edits Harpsichord – Harpsichord concertos (Bach) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462848043 Contributors: Califra, Clavecin, Crochet, DannyDaWriter, Darev, DavidRF, Erutuon, GPattle, Gerda Arendt, Graham87, Headbomb, JHMM13, JeanneShade, Jlhughes, JustAGal, Katzenfrucht, Killerandy, Lewisevand, Migospia, Nickanc, Ocean Shores, PhilKnight, Philologer, Rothorpe, Straw Cat, Tim Barron, Winston365, Woohookitty, 49 anonymous edits Oboe – Oboe Concerto (Mozart) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=442691405 Contributors: BL Lacertae, Bruce1ee, DTOx, Darev, DavidRF, Flutedude, FordPrefect42, Graham87, Headbomb, HeartofaDog, Iridescent, J Milburn, Lesnail, MECU, OboeCrack, Oncamera, Robert Happelberg, Schissel, TheFeds, Tigers boy, Vejvančický, 7 anonymous edits Orchestra – Concerto for Orchestra (Bartók) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=449433254 Contributors: Addaick, Camembert, Cancun771, Cielomobile, Darev, DavidRF, Delirium, Dr. Friendly, Engineer Bob, EnglishHornDude, ErinKM, FordPrefect42, Francis Schonken, Gdr, Graham87, Henry Flower, ILike2BeAnonymous, Impy4ever, JackofOz, Jerome Kohl, Jetman, Karol Langner, Kelovy, Kyoko, Lduhlman, Lincoln Town Car, Mlang.Finn, Nd4SU, Oliphaunt, Oxymoron83, RCS, Rich Farmbrough, RobertG, RobertKennesy, Sfan00 IMG, Slysplace, Squandermania, TripleGemini, Vrenator, Wildbill hitchcock, 50 anonymous edits Organ – Organ Concerto (Poulenc) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=453638774 Contributors: Bois guilbert, Danmuz, DavidRF, Egemont, Etincelles, JCcat, JackofOz, Keanur, LilHelpa, Mathsci, Mild Bill Hiccup, Orgelmann, Woohookitty, 4 anonymous edits Piano – Piano Concerto No. 2 (Rachmaninoff) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464469662 Contributors: 430072, 5amsara, Addaick, Alegoo92, AlexChao, Alexs letterbox, Alton, Amire80, Andy M. Wang, Ant, Ashdurbat, Avoided, Baltho, Blehfu, BlueMoonlet, Bobo192, Bstephens393, CSWarren, Canned Soul, CenturionZ 1, Challisrussia, Chewy3326, Coeshee, Crazydna, Crrauch, Daverocks, Davidweiner23, Design, Dom Kaos, Drrngrvy, Drumnbach, EldKatt, Erianna, Etincelles, Fang Aili, Freikorp, Gabbe, Goudzovski, Graham87, Grover cleveland, Grstain, Gwern, Headbomb, Hersfold, Hoops gza, Hyacinth, Hypo, IAmAgentMunky, Intgr, JackofOz, Jamesontai, Japanese Searobin, Jared Hunt, Jaser 12345, Jenamy, Johnlumgair, Jonathan.s.kt, Justin Tokke, Karewabakada, Kleinzach, Knightofcydonia49, Kurykh, Kyoko, La Pianista, Lonely Lovelorness, MChew, Macabre Deified, Maestro.gandhi, Magog the Ogre 2, Maryphillips, Melchoir, Mhoenig, Mike Rosoft, Missmarple, Mordant21, Nightspirit, OboeCrack, PianoRoss, Pierceno, Plasticup, Porsche997SBS, Quadalpha, RayBirks, Rebiolca, Redeeming Light, Rjwilmsi, Sannse, Schissel, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Sergeantbreinholt, Shantavira, SigPig, SimonP, Slysplace, Smyth, Someone42, Spang, Springeragh, Stemonitis, Svm2, Tadramgo, Tempodivalse, TheLeopard, TheProject, Themfromspace, Theorb, Tigerjojo98, Timneu22, Trelawnie, Triviatracer, Ugen64, WikiDon, Wikipelli, Wildbill hitchcock, Wowwowbaby, Xiner, 177 anonymous edits Sinfonia – Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=448113152 Contributors: AKM, After Midnight, Al Pereira, Casadesus, Chochopk, Clementi, Cmdrjameson, DavidRF, Design, Francis Schonken, Graham87, HOT, Hrdinský, J.delanoy, Kazubon, Kleinzach, PJtP, Raul654, Rbrwr, Schissel, Swanstone, Woyzzeck, 38 anonymous edits Triple – Triple Concerto (Beethoven) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444947734 Contributors: Athene noctua, Bellhalla, Birchcliff, Blazingvirtuosity, Bmdavll, Bootbnd, Brocefferv, Bwv1004, CenturionZ 1, Darev, David Kernow, DavidRF, Egdelwonk, Fhudkins, Gee19685, Graham87, Hbj200, Headbomb, JackofOz, Leonard Vertighel, Lesnail, Mark K. Jensen, Mnd, Ocean Shores, Ohconfucius, R'n'B, Rigaudon, Rothorpe, Slysplace, Smedley Hirkum, Springeragh, Swanstone, Szalax, Todeswalzer, Tripallokavipasek, Violncello, Willi Gers07, 24 anonymous edits Trumpet – Trumpet Concerto (Haydn) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451023415 Contributors: Addaick, Bergqvistjl, Closedmouth, Dagobert Drache, DavidRF, Dbolton, Emeraude, Erenaeoth, EurekaLott, Fred sienkiewicz, Horn of Plenty, ILike2BeAnonymous, JackofOz, Leonard Vertighel, Leverkuhn86, Obelix83, OverlordQ, Pegship, Ra & Chloe, Shimofusa Dainagon, TrumpetMan202, Trumpetrep, Warofdreams, Will "Borodin" Roberts, Winston365, Yanghank, Ziga, 12 anonymous edits Viola – Viola Concerto (Bartók) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464732953 Contributors: 1viola, Antandrus, Athaenara, Crazycomputers, Deafussy, Fotispezos, Gingermint, Hrdinský, Hyacinth, IbLeo, JackofOz, Jerome Kohl, Jetman, Jonathan.s.kt, Katzenfrucht, Opus33, Squandermania, TJRC, 22 anonymous edits Violin – Violin Concerto (Beethoven) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=447485321 Contributors: AlexOvShaolin, Alexandergreenb, BD2412, BazookaJoe, Bsv.com, Camembert, CardinalDan, Cchamp27, CenturionZ 1, Darev, David Kernow, DavidRF, Desiderius82, Engineer Bob, Francis Schonken, HarryAlffa, Headbomb, JackofOz, Johnwhite79, JulieRudiani, Just plain Bill, Kejo13, Lambyuk, Lawrence H K, Leonard Vertighel, Lesnail, Lilac Soul, LotteZelda, Mathpianist93, Meelar, Missmarple, Mlang.Finn, Mnd, MosheA, Mscuthbert, Mtsmallwood, Musicaficta, Ocean Shores, Ohconfucius, Opus33, Oxymoron83, Qmwne235, Rachel1, Rigaudon, Rjwilmsi, Robert Happelberg, Sam Hocevar, Schissel, Seherr, Skiasaurus, Slysplace, Springeragh, Spyroninja, Szalax, TBHecht, The Tarr Steps Troll, Twpsyn Pentref, Vegaswikian, Vejvančický, Wildbill hitchcock, Wrestplank, Ziga, Zsinj, 42 anonymous edits Concertos by Christoph Graupner Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=439925175 Contributors: Benhomo, Capricorn42, Chris the speller, Fbourgeois, Tijd-jp, 1 anonymous edits Concertos by Joseph Haydn Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464080138 Contributors: Arsene, Bento00, Casadesus, DavidRF, Eusebeus, GFHandel, Graham1973, Headbomb, Jlhughes, Lisztrachmaninovfan, Maximilian Caldwell, Milkunderwood, Misha Mullov-Abbado, Opus33, PhilKnight, Swanstone, TBHecht, Tijd-jp, Twas Now, Yury Bulka, 18 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Adolph Menzel - Flötenkonzert Friedrichs des Großen in Sanssouci - Google Art Project.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adolph_Menzel_-_Flötenkonzert_Friedrichs_des_Großen_in_Sanssouci_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: CommonsDelinker, Dcoetzee, Tmtriumph, Xover File:Chromonica.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromonica.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Arent Image:Oboj.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oboj.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Arent File:Concerto on stage.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Concerto_on_stage.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Justin Ruckman from Charlotte, NC, USA File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-77066-0002, Berlin, Deutsche Staatsoper, Festkonzert David Oistrach.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-77066-0002,_Berlin,_Deutsche_Staatsoper,_Festkonzert_David_Oistrach.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany Contributors: Hochneder, Christa; Eckleben, Ir File:Elgar-Beatrice-Harrison-HMV-November1920.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Elgar-Beatrice-Harrison-HMV-November1920.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Magog the Ogre, Obelix83 File:Elgar-cello-concerto-manuscript.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Elgar-cello-concerto-manuscript.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Edward Elgar (1857-1934) File:MozartClarConI.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MozartClarConI.png License: Public Domain Contributors: SarekOfVulcan File:MozartClarConII.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MozartClarConII.png License: Public Domain Contributors: SarekOfVulcan File:MozartClarConIII.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MozartClarConIII.png License: Public Domain Contributors: SarekOfVulcan Image:Bartok-ThemeB.PNG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bartok-ThemeB.PNG License: unknown Contributors: User:Cielomobile Image:Rachmaninoff 1900.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninoff_1900.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton File:Rachmcncno2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmcncno2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Jaser 12345 at en.wikipedia File:Rachmaninov concerto piano 2 theme 1mvt.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninov_concerto_piano_2_theme_1mvt.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton, FordPrefect42, Kiwa
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
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