Project Report On

“IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION
TECHNIQUES TO MINIMIZE ISI IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEM”
A technical Project report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology under BPUT. Submitted By

Gyanaranjan Patra Soumya Saraswata Dash Rajesh Kumar Bhuyan Chandrakanta Moharana Priyadarshi Ajitav Jena 7th Semester
Under the Guidance of

Regd. No.:0801227329 Regd. No.:0801227333 Regd. No.:0801227334 Regd. No.:0801227348 Regd. No.:0801227368

Prof. Jagannath Dayal Pradhan

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering C. V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar 2008-2012

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project report entitled “IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES TO MINIMIZE ISI IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEM” submitted by Gyanaranjan Patra

Regd. No.:0801227329, Soumya Saraswata Dash Regd. No.:0801227333, Rajesh Kumar Bhuyan Regd. No.:0801227334, Chandrakanta Moharana Regd. No.:0801227348, Priyadarshi Ajitav Jena Regd. No.:0801227368, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering to Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela is a bonafied work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.

Project Coordinator Department of E&TC

Project Guide Department of E&TC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our immense gratitude and sincere thanks to Project guide “Prof. Jagannath Dayal Pradhan” whose co-operative guidance has helped us in successful completion of this Project on “IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES TO MINIMIZE ISI IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEM”. We are very much thankful to our H.O.D. Prof (Dr).Priyadarshi Kanungo, project Co-ordinator Prof. Suchitra Sarangi & all faculty members of Electronics & Telecommunication who had given valuable guidance throughout the study of this topic. They not only supervised and guided the work but also were instrumental in creating an urge and insight necessary for this project.

Gyanaranjan Patra Soumya Saraswata Dash Rajesh Kumar Bhuyan Chandrakanta Moharana Priyadarshi Ajitav Jena

Regd. No.:0801227329 Regd. No.:0801227333 Regd. No.:0801227334 Regd. No.:0801227348 Regd. No.:0801227368

B.Tech, 7th Semester

ABSTRACT The recent digital transmission systems impose the application of channel equalizers with short training time and high tracking rate. Equalization techniques compensate for the time dispersion introduced by communication channels and combat the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) effect. Given a channel of unknown impulse response, the purpose of an adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output such that the cascade connection of the channel and the equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal transmission medium. Typically, adaptive equalizers used in digital communications require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. A replica of this sequence is made available at the receiver in proper synchronism with the transmitter, thereby making it possible for adjustments to be made to the equalizer coefficients in accordance with the adaptive filtering algorithm employed in the equalizer design. In this paper, an overview of the current state of the art in adaptive equalization techniques has been presented.

Guided By:
Prof. Jagannath Dayal Pradhan

Presented By:
Gyanaranjan Patra Soumya Saraswata Dash Rajesh Kumar Bhuyan Chandrakanta Moharana Priyadarshi Ajitav Jena Regd. No.:0801227329 Regd. No.:0801227333 Regd. No.:0801227334 Regd. No.:0801227348 Regd. No.:0801227368

CONTENTS
PAGE NO. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EQUALIZER AND ITS APPLICATION 2.1. INTERFERENCE 2.1.1. Adjacent channel interference 2.1.2. Co channel interference 2.1.3. Inter symbol interference 2.2. INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE & ITS EFFECTS 1 3 4 4 5 6 9 12 13 13 13 20 20 22 25 26 26 27 27 28 28

3. EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE
3.1. Types of equalizer 3.1.1. Static equalizer 3.1.2. Adaptive equalizer 3.2. Adaptation algorithm 3.2.1. Least Mean Square (LMS) 3.2.1.1. LMS algorithm formulation 3.2.1.2. Summary of the LMS algorithm 3.2.1.3. Convergence and Stability of the LMS algorithm 3.2.1.4. Normalised least mean squares filter (NLMS) 3.2.1.5. Advantages & disadvantages of LMS algorithm 3.2.2. Blind Adaptive algorithm 3.2.2.1. Constant Modulation algorithm (CMA) 3.2.2.2. Alphabet matched algorithm (AMA)

4. CHANNEL EQUALIZATION & SYSTEM MODEL 5. FUTURE WORK 6. REFERENCES

30 39 41

FIGURES
Page No. 1. Concept of equalizer 2. Adjacent-channel interference in 3 FM stations 3. Co channel interference in cellular network 4. Spreading of pulse in a band-limited channel 5. Overlapping of pulses in a time variant channel 6. Multipath propagation 7. Multipath propagation in a moving system 8. Spreading of pulse by channel 9. Superposition of bit 10. Interference of symbol in receiver block 11. Eye diagram for ISI 12. Symbol spaced equalizer 13. Decision feedback equalizer 14. Blind equalizer 15. A typical blind equalizer 16. Block diagram of adaptive transversal filter employing LMS algorithm 17. N-tap transversal adaptive filter 18. Digital transmission system using channel equalization 19. Adaptive filter 20. Function of equalizer 21. Communication system 22. (a)Magnitude response of the signals after receiver filtering separated adjacent channels (b) Magnitude response of the signals after receiving filtering unseparated adjacent channels 23. Block diagram of adaptive transversal filter using RLS algorithm 40 35 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 19 21 24 31 32 32 33 35

TABLES
Page no. 1. Four basic classes of adaptive filtering application 37

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