micro slide 06 spore forming bacilli | Bacillus | Anthrax

Spore-Forming Bacilli

Prof. Dr. Asem Shehabi
Faculty of Medicine
Jordan University
Spore Forming Bacilli
• Gram+ve Spore-forming smalllLarge Bacilli ..
AerobiclAnaerobic.. Survive Long Period in Dryness..
Common in Nature.. Soil, Dust, Vegetations, Human
IAnimal Intestines, Feces & Waler.. Mostly
Saprophytes .. Few Pathogenic for
humans/Animals

• A) Bacillus cereus: Heat-stable Enterotoxin Toxins &
specific hemolytic enzymes.. Contamination Food (
Rice, Meat).. Food-poisoning: Incubation Period.. 1-24
Hrs, Vomiting & Diarrhea, No Fever.. No Need for
Antibiotic.
1
Clostridia Bacilli
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Aerobic Bacilli
.. B) Bacillus subtllis: Opportunistic Pathogen.. Wound
Infect .. Sepsis.. Infant.. Immunocompromid Patients.
.. C) Bacillus anthracis: Various potent exoloxins and
specific enzymes.. Cutaneous Anthrax- Wound Infect,
Hemonhagic Pneumonia & septicemia.. Inhalation.
High Fatality.. Biological War Agent.
.. Animal .. Intestinal Anthrax.. Highly Fatal.
.. Culture Specimens: Skin Ulcer.. Rare Blood I Sputum
.. Culture on Blood & Chocolate Agar
2
Clostridia-1
. i­ Exo & Enterotoxln8.. Heat·
Ia lie.. E ogenouslnfectlon.. High Fatality
without Treatment
CJos1rjdium Tetanus highly falal di8es&8 .. High
fJOrtahly rale .. ocahzed infection .. Release potent neufOlOlrin
(tetanus toxin I tetanospasmin) produced when lpCM""
germinate and vegetative cells grow in wounds. The organl8m
multiplies locally and symptoms appear remote from the
Infection site.
Trfltm,nt Surgical Debridement.. Antibiotics.. Tetanua
ilaCClne.
• Lebofatory diagnosis: WOI.D:l specimens.. Damaged TI8&U88..
Gram-stain.. Culture
3
Clostridia-2
Neonatal tetanus .. Fatal.. Common in developing
countries.. failure of aseptic technique during the
delivery of babies.
• glostridium Derfrlngens &
asgangrene-Myonecrosls- common
cause of outbreaks of food-bome illness IFood­
PoisoninQ... Endo-Exo Infections.. Invasive &
Toxingemc.. Enzymes (Collagenase, Hyaluronidase).
• Treatment: Surgical Debridement! Amputation &
AntibIotics.
• Lab. Diagnosis: Gram-stain, Anaerobic
speclmens, ASpirated Fluid Wound/Blood on Blood &
Chocolate Agar.. Mostly mixed infection.
Clostridia-3
• C Food-borne botulism is intoxication
::-lngesUon oloods that contain the preformed
clostridial toxin.. Heat-$table ExotoxJns..20min 11 DOC.
• Contamination Canned/Frozen Food.. Meat, Fish,
Beans.
o Clinical sympt0llls of bot.YJ.li!lJ begin 18-36 hours after
toxin ingestion with weakness, dizziness, dryness
mouth, Nausea. Neurological features.. blurred vision,
inability to swallow, difficulty in speech, weakness of
skeletal muscles and res irato ara 5'5.. Inhibition
the release of the neurotransmitter a r .. No
Fever.. Specific anliloxin.. 0 a I C.
,
Clostridia-4
• Cloatridjum dlmcU9: Human-Healthy Carriersl5--25%, common
Nosocomial-Infection.. More eldery paoonlsnFollowing
prolonged antibiotic treatment..Mostly 01<11 Liooomycin f
Cllndymicin, Cephalosporines. AmpicininlAmoxcilin.
• Produces two toxins: Toxin A it; entefotoxin .. causes f1ulde
accumulation in the large Inteatine•.diantlea, Toxin B is an
extremely lethal (cytopathic) toxin.•
• Compbtion: Pseu:lornernbl-aIlOUS Colitis.. Bloody Dlannea..
AntibioticAssociated diarIDe8.. Long Treatment. Fatal..
Treatment Stop Antibiotics..
• IdentifICation 01 Toms in Siool Specimen I culture & peR for
detection l o ~ n 5 .
Cotton swab-Needle and syringe
5

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