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CLASSÌCAL JAPAN'S CONTRÌBUTÌONS TO CÌVÌLÌZATÌON

Japan, the cultural daughter oI China, received, rather than invented culture. Though less original,
nevertheless Japan made distinct contributions to civilization, including:

(1) BUSHIDO, a code oI chivalry
Meaning "Way oI the Warrior-Knight", is a Japanese word which is used to describe a
uniquely Japanese code oI conduct and a way oI the samurai liIe. It stresses Irugality, loyalty, martial arts
mastery, and honor unto death. Bushido was also inIluenced by Shinto and Buddhism, allowing
the violent existence oI the samurai to be tempered by wisdom and serenity.

The Bushidö code is typiIied by seven virtues:
· Rectitude ( gi)
· Courage ( yü)
· Benevolence ( in)
· Respect (ñ rei)
· Honesty ( makoto)
· Honor ( meiyo)
· Loyalty (׮ chügi)

(2) SHINTO religion
(Or Shintoism, also kami-no-michi) the word 'shinto¨ was adopted Irom the written
Chinese combining two: SHIN meaning 'spirit¨ and TO meaning a philosophical path or study.

Types oI Shinto:
· Shrine Shinto (ইॴইľ ina-shintö) - the most prevalent oI the Shinto types. It has always
been a part oI Japan's history and constitutes the main current oI Shinto tradition. Shrine Shinto is
associated in the popular imagination with summer Iestivals, good luck charms, making wishes, holding
groundbreaking ceremonies, and showing support Ior the nation oI Japan.
· Imperial Household Shinto (åӼইľ Köshitsu-shintö) - are the religious rites perIormed
exclusively by the Imperial Family at the three shrines on the Imperial grounds, including the Ancestral
Spirits Sanctuary (Körei-den) and the Sanctuary oI the Kami (Shin-den).
· Folk Shinto (ইľ minzoku-shintö) - includes the numerous but Iragmented Iolk belieIs in
deities and spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, and shamanic healing.
·Sect Shinto (~ইľ shüha-shintö) - is a legal designation originally created in the 1890s to
separate government-owned shrines Irom local religious practices. Shinto sects include the mountain-
worship sects, who Iocus on worshipping mountains like Mount Fui, Iaith-healing sects,
puriIication sects, ConIucian sects, and Revival Shinto sects.
· Koshintö (ইľ ko-shintö) - literally "Old Shinto", is a reconstructed "Shinto Irom beIore the
time oI Buddhism", today based on Ainu and Ryukyuan practices. It continues the Restoration movement
begun by Hirata Atsutane.

(3) KANA alphabet
are the syllabic Japanese scripts.

Three kana scripts:
· Modern cursive hiragana (̤
· Modern angular katakana (Q̀QS)
· The old syllabic use oI kani known as man`yögana ()

(4) Literary Iorms such as KABUKI (classical play), NOH (lyrical play; the concise TANKA and
HAIKU poems)
a. KABUKI (ச) - classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known Ior the
stylization oI its drama and Ior the elaborate make-up worn by some oI its perIormers.
The individual kani characters, Irom leIt to right, mean sing (), dance (ச),
and skill (). Kabuki is thereIore sometimes translated as "the art oI singing and
dancing."
b. NOH () - or Nogaku () is derived Irom the Sino-Japanese word Ior "skill" or
"talent" - is a maor Iorm oI classical Japanese musical drama that has been perIormed
since the 14th century. Many characters are masked, with men playing male and Iemale
roles. Traditionally, a Noh "perIormance day" lasts all day and consists oI Iive Noh plays
interspersed with shorter, humorous kyögen pieces. However, present-day Noh
perIormances oIten consist oI two Noh plays with one Kyögen play in between.
c. TANKA Japanese poetry that consists oI Iive units (oIten treated as separate lines when
romanized or translated) usually with the Iollowing pattern oI oni: 5-7-5-7-7.
The 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku ("upper phrase"), and the 7-7 is called
the shimo-no-ku ("lower phrase"). Tanka is a much older Iorm oI Japanese poetry
than haiku. The chöka above is Iollowed by an envoi, also written by Okura:
೥_ Shirokane mo
What are they to
me,
೔__ Kugane mo tama mo
Silver, or gold, or
ewels?
;'[. Nanisemu ni
How could they
ever
¨¸̧̦Ӹ Masareru takara
Equal the greater
treasure
Ӕ.`.»`_ Koni shikame yamo
That is a child?
They can not.
d. HAIKU ( - a very short Iorm oI Japanese poetry. Traditional haiku consist oI
17 on (also known as morae), in three phrases oI 5, 7 and 5 on respectively.

(5) DigniIied social customs, such as the tea ceremony and IKEBANA (Ilower arrangement)
a. TEA CEREMONY - a ritualized Iorm oI making tea. Japanese tea ceremony, called
.hado¨, is the most well known tea ceremony, and was inIluenced by the Chinese tea
ceremony during ancient and medieval times. One can also reIer to the whole set oI
rituals, tools, gestures, etc. used in such ceremonies as tea culture. All oI these tea
ceremonies and rituals contain "artiIiciality, abstractness, symbolism and Iormalism" to
one degree or another.
b. KEBANA - (, "living Ilowers") is the Japanese art oI Ilower arrangement, also
known as kadö (ľ the "way oI Ilowers"). "Ikebana" is Irom the
Japanese ikeru (̦), "to place, to arrange, liIe, birth") and hana (, "Ilower")

(6) Appreciation oI nature in house and garden

(7) Manly sports such as JUDO (art oI selI-deIense), KENDO (Iencing), and SUMO (wrestling)
a. JUDO (art oI selI-deIense) - (ľ, meaning "gentle way") is a modern martial
art and combat sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent Ieature
is its competitive element, where the obect is to either throw or takedown one's opponent
to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling
maneuver, or Iorce an opponent to submit by oint locking or by executing a strangle hold
or choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and Ieet as well as weapons deIences are a part oI
udo, but only in pre-arranged Iorms (kata) and are not allowed in udo competition or
Iree practice (randori).
Ŧ KENDO (Iencing) - (ľ, meaning "Way oI The Sword") 8 a modern Japanese martial
art oI sword-Iighting based on traditional Japanese swordsmanship, or kenutsu. Kendo is
a physically and mentally challenging activity that combines strong martial arts values
with sport-like physical elements.
cŦ SUMO (wrestling) - (ܝ) is a competitive Iull-contact sport where a wrestler (rikishi)
attempts to Iorce another wrestler out oI a circular ring (dohyö) or to touch the ground
with anything other than the soles oI the Ieet. The sport originated in Japan, the only
country where it is practiced proIessionally. It is generally considered to be a gendai
budö (a modern Japanese martial art)









JAPANESE ECONOMY
The Japanese economy is one oI the third largest in the world. Only the USA and China have a
higher GNP. The Japanese currency is the Yen.

Exports: Japan's main export goods are cars, electronic devices and computers. Most important trade
partners are China and the USA, Iollowed by South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and
Germany.
Imports: Japan has a surplus in its export/import balance. The most important import goods are raw
materials such as oil, IoodstuIIs and wood. Maor supplier is China, Iollowed by the USA, Australia,
Saudia Arabia, South Korea, Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates.
Industries: ManuIacturing, construction, distribution, real estate, services, and communication are Japan's
maor industries today. Agriculture makes up only about two percent oI the GNP. Most important
agricultural product is rice. Resources oI raw materials are very limited and the mining industry rather
small.
In the years Iollowing World War II, government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic,
mastery oI high technology, and a comparatively small deIense allocation (1° oI GDP) helped Japan
develop a technologically advanced economy. Two notable characteristics oI the post-war economy were
the close interlocking structures oI manuIacturers, suppliers, and distributors, known as keiretsu, and the
guarantee oI liIetime employment Ior a substantial portion oI the urban labor Iorce. Both Ieatures are now
eroding under the dual pressures oI global competition and domestic demographic change. Japan's
industrial sector is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and Iuels. A tiny agricultural sector is
highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually selI suIIicient
in rice, Japan imports about 60° oI its Iood on a caloric basis. Japan maintains one oI the world's largest
Iishing Ileets and accounts Ior nearly 15° oI the global catch. For three decades, overall real economic
growth had been spectacular - a 10° average in the 1960s, a 5° average in the 1970s, and a 4° average
in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging ust 1.7°, largely because oI the aIter
eIIects oI ineIIicient investment and an asset price bubble in the late 1980s that required a protracted
period oI time Ior Iirms to reduce excess debt, capital, and labor. Measured on purchasing power parity
(PPP) basis that adusts Ior price diIIerences, Japan in 2010 stood as the third-largest economy in the
world aIter China, which surpassed Japan in 2001. The Japanese Iinancial sector was not heavily exposed
to sub-prime mortgages or their derivative instruments and weathered the initial eIIect oI the recent global
credit crunch, but a sharp downturn in business investment and global demand Ior Japan's exports in late
2008 pushed Japan Iurther into recession. Government stimulus spending helped the economy recover in
late 2009 and 2010. Prime Minister KAN's government has proposed opening the agricultural and
services sectors to greater Ioreign competition and boosting exports through Iree-trade agreements, but
debate continues on restructuring the economy and Iunding new stimulus programs in the Iace oI a tight
Iiscal situation. Japan's huge government debt, which exceeds 200° oI GDP, persistent deIlation, reliance
on exports to drive growth, and an aging and shrinking population are maor long-term challenges Ior the
economy.
Now that nearly a month has gone by since the horriIic tsunami in Japan on March 11th, it is
starting to become clear ust how much economic damage has been done. The truth is that the Japanese
economy is in much bigger trouble than most people think. This is almost certainly going to be the most
expensive disaster in Japanese history. The tsunami that struck Japan on March 11th swept up to 6 miles
inland, destroying virtually everything in the way. Thousands upon thousands oI Japanese were killed
and entire cities were wiped oII the map. Yes, Japan is a resilient nation, but exactly how does a nation
that is already drowning in debt replace dozens oI cities and towns that are suddenly gone? The truth is
that thousands oI square miles have been more completely destroyed than iI they had been bombed by a
Ioreign military Iorce. The loss oI homes, cars, businesses and personal wealth is almost unimaginable. It
is going to take many years to rebuild the roads, bridges, rail systems, ports, power lines and water
systems that were lost. Nobody is quite sure when the rolling blackouts are going to end, and nobody is
quite sure when all oI the damaged manuIacturing Iacilities are going to be Iully brought back online.
On top oI everything else, the nuclear crisis at Fukushima never seems to end. In Iact, it seems to
get worse with each passing day.
f½f° ls Lhe Lhlrd lfrgesL eco°omy l° Lhe worldţ L lL °ever wfs f lfrge °fLlo° Lo egl° wlLhŦ
now LhfL Lhe Ls°fml f°d Lhe °clefr crlsls fL lshlmf hfve mfde Lhe fmo°L of sfle lf°d
slg°lflcf°Lly smfllerţ whfL ls LhfL gol°g Lo mef° for Lhe fLre of Lhe f½f°ese eco°omy? 1he LrLh ls
LhfL Lhere fre flrefdy slg°s LhfL Lhe f½f°ese eco°omy ls regressl°g l°Lo f°oLher recesslo°Ŧ
In particular, the auto industry is really being aIIected by this crisis. Vehicle supply chains all
over the globe are now in a state oI chaos.
Approximately 3,000 individual parts go into every single new vehicle. II even one oI those parts
is missing, a new car or truck cannot be built.
Wellţ lL wfs orlgl°flly ½ro[ecLed LhfL 72 mllllo° vehlcles wold e llL fro°d Lhe gloe l° 2011Ŧ
As a result oI the crisis in Japan, approximately 5 million oI those vehicles will not be built.
° ffcLţ Coldmf° Sfchs ls ½ro[ecLl°g LhfL Lhls crlsls ls crre°Lly cosLl°g fLomfers l° f½f° $200
mllllo° every sl°gle dfyŦ
In any event, it is undeniable that the Japanese economy has been absolutely devastated by this
crisis. In Iact, when you combine the tsunami and the nuclear crisis, this could be the biggest economic
disaster that any maor industrial power has Iaced since World War 2.

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