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IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s

Oh

Magnetics,

VOl.

MAC-12,

No. 6, November 1976

SUPERCONDUCTING AC GENERATORS J. H. P a r k e r , Jr. WestinghouseResearchLaboratories,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania15235 and R. A. T o m e WestinghouseLargeRotatingApparatusDivision, East P i t t s b u r g h ,P e n n s y l v a n i a1 5 1 1 2


ABSTRACT

The u t i l i z a t i o n of s u p e r c o n d u c t i n g f i e l d w i n d i n g s inlargeacgeneratorsgivespromise ofreduced s i z e and weight,increasedefficiencyandbetterelectricalcharacteristicsoverconventionalcopper-ironmachines. This new c o n c e p t i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o c e n t r a l s t a t i o n power generationcouldleadtomachineswithratings beyond a t present t h e limits set by present technology and even Also t h e low day r a t i n g s may haveeconomicadvantage. w e i g h t t o power r a t i o of this type of machine makes i t a t t r a c t i v e f o r advanced airborne systems. Because of theseattractivecharacteristics,theengineering s c h o o l s and t h e l a r g e g e n e r a t o r m a n u f a c t u r e r s t h r o u g h o u t theworldhaveinitiatedprogramstoevaluatethis concept.Theseprogramsrangefrommachinedesigntosystem s t u d i e s up t o c o n s t r u c t i o n and test of p r o t o t y p e demonstration machines. The present paper w i l l f i r s t r e v i e w t h e g e n e r a l conceptof a superconductinggeneratorincontrastwith a present day copper-iron machine and then outline the p o t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s of t h i s new c o n c e p t , b o t h t e c h n i c a l and economic. Based on d e s i g ns t u d i e s and test r e s u l t s of the prototype machines, critical development problems thatcan be anticipatedforfuture,largergenerators w i l l be reviewed with special emphasis on t h o s e a s p e c t s associated with the superconducting field winding.
INTRODUCTION

t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s when a p p l i e d t o c e n t r a l s t a t i o n gener a t i o n an4 t o h i g h power a i r b o n r e s y s t e m s , a coverage of the several of the prototype programsand f i n a l l y a discussion of some of t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s t o b e s o l v e d in order that such generators becomea commercial reality. GENERAL DESIGN FEATURES The b a s i c d e s i g n f e a t u r e s of a two-pole generator are i l l u s uti1izing.a superconducting field winding t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1.
Liquid Helium Supply And Return [Damper Shield Radiation Shield

,/,/

stator Shield Armature Winding

vacuum scdce

' Vk Fi

i-'

Winding Radiation Shield Fig. 1-Cross section of a AC generator lWo polel with superconductlngfield winding

Fiem current J Collectar Rings

With t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t h e m i d . 6 0 ' ~ of s t a b l e I1 superconductorscapable of m u l t i f i l a m e n t a r y ,t y p e carrying large currents in high dc magnetic fields, came therealizationofthepotential improvements t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t from t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e f i e l d w i n d i n g o f time, high power e l e c t r i c a l ac g e n e r a t o r s .S i n c et h a t numerousprogramshavebeen initiatedthroughoutthe worldtoevaluatethisconcept.Theseprogramshave rangedfromconceptualdesignsandeconomicevaluations t o p r o t o t y p e machine construction and test.' The p o t e n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s t o b e g a i n e d f r o m s u b s t i t u t i n g a superconductorfor a copperconductorinthe f i e l d w i n d i n g stems f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g ,
0

L o s s l e s su n d e rd cc o n d i t i o n s H i g h e rc u r r e n td e n s i t i e s by a t l e a s ta no r d e r of magnitude, 2 lo8 A/m2

High m a g n e t i c f i e l d c a p a b i l i t y

1. 5 tesla a t

4 K.
The l o s s l e s s p e r f o r m a n c e l e a d s t o a n i n c r e a s e i n m a c h i n e e f f i c i e n c y . The r e f r i g e r a t i o np e n a l t ym u s t , of c o u r s e , betakenintoaccount,butforgeneratorsinthe power s y s t e m c l a s s a t 1. 1000 MVA, t h e p e n a l t y i s about an o r d e r of magnitude lower than the remaining losses. The i n c r e a s e d m a g n e t i c f i e l d c a p a b i l i t y t o a level beyond t h e s a t u r a t i o n . l e v e 1 of i r o n means t h a t t h e i r o n can be removed from t h e r o t o r l e a v i n g more s p a c e a v a i l able for the winding and r e s u l t i n g i n a r e d u c t i o n i n same r e a s o n , t h e s t a t o r t e e t h r o t o rd i a m e t e r .F o rt h e machine. Both canbe removed l e a d i n g t o a f u l l a i r gap oftheseresultinthesecondadvantage of r e d u c e d s i z e andweightoverconventionalgenerators. The p o t e n t i a l ofreduced s i z e and w e i g h t a n d i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y makes t h e s e g e n e r a t o r s e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e f o r power s y s t e m sa p p l i c a t i o n s . is toreviewthe The purpose of t h e p r e s e n t p a p e r a p r e s e n ts t a t u s of t h i s new technology.Thisinvolves d i s c u s s i o n of t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s , a review of t h e i r po-

The r o t o r c o n s i s t s ofan i n t e r n a l lowtemperature s t r u c t u r e w h i c hs u p p o r t st h es u p e r c o n d u c t i n gc o i l sa n d l o c a t e st h e power l e a d s and H e t r a n s f e rs y s t e m .S u r i s a lowtemperatureradiation rounding this structure s h i e l d and t h e n a n o u t e r room temperature damper o r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i cs h i e l d .T h i so u t e rs h i e l dc o n n e c t st h e wall o f t h e vacuum ens h a f t s and s e r v e s a s t h e o u t e r i s conc l o s u r e . The low t e m p e r a t u r ei n n e rs t r u c t u r e nected to the stub shafts by helium-vaporcooledtorque are det r a n s m i s s i o nt u b e s a t eachend.Thesetubes signedtominimizetheheatflowintothe lowtemperat u r e s t r u c t u r e and t o accommodate t h e r e l a t i v e t h e r m a l contraction between the internal field winding structure and t h e o u t e r room temperature damper s h i e l d . The nond r i v e n s h a f t endaccommodates t h e r o t a t i n g seal system fortransferringheliumcoolantinto and o u t of t h e r o t o r and t h e f i e l d c u r r e n t s l i p r i n g s . The damper o r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s h i e l d s e r v e s two i t s e r v e st h ec l a s s i cf u n c t i o n of f u n c t i o n s .F i r s t dampingmechanical o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e r o t o r due t o i t serves a function system disturbances. Second, u n i q u e t o a superconducting machine of shielding the its s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e f r o m time varyfieldwindingand ingmagneticfieldsandtherebyreducingheatgeneration i nt h i sr e g i o n . Under s t e a d ys t a t ec o n d i t i o n st h er o t o r is subjectedtorotatingmagneticfieldsduetoload unb a l a n c e and s t a t o rs p a c i a lh a r m o n i c s .F a u l t and o t h e r time varying magnetic transient conditions also lead to f i e l d s a t t h er o t o r . The s h i e l d serves t oa t t e n u a t e both of t h e s e e f f e c t s . a i r gapdesign, i . e . , no The armature i s ofan s t a t o r t e e t h , and i s wound w i t h a t r a n s p o s e d m u l t i s t r a n d water c o o l i n g . The c o p p e rc o n d u c t o rw i t hi n t e r n a l m u l t i s t r a n d c o n d u c t o r is r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e ac magnet h e eddy c u r r e n t h e a t i n g d u e t o t h e v e r y h i g h t i cf i e l d st h a tt h ec o n d u c t o r is exposed t o . The arma909

t u r e w i n d i n g i s surrounded with a l a m i n a t e d i r o n s h i e l d which serves as a magnetic enclosure. APPLICATIONS

/
3500 3000 2500

is t o t h e One of t h e m o s t p r o m i s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s verylargegeneratorswithratings of > 1000 MVA f o r c e n t r a l s t a t i o n power g e n e r a t i ~ n . ~ , ~ T h i s c a s e a p p e a r s l o s s i s s m a l l i n comoptimum b e c a u s e t h e r e f r i g e r a t i o n parisontootherlossesattheseratings and t h e p r e d i c t e d r e d u c t i o n of r o t o r d i a m e t e r a t a g i v e n r a t i n g impliesthatthesuperconductinggeneratorcancarrythe rating to levels that appear impossible with present day as the superconiron-copper technology. addition, In i t may t u r n o u t d u c t i n gg e n e r a t o rt e c h n o l o g yd e v e l o p s , will t h a tt h ea d v a n t a g e ss u c ha se f f i c i e n c ya n ds i z e l e a dt ob e t t e r economics even f o rp r e s e n tr a t i n g s . It must b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t f o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t h e o v e r r i d i n gr e q u i r e m e n to fl o n g - t e r mr e l i a b i l i t ye q u a lo r betterthanpresent daymachines i s uppermost. is forairborne, Another promising application s h o r tm i s s i o n power s u p p l i e s . Here, w h i l et h ep r e d i c t e d of megapower requirements are o n l y t h e o r d e r o f t e n s w a t t s , theneed of v e r yl o ws p e c i f i cp o w e r ,i . e . , - 0.05 kg/kVA, and a b i l i t y t o u s e s t o r e d h e l i u m r a t h e r < t h a n a r e f r i g e r a t i o n s y s t e m makes the superconducting alternative very attractive.
Turbine Generators Turbinegeneratorratingshaveincreasedsincethe formation of the electric utility industry early in this a t 1200 MVA a r e c e n t u r y . Today s i n g l e g e n e r a t o r s r a t e d i n s e r v i c e andhigherratedunitshavebeenorderedfor i n s t a l l a t i o n i n a few y e a r s . Earlierincreasesinratingperunit of s i z e o r of weighthavebeenachieved by improving the cooling t h eh e a tg e n e r a t i n g components of t h eg e n e r a t o r . The coolingsystemadvances,allowingincreasedgenerator r a t i n g s , h a v e moved from a i r c o o l i n g t o Hp and water c o o l i n g .T h e s ea d v a n c e sh a v er e s u l t e di na ni n c r e a s e ofratingsnormalizedtounit volumeof m a t e r i a l from about 5 t o 28 MVA/m3 over the period from 1940 to 1975. Concurrent with the cooling system advances and b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o fm a t e r i a l s ,t h e r eh a sb e e na ni n creaseinphysicalsizes,inrotordiameters,lengths, and weights, and i n t h e u s e ofmore n e a r l y optimum desi g n s . Shipping weight and s i z e l i m i t a t i o n s h a v e b o t h b e e n i n c r e a s e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s p e c i a l g e n e r a t o r are c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g g e n e r a t o r s shipment cars which 4 m i n d i a m e t e r and weighing 550 metric tons. I t appearsthatpresenttechnology w i l l provide MVA. Such r a t i n g s f o r r a t i n g s up t o t h e o r d e r of 2500 w i l l require high cost materials, complex shipping proc e d u r e s , and expensive designs. Thus superconducting t u r b i n e g e n e r a t o r s may b e f i r s t a p p l i e d a t r a t i n g s beyond 2500 MVA t o raise t h e r a t i n g limit. They appear t o o f f e r economic b e n e f i t s i n t h e l a r g e r r a t i n g s , b u t o p i n i o n s v a r y as t o how low a r a t i n g w i l l someday b e p r a c t i c a l andeconomical. W anticipatethatthefutureratings e w i l l increase a s shown i n F i g u r e 2 . The s l o p e of t h i s band r e p r e s e n t s a more conservaand a much t i v e p r a c t i c e t h a n i s presentlybeingused l o w e rr a t eo fi n c r e a s et h a ni nt h ep a s t .F o re x a m p l e , between1944and1970 thecumulativeannualgrowthrate of u n i t s i z e s was over lo%, w h i l e t h e g r o w t h r a t e of was 7 . 5 %f o rt h e same p e r i o d .F i g u r e 2 thepeakload 4000 M , W i n d i c a t e s a maximum u n i t s i z e ofapproximately whereas a s i m p l e e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f p a s t a n d c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s would s u g g e s t a maximum u n i t r a t i n g i n t h e An a d d i t i o n a l y e a r 2000 between7000 MW and11,000 c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e s h e e r number of u n i t s t h a t w i l l b e requiredtoprovidetheprojectedgenerationadditions i f S.C. g e n e r a t o r sa r en o ta p p l i e d .

/'

500

1
I

1980 82

I 84

I I I 1 I 86 88 9096 92 98 94 Installation Year

L
2000

Fig. 2 -Growth of generator ratings


Theband width shown w i l l accommodatewhat w e f e e l r e p r e s e n t st h er e q u i r e m e n t so fo v e r 70% of t h e u t i l i t y industryinthiscountry. of a T a b l e I shows t h e p r e d i c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s MVA g e n e r a t o r i n comparitwo-polesuperconducting1200 son w i t h t h o s e f o r a c o n v e n t i o n a l Hg cooledmachineof 3 shows a s i z e comparison f o r t h e same r a t i n g . F i g u r e w a s p r e p a r e da s t h e s e same two machines.Thisdata p a r t ofanin-houseprogram. Table 1 Comparisonof C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1200 MVA

~Conventional
% SynchronousReactance, TransientReactance, % S u b t r a n s i e n tR e a c t a n c e , % T r a n s i e n t Time Constant,sec S u b t r a n s i e n t T i m e Constant,sec F u l l Load E f f i c i e n c y , % StatorWeight,kg RotorWeight,kg TotalWeight,kg m

sc

____.

180 52 32 29 26 16 0.8 23 0.04 0 -26 98.7 99.4 140,000 550,000 14,000 91,000 150 , 000 640,000 13Length, 7.2

M. W

The t a b l e a n d f i g u r e c l e a r l y p o i n t o u t mostof the technical advantages promised by a superconductinggene r a t o r . The l a r g ew e i g h tr e d u c t i o nr e s u l t sf r o mt h e removal of i r o n andfrom t h e smaller l e n g t h of t h e mac h i n e . The i n c r e a s ei ne f f i c i e n c yf o l l o w sf r o mr e d u c t i o n of l o s s e s i n t h e f i e l d w i n d i n g and windage. The make t h e l o n g s u b t r a n s i e n t time c o n s t a n t t e n d s t o transient stability dependent on t h e s u b t r a n s i e n t r e a c as w i t h a tance rather than the transient reactance Also the reduced synchronous and conventionalmachine. s u b t r a n s i e n tr e a c t a n c e st e n dt oc o m p e n s a t ef o rt h e a critical fault lowerinertiaoftherotor,yielding clearing time equal or somewhat b e t t e r t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l machines. 910

4.7

Conventional

superconducting Fig. 3 -Outlines of hydrogencooled and superconductingtwo pole, 1200 MVA generators. Dimensions are in meters

PROTOTYPE MACHINES AND DESIGN PROGRAMS

maOver t h e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h r e e p r o t o t y p e c h i n e s i n t h e MW c l a s s h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d , c o n s t r u c t e d , U. S. MIT, through EPRI s p o n s o r s h i p , and t e s t e d i n t h e h a s c o n s t r u c t e d and t e s t e d a 3 MVA g e n e r a t o r . tested a 5 MVA, Westinghouse has constructed and 3600 rprn generator with in-house funding andunder A F a 5 MVA, sponsorshiphasconstructedandtested 12,000 rpm r o t o r and is now c o m p l e t i n g t h e e n t i r e gene r a t o r w i t h a p r o j e c t e d 10 MVA r a t i n g a t 12,000 rpm. In 1970, Westinghouse initiated a program whose of o b j e c t i v e was t o e v a l u a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y a p p l y i n gs u p e r c o n d u c t i n gf i e l dw i n d i n g st ol a r g ee l e c t r i c a l g e n e r a t o r s . This d e c i s i o n wasbased i n p a r t on the excellent studies andexperiments underway a t MIT and, i n p a r t , onin-housestudies of t h i s new area and i t s potential importance to Westinghouse as a manufacA m a j o rp a r t of t h e t u r e r of l a r g et u r b i n eg e n e r a t o r s . was d e d i c a t e d t o effort during the first three years test of a 5 MVA g e n e r a t o r t h ed e s i g n ,c o n s t r u c t i o n ,a n d This geneu t i l i z i n g a s u p e r c o n d u c t i n gf i e l dw i n d i n g . r a t o r was b u i l t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y of a s u b s t a n t i a l l y r a t e d machineand t o i d e n t i f y t e c h nical problems. The d e s i g n was completed i n e a r l y 1 9 7 1 andconof 1972. Cryos t r u c t i o n was completed i n t h e s p r i n g g e n i c r o t o r tests were c a r r i e d o u t i n J u n e 1 9 7 2 , w i t h tests on t h e c o m p l e t e g e n e r a t o r t a k i n g p l a c e i n J u l y andSeptember1972 and July1973.4 ,5 F i g u r e 4 shows t h e 5 MVA g e n e r a t o r on test. Themachine was designed as a 3600 rpm, 60 Hz (two-pole) generator with 4160 v o l t s l i n e - t o - l i n e , three-phase output. The g e n e r a t o r c o n s i s t s of a r o t a t i n g s u p e r c o n d u c t a s t a t i o n a r y , a i r gap wound ing field winding within a r m a t u r e s h i e l d e d by a l a m i n a t e d i r o n s t r u c t u r e . The superconductor was wound on a s t a i n l e s s steel (nonmagnetic)polepieceand wedged. The machine a t o r q u e i s t r a n s m i t t e dt ot h ef i e l dw i n d i n gt h r o u g h l o n g ,t h i nw a l l e dt o r q u et u b e .R a d i a t i o ns h i e l d sw e r e installed around the field winding to intercept radial is and a x i a lr a d i a t i o n . The r a d i a lr a d i a t i o ns h i e l d a l s ou s e d as a n e l e c t r i c a l damper s h i e l d . The s h i e l d s are maintained at about 50 K by exhaust helium gas
91 1

l e a v i n gt h ef i e l dw i n d i n g . The r o t o r s t r u c t u r e a n d dewar w a l l was p l a c e d o v e r t h e i n t e r n a l f i e l d w i n d i n g structural assembly to provide the required vacuum insulation containment vessel. The f r e e endof t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e was supportedwith a radial spoke structure that connected the room t e m p e r a t u r e r o t o r s h e l l w i t h t h e low temperature i n n e rf i e l dw i n d i n ga s s e m b l y . The s t r u c t u r e is designedforradialstiffness, dynamic s t a b i l i t y , and a x i a l f l e x i b i l i t y so t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e t h e r m a l c o n t r a c tion of the inner and outer structure could be accommod a t e dw i t h low stress l e v e l s . A r o t a t i n g s e a l s y s t e m ' seals s e r v e d f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g utilizingrubbingface theliquidheliumintotherotortocoolthefield w i n d i n g ,t o r q u et u b e ,a n de l e c t r i c a ll e a d s . The a r m a t u r e c o i l s were f a b r i c a t e d f r o m f i n e l y strandedcopperwire-inorilertominimizethe eddycurr e n t s . The c o i l s were wound andbonded on an epoxy was f a b r i c a t e d g l a s sb o r e seal tube.Theironshield from i r o n l a m i n a t i o n s s t a c k e d a n d keyed t o t h e a r m a t u r e c o i l sa n dt h es t a t o rf r a m e .C o o l i n g of t h ea r m a t u r e was accomplished by c i r c u l a t i n g o i l on t h e o u t s i d e o f theconductorinsulation. The performance of t h e 5 MVA g e n e r a t o r was d e t e r mined by a number of b a s i c tests c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o p r e d i c t s t e a d y s t a t e and t r a n s i e n t e l e c t r i c a l p e r formanceunder f u l l l o a d c o n d i t i o n s :
0
0

Open c i r c u i t test S h o r tc i r c u i t

test test' fromreducedvoltage

e
0 0

Sudden s h o r t c i r c u i t

Harmonic wave a n a l y s i s

Loss test.

The measuredopen c i r c u i t v o l t a g e was i n good agreementwiththedesignvalue. The s h o r t c i r c u i t heat run test a t r a t e d s t a t o r c u r r e n t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t was adequate. sudden The short t h ec o o l i n gs y s t e m c i r c u i t tests a t r e d u c e d e x c i t a t i o n y i e l d e d t h e s u b time c o n s t a n t s . transientandtransientreactancesand Numerous quenches of t h e f i e l d w i n d i n g were purposely initiated in order to evaluate the behavior of t h e f i e l dw i n d i n gr e s u l t i n g from thesequenches. Subseq u e n t t o the above tests, i t was d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t the field winding could operate a t an excitation level corresponding to a 1 5 MVA r a t i n g . AF/Westinghouse12,000 FS", 5 MVA Generator As a r e s u l t of t h e p r e d i c t e d s a v i n g s i n w e i g h t a n d volume o f f e r e d by a c g e n e r a t o r s u t i l i z i n g s u p e r c o n d u c t ing field windings, the Aero Propulsion Laboratory of t h e U. S. A i r F o r c e , i n i t i a t e d a technologyadvancement of a program i n 1971,directedtowardthedevelopment 5 MVA, 12,000 rpm superconducting generator for a i r -

borne a p p l i c a t i o n s . The Westinghouse E l e c t r i c Corporat i o nr e c e i v e dt h ep r i m ec o n t r a c t (F33615-71-C-1591) in May 1971. (I): The program w a s d i v i d e di n t ot h r e ep h a s e s : Test of Preliminary Generator Design, and Design and Critical Rotor Components; (11): Design Construcand t i o n of CompleteGenerator;(111):Full Power Testof Generator. The p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n s t u d y r e s u l t e d i n a generaas given i n Table 11. tor with the basic specifications A p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n was a l s o d e v e l o p e d f o r a high volkV) o p t i o n . tage(37 T a b l e I1 AF G e n e r a t o r S p e c i f i c a t i o n s (Phase I )
-~

Power Rating, 5 MVA (0.8 p f ) m Line-to-LineVoltage, 5000 v o l t s r s Frequency, 400 Hz rpm, 12,000 Poles, 4 SynchronousReactance, 0.30 pu m MachineDiameter,0.45 MachineWeight, 450 kg IronStatorShieldUtilized m SpanbetweenBearingCenters,0.95 The main e f f o r t of Phase I was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e t e s t of a c o m p l e t e r o t o r t o d e s i g n ,c o n s t r u c t i o n ,a n d d e m o n s t r a t et h a t a f o u r - p o l e , s u p e r c o n d u c t i n g f i e l d winding could be rotated a t 12,000 rpm under f u l l e x c i t a t i o n .I na d d i t i o n , a s e p a r a t e test on c e r t a i n c r i t i as t h e r o t a t i n g seal system, c a l r o t o r components,such cryogenic power l e a d s , and i n d i v i d u a l c o i l s , p r e c e d e d the full rotor tests in order to obtain data on r e l i a b i A cutaway l i t y andperformanceofthesecomponents. I r o t o r is shown i n F i g u r e 5 . viewofthePhase
Helium Gasvents
I

Fig. 5 -Cutaway Of AF rotor

Phase I was completed i n January1974 by s u c c e s s ful runs with the rotor at 12,000 rpm a n d w i t h t h e f i e l d e x c i t e d a t a levelcorrespondingto a 5.32 MVA g e n e r a t o r o u t p u t .6 F i g u r e 6 shows t h eP h a s e I r o t o r on i t s test stand. The d e s i g n t a s k 7 of Phase I1 w a s completed i n February 1975. The Phase I1 g e n e r a t o r i s c u r r e n t l y p r o j e c t e d a t 1 0 W A ; o t h e rs p e c i f i c a t i o n sa r ec l o s et o 11. The c o n s t r u c t i o no ft h e t h ev a l u e sg i v e ni nT a b l e complete generator i s now underwayand i s s c h e d u l e d f o r completion by August 1976. The f u l l power tests a r e p r e s e n t l ys c h e d u l e df o re a r l y1 9 7 7 .

Superconducting Generator Research a t MIT Research on superconducting machines began a t MIT i nJ a n u a r y1 9 6 7 . Funding f o r t h e r e s e a r c h was i n i t i a l l y provided by t h e E d i s o n E l e c t r i c I n s t i t u t e , a n d more r e c e n t l y by t h e E l e c t r i c Power R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e (EPRI). The p r o j e c t is underthecontinuousguidance of a s t e e r i n g c o m m i t t e e whose members a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p r i v a t e e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y companies. The MIT research includes both experimental and two a l t e r a n a l y t i c a l work. In t h ee x p e r i m e n t a le f f o r t , nators, with rotating superconducting field windings h a v eb e e nb u i l ta n dt e s t e d .T h e s ea l t e r n a t o r sh a v e proventobesuccessfulandusefulexperimentaltools. A f i r s t machine,which w a s u l t i m a t e l y r a t e d a t 45 kVA, was c o n s t r u c t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of t h eb a s i cc o n c e p t . I t showed t h a t a f i e l dw i n d i n g couldremainsuperconductingwhilerotatingat 3600 rpm. It a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e were noproblems associated w i t h r o t a t i o n of liquid helium which could not be overcome by c a r e f u lr o t o rd e s i g n .T h i sm a c h i n eh a s a room t e m p e r a t u r ei r o n - f r e es t a t i o n a r ya r m a t u r e , a gascooled a rotating torquetube,gascooledcurrentleads,and helium transfer coupling, all componentswhich w i l l be was t h e f i r s t found i nf u t u r em a c h i n e s .T h i sm a c h i n e superconducting alternator to be operated as a synchronouscondenserconnected t o a commercial power system. a nominal rating of The secondmachine,'whichhas component d e s i g n s 3 MVA, was c o n s t r u c t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e I t has whichmightbeutilized on f u l l - s c a l em a c h i n e s . a c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d epoxyand glass-fibersuperconduct o rs u p p o r ts t r u c t u r e ,s t a g e - c o o l e dt o r q u et u b e s , and an oil cooled armature winding with carefully cont r o l l e dv o l t a g eg r a d i e n t s . The h e l i u mt r a n s f e r coup l i n gc a r r i e st h r e eg a ss t r e a m s , and a l l heliumflows c a nb ec o n t r o l l e di n d i v i d u a l l y .T h i sm a c h i n eh a sa l s o been operated as a synchronouscondenser on t h e Cambridge E l e c t r i c power system. An e x t e n s i v e a n a l y t i c a l program has been carried on t os u p p o r t and g u i d et h ee x p e r i m e n t a le f f o r t . Analyses have been motivated by s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r e x p e r i mental designs, and by e x p e r i m e n t a lr e s u l t s .T h i s of t o p i c s .T h e s e a n a l y s i sh a sc o v e r e d a broad range i n c l u d em a c h i n ef i e l d s ,f o r c e s , and e l e c t r i c a l parameters; machine-systeminteractions; low t e m p e r a t u r e t h e r m a la n a l y s i so ft h et o r q u et u b e s ,l e a d s , and helium t r a n s f e rs y s t e m ;e l e c t r o m a g n e t i cs h i e l dp e r f o r m a n c e ; and a r m a t u r e e l e c t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e .

EPRI Large Machine Design Program The E l e c t r i c Power R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e i n i t i a t e d program i n September1975directedtowardthefollowing goals : To d e v e l o pc o n c e p t u a ld e s i g n sf o r 1200 MVA, 3600 rpm g e n e r a t o r . 912

a 300 and

To investigatetheeconomicsandsystemint e r a c t i o n s of these machines. To l a yo u t a developmentprogram t h a t would leadtotheconstructionandtestunder u t i l i t y c o n d i t i o n f o r a 300 MVA machine.

Westinghouse has received one9 of the two c o n t r a c t s t h a t EPRI hasfunded on t h i s work. The b a s i c i n t e n t of t h i s two-yearprogram i s t o o b t a i n as f i r m a n o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n as p o s s i b l e o f s u p e r c o n d u c t i n g g e n e r a t o r s is f o ru t i l i t ya p p l i c a t i o n s . Then i ft h ee v a l u a t i o n judged sufficiently positive with respect to technical andeconomic b e n e f i t s , t o i n i t i a t e a secondphase t o a l a r g e u t i l i t y d e m o n s t r a t i o n maconstruct and test chine.
SOME DESIGN ASPECTS

of Many o f t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s acgeneratorsutilizingsuperconductingfieldwindings werereviewed i nt h ep r e c e d i n gs e c t i o n s . The purposeof i s t o c o v e r a few c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s the present section and problems i n more d e t a i l .S p e c i a le m p h a s i s is placed on f a u l t c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r i m p a c t o n g e n e r a t o r design.
Fault Forces A criticaldesignrequirementfor a superconducting turbinegenerator is tosurvivesystemfaultswithout mechanical damage o rf i e l dn o r m a l i z a t i o n .F o re x a m p l e , i f a s y s t e m f a u l t were t o o c c u r , i t is i m p o r t a n t t h a t thegeneratorcanimmediatelydeliver power a f t e r t h e a f a u l to rs h o r tc i r c u i t ,t h e f a u l t is cleared.During rotor andarmaturecircuitsaresubjectedtolargeelectromagnetic forces and torques which are most severe when t h e f a u l t o c c u r s n e a r t h e h i g h s i d e t e r m i n a l s of t h eu n i tt r a n s f o r m e r . Under s u c hc o n d i t i o n s ,t h e armatimes t h e turecurrentscanincreasetothreetofour r a t e d s t e a d y s t a t e c u r r e n t and is s u s t a i n e d u n t i l t h e a 0 . 1 s e c . The f a u l t is c l e a r e di ns o m e t h i n gl e s st h a n magnitudeofthefaultcurrentsdependsongenerator, transformer system and impedances. The i n t e r a c t i o n of thearmaturecurrentsandthecorrespondinginduced reeddy c u r r e n t s i n t h e damper s h i e l d r e s u l t s i n l a r g e p u l s i v ef o r c e st h a tt e n d t o pushthearmatureconductor r a d i a l l y outwardand t o c r u s h t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s h i e l d .T h e s ec u r r e n t sa n df o r c e st e n dt ob el a r g e rf o r a superconducting generator because of i t s low subtransientreactancewhichputshigherstresses on thearmatureinsulationthan i s encounteredinconvent i o n a lg e n e r a t o r s .F u r t h e rt h es h i e l d must designed be notonlyto optimumly s e r v e i t s s h i e l d i n g anddamper rolebutbesufficientlystrongtowithstandthecrushi n gf o r c e sw i t h o u ty i e l d i n g .T h e s e two requirements demand s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l and concept consideration. OSThe damper shield is alsosubjectedtolarge c i l l a t i n g (60 and120 Hz) t o r q u e s d u r i n g a good p a r t of i s d u et ot h ei n t e r a c t i o no f t h ef a u l tp e r i o d .T h i s therotorcurrentswiththetrappedortransient(dc) is p r o p o r t i o n a lt o f l u xi nt h ea r m a t u r e .T h i st o r q u e thearmaturefaultcurrents and c a n t h e r e f o r e b e t h r e e t o f o u r times t h e r a t e d s t e a d y s t a t e m a c h i n e t o r q u e . In this case, special consideration must b e g i v e n t o well as t o themechanicalintegrityoftheshieldas how t h i s t o r q u e i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e p r i m e mover s h a f t . F i e l d WindingandSupportStructure i t s support The superconductingfieldwindingand s t r u c t u r e i s s u b j e c t e dt oq u i t es e v e r et h e r m a lc o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g and a f t e r a f a u l t p e r i o d . Duringthefault,thelargemagneticfieldsassociatedwiththearmaturefaultcurrentsdiffusethrough t h e dam?er s h i e l d i n a time e q u a l t o t h e s u b t r a n s i e n t t i m ec o n s t a n t .T h i sl e a d st oa ne x p o n e n t i a l l yr a i s i n g m a g n e t i cf i e l d a t t h e f i e l d w i n d i n g t h a t h e a t s t h e f i e l dw i n d i n ga n d its supportstructure. 913

Inaddition,thecrushingforcesduring a fault causeradialdeflection of t h e s h i e l d t h a t i n t u r n producestimevaryingfieldswithinthe damper s h i e l d . Thiseffectagainleadstoheatinginthe low temperatureregion. Afterthefault is c l e a r e d , t h e r o t o r u n d e r g o e s a damped m e c h a n i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n w i t h a frequencyofabout 1 Hz and a decayperiod of a b o u t1 0c y c l e s .T h e s e r o t o rs w i n g sr e p r e s e n tt h er e t u r no ft h em a c h i n et o s t e a d y s t a t e w i t ht h es y s t e m .D u r i n gt h es w i n g s ,t h e r o t o r i s s u b j e c t e d t o a 1 Hz m a g n e t i c f i e l d t h a t c a n penetrate into the field region and generates heat. D e c i s i o n si ns u p e r c o n d u c t o rd e s i g n ,c o o l i n ga n d c o i l c o n s t r u c t i o n and f i e l d s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e a r e a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d and c r i t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h e s e e v e n t s . The p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t h e a t i n g i n t h e s u p e r c o n temductororinthesupportstructure.wi.11notleadto perature excursions that result in normalization of the limits winding.Therearedesigntrade-offsbetweenthe ofgoingwith a v e r y low loss cabled conductor and 100% p o t t i n g of t h e c o i l t o t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e o f a monolithic conductor with a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e matrix and having a p a r t i a l l y openwinding i n o r d e r t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e highspecificheat of helium. m i l e a l l of the prototype machines have used m e t a l l i cf i e l ds u p p o r ts t r u c t u r e s ,c o n s i d e r a t i o ni n f u t u r e d e s i g n s must b e g i v e n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u t i lizingnon-metalliccompositesforthisstructureand t h u se l i m i n a t i n gt h i ss o u r c e of heat. I t s h o u l d a l s o b e evident that special attention must b e d i r e c t e d t o t h e helium management i n t h e low t e m p e r a t u r e r e g i o n s o t h a t a f a u l t w i l l b e removed the stored heat resulting from as q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . Superconductors M u l t i f i l a m e n t a r y NbTi s u p e r c o n d u c t o r s h a v e b e e n the only choice,up until very recently, for utilization intheprototypemachinesandfordesignstudiesfor Wit5 t h e s ec o n d u c t o r s , a workingcurl a r g e rm a c h i n e s . r e n t d e n s i t y of a b o u t l o 8 A/m2 a t 5 T w i t h a thermal However margin of about 1 K a t 4 K c a n b e r e a l i z e d . conductor development programs initiated by t h e USAF' and ERDA on NbgSn m u l t i f i l a m e n t a r y c o n d u c t o r s are now underway.Thistypeofconductorpromiseshighercurrent densities at higher magnetics field with greater thermalmargins.Futuregeneratorprogramsmusttake thisattractiveoptionintoconsideration. CONCLUSIONS

tests haveproThe prototype machine design and vided a feasibilitydemonstrationforacsuperconducti n gg e n e r a t o r s .L a r g eg e n e r a t o rd e s i g ns t u d i e sa n d a clearindicationof commercialevaluationhavegiven thepotentialtechnicaland economic b e n e f i t s t o b e realized.Additionaldevelopmentworkremainstobe i s d e m o n s t r a t e dt ob e carriedoutbeforethisconcept r e l i a b l e and economically competitive with conventional machines.
REFEWNCES 1. For a b r i e fo v e r v i e w of theseprogramssee, J. L. Smith, J r . , J . K. K i r t l e y , J r . , andP.Thuller, I E E E Trans. on Magnetics MAG-11 (2),128(1975). M. S . Baldwin and C.. C S t e r r e t t ,P r o c . of t h e American Power Conference, 3 6 , 1036 (1974). J . J e f f e r i e s , e t a l . , I E E E Trans. Power Appara(1973). t u s and Systems, Vol. PAS-92 ( 5 ) , 1659 Y . S . Chung, e t a l . , IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems. PAS-93 ( 2 ) . 496 (1974). C . K . Jones and D. C: L i t z , Advances i n Cryogenic (1974). E n g i n e e r i n g 1 9 , 44

2.
3.

M .

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5.

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7.

8. 9.

R. D. Blaugher, T . J . Fagan, J. H. P a r k e r , J r . , J . M. Wells,and J. L. McCabria,Proc.FifthInternationalCryogenicEngineeringConf., Kyoto, Japan, 143(1974); J . H. P a r k e r , J r . , R. D. Blaugher, A. P a t t e r s o n , P . D. Vecchio, and J . L. McCabria, IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, 640 (1975),Technical Report APAPL-TR-74-84. J. L . McCabria, R. D. Blaugher, and J . H. Parker, J r . , "SuperconductingGeneratorDevelopment,Proc. NationalAerospaceElectronicConference(1975), Dayton, Ohio. J. L. Smith, J r . , J . K. K i r t l e y , J r . , P . T h u l l e n , and H. H. Woodson, Proc. IEEE 61 (1) 112 (1973). EPRI C o n t r a c t RF' 429-1.

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