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SNAP SAMPLE PAPER INSTRUCTIONS Please read these carefully before attempting the test.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

There are six sections. The total time allotted is 2 hours exactly. Please fill all the details, as asked on top of the answer sheet. Please try to maximize your attempt overall but you need to do well in all four sections. All questions carry equal marks. There is 25% negative marking for every wrong answer. Since it is a time constrained test and you have only 2 hours, and all question carry equal marks please do not get struck on any question, but move fast to try and do the easier ones. Please do all scratch work on paper only, no extra sheets to be used. Put all your answers on the answer sheet. Relax. You are competing against yourself.




DIRECTIONS for Questions 1 and 2: Answer the questions based on the following data: A salesman enters the quantity sold and the price into the computer. Both the numbers are two-digit numbers. Once, by mistake, both the numbers were entered with their digits interchanged. The total sales value remained the same, i.e. Rs. 1148, but the inventory reduced by 54. 1. What is the actual price per piece? 1. 82 2. 41 What is the actual quantity sold? 1. 28 2. 14 3. 56 4. 28


3. 82

4. 41

DIRECTIONS for Questions 3 and 4: Answer the questions based on the following data: A thief, after committing a burglary, started fleeing at 12:00 noon, at a speed of 60 kmph. He was then chased by a policeman X. X started the chase 15 minutes after the thief had started, at a speed of 65 kmph. 3. At what time did X catch the thief? 1. 3:30 p.m. 2. 3:00 p.m.

3. 3:15 p.m.

4. None of these


If another policeman had started the same chase along with X, but at a speed of 60 kmph, then how far behind was he when X caught the thief? 1. 18.75 km 2. 15 km 3. 21 km 4. 37.5 km The cost of a diamond varies directly as the square of its weight. Once, this diamond broke into four pieces with weights in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4. When the pieces were sold, the merchant got Rs. 70,000 less. Find the original price of the diamond. 1. Rs. 1.4 lakh 2. Rs. 2.0 lakh 3. Rs. 1.0 lakh 4. Rs. 2.1 lakh A cube of side 12 cm is painted red on all the faces and then cut into smaller cubes, each of side 3 cm. What is the total number of smaller cubes having none of their faces painted? 1. 16 2. 8 3. 12 4. 24 The points of intersection of three lines, 2X + 3Y - 5 = 0, 5X - 7Y + 2 = 0, and 9X - 5Y - 4 = 0: 1. form a triangle. 2. are on lines perpendicular to each other. 3. are on lines parallel to each other. 4. are coincident. If n is any odd number greater than 1, then n (n - 1) is 1. divisible by 48 always 2. divisible by 24 always 3. divisible by 60 always 4. None of these





DIRECTIONS for Questions 9 to 10: Choose the best alternative 9. The figures show a circle of diameter AB and radius 6.5 cm. If chord CA is 5 cm long, find the area of triangle ABC. C

A 1. 60 2. 30

B 3. 40 4. 52


In a locality, two-thirds of the people have cable-TV, one-fifth have VCR, and one-tenth have both, what is the fraction of people having either cable TV or VCR? 1. 19/30 2. 3/5 3. 17/30 4. 23/30 If ABCD is a square and BCE is an equilateral triangle, what is the measure of the angle DEC? B A E D 1. 15


C 2. 30o 3. 200 4. 450


I bought 5 pens, 7 pencils and 4 erasers. Rajan bought 6 pens, 8 erasers and 14 pencils for an amount which was half more than what I had paid. What percent of the total amount paid by me was paid for the pens? 1. 37.5% 2. 62.5% 3. 50% 4. None of these Distance between A and B is 72 km. Two men started walking from A and B at the same time towards each other. The person who started from A travelled uniformly with average speed 4 kmph. While the other man travelled with varying speeds as follows: In first hour his speed was 2 kmph, in the second hour it was 2.5 kmph, in the third hour it was 3 kmph, and so on. When will they meet each other? 1. 7 hours 2. 10 hours 3. 35 km from A 4. midway between A & B


DIRECTIONS for Questions 14 and 15: Use the following information: A watch dealer incurs an expense of Rs.150 for producing every watch. He also incurs an additional expenditure of Rs. 30,000, which is independent of the number of watches produced. If he is able to sell a watch during the season, he sells it for Rs. 250. If he fails to do so, he has to sell each watch for Rs. 100. 14. If he is able to sell only 1200 out of the 1500 watches he has made in the season, then in the season he has made a profit of: 1. Rs. 90,000 2. Rs. 75,000 3. Rs. 45,000 4. Rs. 60,000 If he produces 1500 watches, what is the number of watches that he must sell during the season in order to break even, given that he is able to sell all the watches produced? 1. 500 2. 700 3. 800 4. 1,000


DIRECTIONS for Questions 16 to 40: The following questions are independent of each other: 16. A man travels form A to B at a speed of x kmph. He then rests at B or x hours. He then travels from B to C at a speed of 2x kmph and rests at C for 2x hours. He moves further to D at a speed twice as that between B and C. He thus reaches D in 16 hours. If distances A-B, B-C, C-D are all equal to 12 km, the time for which he rested at B could be: 1. 3 hours 2. 6 hours 3. 2 hours 4. 4 hours Instead of a metre scale, a cloth merchant uses a 120 cm scale while buying, but uses an 80 cm scale while selling the same cloth. If he offers a discount of 20% on cash payment, what is his overall percent profit ? 1. 20% 2. 25% 3. 40% 4. 15% A man has nine friends, four boys and five girls. In how many ways can he invite them, if there have to be exactly three girls in the invitees? 1. 320 2. 160 3. 80 4. 200 In a watch, the minute hand crosses the hour hand for the third time exactly after every 3 hrs 18 min 15 seconds of watch time. What is the time gained or lost by this watch in one day? 1. 14 min 10 seconds lost 2. 13 min 50 seconds lost 3. 13 min 20 second gained 4. 14 min 40 second gained.





In a mile race Akshay can be given a start of 128 metres by Bhairav. If Bhairav can given Chinmay a start of 4 metres in a 100 metres dash, then who out of Akshay and Chinmay will win a race of one and half mile, and what will be the final lead given by the winner to the loser? (One mile is 1600 metres). 1. Akshay, 1/12 miles 2. Chinmay, 1/32 miles 3. Akshay, 1/24 miles 4. Chinmay, 1/16 miles A test has 50 questions. A student scores 1 mark for a correct answer, -1/3 for a wrong answer, and 1/6 for not attempting a question. If the net score of a student is 32, the number of questions answered wrongly by that student cannot be less than 1. 6 2. 12 3. 3 4. 9 The sum of 3rd and 15th elements of an arithmetic progression is equal to the sum of 6 th, 11th and 13th elements of the same progression. Then which element of the series should necessarily be equal to zero? 1. 1st 2. 9th 3. 12 th 4. None of the above. When the curves y = log10 x and y = x-1 are drawn in the x-y plane, how many times do they intersect for values x { EMBED Equation.3 }1? 1. Never 2. Once 3. Twice 4. More than twice. Let p and q be the roots of the quadratic equation x2 ({ EMBED Equation.3 }- 2) x - { EMBED Equation.3 } - 1 = 0. What is the minimum possible value of p 2 + q2? 1. 0 2. 3 3. 4 4. 5 The 288th term of the series a, b, b, c, c, c, d, d, d, d, e, e, e, e, e, f, f, f, f, f, f. is 1. u 2. v 3. w 4. x There are two concentric circles such that the area of the outer circle is four times the area of the inner circle. Let A, B and C be three distinct points on the perimeter of the outer circle such that AB and AC are tangents to the inner circle. If the area of the outer circle is 12 square centimeters then the area (in square centimeters) of the triangle ABC would be 1. { EMBED Equation.3 } 2.{ EMBED Equation.3 } 3. { EMBED Equation.3 } 4. { EMBED Equation.3 } Let a, b, c, d be four integers such that a + b + c + d = 4m + 1 where m is a positive integer. Given m, which one of the following is necessarily true? 1. The minimum possible value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is 4m2 2m + 1 2. The minimum possible value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is 4m2 + 2m + 1 3. The maximum possible value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is 4m2 + 2m + 1 4. The maximum possible value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is 4m2 + 2m + 1 How many three digit positive integers, with digits x, y and z in the hundreds, tens and units place respectively, exist such that x < y, z < y and x { EMBED Equation.3 }0? 1. 245 2. 285 3. 240 4. 320 In the figure given below, AB is the chord of a circle with center O. AB is extended to C such that BC = OB. The straight line CO is produced to meet the circle at D. If { EMBED Equation.3 }ACD = y0 and { EMBED Equation.3 }AOD = x0such that x = ky, then the value of k is A B D 1. 3 2. 2 O 3. 1 C 4. None of the above











If log32, log3(2x 5), log3(2x 7/2) are in arithmetic progression, then the value of x is equal to 1. 5 2. 4 3. 2 4. 3


In the diagram given below, { EMBED Equation.3 }ABD = { EMBED Equation.3 }CDB = { EMBED Equation.3 o }PQD = 90A. If AB: CD = 3: 1, the ratio of CD: PQ is


B 1. 1: 0.69 32. 2. 1: 0.75

Q 3. 1: 0.72

D 4. None of the above.

In a triangle ABC, AB = 6, BC = 8 and AC = 10. A perpendicular dropped from B, meets the side AC at D. A circle of radius BD (with center B) is drawn. If the circle cuts AB and BC at P and Q respectively, then AP: QC is equal to 1. 1: 1 2. 3: 2 3. 4: 1 4. 3: 8 Each side of a given polygon is parallel to either the X or the Y axis. A corner of such a polygon is said to be convex if the internal angle is 90o or concave if the internal angle is 270o. If the number of convex corners in such a polygon is 25, the number of concave corners must be 1. 20 2. 0 3. 21 4. 22 A calculator has two memory buttons, A and B. Value 1 is initially stored in both memory locations. The following sequence of steps is carried out five times: i. add 1 to B ii. multiply A and B. iii. store the result in A What is the value stored in memory location A after this procedure? 1. 120 2. 450 3. 720 4. 250 A square piece of cardboard of sides ten inches is taken and four equal square pieces are removed at the corners. The sides are then turned up to form an open box. Then the maximum volume such a box can have is 1. 72 cubic inches 2. 24.074 cubic inches. 3. 2000/27 cubic inches 4. 64 cubic inches Three times the first of three consecutive odd integers is 3 more than twice the third. What is the third integer ? 1. 15 2. 9 3. 11 4. 5 A man starting at a point walks one km east, then two km north, then one km east, then one km north, then one km east and then one km north to arrive at the destination. What is the shortest distance from the starting point to the destination ? 1. 2 2 km 2. 7 m 3. 3 2 km 4. 5 km A circle is inscribed in a given square and another circle is circumscribed about the square. What is the ratio of the area of the inscribed circle to that of the circumscribed circle ? 1. 2 : 3 2. 3: 4 3. 1: 4 4. 1 : 2 A one rupee coin is placed on a table. The maximum number of similar one rupee coins which can be placed on the table, around it, with each one of them touching it and only two others is: 1. 8 2. 6 3. 10 4. 4









A sum of money compounded annually becomes Rs. 625 in two years and Rs. 675 in three years. The rate of interest per annum is: 1. 7% 2. 8% 3. 6% 4. 5%

DIRECTIONS for Questions 41 to 50: In each question, you are given certain data followed by two statements. For answering the questions: Mark 1. , if both the statements together are insufficient to answer the question. Mark 2. , if any one of the two statements is sufficient to answer the question. Mark 3. , if each statement alone is sufficient to answer the question. Mark 4. , if both the statements together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is sufficient. 41. What is the Cost Price of the article ? I. After selling the article, a loss of 25% on Cost Price incurred. II. The Selling Price is three-fourths of the Cost Price. If a, b, c are integers, is (a - b + c) > (a + b - c)? I. b is negative II. c is positive. What is the Selling Price of the article ? I. The profit on Sales is 20%. II. The profit on each unit is 25% and the Cost Price is Rs. 250. A tractor travelled a distance of 5 m. What is the radius of the rear wheel? I. The front wheel rotates N times more than the rear wheel over this distance. II. The circumference of the rear wheel is t times that of the front wheel. What is the ratio of the two liquids A and B in the mixture finally, if these two liquids kept in three vessels are mixed together? (The containers are of equal volume) I. The ratio of liquid A to liquid B in the first and second vessel is, respectively, 3: 5, 2: 3. II. The ratio liquid A to liquid B in vessel 3 is 4: 3. If , are the roots of the equation (ax + bx + c = 0), then what is the value of ( + )? I. + = - (b/a) II. 2 = (c/a) What is the number of type 2 widgets produced, if the total number of widgets produced is 20,000? I. If the production of type - 1 widgets increases by 10% and that of type-2 decreases by 6%, the total production remains the same. II. The ratio in which type - 1 and type - 2 widgets are produced is 2 : 1. How old is Sachin in 1997? I. Sachin is 11 years younger than Anil whose age will be prime number in 1998. II. Anils age was a prime number in 1996. What is the total worth of Lakhirams assets? I. Compound interest at 10% on his assets, followed by a tax of 4% on the interest, fetches him Rs. 15000 this year. II. The interest is compounded once every four months. How many different triangles can be formed? I. There are 16 coplanar, straight lines in all.










II. No two lines are parallel.

Directions for questions 51 to 90: Read the passages below and answer the questions that follow. Passage I How should reasonable people react to the hype and controversy over global warming? Judging by recent headlines, you might think we are already doomed. Newspapers have been quick to link extreme weather events, ranging from floods in Britain and Mozambique to hurricanes in Central America, directly to global warming. Greens say that worse will ensue if governments do not act. Many politicians have duly jumped on the bandwagon, citing recent disasters as a reason for speeding up action on the Kyoto treaty on climate change that commits rich countries to cut emissions of greenhouse gases. Yet, hotheaded attempts to link specific weather disasters to the greenhouse effect are scientific bunk. The correct approach is to coolly assess the science of climate change before taking action. Unfortunately, climate modeling is still in its infancy, and for most of the past decade it has raised as many questions as it has answered. Now, however, the picture is getting clearer. There will never be consensus, but the balance of the evidence suggests that global warming is indeed happening; that much of it has recently been man-made; and that there is a risk of potentially disastrous consequences. Even the normally stolid insurance industry is getting excited. Insurers reckon that weather disasters have cost roughly $400 billion over the past decade and that the damage is likely only to increase. The time has come to accept that global warming is a credible enough threat to require a public-policy response. But what, exactly? At first blush, the Kyoto treaty seems to offer a good way forward. It is a global treaty: it would be foolish to deal with this most global of problems in any other way. It sets a long-term framework that requires frequent updating and revision, rather like the post-war process of trade liberalization. That is sensible because climate change will be at least a 100year problem, and so will require a treaty with institutions and mechanisms that endure. The big question over Kyoto remains its cost. How much insurance is worth buying now against an uncertain, but possibly devastating, future threat? And the answer lies in a clear-headed assessment of benefits and costs. The case for doing something has increased during the three years since Kyoto was signed. Yet it also remains true that all answers will be easier if economic growth is meanwhile sustained: stopping the world while the problem is dealt with is not a sensible option, given that resources to deal with it would then become steadily scarcer. That points to two general conclusions about how to implement Kyoto. The simplest is that countries should search out no regrets measures that are beneficial in their own right as well as reducing emissions -- such as scrapping coal subsidies, liberalizing energy markets and cutting farm support. The second is that implementation should use market-friendly measures that minimize the costs and risks of slowing economic growth. The arguments center on this second point, and in particular on the use of emissions trading and carbon sinks (such as forests) that could lower the cost of reaching the Kyoto targets. The Americans want unrestricted trading and generous definitions of what constitutes a sink, despite scientific uncertainties about this point. The Europeans want strict curbs on both. The common thread to these issues is that the Europeans are taking a moralistic stance that the lions share of reductions should come from real emissions cuts at home. The implication is that cuts made via market mechanisms such as trading, or the clever use of carbon sinks, are somehow unworthy. Yet the planet is impervious to where or how cuts are made, so long as the stock of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is reduced. Not that the American stance is beyond reproach. Though negotiators try to paint themselves as principled, market minded folk, the real explanation for their position is pragmatic. They know there is no chance that America will meet its target through cuts in domestic emissions. That is why they see sinks and trading as saviors. And, though they are on firm ground in insisting on unrestricted trading, they should agree to conservative definitions of sinks until scientists understand them better. The proper aim of the negotiations should thus be to turn Kyoto into a treaty that bites, but with full flexibility over how countries should reach the targets that they have signed up to. And the guiding principle must be to err on the side of flexibility. A rigid deal that imposes heavy costs on economies would not only be undesirable in its own right; it would risk scuppering the Kyoto process altogether, leaving the atmosphere far worse off. Onerous short-term targets that force expensive adaptation will

come at the expense of jobs, wages and other public goods, including measures to improve the environment. The pain could be particularly acute in the developing world. The best Kyoto deal would harness the engine of economic growth and the ingenuity of entrepreneurs, not bet against them. Not only would that ensure that the treaty was implemented at minimum cost. It would also help to create new markets and provide incentives for businesses to innovate. 51. Why does the author say that attempts to link specific weather disasters to the greenhouse effect are scientific junk? 1. because they could be happening due to unrelated causes 2. because there is no scientific evidence to suggest that global warming is actually happening 3. because it is mainly media hype 4. cannot say What is the authors suggestion to deal with global warming? 1. to have an international treaty 2. to buy insurance against this devastating certainty 3. to understand the problem and assess costs and benefits before taking action 4. to have a sustainable economic growth On the basis of the passage, we can conclude that: 1. there is a general agreement among nations as to how the threat must be met 2. there is a disagreement among nations as to how the threat must be met 3. if nations act now, the threat to global warming might just be met 4. none of the above What is the point about carbon sinks that the Americans are insisting on? 1. that countries be allowed to trade their sinks instead of cutting down emissions 2. that market forces be used to minimize the costs and risks of slowing economic growth 3. that scientists still do not understand what constitutes a sink 4. none of the above Why does the author say that a rigid deal would risk scuppering the Kyoto process altogether? 1. because nations would not be able to adhere to the deal if it was too rigid 2. because nations might find ways of subverting the deal if it was too rigid 3. only a deal with emissions trading could actually work 4. a rigid deal would result in reduction of jobs and public goods What is the meaning of the phrase, to err on the side of flexibility? 1. the treaty must be a flexible one 2. it is better to err and be flexible than not to err at all 3. being flexible is an error 4. a rigid deal would not serve its purpose






Passage II Some 200 years ago, Charles Darwin declared that man evolved from apes. Some 2000 years before the English biologist put his thought to paper, the origin of species, as he described it, was already in place in our ancient scriptures such as the Puranas. There is a curious parallel between the scientific concept and the Hindu theological interpretation of evolution. While the former, as evident from the works of Darwin, assumes that the civilized man evolved through gradual modification of life forms, starting with the fish - a process he called evolution by natural selection - the latter, as evident from the Dasha Avatar, or the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu, also suggests that the human form descended from the sea. Further, according to Hindu theology, the Supreme Being is present in both the living and non-living on earth. And without God, the universe could never have come into existence.

Since ancient times, the ten avatars of Vishnu have been interpreted as the various stages in evolution, ultimately culminating in the emergence of the human being. According to Hindu theologists, the process of evolution started with the sea creature, thereafter progressing through the amphibian, the reptile, the mammal, the half- man, the dwarf, finally ending up as man. People who believe in the Puranic concept of evolution would agree with Darwin. Another area where both concur is the process of creation (kalpa) and dissolution (pralaya) of the universe, which is said to occur through time-stages, known in Hindu mythology as the yugas (ages). It is in the fourth age, the Kali-Yuga, or the Age of the Unknown, that man self- destructs, thus repeating the cycle of life. Darwin too believed in a similar order and reorder of evolution. Vedic history is replete with fascinating tales from the Dasha Avatar where Vishnu, the preserver of the cosmos and protector of life, battles with the forces of evil. He does this by descending from his home in Vaikuntha and assuming the incarnation of man or beast to set things right in the mortal world. The first of the ten incarnations, as told in the Dasha Avatar, is the Matsya Avatar where Vishnu assumes the form of a fish to retrieve the Vedas from an evil asura, and preserve them for the next spell of creation. As the poet Jayadeva sang- All glories to you, O Lord of the Universe, who took the form of a fish. When the sacred hymns of the Vedas were lost in the waters of universal devastation, you swam like a boat in that vast ocean to rescue them. Science too agrees that the fish was the first advanced life form to inhabit the earth during the later part of the Ice Age. Thereafter follow the other nine avatars of Vishnu: Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (wild boar), Vamana (dwarf), Narasimha (half man-half beast), Parashurama (the warrior, Rama (the king), Krishna (the cowherd), Buddha (the teacher) and Kalki (the slayer). Of these, the fourth avatar, Vamana, or the dwarf-like monkey, comes closest to resembling the ape-man in Darwins theory of evolution. Another interesting point is that Hanuman is often considered to be the missing link between ape and man. The monkey king and his tribe were, perhaps, the last but one stage in the evolution of the civilized human being. Hanuman, as we know, is considered athletic and intelligent, one capable of great physical feats. Equally fascinating is the tale revolving around Kalki, the still-to-come tenth avatar of Vishnu. In the Puranas, Kalki is depicted as a proud warrior, riding a white horse, with a scale in one hand and a sword in the other, who slays the forces of evil as the present, Kali-Yuga, nears its end, and thus restarting the cycle of life. According to neo-Darwinists, the selfish man of today is already in the self-destructing mode. This theory has been put forth by biologists who say that human beings are so hell-bent on competing with one another in the race for supremacy that they will one day destroy themselves. Thus, ending one cycle of evolution and restarting another from the first living organism. 57. What is the evidence given by the author to show that the theory of evolution lies in ancient scriptures? 1. the Dasha Avatar 2. the fact that we are now in Kali yuga 3. theories given by Hindu mythologists 4. none of the above Which avatar of Vishnu would come closest to Darwins ape-man in his theory of evolution? 1. Kalki 2. Vamana 3. Narasimha 4. Kurma The theory of self-destruction: 1. is a myth 2. has been put forward by scientists 3. is a natural outcome of the cycle of birth and death 4. none of these What is the reason that Vishnu leaves his home and assumes the incarnation of man or beast? 1. to fight the forces of evil 2. to advance his avatars 3. to bring justice to the world 4. none of these It can be inferred from the passage that, according to Darwin and the Hindu myths, 1. the cycle of evolution and destruction is a never-ending process 2. each cycle of evolution could be millions of years long 3. there are always forces of good and evil fighting each other 4. none of the above





Passage III Frances Ministry of Culture does not look like the sort of place where pessimism ought to flourish. The ministry occupies a wing of Richelieus magnificent Palais Royal, round the corner from the Comedie Francaise and just a short walk from the Louvre and the Opera. On their way to lunch its inhabitants have to pick their way through throngs of tourists who have come from all over the world to admire Frances cultural riches. Pessimism flourishes here nonetheless. The ministrys officials are convinced that a rising tide of American popular culture is swamping France. And they spend much of their working lives administering a complex system of quotas and subsidies that are designed to protect French culture from total submersion. The ministry has almost uniform support for its position among a French cultural elite worried about the threat that America poses, particularly to French film. Their concern is not, as sometimes claimed, that an upstart America hijacked the French national invention of Melies and the Lumieres. Rather it is that Hollywood is a Trojan horse bringing with it Disneyland Paris, fast-food chains and free advertising for American products from clothes to rock music. America is not just interested in exporting its films, says Giles Jacob, the head of the Cannes Film Festival. It is interested in exporting its way of life. These French people lead a world guerrilla army, hoping to curb American cultural hegemony. In 1989, the French government persuaded the European Community to decree that 40% of TV programs should be domestic. It also strengthened their complex system of support (which taxes cinema tickets to help French film production) by extending it to television programs. In 1993, France threatened to sabotage the GATT trade round in order to exempt audio-visual materials from free trade agreements. The French have found a powerful ally in Canada, which has long been terrified of being swamped by its closest neighbor. Of the films shown on Canadian screens, 96% are foreign, primarily American. Three quarters of the music on Canadian radio is not Canadian. Four in five magazines sold on newsstands in Canada, and six in every ten books, are foreign, mainly American. Canada had, some time back, organized a meeting in Ottawa about American cultural dominance. Nineteen countries attended, including Britain, Brazil and Mexico; the United States was pointedly excluded. At issue were ways of exempting cultural goods from treaties lowering trade barriers, on the view that free trade threatened national cultures. The Ottawa meeting followed a similar gathering in Stockholm, sponsored by the United Nations, which resolved to press for special exemptions for cultural goods in another global trade pact, the Multilateral Agreement on Investment. Quite apart from its recommended solutions, is the resistance to American cultural imperialism correct in its diagnosis of the problem? Lurking here are three distinct questions. Is Hollywood as powerful as its enemies imagine? Is there an identifiable thing you can sensibly label American culture? And does Americas domination extend to every corner of the popular arts and entertainment? A strong case can be made out that America dominates world cinema. It may not make most feature films. But American films are the only ones that reach every market in the world: the highly successful films of India and Hong Kong hardly travel outside their regions. In major markets around the world, lists of the biggest-grossing films are essentially lists of Hollywood blockbusters in slightly differing orders with one or two local films for variety. In the European Union, the United States claimed 70% overall of the film market in 1996, up from 56% in 1987; even in Japan, America now accounts for more than half the film market. Titanic has grossed almost $1.8 billion worldwide. Armageddon and Lethal Weapon 4 play well from Belgium to Brazil. Hollywoods empire also appears to be expanding by the year. Hollywood now gets roughly half its revenues from overseas, up from just 30% in 1980. At the same time few foreign films make it big in the United States, where they have less than 3% of the market. Between 1995 and 1996 Europes trade deficit with the United States in films and television grew from $4.8 billion to $5.65 billion. Striking figures, to be sure. Yet the more one looks at many of these films, the less distinctively American they become. One reason for Hollywoods success is that from the earliest days it was open to foreign talent and foreign money. Some of the great figures of Hollywood -- Chaplin, Murnau, Stroheim, and Hitchcock -- were imports. And now two of the most powerful studios, Columbia Tristar and Fox, are owned by foreign media conglomerates, Japans Sony and Australias News Corporation.

Several of Hollywoods most successful films have drawn heavily on international resources. Three Men and a Baby, which helped to revive Disney after a fallow period in the mid-1980s, was a remake of a French comedy. Total Recall was made partly with French money, directed by a Dutchman and starred an Austrian, Arnold Schwarzenegger. The English Patient was directed by a Briton shot in Italy and starred French and British actresses. It may even be argued that it is less a matter of Hollywood corrupting the world than of the world corrupting Hollywood. The more Hollywood becomes preoccupied by the global market, the more it produces generic blockbusters made to play as well in Pisa as Peoria. Such films are driven by special effects that can be appreciated by people with a minimal grasp of English rather than by dialogue and plot. They eschew fine-grained cultural observation for generic subjects that anybody can identify with, regardless of national origins. There is nothing particularly American about boats crashing into icebergs or asteroids that threaten to obliterate human life. The very identification of Hollywood with American culture, particularly American high culture, is itself a mistake. So is confusing screen conduct with real conduct, although plenty of serious-minded people do seem to treat Hollywood as a ruinous influence on American manners and morals: Michael Medved, an American screenwriter turned cultural commentator, argues that, far from nurturing deep-rooted values, Hollywood helps destroy them. Tens of millions of Americans now see the entertainment industry as an all-powerful enemy, he argues, an alien force that assaults our most cherished values and corrupts our children. Making a point more about art than behavior, Terry Teachout, a music critic, says that educated Americans would cheer if an earthquake reduced Hollywoods sound stages to rubble. The enemy at the gates is not the United States free trade or even Walt Disney, he says with deliberate effect, it is democracy. Instead of treating the sovereignty of popular taste as something that underpins Americas cultural domination of the world, many of Americas neoconservatives (and some liberals) see it rather as a perilous solvent acting on the United States itself. The country, they fear, is dissolving into a babble of discordant ethnic voices without a common cultural identity or a shared national purpose. And they put much of the blame on the proliferation of foreign-language media outlets. One of the most popular television channels in Los Angeles is KMFX 34, which broadcasts in Spanish; there are also channels which broadcast exclusively in Korean, Cantonese and Japanese, and others that rent air-time for Yiddish and Russian broadcasts. Even in the shadow of the Hollywood sign it is possible to live without bowing the knee to a majority culture. The worlds culture ministers might well reply that the inroads that Spanish and Korean television have made into the United States are as nothing compared with the inroads that American television has made into their home countries. The deregulation of television in the 1980s created a legion of upstart stations that were desperate for content -- and much of the cheapest and most reliable content came from America. Yet as new stations establish themselves, they tend to drop generic American products in favor of local productions: audiences still prefer homegrown fare if given the choice. In every European country in 1997, the most popular television programme was a local production. Navarro, an unmistakably French action drama, has never had less than a 33% market share. Across the channel, Inspector Morse, a much re-run British detective series, owes its lasting appeal to an Oxford setting and a curmudgeonly hero. The strength of local ties is even more apparent in pop music, long supposed to provide the soundtrack to Americas cultural hegemony. The United States has never enjoyed the same dominance of pop music as it has of cinema, having to share the global market with Britain. According to a book reporting the results of a rock-music poll of 200,000 people, aged from nine to 62, in America and Europe, The All-Time Top 1,000 Albums, seven of the ten most popular albums were British. As the rock market fragments into niches -- from urban rap to techno -- it is harder and harder to create global brands. A few years ago, few self-respecting teenagers would be caught dead listening to French or Swedish pop groups (The Swedish group Abba was almost the definition of naff). Now French groups such as Air and Daft Punk and Swedish groups such as Ace of Base and the Cardigans are decidedly cool. In Germany, the worlds third-largest music market after the United States and Japan, local performers account for 48% of the DM6 billion ($3.5 billion) in yearly sales, double the percentage five years ago. Two leading music channels, Viva and Viva-2, now devote about 40% of their time to German titles. In Spain, 58% of the total $1 billion music sales are generated by Spanish and Latin American artists. In the French market, French rock groups account for nearly half the countrys total sales. MTV makes different programs for different regions.

As Americas pop-music industry struggles with a stagnating international market, European groups are finding it easier to cross borders. Americans buy some $2 billion worth of Spanish music a year. Ace of Bases first record was one of the biggest selling debut records ever, dominating the American charts. German techno bands such as Mr. President have had a string of international successes. Ibiza is the capital of global dance music. Daft Punk sold 900,000 albums outside France, earning some 77m francs ($13m). Even Iceland has a global star in Bjork. The American empire is equally shaky in other areas of popular culture. The British have dominated popular musicals since the appearance of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and Jesus Christ Superstar in the mid-1970s. Andrew Lloyd Webber and Cameron Macintosh revived what had become a geriatric art form with catchy tunes, clever lyrics, sumptuous sets and relentless marketing. They turned British musicals into both a major tourist attraction and an important export. The Phantom of the Opera has been seen by an estimated 52m people, pulling in more than $2.5 billion. Basle has a purpose-built theatre for Phantom. As for fashion, the great houses of Paris and Milan dominate the high end of the market; London its street-wise, popular base. Walk down Rodeo Drive in Los Angeles, with its outlets for Gucci, Valentino and Armani, and America looks like the cultural colony, not Europe. Here too it is the British who are shaking up the industry. Jean-Paul Gaultier claims that he gets some of his best ideas by walking around London. Ex-punker Vivienne Westwood is a grande dame in Paris and Milan, and two big French houses recently put young British designers, John Galliano and Alexander McQueen, in charge. Even in publishing and magazines -- an area that particularly worries the Canadians -- American domination is by no means clear-cut. The best-known magazine editor in the United States is an Englishwoman, Tina Brown, who is credited with reviving (before leaving) both Vanity Fair and The New Yorker. Foreign companies control half of Americas top 20 publishing houses. Earlier this year Bertelsmann, a German conglomerate, purchased Americas biggest publisher, Random House, provoking headlines about American culture being sold to foreigners. In fact, Bertelsmann may well be a stronger global force than its American-owned rivals. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, it built a network of book clubs, publishers and record companies across the old Soviet block. It holds a stake in Pragues City Radio, owns the biggest newspaper in Hungary and in Slovakia, and has launched a glossy science magazine in Russia in a venture with the Orthodox Church. 62. It can be inferred from the passage that: 1. modern cinema was invented in France 2. France sabotaged the GATT trade talks to have audio-visual material exempted from free trade agreements 3. many countries from Brazil to Mexico have protested against American dominance of American culture 4. none of the above Which technique is used by the author when he says that Hollywood is a Trojan horse? 1. metaphor 2. simile 3. analogy 4. paradox What is the percentage increase in Hollywoods revenues from overseas since 1980, according to the passage? 1. almost doubled 2. increased by two-thirds 3. increased by one-third 4. increased by one-fifth The passage disputes which of the following? 1. Hollywood is a powerful force 2. There is an identifiable thing called American culture 3. America dominates world cinema 4. both (2) and (3) The author is most likely to agree with which of the following? 1. Hollywood wants to cater to global tastes 2. Hollywood is promoting American culture 3. Hollywood should not encourage people of different nationalities 4. it is not possible to live without Hollywoods influence anywhere in the world Which of the following is a reason that many television stations across the world show American programs? 1. people like to see American programs and television stations must cater to local tastes






2. there is a heavy demand in home countries for American programs 3. commercial television stations can get cheap content from America 4. American programs are immediately accepted by audiences 68. What is the central idea of the passage? 1. American cinema poses a greater threat to culture than is imagined 2. American cinema does not pose a greater threat to culture than is imagined 3. American cinema is not as American as is generally believed 4. it is a mistaken belief that American cinema is dominant in the world Which of the following would be the authors advice to the inhabitants of Frances Ministry of Culture? 1. a system of subsidies and quotas might just work against Hollywood 2. commercial television stations which buy American TV programs should be targeted 3. they should not bother about Americas Trojan horse 4. none of the above The over-riding principle of American cinema seems to be: 1. pushing its culture along with its films 2. take the best man for the job irrespective of his nationality 3. dominate world cinema at any cost 4. profits Which of the following could be a suitable title for the passage? 1. France Fighting a Trojan Horse 2. Culture Wars 3. Is Hollywood All That Powerful a Force in World Culture? 4. Cultural Protection




Passage IV It was one of their medical observations: that human bone is one of the few tissues that can re-grow after injury. Hippocrates knew that and hoped that power could be harnessed for healing. Now, 2400 years later, reports from commercial and university laboratories suggest that scientists have begun to do just that: to grow bones and cartilage virtually at will. This is exciting because we are mimicking the natural process of development, said Dr. A. Hari Reddi, a professor of biology and orthopedics at the John Hopkins medical center in Baltimore, who has worked on bone growth for more than thirty years. We are following the same steps that occur in the first week after conception. The success is one of several in the new field of tissue engineering, the growing of spare parts for the body. The new power to grow human tissues and organs is a result of years of basic research followed by rapid progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering. Among the tissues now grown successfully, at least in the laboratory, are skins, bone cartilage, liver, kidney and teeth. The new work on bones is among the most advanced, and researchers say that the new treatment will soon be available for a variety of conditions in which the body needs to grow new bones but cannot. The key to the recent success is the family of molecules known as BMPs, for bone morphogenic proteins. They are made when an injury occurs and set off the formation of new bone and cartilage by homing in on certain immature or unspecialized cells, and inducing them to proliferate and become one of several specialized tissues, like bone and cartilage. All this was learned over the last few decades, as scientists labored to find the magical molecules that would produce natural bone growth. They pulverized bones and removed the calcium from the resulting powder, working with the remaining material to isolate the factor that was causing bone growth. But the work for many years went like a snail, Reddi said. Then in recent years, with the new techniques of molecular biology, scientists were able to isolate both the proteins responsible for bone growth and the genes responsible for producing them. Roughly, 20 protein molecules have been identified that could induce bone growth. Each of the molecules also seems to have the power to stimulate other to begin growing. Reddi says that he and other scientists had found that the genes that made the BMPs were both ancient and general. Even fruit flies, which have no bones, use them to set off growth of specialized tissues like wings. These are not just bone signals but are general signals to initiate differentiation in many tissues, he said, referring to a wide variety of tissues ranging from kidneys to brain to gonads. What we are working with, is the bodys own

signaling molecules that cells tell to go ahead, you be bone or you be muscle, said Dr. Charles Cohen, chief scientist at Creative Biomolecules, one of the companies working on making products from bone proteins. There are two steps, he said. The BMP signal to the cells says, Go! he said. Then information the cells get from the neighborhood where they live tells them to be bone or cartilage. Over the last five or six years, dozens of papers have shown that researchers can reliably stimulate natural bone growth in mice, rabbits, dogs and monkeys. Now the first tests from human experiments are coming in, and they show success as well, researchers say. Two small studies in humans were presented at scientific meetings last month by representatives of the Genetic Institute Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One was a study at four universities in which twelve dental patients with bone loss in their upper jaws underwent oral surgery in which BMP-2 and a sponge made of artificially produced collagen, a central component of skin and bone, were implanted in the area where was none, and all went on to get implants. The standard treatment for all these cases would have involved surgery of the mouth and also surgery of the harvest bone from the hip for implantation in the mouth. Such procedures are frequently successful, but they are expensive and lengthy and simply cutting down on surgery reduces risk. We are talking about an outpatient procedure versus the current treatment which involves hospital stay and surgery, said Dr. Gerald Riedel, at the bone protein project. 72. What are the major advantages of being able to grow bone over conventional methods like surgery? 1. surgery can be dangerous 2. surgeries are lengthy and expensive, and there is an element of risk involved 3. surgery involves hospital stay 4. all of the above What does Dr Cohen mean when he uses the terms you be bone or you be muscle? 1. the molecules actually tell the cells that they have a choice of being either 2. the cells can either become bone or muscle 3. there is a wide variety of tissues in the human body 4. none of the above. What happens once the cells receive the BMP signal? 1. the cells then decide to be bone and muscle 2. the neighboring cells help them take a decision to be bone or cartilage 3. bone or cartilage begins to be formed 4. All of the above A suitable title for the passage would be 1. Bone Boon 2. Bone Technology 3. Bone Time




4. Bone or Bane


The main reason why it will be possible to grow bones now is 1. the discovery of the BMP molecule 2. the advancements made in the field of tissue engineering 3. intensive research by medical scientists. 4. all of the above.

Passage V ARE economists human? is not a question that occurs to many practitioners of the dismal science, but it is one that springs to the minds of many non-economists exposed to conventional economic explanations. Economists have typically described the thought processes of homo sapiens as more like that of Star Treks Mr. Spock strictly logical, centered on a clearly defined goal and free from the unsteady influences of emotion or irrationality than the uncertain, error-prone groping with which most of us are familiar. Of course, some human behavior does fit the rational pattern so beloved of economists. But remember, Mr. Spock is a Vulcan, not a human. Even economists are finally waking up to this fact. A wind of change is now blowing some human spirit back into the ivory towers where economic theory is made. It is becoming increasingly fashionable for economists, especially the younger, more ambitious ones, to borrow insights from psychologists (and sometimes even biologists) to try to explain drug addiction, the working habits of New York taxi-drivers, current sky-high American share prices and other types of behavior which seem to defy rationality. Many economic rationalists still hold true to their faith, and some have fought back by devising rational explanations for the apparent irrationalities studied by the growing school of behavioral economists. Ironically, orthodox economists have been forced to fight this rearguard action against heretics in their own ranks just as their own approach has begun to be more widely applied in other social sciences such as the study of law and politics. The golden age of rational economic man began in the 1940s. Famous earlier economists such as Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and John Maynard Keynes, had made use of irrationality and other aspects of psychology in their theories. But in the post-war years these aspects were mostly brushed aside by the new wave of rationalists. The dominance of rationality went hand-inglove with the growing use in economics of mathematics, which also happened to be much easier to apply if humans were assumed to be rational. Rational behavior was understood to have several components. At a minimum so-called narrow rationality homo economics was assumed to be trying always to maximize his general happiness, what John Stuart Mills, a 19th-century philosopher, called utility. In other words, given a choice, he would take the option with the highest expected utility. And he would be consistent in his choices: if he preferred apples to oranges, and oranges to pears, he also preferred apples to pears. In addition, there is a broader definition of rationality, which includes the notion of a persons beliefs being based on logical, objective analysis of all the available evidence. Whether this is a meaningful definition continues to be the subject of much philosophical debate. By the late 1970s, economic rationality was not only the orthodoxy, it began to effect events in the real world. Macroeconomic policy, notably in America and Britain, fell into the hands of believers in the theory of rational expectations. This said that, rather than forming expectations on the basis of limited information drawn from previous experience, people take into account all available information. This includes making an accurate assessment of government policy. Thus, when governments announced that they would do whatever was necessary to bring down inflation, people would adjust their expectations accordingly. In the same way, Wall Street investment firms, too, increasingly, fell under the spell of the efficient markets hypothesis, an economic theory that assumes that the prices of financial assets such as shares and bonds are rationally based on all available information. Even if there are many stupid investors, went the theory, they would be driven out of the market by rational investors who could profit by trading against the investments of the foolish. As a result, economists scoffed at the notion that investors could consistently earn a higher return than the market average by picking shares. How times have changed. Some of those same economists have now become investment managers although their performance has suggested that they should have paid heed to their earlier beliefs about the difficulty of beating the market.

During the 1980s, macroeconomic policies based on rational expectations failed to live up to their promise (although this was probably because people rationally refused to believe government promises). And the stockmarket crash of October 1987 shattered the confidence of many economists in efficient markets. The crash seemed to have occurred without any new information or reason. Thus, the door of the ivory tower opened, at first only slightly, to theories that included irrational behavior. Today there is a growing school of economists who are drawing on a vast range of behavioral traits identified by experimental psychologists which amount to a frontal assault on the whole idea that people, individually or as a group, mostly act rationally. A quick tour of the key observations made by these psychologists would make even Mr. Spocks head spin. For example, people appear to be disproportionately influenced by the fear of feeling regret, and will often pass up even benefits within reach to avoid a small risk of feeling they have failed. They are also prone to cognitive dissonance: holding a belief plainly at odds with the evidence, usually because the belief has been held and cherished for a long time. Psychiatrists sometimes call this denial. And then there is anchoring: people are often overly influenced by outside suggestion. People can be influenced even when they know that the suggestion is not being made by someone who is better informed. In one experiment, volunteers were asked a series of questions whose answers were in percentagessuch as what percentage of African countries is in the United Nations? A wheel with numbers from one to 100 was spun in front of them; they were then asked to say whether their answer was higher or lower than the number on the wheel, and then to give their answer. These answers were strongly influenced by the randomly selected, irrelevant number on the wheel. The average guess when the wheel showed 10 was 25%; when it showed 65, it was 45%. Experiments show that most people apparently also suffer from status quo bias: they are willing to take bigger gambles to maintain the status quo than they would be to acquire it in the first place. In one common experiment, mugs are allocated randomly to some people in a group. Those who have them are asked to name a price to sell their mug; those without one are asked to name a price at which they will buy. Usually, the average sales price is considerably higher than the average offer price. Expected-utility theory assumes that people look at individual decisions in the context of the big picture. But psychologists have found that, in fact, they tend to compartmentalize, often on superficial grounds. They then make choices about things in one particular mental compartment without taking account of the implications for things in other compartments. There is also a huge amount of evidence that people are persistently, and irrationally, over-confident. Asked to answer a factual question, then asked to give the probability that their answer was correct, people typically overestimate this probability. This may be due to a representativeness heuristic: a tendency to treat events as representative of some well-known class or pattern. This gives people a sense of familiarity with an event and thus confidence that they have accurately diagnosed it. This can lead people to see patterns in data even where there are none. A closely related phenomenon is the availability heuristic: people focus excessive attention on a particular fact or event, rather than the big picture, simply because it is more visible or fresher in their mind. Another delightfully human habit is magical thinking: attributing to ones own actions something that had nothing to do with them, and thus assuming that one has a greater influence over events than is actually the case. For instance, an investor who luckily buys a share that goes on to beat the market may become convinced that he is a skilful investor rather than a merely fortunate one. He may also fall prey to quasi-magical thinking behaving as if he believes his thoughts can influence events, even though he knows that they cant. Most people, say psychologists, are also vulnerable to hindsight bias: once something happens, they overestimate the extent to which they could have predicted it. Closely related to this is memory bias: when something happens people often persuade themselves that they actually predicted it, even when they didnt. Finally, who can deny that people often become emotional, cutting off their noses to spite their faces. One of the psychologists favorite experiments is the ultimatum game in which one player, the proposer, is given a sum of money, say $10, and offers some portion of it to the other player, the responder. The responder can either accept the offer, in which case he gets the sum offered and the proposer gets the rest, or reject the offer in which case both players get nothing. In experiments, very low offers (less than 20% of the total sum) are often rejected, even though it is rational for the responder to accept any offer (even one cent!) that the proposer makes. And yet, responders seem to reject offers out of sheer indignation at being made to accept such

a small proportion of the whole sum, and they seem to get more satisfaction from taking revenge on the proposer than in maximizing their own financial gain. Mr. Spock would be appalled if a Vulcan made this mistake. 77. The difference between a Vulcan and a human, according to what is stated in the passage, is 1. humans are strictly logical and center on a clearly defined goal 2. Vulcans are free from the influences of emotion or irrationality 3. they both follow rational patterns so beloved of economists 4. none, or all of the above What would be nearest in meaning to the word heretics used in the passage? 1. non-believers 2. blasphemers 3. unconventional Which of the following are behavioral economists not studying? 1. taxi drivers 2. drug addiction 3. share prices


4. liars


4. car drivers


What is the reaction of the orthodox economists to the current trend of behavioral economists? 1. they do not mind the new trend 2. they believe that the new trend will add a new aspect to economics 3. they do not like the new trend 4. difficult to say The passage says that economists are studying the behavioral aspect now because 1. they have always linked behavior to economic theory 2. they want to expand their science 3. it is fashionable to do so 4. it is the golden age of economics Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage? I. John Stuart Mills II. Alan Greenspan III. Irving Fisher 1. all of the above 2. I and II 3. II and III



IV. Daniel Kahneman 4. II and IV


What is magical thinking, according to the passage? 1. the ability to spot winning shares 2. the ability of associating unrelated events 3. attributing actions to random events 4. attributing magic to ones thinking Which of the following is an example of rational thinking? 1. denial 2. status quo 3. outside suggestion


4. none of these


What is the best meaning, with reference to the context, of the phrase, cutting off their noses to spite their faces? 1. being emotional 2. being spiteful 3. being irrational 4. being rational What is the central theme of the passage? 1. economic decisions are not always rational, as is commonly believed 2. people have various methods by which to avoid being rational 3. rational and irrational thinking 4. rational expectations may not be so rational, after all Suggest an appropriate title for the passage? 1. Are Economists Human? 3. The Limits to Rational Thinking



2. Behavioral Economics 4. Rethinking Rational Behavior

Passage VI In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) succeeded in its campaign to rid the world of smallpox. It has never let anyone forget the fact since. And rightly so. Given the effort it took to eradicate this scourge, the WHO richly deserves to make certain that smallpox, though gone, is not forgotten. Leprosy, however, appears to have endured the opposite fate. This ancient blight is forgotten, but not gone -- an unhappy predicament for its sufferers and for the WHO, which is still fighting against it. So far, the WHO is committed to eliminating leprosy but not to eradicating it. That might seem a strange distinction to a layman, but in the argot, elimination is defined as a reduction in the number of cases in a population to below one per 10,000 people; eradication implies that no cases exist at all. The WHO Leprosy Elimination Programme, inaugurated in 1991, aimed to complete its task by 2000. The campaign has made a lot of progress. It has reduced the number of people with the disease from more than five million to less than one million, and eliminated leprosy from 98 countries. But several South-East Asian and African states, as well as Brazil, still report from four to six cases of leprosy per 10,000 people. So at the Asian Leprosy Congress in Agra, the target date for global elimination was postponed to 2005. A pity. But on the face of it, a five-year delay in eliminating a scourge that has horrified people since biblical times is a mere blip. There is, however, a fear that having allowed the deadline to slip once, the projects momentum may be lost -- and even that the eventual result may be worse than if no grand plans had been laid in the first place. The WHO originally accepted the idea of eliminating leprosy because in 1989, a symposium of experts decided that eradicating the disease was not feasible. In 1998, a workshop convened by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, echoed that advice. However, it added a new worry: that eliminating leprosy might not be possible either. Given the current state of knowledge of the biology of the disease, these epidemiologists argued, an elimination campaign could not guarantee to stop transmission, and thus keep the caseload down. That is because a lot of basic information about leprosy is still missing. Doctors cannot, for example, diagnose it before a patient starts to show symptoms. Nor do they know how likely a treated patient is to relapse. More significantly, they remain unsure exactly how the disease is transmitted, how it infects the human body, and at what point a carrier of the bacterium may infect others. As a result, and despite its success in treating those already infected, the campaign has not had much impact on the rate of new infections. That figure still exceeds 650,000 a year, or around 4.5 cases per 10,000 individuals in the worst-off countries; it has shown little sign of falling in the past 15 years. The solution should be more research. Given the recent unraveling, by the Pasteur Institute in France, of the genome of Mycobacterium leprae, the organism that causes the disease, science is better poised to carry out such research than ever before. But the loudly proclaimed 2000 deadline caused research funding to tail off. Funding bodies assumed that basic research into leprosy was becoming irrelevant, since the problem was being solved where it counted -- in the field. So they turned their attention elsewhere. In 1990, for example, the International Federation of Anti-Leprosy Associations spent $6.5m on research projects. By 1998, its spending had declined to $3m. A lot of nifty public-relations work is going to be needed to repair the damage. Fortunately, public relations is something that leprosy officials seem to be good at. They have already been pretty successful at rebranding the infection as Hansens disease, at least in medical circles. The Hansen in question, a 19th-century Norwegian doctor, did not, of course, recognize leprosy for the first time -- the usual reason to dub an illness after an individual. But he did identify Mycobacterium leprae, and that is good enough cover for the spin-doctors. Indeed, the Brazilian government went so far as to ban the L word completely, even in the names of aid organizations such as the British group LEPRA. Cynicism aside, there may be good medical reasons for abandoning the old term. Most illness attracts sympathy for the victim. Leprosy often elicits repugnance. In some clinics, therefore, patients are now told only that they are suffering from a skin infection, and may complete their recovery without ever learning the details. Indeed, there is evidence that not telling people the whole truth gives better results than leveling with them - perhaps because they can take their medicine openly, without having to lie to their family and friends to avoid the stigma of being branded a leper.

Rebranding may also come to the rescue of the Leprosy Elimination Programme. The latest talk is not of elimination, but of very good control -- accepting, and being honest about, the fact that the disease will be around for the foreseeable future. As one participant in the CDC workshop remarked, a number of us would like to eradicate the word elimination. This would alter expectations again since control is not, like elimination and eradication, a euphemism for abolition. And that might backfire. For although the elimination campaign put research funding on the back burner, it did, with its promise of an achievable goal, galvanize efforts in the clinic and the surgery. The WHO programme has already spent $50m and has another $50m pledged -- but on the understanding that there is a clear end in sight. If the language changes again, and particularly if the 2005 deadline also proves a mirage, the WHO may have to work hard to keep the money flowing; 1980 was, after all, a long time ago. 88. What is implied by the phrase, forgotten but not gone? 1. people do not think about it though it is very much prevalent 2. it has not been eradicated 3. meeting the target of 2000 set by the WHO had to be postponed 4. none of these In the argot, elimination is defined as a reduction -- what is closest to the meaning of argot in this line? 1. dictionary 2. slang 3. common usage 4. jargon Which of the following is true about the WHO campaign on leprosy, according to the passage? 1. it has done good work but still has a long way to go 2. it has not been able to succeed to a great extent 3. it lacks funding at this stage 4. it seems to be tapering off



Section III
Directions for Q. 91to 95 are based on the following graph:
Profit Revenue Expenditure

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995


Which year of showed the greatest percentage increase in profit as compared to the previous year ? 1. 1993 2. 1994 3. 1990 4. 1992 The average revenue collected in the given seven years is approximately: 1. Rs. 164 lakh 2. Rs. 168 lakh 3. Rs. 171 lakh


4. Rs. 175 lakh


In which year was the growth in expenditure greatest as compared to the previous year? 1. 1993 2. 1995 3. 1991 4. 1992 The expenditure for the seven years together form what percent of the revenues during the same period ? 1. 75% 2. 67% 3. 62% 4. 83% If the profit in 1996 shows the same annual rate of growth as it had shown in 1995 over the previous year, then what approximately will be the profit in 1996 ? 1. Rs. 72 lakh 2. Rs. 86 lakh 3. Rs. 93 lakh 4. Rs. 78 lakh



Directions for Q. 96 to 100: These questions are based on the following table, which gives data about certain coffee producers in India. Productio n (000 tones) 2.97 2.48 1.64 1.54 11.60 Capacity Utilisation (%) 76.50 71.20 64.80 59.35 61.30 Sales (000 tonnes) 2.55 2.03 1.26 1.47 10.67 Total Sales Value (Rs. Cr.) 31.15 26.75 15.25 17.45 132.80

Brooke Bond Nestle Lipton MAC Total (incl. Others) 96.

What is the maximum production capacity (in 000 tonnes) of Lipton for coffee? 1. 2.53 2. 2.85 3. 2.24 4. 2.07 The highest price of coffee per kg is for 1. Nestle 2. MAC


3. Lipton

4. Insufficient data


What percent of the total market share (by Sales Value) is controlled by Others? 1. 60% 2. 32% 3. 67% 4. Insufficient data.

99. 100.

What approximately is the total production capacity (in tonnes) for coffee in India? 1. 18, 100 2. 20, 300 3. 18,900 4. Insufficient data. Which company out of the four companies mentioned above has the maximum unutilised capacity (in 000 tonnes)? 1. Lipton 2. Nestle 3. Brooke Bond 4. MAC

Directions for Q. 101 to 105: Use the following data: Mulayam Software Co., before selling a package to its clients, follows the given schedule: Month 1-2 3-4 5-8 9-10 11-15 The number of people employed in each month is: Month No. of people employed 101. 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 5 8 4 9 4 10 1 11 3 12 3 13 1 14 1 15 1 Stage Specification Design Coding Testing Maintenance Cost (Rs. 000 per man-month) 40 20 10 10 10

Due to overrun in Design, the Design stage took three months, i.e. months 3, 4 and 5. The number of people working on Design in the fifth month was 5. Calculate the percentage change in the cost incurred in the fifth month. (due to improvement in Coding technique, the stage was completed in months 6- 8 only). 1. 225% 2. 150% 3. 275% 4. 240% With reference to the above question, what is the cost incurred in the new Coding stage? (Under the new technique, 4 people work in the sixth month and 5 in the eighth). 1. Rs. 1,40,000 2. Rs. 1,50,000 3. Rs. 1,60,000 4. Rs. 1,70,000 Under the new technique, which stage of Software Development is most expensive for Mulayam Software company? 1. Testing 2. Spolcification 3. Coding 4. Design Which five consecutive months have the lowest average cost per man-month under the new technique? 1. 1- 5 2. 9 - 13 3. 11 - 15 4. None of the these What is the difference in the cost between the old and the new techniques? 1. Rs. 30,000 2. Rs. 60,000 3. Rs. 70,000





4. Rs. 40,000

Directions for Q. 106 -110 are based on the following information: The amount of money invested (in rupees crore) in the core infrastructure areas of two districts, Chittoor and Khammam, Andhra Pradesh as follows: Chittoor District Core Area Electricity Chemical Thermal Solar Nuclear Total 1995 815.2 389.5 690.4 468.1 617.9 2981.1 1996 1054.2 476.7 565.9 589.6 803.1 3489.5 Khammam District Core Area Electricity Area Chemical Thermal Solar Nuclear Total 1995 2065.8 745.5 1232.7 1363.5 1674.3 7081.6 1996 2365.1 986.4 1026.3 1792.1 2182.1 8352.0


By what percent was the total investment in the two districts more in 1996 as compared to that in 1995? 1. 14% 2. 21% 3. 24% 4. 18% Approximately how many times the total investment in Chittoor was the total investment in Khammam? 1. 2.8 2. 2.0 3. 2.4 4. 1.7 The investment in Electricity and Thermal Energy in 1995 in these two districts formed what percent of the total investment made in that year? 1. 41% 2. 47% 3. 52% 4. 55% In Khammam district the investment in which area in 1996 showed the least percent increase over the investment in that area in 1995? 1. Electricity 2. Chemical 3. Solar 4. Nuclear If the total investment in Khammam shows the same rate of increase in 1997, as it had shown from 1995 to 1996, what appropriately would be the total investment in Khammam in 1997 (in Rs. crore) ? 1. 9,850 2. 10,000 3. 9,170 4. 8,540





Directions for Q. 111 to 115, refer to the following graph:

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Mar May Jun Sep Nov.

Sales Cost Employees


Which month has the highest profit per employee? 1. September 2. July Which month records the highest profit? 1. September 2. July

3. January

4. March


3. March

4. May


In which month is the percentage increases in Sales over the Sales two months before, the highest? 1. March 2. September 3. July 4. May In which month is the total increase in the Cost highest as compared to the Cost two months ago? 1. March 2. September 3. July 4. May Assuming that no employee left the job, how many more people did the company take on in the given period? 1. 4,600 2. 5,100 3. 5, 800 4. 6, 400



Directions for Q. 116 to 120 are based on the following data: The first table gives the percentage of students in the class of MBA who sought employment in the areas of Finance, Marketing and Software. The second table gives the average starting salaries of the students per month, in these areas.

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 92 93

Students Passing out




1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Finance 12 17 23 19 32

Marketing 36 48 43 37 32

Software 19 23 21 16 20

Others 23 12 13 28 16

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 116.

Finance 5,450 6,380 7,550 8,920 9,810

Marketing 5,170 6,390 7,630 8,960 10,220

Software 5,290 6,440 7,050 7,760 8,640

The number of students who got jobs in finance is less than the number of students getting marketing jobs, in the five years, by 1. 826 2. 650 3. 725 4. 548 In 1994, students seeking jobs in finance earned Rs. _____ more than those opting for software (in lakhs) 1. 43 2. 33.8 3. 28.4 4. 38.8 What is the percent increase in the average salary of Finance from 1992 to 1996 ? 1. 60 2. 32 3. 96 4. 80 What is the average monthly salary offered to a management graduate in the year 1993? 1. 6433 2. 6330 3. 6333 4. Cannot be determined. The average annual rate at which the initial salary offered in Software increases is 1. 21% 2. 33% 3. 16.3% 4. 65%





DIRECTIONS for Questions 121 to 123: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Spam that enters our electronic mailboxes can be classified under several spam heads. The following table shows the distribution of such spam worldwide over time. The total number of spam emails received during December 2002 was larger than the number received in June 2003. The total number of spam emails received during September 2002 was larger than the number received in March 2003. The figures in the table represent the percentage of all spam emails received during that period, falling into those respective categories. Category Adult Financial Health Internet Products Scams Others 121. Sep 2002 38 25 11 5 3 5 13 Dec 2002 33 30 19 3 7 6 2 Mar 2003 19 37 5 10 10 11 8 Jun 2003 17 45 18 6 11 2 1

In which category was the percentage of spam emails increasing but at a decreasing rate? 1. Financial 2. Scams 3. Products 4. none of these In the health category, the number of spam emails received in December 2002 as compared to June 2003 1. was larger 2. was smaller 3. was equal 4. cannot be determined In the financial category, the number of spam emails received in September 2002 as compared to March 2003 1. was larger 2. was smaller 3. was equal 4. cannot be determined



DIRECTIONS for Questions 124 to 127: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. The length of an infant is one of the measures of his/her development in the early stages of his/her life. The figure below shows the growth chart of four infants in the first five months of life.

124. 125.

After which month did Seetas rate of growth start to decline? 1. Second month 2. Third month 3. Fourth month Who grew at the fastest rate in the first two months of life?

4. Never

1. Geeta 126.

2. Seeta

3. Ram

4. Shyam

The rate of growth during the third month was the lowest for 1. Geeta 2. Seeta 3. Ram Among the four infants, who grew the least in the first five months of life? 1. Geeta 2. Seeta 3. Ram

4. Shyam


4. Shyam

DIRECTIONS for Questions 128 to 130: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. The table below provides certain demographic details of 30 respondents who were part of a survey. The demographic characteristics are: gender, number of children, and age of respondents. The first number in each cell is the number of respondents in that group. The minimum and maximum age of respondents in each group is given in brackets. For example, there are five female respondents with no children and among these five, the youngest is 34 years old, while the oldest is 49. No. children 0 1 2 3 Total 128. of Male 1 (38, 38) 1 (32, 32) 8 (21, 65) 2 (32, 33) 12 Female 5 (34, 49) 8 (35, 57) 3 (37, 63) 2 (27, 40) 18 Total 6 9 11 4 30

The percentage of respondents aged less than 40 years is at least 1. 10% 2. 16.67% 3. 20.0%

4. 30%


Given the information above, the percentage of respondents older than 35 can be at most 1. 30% 2. 73.33% 3. 76.67% 4. 90% The percentage of respondents that fall into the 35 to 40 years age group (both inclusive) is at least 1. 6.67% 2. 10% 3. 13.33% 4. 26.67%


DIRECTIONS for Questions 131 to 133: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Rang Barsey Paint Company (RBPC) is in the business of manufacturing paints. RBPC buys RED, YELLOW, WHITE, ORANGE, and PINK paints. ORANGE paint can be also produced by mixing RED and YELLOW paints in equal proportions. Similarly, PINK paint can also be produced by mixing equal amounts of RED and WHITE paints. Among other paints, RBPC sells CREAM paint, (formed by mixing WHITE and YELLOW in the ratio 70:30) AVOCADO paint (formed by mixing equal amounts of ORANGE and PINK paint) and WASHEDORANGE paint (formed by mixing equal amounts of ORANGE and WHITE paint). The following table provides the price at which RBPC buys paints. Color RED YELLOW WHITE ORANGE PINK 131. Rs./litre 20.00 25.00 15.00 22.00 18.00

The cheapest way to manufacture AVOCADO paint would cost 1. Rs.19.50 per litre 2. Rs.19.75 per litre 3. Rs.20.00 per litre

4. Rs.20.25 per litre


WASHEDORANGE can be manufactured by mixing 1. CREAM and RED in the ratio 14:10 2. CREAM and RED in the ratio 3:1 3. YELLOW and PINK in the ratio 1:1 4. RED, YELLOW, and WHITE in the ratio 1:1:2 Assume that AVOCADO, CREAM, and WASHEDORANGE each sells for the same price. Which of the three is the most profitable to manufacture? 1. AVOCADO. 2. CREAM. 3. WASHEDORANGE. 4. Sufficient data is not available.


DIRECTIONS for Questions 134 to 136: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Seven varsity basketball players (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) are to be honoured at a special luncheon. The players will be seated on the dais in a row. A and G have to leave the luncheon early and so must be seated at the extreme right. B will receive the most valuable player's trophy and so must be in the centre to facilitate presentation. C and D are bitter rivals and therefore must be seated as far apart as possible. 134. Which of the following cannot be seated at either end? 1. C 2. D 3. F Which of the following pairs cannot be seated together? 1. B&D 2. C & F 3. D & G Which of the following pairs cannot occupy the seats on either side of B? 1. F&D 2. D&E 3. E&G

4. G


4. E & A


4. C & F

DIRECTIONS for Questions 137 and 138: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. The Head of a newly formed government desires to appoint five of the six elected members A, B, C, D,.E and F to portfolios of Home, Power, Defence, Telecom and Finance. F does not want any portfolio if D gets one of the five. C wants either Home or Finance or no portfolio. B says that if D gets either Power or Telecom then she must get the other one. E insists on a portfolio if A gets one. 137. Which is a valid assignment? 1. A-Home, B-Power, C-Defence, D-Telecom, E-Finance. 2. C-Home, D-Power, A-Defence, B-Telecom, E-Finance. 3. A-Home, B-Power, E-Defence, D-Telecom, F-Finance. 4. B-Home, F-Power, E-Defence, C-Telecom, A-Finance. If A gets Home and C gets Finance, then which is NOT a valid assignment for Defence and Telecom? 1. D-Defence, B-Telecom. 2. F-Defence, B-Telecom. 3. B-Defence, E-Telecom. 4. B-Defence, D-Telecom.


DIRECTIONS for Questions 139 and 140: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Some children were taking free throws at the basketball court in school during lunch break. Below are some facts about how many baskets these children shot. I. Ganesh shot 8 baskets less than Ashish. Ii. Dhanraj and Ramesh together shot 37 baskets. Iii. Jugraj shot 8 baskets more than Dhanraj. Iv. Ashish shot 5 baskets more than Dhanraj. V. Ashish and Ganesh together shot 40 baskets. 139. Which of the following statements is true? 1. Ramesh shot 18 baskets and Dhanraj shot 19 baskets. 2. Ganesh shot 24 baskets and Ashish shot 16 baskets. 3. Jugraj shot 19 baskets and Dhanraj shot 27 baskets. 4. Dhanraj shot 11 baskets and Ashish shot 16 baskets.


Which of the following statements is true? 1. Dhanraj and Jugraj together shot 46 baskets. 2. Ganesh shot 18 baskets and Ramesh shot 21 baskets. 3. Dhanraj shot 3 more baskets than Ramesh. 4. Ramesh and Jugraj together shot 29 baskets.

DIRECTIONS for Questions 141 to 144: In each question there are two statements: A and B. Choose 1. if the question can be answered by one of the statements alone but not by the other. Choose 2. if the question can be answered by using either statement alone. Choose 3. if the question can be answered by using both the statements together but cannot be answered using either statement alone. Choose 4. if the question cannot be answered even by using both the statements A and B. 141. F and M are father and mother of S, respectively. S has four uncles and three aunts. F has two siblings. The siblings of F and M are unmarried. How many brothers does M have? A. F has two brothers. B. M has five siblings. A game consists of tossing a coin successively. There is an entry fee of Rs. 10 and an additional fee of Re. 1 for each toss of the coin. The game is considered to have ended normally when the coin turns heads on two consecutive throws. In this case the player is paid Rs. 100. Alternatively, the player can choose to terminate the game prematurely after any of the tosses. Ram has incurred a loss of Rs 50 by playing this game. How many times did he toss the coin? A. The game ended normally. B. The total number of tails obtained in the game was 138. Each packet of SOAP costs Rs 10. Inside each packet is a gift coupon labelled with one of the letters S, O, A, and P. If a customer submits four such coupons that make up the word SOAP, the customer gets a free SOAP packet. Ms. X kept buying packet after packet of SOAP till she could get one set of coupons that formed the word SOAP. How many coupons with label P did she get in the above process? A. The last label obtained by her was S and the total amount spent was Rs 210. B. The total number of vowels obtained was 18. If A and B run a race, then A wins by 60 seconds. If B and C run the same race, then B wins by 30 seconds. Assuming that C maintains a uniform speed what is the time taken by C to finish the race? A. A and C run the same race and A wins by 375 metres. B. The length of the race is 1 km




DIRECTIONS for Questions 145 to 147: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. A, B, C, D, E, and F are a group of friends. There are two housewives, one professor, one engineer, one accountant and one lawyer in the group. There are only two married couples in the group. The lawyer is married to D, who is a housewife. No woman in the group is either an engineer or an accountant. C, the accountant, is married to F, who is a professor. A is married to a housewife. E is not a housewife. 145. Which of the following is one of the married couples? 1. A &B 2. B & E 3. D & E What is E's profession? 1. Engineer

4. A & D


2. Lawyer

3. Professor

4. Accountant


How many members of the group are males? 1. 2 2. 3

3. 4

4. Cannot be determined.

DIRECTIONS for Questions 148 to 150: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Five friends meet every morning at Sree Sagar restaurant for an idli-vada breakfast. Each consumes a different number of idlis and vadas. The number of idlis consumed are 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8, while the number of vadas consumed are 0, 1, 2,4, and 6. Below are some more facts about who eats what and how much. I. The number of vadas eaten by Ignesh is three times the number of vadas consumed by the person who eats four idlis. II. Three persons, including the one who eats four vadas, eat without chutney. III. Sandeep does not take any chutney. IV. The one who eats one idli a day does not eat any vadas or chutney. Further, he is not Mukesh. V. Daljit eats idli with chutney and also eats vada. VI. Mukesh, who does not take chutney, eats half as many vadas as the person who eats twice as many idlis as he does. VII. Bimal eats two more idlis than Ignesh, but Ignesh eats two more vadas than Bimal. 148. Which of the following statements is true? 1. Mukesh eats 8 idlis and 4 vadas but no chutney. 2. The person who eats 5 idlis and 1 vada does not take chutney. 3. The person who eats equal number of vadas and idlis also takes chutney. 4. The person who eats 4 idlis and 2 vadas also takes chutney. Which one of the following statements is true? 1. Daljit eats 5 idlis. 2. Ignesh eats 8 idlis. Which of the following statements is true? 1. Sandeep eats 2 vadas. 2. Mukesh eats 4 vadas.


3. Bimal eats 1 idli.

4. Bimal eats 6 idlis.


3. Daljeet eats 6 vadas.

4. Bimal eats 4 vadas.

DIRECTIONS for Questions 151 to 153: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Five women decided to go shopping to M.G. Road, Bangalore. They arrived at the designated meeting place in the following order: 1. Archana, 2. Chellamma, 3. Dhenuka, 4. Helen, and 5. Shahnaz. Each woman spent at least Rs.1000. Below are some additional facts about how much they spent during their shopping spree. I. The woman who spent Rs. 2234 arrived before the lady who spent Rs. 1193. II. One woman spent Rs. 1340 and she was not Dhenuka. III. One woman spent Rs. 1378 more than Chellamma. IV. One woman spent Rs. 2517 and she was not Archana. V. Helen spent more than Dhenuka. VI. Shahnaz spent the largest amount and Chellamma the smallest. 151. The woman who spent Rs. 1193 is 1. Archana. 2. Chellamma. What was the amount spent by Helen? 1. Rs. 1193. 2. Rs. 1340.

3. Dhenuka.

4. Helen.


3. Rs.2234.

4. Rs.2517.


Which of the following amounts was spent by one of them? 1. Rs. 1139. 2. Rs. 1378. 3. Rs.2571.

4. Rs.271

Directions for Questions 154 to 157: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Coach John sat with the score cards of Indian players from the 3 games in a one-day cricket tournament where the same set of players played for India and all the major batsmen got out. John summarized the batting performance through three diagrams, one for each game. In each diagram, the three outer triangles communicate the number of runs scored by the three top scorers from India, where K, R, S, V, and Y represent Kaif, Rahul, Saurav, Virender, and Yuvraj respectively. The middle triangle in each diagram denotes the percentage of total score that was scored by the top three Indian scorers in that game. No two players score the same number of runs in the same game. John also calculated two batting indices for each player based on his scores in

the tournament; the R-index of a batsman is the difference between his highest and lowest scores in the 3 games while the Mindex is the middle number, if his scores are arranged in a non-increasing order.

Y (40) 90% V(130) K(28) S(75)

K (51) 70% R(49) Y(87)

R (55) 80% S(50)

Pakistan 154.

South Africa


How many players among those listed definitely scored less than Yuvraj in the tournament? 1.0 2.1 3.2 4. More than 2 Which of the players had the best M-index from the tournament? 1. Rahu1 2.Saurav 3.Virender For how many Indian players is it possible to calculate the exact M-index? 1.0 2.1 3. 2


4. Yuvraj


4. More than 2


Among the players mentioned, who can have the lowest R-index from the tournament? 1. Only Kaif, Rahul or Yuvraj 2. Only Kaif or Rahul 3. Only Kaif or Yuvraj 4. Only Kaif

Directions for Questions 158 to 161: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. Twenty one participants from four continents (Africa, Americas, Australasia, and Europe) attended a United Nations conference. Each participant was an expert in one of four fields, labour, health, and population studies and refugee relocation. The following five facts about the participants are given. (a) The number of labour experts in the camp was exactly half the number of experts in each of the three other categories (b) Africa did not send any labour expert. Otherwise, every continent, including Africa, sent atleast one expert for each category. (c) None of the continents sent more than three experts in any category. (d) If there had been one less Australasian expert, then the Americas would have had twice as many experts as each of the other continents. (e) Mike and Alfanso are leading experts of population studies who attended the conference. They are from Australasia.' 158. Alex, an American expert in refugee relocation, was the first keynote speaker in the conference. What can be inferred about the number of American experts in refugee relocation in the conference, excluding Alex? I. At least one. II. At most two: 1. Only I and not II 2. Only II and not I 3. Both I and II 4. Neither I nor II Which of the following numbers cannot be determined from the information given? 1. Number of labour experts from the Americas 2. Number of health experts from Europe. 3. Number of health experts from Australasia 4. Number of experts in refugee relocation from Africa



Which of the following combinations is NOT possible? 1. 2 experts in population studies from the Americas and 2 health experts from Africa attended the conference. 2. 2 experts in population studies from the Americas and 1 health expert from Africa attended the conference. 3. 3 experts in refugee relocation from the Americas and I health expert from Africa attended the conference. 4. Africa and America each had 1 expert in population studies attending the conference. If Ramos is the lone American expert in population studies, which of the following is NOT true about the number of experts in the conference from the four continents? 1. There is one expert in health from Africa. 2. There is one expert in refugee relocation from Africa. 3. There are two experts in health from the Americas. 4. There are three experts in refugee relocation from the Americas.


162. 163. 164. The G8 group of industrialised nations started life as the G6. When was the first G6 meeting held? 1. 1975. 2. 1970 3. 1960 4. 1965 Which country is UN Secretary General Kofi Annan from? 1. Botswana 2. Ghana. 3. Zaire 4. Nigeria

The European Union (EU) consists of four main institutions: Three of these are - Council of the European Union, the European Parliament, the European Commission. Which is the fourth body. 1. The European Court of Justice. 2. The European Secretariat 3. The European Treaties Board 4. The European Defence Council Which of the following is NOT a regional free trade area? 1. NAFTA 2. ASEAN 3. European Union 4. The Russian Trade and Economic Confederation (RUTEC). As per World Bank, what %age of its GDP does the US give annually in foreign aid? 1. 0.1%. 2. 1% 3. 10% 4. 0.01% The largest number of world's Least Developed Countries are in which region? 1. Asia 2. South America 3. Africa 4. Pacific Islands Where are headquarters of IMF? 1. Washington. 2. London OPEC is an acronym for 1. Oil Petroleum Exploring countries 2. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 3. Organization for Producing Energy Competition. 4. Orderly Production of Energy and Carbon. Stagflation means 1. Very high levels of inflation 2. a time when the GDP and infklation are both rising. 3. high unemployment but high salaries at the same time. 4. high unemployment, inflation, and interest rates all at the same time. Canadas largest trading partner is 1. Great Britain. 2. Europe. 3. Tokyo 4. New York


166. 167: 168: 169.


171. 172.

3. China.

4. the US.

Free trade means 1. a barter of goods without the use of hard cash. 2. no official tariffs on trade between nations. 3. a national policy of only trading with those nations which have ben given MFN status 4. Using US Dollars to trade. NAFTA is an acronym for the 1. North American Free Trade Agreement. 3. North African Free Trade Agreement. 2. North American Frontier Trade Agreement. 4. North Asian Free Trade Agreement.



E-commerce means 1. European free commerce 2. commercialization of electronics. 3. buying, trading and/or selling goods via the internet. 4. Buying and selling goods electronically. The Pacific Rim countries are those which 1. lie in Australia 3. have Pacific natives. The name of India's first electric car is 1. Reva. 2. Kewa. A coin with a minting error is called 1. FIDO 2. DIDO Power Compact is from which company 1. Ariel 2. Nirma Golden Eye TV is of which company? 1. BPL 2. Thomson


2. have climates similar to Papua New Guinea 4. Are bordering the Pacific Ocean.


3. Shewa.

4. Lova





3. Surf

4. Rin


3. LG

4. Onida


Relate the following Challenge the limits to appropriate company? 1. LG 2. Konka 3. Samsung Relate the following The joy of flying to an airline? 1. Sahara Airline 2. Indian Airlines 3. ---Jet Airways What does Nabisco stand for in RJR-Nabisco 1. National Biscuit Corporation 3. National Biscuit Company

4. Konica


4. Kingfisher


2. National Business Company 4. National Business Corporation


In which year did cement manufacture start in India 1. 1902 2. 1908 3. 19002 Which of the following does not vary with output? 1. Variable costs 2. Total Cost Which state leads in industry? 1. Tamil Nadu 2. Maharashtra Indians spend most of their income on 1. Apparel 2. Food

4. 1909


3. Implicit costs

4. Fixed costs


3. Karnataka

4. UP


3. Car

4. Durables

Section VI
Directions: In Q.187 to190: Four statements with blanks have been given. These statements are followed by four alternatives. Choose the one that fits into the set of statements the maximum number of times. 187. A. Professional studies have become the ____ of the rich. B. Every citizen has the _____ to speak, travel and live as he pleases. C. He has a definite ______ over all his rivals. D. Sheron no longer has the _____ of the companys bungalow and car. a) advantage b) privilege c) right d) concession A. People sensed ______. B. A bad _____ case had come in -- a person with a smashed arm. C. And then, without warning, _____ struck. D. The dogs were the first to recognize the sings of oncoming _________. a) tragedy b) accident c) disaster d) calamity A. The men there have fought _____ and emotional withdrawal, and were more capable of helping Jim. B. But _____ does occasionally inflict all the adults. C. A person who is deeply hurt can fall easily into ______. D. It is hard to survive this feeling of _______. a) dejection b) lonely c) trouble d) depression A. Communism states that every individual must live for the _____. B. The ______ of the affairs of the nation is deplorable. C. Arms have been laid down by the United States, ______ The Statesman. D. No _________ has succeeded in gaining complete autonomy from the Federal government. a) state b) nation c) government d) condition




Directions Q191-195: The questions basis of a short statement preceding them. 191. But because the idea of private property has been permitted to override with its selfishness the common good of humanity, it does not follow that there are no limits within which that idea can function for the general convenience and advantage. Which of the following is most likely to weaken the argument? a) All the people of the society should progress at an equitable rate and there should be no disparities and private property does bring about a tremendous disparity. b) One should not strive for the common good of humanity at all, instead one should be concerned with maximizing ones own wealth. c) One should learn from the experiences of former communists nations and should not repeat their mistakes at all. d) Even prosperous capitalist countries like the USA have their share of social problems. The writer can only be fertile if he renews himself and he can only renew himself if his soul is constantly enriched by fresh experience. Which of the following is most likely to support the above thought? a) Only out of fresh experience can the writer get germs for new writing. b) The writer can meet new people. c) The writer must see new places. d) None of these



Unless you devote your whole life to it, you will never learn to speak the language of another country to perfection; you will never know its people and its literature with complete intimacy. Which of the following is likely to undermine the above argument? a) I can speak ten foreign languages already. b) I do not travel to foreign countries. c) I am happy with the languages I know and do not need to learn any other language. d) I should spend time to understand my own people and literature first, only then can I appreciate other languages and cultures. I have been studying it, consciously and subconsciously, for forty years and I still find men unaccountable; people I know intimately can surprise me by some action of which I never thought them capable of, or by the discovery of some trait exhibit a side of themselves that I never even suspected. The idea in this sentence can be best summarized as a) Men are inconsistent and therefore one should not be confident even about ones closest friends. b) Men are unpredictable, one can never tell what do next, hence one should be very careful in ones dealings. c) No matter how closely you know somebody there still exists an unknown facet of his personality. d) None of these Now the audience is a very curious animal. It is shrewd rather than intelligent. Its mental capacity is less than that of its most intellectual members. If these were graded from A to Z, decreasing with succeeding letters to the zero of the hysterical shop girl, I should say its mental capacity would come around about the letter O. According to the above statements, a) Some members in the audience are more intelligent than any of its other members. b) The net intelligence of the audience is a little less than average. c) a only. d) a and b both.



Directions for Q.196 to 198: In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative from among the four. 196. If you are on a three-month software design project and youve made in two weeks a programme that solves part of the problem, show it to your boss without delay. a) and, youve put together a programme that solves part of the problem in two weeks b) and, in two weeks, youve put together a programme that solves part of the problem c) and, youve put together a programme that has solved part of the problem in two weeks d) and, in two weeks you put together a programme that solved only part of the problem Bacon believes that the medical profession should be permitted to ease and quicken death where the end would otherwise only delay for a few days and at the cost of great pain. a) be delayed for a few days b) be delayed for a few days and c) be otherwise only delayed for a few days and d) otherwise only delay for a few days and It was us who had left before he arrived. a) we who had left before time he had arrived c) us who had went before had arrived



b) us who had went before he arrived. d) we who had left before he arrived.

Directions for questions 199 to 202: Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph. 199. A. Almost a century ago, when the father of the modern automobile industry, Henry Ford, sold the first Model A car, he decided that only the best would do for his customers. B. Today, it is committed to delivering the finest quality with over six million vehicles a year in over 200 countries across the world. C. And for over ninety years, this philosophy has endured in the Ford Motor Company.

D. A vehicle is ready for the customer only if it passes the Ford Zero Defect Programme. a) ABCD b) ACDB c) ACBD d) CDAB 200. A. But, clearly, the government still has the final say. B. In the past few years, the Reserve Bank of India might have wrested considerable powers from the government when it comes to monetary policy. C. The RBIs announcements on certain issues become effective only after the government notifies them. D. Isnt it time the government vested the RBI with powers to sanction such changes, leaving their ratification for later? a) ACDB b) ACBD c) BACD d) DACB A. I sat there frowning at the chequered tablecloth, chewing the bitter cud of insight. B. That wintry afternoon in Manhattan, waiting in the little French restaurant, I was feeling frustrated and depressed. C. Even the prospect of seeing a dear friend failed to cheer me as it usually did. D. Because of certain miscalculations on my part, a project of considerable importance in my life had fallen through. a) ADBC b) BCDA c) BDCA d) ABCD A. Perhaps the best known is the Bay Area Writing Project, founded by James Gray in 1974. B. The decline in writing skills can be stopped. C. Todays back-to-basics movement has already forced some schools to place renewed emphasis on the three Rs. D. Although the inability of some teachers to teach writing successfully remains a big stumbling block, a number of programs have been developed to attack this problem. a) BCDA b) ADCB c) ACBD d) CABD



Directions Q 203 to 207: From the given alternatives, select the one in which the pairs of words have a relationship similar to the one between the bold words. 203. FISSION : FUSION a) implosion : explosion c) intrusion : extrusion DULCET : RAUCOUS a) sweet : song

b) separation : togetherness d) enemy : friend


b) crazy : sane

c) palliative : exacerbating

d) theory : practical


ANTERIOR : POSTERIOR a) in : out b) top : bottom DOUBT : FAITH a) atheist : religious d) apostate : state ACTION : REACTION a) introvert : extrovert

c) head : tail

d) front : rear


b) skeptic : pious

c) iconoclast : idol


b) assail : defend c) diseased : treatment

d) death : rebirth


1. (2) 11. (1) 21. (3) 31. (2) 41. (1) 51. (1) 61. (1) 71. (3) 81. (3) 91. (4) 101. (2) 111. (4) 121. (3) 131. (2) 141. (1) 151. (3) 161. (3) 171. (4) 181. (1) 191. (1) 201. (3)

2. (1) 12. (2) 22. (3) 32. (4) 42. (4) 52. (3) 62. (1) 72. (4) 82. (4) 92. (2) 102. (1) 112. (1) 122. (1) 132. (4) 142. (2) 152. (2) 162. (1) 172. (2) 182. (3) 192. (1) 202.(1)

3. (3) 13. (4) 23. (2) 33. (3) 43. (2) 53. (3) 63. (3) 73. (2) 83. (3) 93. (4) 103. (4) 113. (1) 123 (4) 133. (2) 143. (3) 153. (1) 163. (2) 173. (1) 183. (3) 193. (4) 203. (2)

4. (2) 14. (3) 24. (4) 34. (3) 44. (1) 54. (1) 64. (2) 74. (3) 84. (4) 94. (1) 104. (3) 114. (4) 124. (2) 134. (3) 144. (3) 154. (3) 164. (1) 174. (3) 184. (4) 194. (3) 204. (3)

5. (3) 15. (2) 25. (4) 35. (3) 45. (1) 55. (1) 65. (4) 75. (2) 85. (2) 95. (2) 105. (2) 115. (2) 125. (1) 135. (4) 145. (4) 155. (2) 165. (4) 175. (4) 185. (2) 195. (4) 205. (4)

6. (2) 16. (1) 26. (3) 36. (1) 46. (1) 56. (1) 66. (1) 76. (1) 86. (1) 96. (1) 106. (4) 116. (2) 126. (1) 136. (3) 146. (1) 156. (3) 166. (1) 176. (1) 186. (2) 196. (2) 206. (2)

7. (4) 17. (1) 27. (2) 37. (4) 47. (2) 57. (1) 67. (3) 77. (2) 87. (4) 97. (4) 107. (3) 117. (2) 127. (4) 137. (2) 147. (1) 157. (2) 167. (3) 177. (1) 187. (2) 197. (3) 207. (2)

8. (2) 18. (2) 28. (3) 38. (4) 48. (1) 58. (2) 68. (4) 78. (3) 88. (1) 98. (2) 108. (2) 118. (4) 128. (4) 138. (4) 148. (3) 158. (3) 168. (1) 178. (1) 188. (3) 198. (4)

9. (2) 19. (2) 29. (1) 39. (2) 49. (4) 59. (2) 69. (3) 79. (4) 89. (4) 99. (3) 109. (1) 119. (4) 129. (3) 139. (1) 149. (1) 159. (4) 169. (2) 179. (3) 189. (4) 199. (3)

10. (3) 20. (4) 30. (4) 40. (2) 50. (1) 60. (1) 70. (4) 80. (3) 90. (1) 100. (4) 110. (1) 120. (3) 130. (3) 140. (1) 150. (3) 160. (3) 170. (4) 180. (3) 190. (1) 200. (3)

Explanation 1 to 2: Let the number of pieces sold be n and the price of each piece be p. Then total sales value, v, is given by pn, 1148 = pn. From the choices given in this question, rule out 56. Because 56 when reversed gives 65, which cannot be a factor of 1148. Try dividing 1148 by the first option, i.e. 82. The quotient is 14. Check that both, 82 and 14, when reversed give 28 and 41, whose product is 1148. Now we have identified the four numbers. We can now make use of the data that the inventory reduced by 54. Inventory is the quantify available in store. i.e. the remainder after having sold a certain number of pieces. If the inventory reduces by 54, it means that if actually x pieces are sold, then ON RECORD, (x + 54) pieces are sold. Observe that 82 and 28 differ by 54., So, if 28 is the actual number of pieces sold, then 82 is the value entered. It follows that if 51 was the actual price per piece, then it was entered as 14. 1. (2) 2. (1) 3. (3) As X started chasing the thief after 15 minutes, the thief had gained (15/60)60 = 15 km over X. the relative speed between the thief and X is 65 - 60 = 5 kmph. So, the time taken by X to catch the thief is 15/5 = 3 hours. As X had started the chase at 12.15 p.m. he caught the thief at 3.15 p.m. 4. (2) The relative speed between the second policeman and X is 65 - 60 = 5 kmph. After 3 hours, the relative distance between them would be 15 km. 5. (3) Let the original cost of the diamond be Rs. X, and let the weight of the diamond be (1 + 2 + 3 + 4) = 10 units. So its original cost varies as 10, i.e. cost = 100x, say. After the diamond has broken, its cost becomes (1 + 2 + 3 + 4)x, i.e. 30x. Thus the loss in cost is 70x. If 70x corresponds to Rs. 70,000, then the original cost 100x is Rs.1,00,000. 6. (2) The smaller cubes have a side 1/4th the length of the original side. Thus there are 64 small cubes, with 4 cubes along one side of the original cube. The cubes which do not have even a single side painted are the ones not exposed to the exterior at all. There are 8 such cubes in the centre. 7. (4) Verifying option (1) is very cumbersome. Options (2) and (3) can be verified by expressing the lines in the form (y = mx + c) and finding their slopes. The values of slopes clearly show that the lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular to each other. For option (4), solve any two equations and find the value of x and y. if these values of x and y satisfy the third equation also, then the lines intersect in a single point.( x = 1, y = 1) 8. (2) n(n - 1) = n(n - 1) (n + 1). If n is a an odd number and n > 1, then either of (n + 1) and (n - 1) is a multiple of 4 and the other is a multiple of 2. Also, since (n - 1), n, (n - 1) are three consecutive numbers, one of them must be a multiple of three. thus the product has to be a multiple of (4 3 2) = 24. 9. (2) The radius of the circle is 6.5, its diameter is 13 cm. The diameter always subtends a right angle at a point on the circumference. In the given problem one side is 5 cm (chord CA) and the hypotenuse is 13 cm (diameter AB). The third side is thus 12 cm, and the area of the is (1/2) (5)(12) = 30 cm. 10. (3) Assume a suitable number of people for the locality by finding out the LCM of the denominators of the fractions involved. In this case it is the LCM 3, 5 and 10, which is 30. The fractions can now be expressed as simple numbers as shown in the Venn diagram. TV 17 3 VCR 3

Both Reqd. fraction = (17 + 3 3)/30 = 17 / 30 11. (1) Since BCE is an equilateral on one side of the square, each side of BCE will be equal to the side of the square. Thus, DC = EC, i.e. DEC is an isosceles in which, CDE = CED. But m DCE = m DCB + m BCE = 90 + 60 = 1500. m DEC = m CDE = (30/2) = 150. 12. (2) Let one pen, one pencil and one eraser cost n, p and r units respectively. Let the amount paid by me be A units.

13. (4)

14. (3)

15. (2)

16. (1)

17. (1)

18. (2)

19. (2)

20. (4)

21. (3)

22. (3)

I pay (5n + 7p + 4r) = A .. Eqn. (1) & Rajan pays (6n + 14p + 8r) = 1.5 A Eqn. (2). Multiply equation (1) by 2. we Get (10n + 14p + 8r)_ = 2A .. Eqn.(3). Comparing equations (2) and (3), we see that while Rajan gets 4 pens less, he pays 0.5A units less. Thus, A = the price of 8 pens. the % of the total price paid by me initially, which was used for pens is (5/8) (100) = 62.5%. The Let X and Y be the persons who started from A and B respectively. Midway between A and B means 36 km. From A, X will take 9 hours to reach the midpoint. In 9 hours Y will also cover 2 + 2.5 + 3 + 3.5 + 4 + 4.5 + 5 + 5.5 + 6 = 36 km. Thus Y will also reach the midpoint at the same time. On each of the 1200 watches that he sells in the season, he makes a profit of Rs. 100(i.e. Rs. 250 - Rs. 150). On each of the 300 (i.e. 1500 - 1200) watches that are not sold, he incurs a loss of Rs. 150, which is the manufacturing cost. His additional expense is Rs. 30,000 (given). Thus his net profit in the season is Rs. (1,20,000 - 45,000 - 30,000) = Rs. 45,000. Let the number of watches required to be sold in the season be x. he sells (1500 - x) watches out of season. The expenditure for manufacturing 1500 watches is (1500 150) = 225,000. Add to this the fixed expenditure of Rs. 30,000. His total income is from x watches sold at 250 and (1500 - x) watches sold at 100. 2,55,000 = (250)(x) + (100)(1500 - x). Solving, we get x = 700. We are given that AB = BC = CD = 12 km. time taken to travel AB at a speed of x kmph is (12/x) hours. This is followed by a break of x hours. His speed from C to D is 2(2x) = 4x kmph. Continuing on these lines, we get, [(12/x) + x + (12/2x) + 2x + (12/4x)] = 16 hours. Solving we get x = 3. The shopkeeper uses a 120 cm scale instead of a 100 cm scale. Thus, while buying 100 cm of cloth, he pays just (100/120), i.e. (5/6) times the actual worth of the goods. If he has 100 cm of material, then while selling, he charges the customer for (100/80), i.e. (5/4) times the actual worth of goods sold. On this SP, he gives a discount of 20%, thus making the actual SP as (0.8)(5/4) = 1. Thus for 100 cm of cloth, his CP is (5/6) while the SP is 1. This gives a profit of 20% on the CP. Out of the five girls, he has to invite exactly three. this can be done is 5C3 ways. Out of the four boys, he may invite either one or two or three or four or even none of them. According to the standard formula, this may be done in (2)4 ways. Thus the total number of ways is 5C3 (2)4 = 10 16 = 160. In a correctly running watch, the crossing of hands should take place exactly after every (720/11) = 65 5/11 minutes. In this watch, it takes place after [(3 hours, 18 minutes, 15 seconds)/3] = (1 hour, 6 minutes, 5 second), i.e. 66 5/60 minutes of watch time. Thus the watch takes longer time to accomplish the task as compared to a correctly running watch. So this watch loses time = [(66 5/60) - (65 5/11)] = (83/132) minutes in 655/11 minutes of correct time. So in 1 day, i.e. (24 60) minutes of correct time, it will lose (83/6) minutes, i.e. 13 minutes 50 seconds. When Bhairav (B) covers 1600 m, Akshay (A) covers (1600 - 128) m. So, when B covers (1600/16) = 100 m, A covers (128/16) m = 8 m less. When B covers 100 m, C covers (100 - 4) = 96 m. Thus the ratio in which A and C cover distances is 92 : 96. In 96 m, C gains (96 - 92) = 4 m over A. So in 1.5 miles (i.e. 2400 m), C gains 100 m = (1/16) miles over A. Let the number of correct answers be x, number of wrong answers be y and number of questions not attempted be z. Thus, x + y + z = 50 . (1) And { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } The second equation can be written as, 6x 2y z = 192 .. (2) Adding the two equations we get, { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 }/ 7 Since, x and y are both integers, y cannot be 1 or 2. The minimum value that y can have is 3. If we consider the third term to be x The 15th term will be (x + 12d) 6th term will be (x + 3d) 11th term will be (x + 8d) and 13 th term will be (x + 10d) Thus, as per the given condition, 2x + 12d = 3x + 21d. Or x + 9d = 0

x + 9d will be the 12th term. 23. (2) For the curves to intersect, { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } Thus, { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } This is possible for only one value of x (2< x < 3). 24. (4) p + q = 2 and pq = 1 (p + q)2 = p2 + q2 + 2pq, Thus ( 2)2 = p2 + q2 + 2( 1) p2 + q2 = 2 4 + 4 + 2 + 2 p2 + q2 = 2 2 + 6 p2 + q2 = 2 2 + 1 + 5 p2 + q2 = ( 1)2 + 5 Thus, minimum value of p 2 + q2 is 5. 25. (4) The number of terms of the series forms the sum of first n natural numbers i.e. n(n + 1)/2. Thus the first 23 letters will account for the first (23 x 24)/2 = 276 terms of the series. The 288th term will be the 24th letter viz. x.

26. (3)


Since the area of the outer circle is 4 times the area of the inner circle, the radius of the outer circle should be 2 times that of the inner circle. Since AB and AC are the tangents to the inner circle, they should be equal. Also, BC should be a tangent to inner circle. In other words, triangle ABC should be equilateral. The area of the outer circle is 12. Hence the area of inner circle is 3 or the radius is { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } The area of equilateral triangle = 3 3 r2, where r is the In- radius. Hence the answer is 9 3/ 27. (2) (a + b + c + d)2 = (4m + 1)2 Thus, a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + 2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) = 16m2 + 8m + 1 a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 will have the minimum value if (ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) is the maximum. This is possible if a = b = c = d = (m + 0.25) .since a + b + c + d = 4m + 1 In that case 2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) = 12(m + 0.25)2 = 12m2 + 6m + 0.75 Thus, the minimum value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = (16m2 + 8m + 1) 2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd) = (16m2 + 8m + 1) (12m2 + 6m + 0.75) = 4m2 + 2m + 0.25 Since it is an integer, the actual minimum value = 4m2 + 2m + 1 28. (3) If y = 2 (it cannot be 0 or 1), then x can take 1 value and z can take 2 values. Thus with y = 2, a total of 1 X 2 = 2 numbers can be formed. With y = 3, 2 X 3 = 6 numbers can be formed. Similarly checking for all values of y from 2 to 9 and adding up we get the answer as 240. 29. (1) If y = 10o,

{ EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } = 10o (opposite equal sides) { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } = 20o (external angle of { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 }) { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } = 200 (opposite equal sides) { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 } = 30o (external angle of { EMBED Equation.DSMT4 }) Thus k = 3 30. (4) Using log a log b = log a/b, 2 / (y 5) = (y 5) / (y 3.5) where y = 2x Solving we get y = 4 or 8 i.e. x = 2 or 3. It cannot be 2 as log of negative number is not defined (see the second expression). 31. (2) Using the Basic Proportionality Theorem, AB/PQ = BD/QD and PQ/CD = BQ/BD. Multiplying the two we get, AB/CD = BQ/QD = 3 : 1. Thus CD : PQ = BD : BQ = 4 : 3 = 1 : 0.75 32. (4)

Q 8

10 D

B 6

Triangle ABC is a right angled triangle. Thus 1/2 BC AB = 1/2 BD AC Or, 6 8 = BD 10. Thus BD = 4.8. Therefore, BP = BQ = 4.8. So, AP = AB BP = 6 4.8 = 1.2 and CQ = BC BQ = 8 4.8 = 3.2. Thus, AP: CQ = 1.2: 3.2 = 3: 8 33. (3) In this kind of polygon, the number of convex angles will always be exactly 4 more than the number of concave angles. Also, the number of vertices should be even. Hence the number of concave and convex corners should add up to an even number. This is true only for the answer choice 3. 34. (3) The values of A and B at each step are as shown. Step No. Beginning 1 2 3 4 5 A 1 2 6 24 120 720 B 1 2 3 4 5 6

35. (3) Let the squares at the four corners that are removed have a side x. So the volume of the box so formed would be x(10 - 2x)2. For x = 0, the volume is 0. As x increases, the volume increases and reaches a maximum for x = 5/3. After that the effect of the factor 10 - 2x predominates and the volume decreases. This can be seen by taking trial values for x, or by finding the maximum using differentiation Maximum volume = (5/3) (10 2 5/3)2 = 2000 / 27. 36. (1) If the three odd numbers are a - 2, a and a + 2, then 3(a - 2) = 3 + 2(a + 2) a + 2 = 15. 37. (4) We can see from the data, that the man walks in all 3 km to the East and 4 km to the North, thus forming a right angled triangle of sides 3 and 4. So the shortest distance is 5 km. 38. (4) If the side of the square is s, the radius of the incircle is s/2 and that of the circumcircle is s/ 2 (i.e. half the diagonal). So ratio of areas = 1: 2. 39. (2)

The questions can be solved by common sense. Mathematically, considering the tangent to the outer coin from the centre of the inner coin, a 30-60-90 triangle is formed. So each coin subtends a total angle of 60 0 at the centre of the inner coin. Hence 360/60 = 6 coins can be placed. 40. (2) 625 = P(1 + r/100)2 and 675 = P(1 + r/100)3. Dividing one by the other, 1 + r/100 = 675/625, or r = 8% Q. 41 to 50: Students may please note that Data sufficiency questions require that one arrives at a unique answer, and that too, not in terms of any variable, but in numerical terms only. Only if such an answer can be obtained can one say that the question can be fully answered. Also, students are cautioned to be careful abut the type of inference associated with answers 1, 2, 3 and 4. The order of these inferences differs from paper to paper. 41. (1) We are required to find out the exact cost price. Both the statements give the same information , i.e. the SP is 0.75 times the CP. So the answer is (1) 42. (4) Cancel out the integer a on both the sides of he inequality. Arrange b on one side of the inequality and c on the other. We have to now determine the relation between (- 2b) and (- 2c). If b is - ve, then (- 2b) is + ve. If c is + ve, then (- 2c) is - ve. So ( - 2b) > (- 2c). Since both the statements are required to determine the outcome, we get (4) as the answer. 43. (2) By default, the profit is always mentioned as a % of the CP. From statement (II), we see that the profit on the article is 25% of Rs. 250, which is Rs. 62.50. So the SP can be determined with the help of statement (II) alone, and the answer is (2). 44. (1) To find the radius of the rear wheel, we need to know the numerical value of its circumference. From statement (I), we get a relation between the circumferences of the two wheels in terms of N. From statement (II), we get similar information in terms of t. Thus, the radius cannot be determined from the given data and the answer is (1). 45. (1) There is a catch in the problem. Although the containers are of equal volume, it is not known to what extent these containers are filled by the liquids A and B. (i.e. the first container might be half full, while the second might be two-thirds full). Until such details are known, the final ratio of liquids A and B cannot be found out. Thus, the answer is (1). 46. (1) The two statements give the standard result which hold good for any quadratic equation of the given form. ( + ) can be obtained as [( + )2 - 2 ]. From the given statements one can get an answer only in terms of a and b. So the answer is (1). 47. (2) If the number of type - 1 widgets produced is A and that of type - 2 widgets is B, then we get the basic equation [A + B = 20,000] from the data in the question. From statement (I), we get [1.1 A + 1.06 B = 20,000]. This is enough to give us the value of B. Similarly from statement (2), we get A = 2B. This is enough to give us the value of B. 48. (1) Anils age was a prime number in 1996 and 1998. So Anils age in these two yeas can be a pair of such numbers which are prime, and differ by 2. We have many such pairs - (3,5), (5, 7), (11, 13).. And it is not possible to arrive at a unique answer. So the answer is (1). 49. (4) Let Lakhirams assets be worth Rs. X. In the case of compound interest, the period of reckoning or calculation of CI is very important. This information is given in statement (II). The annual CI rate is 10%, so the rate for 4 months is (4/12) 10 = (10/3)%. So the total Cl after one year, in terms of X, may be written as: Cl = X[(1 + ((10/3)/100)]3, because in a year, there are 3 terms of 4 months. This interest is followed by a tax of 4% paid by him which ultimately fetches Lakhiram Rs. 1500. This data helps us to find the value of X, so the answer is (4). 50. (1) Although it is known that none of the lines are parallel to each other, there might be the case wherein all the lines have exactly one point of intersection, or eight lines with one point and the other eight with another point of intersection. Unless something about the relative arrangement of these lines is known, one cannot arrive at a definite answer. So the answer is (1). 51. (1) The author says that we should coolly assess the science of global warming. This implies that scientific evidence may not link the weather disturbances in different parts of the world, so that they could be happening due to unrelated causes. 52. (3) Directly stated in the second paragraph

53. (2) There is a difference in the approaches of the Americans and the European nations, as mentioned in the passage. 54. (1) Can be inferred from this line, They know there is no chance that America will meet its target through cuts in domestic emissions. That is why they see sinks and trading as saviors 55. (1) A rigid deal would impose heavy costs, hence nations would look for ways not to adhere to the deal. 56. (1) The author argues for a flexible deal as opposed to a rigid one. 57. (1) Second paragraph. The author cites the Dasha Avatar as the evidence of his belief. 58. (2) Second last paragraph - the author cites Hanuman as the missing link. 59. (2) Last paragraph - This theory has been put forth by biologists who say that 60. (1) Vedic history is replete with fascinating tales where Vishnu battles the forces of evil - directly stated in the passage. 61. (1) Last line of the passage. 62. (1) Third paragraph: France's national invention 63. (3) An analogy is drawn with the Trojan horse 64. (2) Hollywood now gets roughly half its revenues from overseas, up from just 30% in 1980. This implies that revenues increased by (50-30)/30, i.e., two-thirds. 65. (4) The author does not dispute that Hollywood is a powerful force, but it does dispute the second and third points by giving evidence against them. 66. (1) They eschew fine-grained cultural observation for generic subjects that anybody can identify with, regardless of national origins. There is nothing particularly American about boats crashing into icebergs or asteroids that threaten to obliterate human life. 67. (3) Directly stated that television stations can get cheap and reliable content from America. 68. (4) This theme runs throughout the passage. 69. (3) The answer to this has to be inferred. The underlying theme is that American films work well not because they are American but because they appeal to all tastes. Nor are they dominant in popular local tastes. Thus it would be a waste of time to shut them out. 70. (4) This is the reason that they take talent from all over the world. 71. (3) Do this by elimination. The article is not by France alone; it is not about Culture Wars; nor is it about Cultural Protection. 72. (4) The last few lines answers this question. 73. (2) Evident from the quote itself. 74. (3) Beginning of the last paragraph 75. (2) The article talks about bone technology and what is being done in the field 76. (1) Second paragraph directly states this. 77. (2) First paragraph: free from the unsteady influences 78. (3) Heretic: unconventional 79. (4) All the other choices are stated in the second paragraph. 80. (3) The author says that orthodox economists have been forced to fight back. 81. (3) Second paragraph. 82. (4) Both Mills and Fisher are mentioned in the passage. 83. (3) Magical thinking is attributing to one's own actions something that had nothing to do with them. 84. (4) All the choices would make Dr Spock's head spin. 85. (2) Explained in the last paragraph. 86. (1) Irrationality has been discussed in the passage in the context of economic decision making. 87. (4) The title of the passage should match the content of the passage. 88. (1) Directly implied in the phrase. 89. (4) Argot jargon. 90. (1) Third paragraph, first line. 91-95: Note down the corresponding values of Profit, Revenue & Expenditure on the bar graph itself, keeping in mind, Profit = Revenue - Expenditure. The values read from the graph should satisfy this condition for each year. Here corresponding values are given in the form of a table to make the solution easier to understand: YEAR Profit 1989 20 1990 25 1991 30 1992 40 1993 50 1994 60 1995 72

Reven. Expend.

122 102

130 105

145 115

170 130

185 135

200 140

222 150

91. (4) Percentage Increase = [Final value - Initial value] 100/Initial value. Using this formula & conversion of fractions into percentage, calculate the percentage increase for the various years. Maximum percentage increase is for the year 1992 = (40 - 30)/30 = 1/3 = 33.33%. 92. (2) Average Revenue = (Total Revenue)/(Number of years) = (122 + 130 + 145 + 170 + 185 + 200 + 222)/7 = 1174/7 = 167.7 = 168(approx.) 93. (4) From the table, it can be seen that growth in expenditure as compared to the previous year was maximum in 1992. 94. (1) Total Revenue = 1174 Total Expenditure = 700 + (2 + 5 + 15 + 30 + 35 + 40 + 50) = 887 %formed by the revenue = 887/1174 900/1200 = = 75% [Actual values will give 75.55% & again (1) will be the correct answer but you can save time using approximations] 95. (2) % profit in 95 = (72 - 60) /60 = 1/5 = 20% As per the given condition % profit in 96 = 20% Then total profit will be (6 72)/5 86 lakhs. 96-100: 96. (1) For Lipton production = 1.64 (000 tonnes) Capacity Utilisation = 64.8% 65% 65% = 13/20, so maximum production capacity = (20 1.64)/13 = 32.8/13 2.53 (000 tonnes) 97. (4) Data insufficient, because different varieties of coffee of the same brand may have different prices. We can not assume that there will be only one variety of coffee of each brand. 98. (2) Total Sales Value (incl. Others) = 132.8(Rs. Cr.) Sales value (BB + Nestle + Lipton + MAX) = [31.15 + 26.75 + 15.25 + 17.45] = 90.60 (Rs. Cr.) Total sales value of others = 132.8 - 90.60 = 42.2 (Rs. Cr) Others /Total = 42.2/132.8 1/3 (approx.) % share of others = 33.33% (approx.) Hence, the closest option will be the correct answer i.e. 32%. 99. (3) Total prod capacity = [100 Total prod. (000 tonnes) ] /(% Capacity utilisation) = (100 11.63)/61.3 = 1160/50 (approx.) = 19.3 (000 tonnes) Here we are taking approximate value of the denominator to be less than the actual value Hence, the closest option will be the correct answer i.e. 18,900. 100. (4) Unutilised capacity of a company is given by. (100 - % capacity utilisation) (Production in 000 tonnes)/(% capacity utilisation) Substituting the corresponding values from the table, we get that maximum unutilised cap. is for MAC i.e. (100 - 59.35) (1.54)/59.35 1.05 (000 tonnes) 101-105: 101. (2) As per the plan, number of men working in 5th month was 4 & these 4 men were supposed to do coding. Cost per man-month for coding = Rs. 10000. Total cost in 5th month = 4 10000 = Rs. 40,000 Number of people actually working in 5th month is 5 & these 5 men are doing the design part of the project. Cost per man-month for design = Rs. 20,000. Total cost in 5th month = 5 20,000 = Rs. 1,00,000 % change = (100000 - 40000) 100/40000 = 150%.

102. (1) total man-months required for coding = (4 + 5 + 5) = 14 Cost per man-month coding = Rs. 10,000 Total cost incurred in new coding stage = 14 10,000 = Rs. 1,40,000 103. (4) Total cost in a stage = (Num. Of man months)(Cost per man month in that stage) Total cost in specification = (2 + 3) 40,000 = Rs. 2,00,000. Total cost in design = (4 + 3 + 5) 20000 = Rs. 2,40,000. Total cost in coding = Rs. 1,40,000 Total cost in testing = (4 + 1) 1500 = Rs. 75000 Hence the correct answer is (4).. 104. (3) Average cost/man month = (Total cost in that period)/ (No. of man months taken). Average cost per man month will be minimum for 11-15 month i.e. (90000/9) = Rs. 10,000. 105. (2) In two cases, cost will be different in 5th, 6th & 8th month. Cost will be Rs. 60,000 more in the 5th month, Rs. 20,000 less in the 6th month & Rs. 20,000 more in the 8th month. So net difference will be Rs. 60,000. 106-110: 106. (4) Total investment in 1995 = (2923 + 7081.6) = 10,000 crores Total investment in 96 = (3489 + 8352) 11,840 Percentage increase = (11,840 - 1000) 100/10000 = 18.4 = 18 (approx.) 107. (3) Total investment in Chittor district = (2923.1 + 3489.5) 6400 (approx.) Total investment in Khammam district = (7081.6 + 8352.0) 15400 (approx.) Required Ratio = 77/32 = 2.4 (approx.) 108. (2) Total investment in Electricity & Thermal Energy in 1995 = (81.2 + 632.4 + 2065.8 + 1232.7) = (800 + 650 + 2100 + 1200) = 4750(approx.) Percentage = (4750)/(1000) = 47.5 (approx.) 109. (1) Again use approximate values & degree of approximation allowed will depend on the difference in the various options. Electricity = (23 - 20) 100/20 = 15% Chemical = 22/74 = 28% Solar = 4/12 = 30% Nuclear = 5/16 = 31% 110. (1) % increase from 95 to 96 = % increase from 96 to 97 (8352.0 - 7081.6)/7081.6 = (x - 8352.0) /8350 Using approximation, 1270/7080 = { EMBED Equation.3 } x = 9850. 111 - 115: This caselet is very easy & most of the questions can be answered just by careful observation without doing actual calculations. 111. (4) In May number of employees suddenly increases but the profit is increasing at much slower rate so profit per employee must be highest either in Jan. or in March & comparing the values for the graph, March is the correct answer. 112. (1) Profit = {Sales - Cost}, the difference between the line graph for sales & line graph for cost is maximum in September & so September is the correct ans. 113. (1) Comparing the value for sales in various months as per the conditions, maximum difference is between January & March and base value is minimum for January, so % increase will be maximum in March. 114. (4) Increase in cost is maximum for May i.e. 34 - 30 = 4 on the line graph. 115. (2) Num. of persons employed = Num. of employee in Nov. - Num. of employee in Jan = 15,800 - 10,800 = 5000(apporx). Closest ans. is 5100. 116-120:

116. (2) Num of such students = (36 - 12)% of 800 + (48 - 17)% of 730 + (43 - 23)% of 1100 = 24% of 800 + 31% of 730 + 20% of 1100 = 192 + 226 + 220 = 638 (approx.) Closest option is 650 117. (2) In 1994 total money earned by finance students = 23% of 110 (7550 12) Similarly total money earned by s/w students = 21% of 110 (7050 12) Difference = 1320 (23 755 - 21 705) = 33.8 lakhs (approx.) 118. (4) % increase in average salary of finance = (9810 - 5450) 100/5450 = 8700/109 80% (approx.) 119. (4) Can not be determined as average monthly salary of students in Others category is not given. 120. (3) % Increase in initial sal. in s/w = (8640 - 5290)100/5290 = (3350 100)/5300 63.3% Annual increase = 63.3/4 = 15.8 (approx.) Closest option is 16.3%

121. (3) Incase of Products, percentage of spam emails is increasing but at decreasing rate, from Sep 2002 to Dec 2002 products increased more than 100% and in Mar 2003 about 45% and in Jun 2003 10% 122. (1) Was larger as in Dec 2002 it is a higher percentage of a higher base compared to June 2003. 123. (4) Cannot be determined as in Sept 2002 it is a lower percentage than March 2003, however the base in Sept 2003 is higher than that in March 2002. Thus we cannot say anything. 124. (2) It is evident from graph Seetas growth rate decreased from third month as this is the first time the slope has decreased. 125. (1) Geeta grew at fastest rate in first two months (the slope of the line in this period is steepest for Geeta). 126. (1) Geeta grew lowest in third month (during this period, the slope was least for Geeta). 127. (4) 128. (4) 129. (3) 130. (3) Seeta increased 7cm on 50 and shyam 7cm on 53cm, Hence Shyam grew least. { EMBED Equation.3 } { EMBED Equation.3 } { EMBED Equation.3 }

131. (2) AVOCADO paint is mixture of ORANGE and PINK in equal quantities. If ORANGE is made using RED and YELLOW, then the cost of ORANGE would be (20+25)/2 = 22.5 which is greater than the cost of the ORANGE. If we make PINK by RED and WHITE, the cost of PINK would be (20+15)/2 = 17.5 which is less than the cost of the PINK paint. Hence, the cost of the AVOCADO is (22+17.5)/2 = 19.75 132. (4) Mixing equal amounts of ORANGE and WHITE can make WASHEDORANGE, ORANGE can be made by mixing equal amounts of RED and YELLOW. So the ratio of RED, YELLOW and WHITE is 1:1:2 If cost of AVOCADO paint is Rs.19.75 The cost of the CREAM is [(7 15) + (3 75)] / 10 = Rs. 18 And cost of WASHEDORANGE is Rs.18.50 So CREAM is the most profitable. 134. (3) From given options F is the only possibility. 135. (4) If we look at the options D & G can sit together, C & F can sit together, B & D can sit together and E & A is the only option which is not possible. 136. (3) E & G is the only possibility. 137. (2) From the above information we can infer that option (2) is correct. 133. (2)

138.(4) B-Defence, D Telecom 139. (1) 140. (1) D + J = 46 141. (1) From statement A. 142. (2) From both statements individually. If x is the number of tosses he took, from statement I we get the equation 10 + x 100 = 50. Thus x = 140. From statement II individually, we have x > 138. Thus we are sure he has paid up more than 148. If he incurs a loss of only Rs. 50, the game has to end normally. Thus the above state of his taking 150 shots with first 138 as tails and 139 and 140 throw as tails is the scenario. With no other scenario will a loss of just 50 and 138 tails show up. 143. (3) Using both statements.

144. (3) Using both statements. 145. (4) 146. (1) 147. (3) 148. (3) 149. (1) 150. (3) 151. (3) 152. (2) 153. (1)

154 -157: Against Pakistan total was 220 so rest made only 22 Against South Africa total was 250 so rest made only 75 Against Australia total was 240 so rest made only 48 Now based on this information 154.(3) 155.(2) 156.(3) 157.(2) Number of players those have definitely scored less than Yuvraj are 2 i.e. Saurav and Rahul. Clearly from the above information best M index is of Saurav. It is possible to calculate the exact M index for Rahul and Saurav. Lowest R index can be of Kaif or Rahul who have R index of 23 or more.

Que. 158 to 161: From the given data: Labour experts (LE) = 3 Health experts (HE)= 6 Population studies experts (PSE)= 6 Refugee Relocation experts (RRE)= 6 Experts from: America = 8 Africa = 4 Europe = 4 Australasia = 5 LE America Australasia 1 1 1 2 1 HE PSE RRE

Africa Europe 158. (3).

0 1 1 1 1

LE America Australasia Africa Europe 159.(4). 160.(3). 161.(3). LE America Australasia Africa Europe 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

HE 2 1 2 1

PSE 2 2 1 1

RRE 3 1 1 1

HE 3 1 1 1

PSE 1 2 2 1

RRE 3 1 1 1

187. (2) Privilege means freedom, right and concession all three. Therefore, the rising costs of a good education have made it an advantage the rich have over those less privileged. Every citizen has the rights mentioned here. Having a privilege over ones rivals means having an edge over them due to rank, connections or something else in ones favor. And if Sheron had the privilege of the companys bungalow and car, then that was a concession. 188. (3) The clue here is sentence B we never say tragedy case or calamity case, and accident does not fit in the other sentences. Disaster case, however, is common usage, and disaster can be sensed and can strike. Hence, (3) is the correct answer. 189. (4) Dejection seems to be confusing here, but in sentence B, dejection does not occasionally inflict all adults for no particular reason. Hence, the correct answer is depression. 190. (1) State here means all of these things: the nation or country (in A and D), the condition if affairs (in B), and to testify or assert (in C). 191. (1) The statement says that if practiced within limits, the idea of private property can function to the good of most people. Statements b) and c) are frontal attacks on communism, which are not warranted by the paragraph. D) can be a likely answer but a) is a more general statement and hence is the correct answer. 192. (1) In this case, to be fertile is to write well and produce good work. Hence (1). 193. (4) The argument is that it requires time and commitment to understand another language and culture. The only reasonable argument that weakens it would be that the same amount of time and commitment ought to be used to better understand ones own language and culture first.

194. (3) The author does not seem to be advising against trusting people, so the first two options are ruled out. All she/he says is that even the people we know best are always surprising us with different facets of their personality. 195. (4) Both stated in the paragraph. Line two is the first statement and a grade of O would mean a mark of 15 out of 26, with 26 being the lowest, which is below the average of 13. 196. (2) (1) is not correct because the program does not take two weeks to solve the problem. c) is incorrect for the same reason. The writing of the program is an achievement, and so only part of the problem is a negative phrase and does not belong here. 197. (3) What has to be conveyed here is that if doctors do not terminate the life of terminally ill patients who are in pain, it would only prolong their agony, and that too by only a few days. (1) does not express that, b) does not convey that two separate situations are being spoken of, and d) is incorrect because the end can be delayed but cannot delay. 198. (4) Us is an objective pronoun, which means that it can be used as the object of a verb, as in, He took us out to dinner, but not as the subject of a sentence. We is a subjective pronoun, which means it can be used as the subject of a sentence, as in this one We had left before he arrived. 199. (3) This follows the logical order of past to present from Almost a century ago to Today 200. (3) Option (1) begins with but, and hence cannot be the first sentence in the set. Option (4) contains the phrase such changes, so it would have to be preceded by a sentence that tells us what kind of changes. Hence the correct answer is (3) 201. (3) 202. (1) 203. (2) Fission is the disintegration or separation of molecules; fusion is their union. Hence (2). 204. (3) Dulcet is sweet to the ear or melodious, raucous is noisy and harsh. Palliative means something that is soothing; exacerbating is aggravating. Hence they are corresponding in meaning. 205. (4) Anterior means before or front, posterior means behind. Hence (4). 206. (2) An atheist is someone who does not believe in god, a skeptic is someone who is undecided. Doubt is analogous to skeptic, faith would be analogous to mistrust or disbelief. 207. (2) To assail is to attack, to defend is to fend the attack off. Hence (2)