Laboratorium fur Biomechanik. ETH-Zentrum. CH-PW2 Zurich

J. P. P\t Bwn$neering Unit. University I. Glasgow. Scotland

of Strathclyde,

Abstract--A three-dimensional analysis of the human ankle joint is presented to analyse data obtained from gait laboratory tests. The ankle was treated as consisting of two joints. the talocrural (Tc.) and the talocalcaneonavicular (Ten.). and relevant anatomical dimensions were based upon cadaveric anthropometric data, Seven adult male subjects were studied during the stance phase of normal locomotion. Data was acquired from three orthogonally placed tine cameras and a force platform. Two models were investigated based on force equilibrium; a Mark I model which excluded the posterior tibia1 and peroneal muscle groups and a Mark II model, which included them. The Mark II model gave the followmp resultant peak forces expressed as multiples of body weight: Tc. joint force = 3.9; Ten. joint forces-anterior facet = 2.4, posterior facet = 2.8. The latter model was felt to have good potential in the analytical assessment of ankle pathologies and endoprostheses.



The human ankle joint has already been extensively studied from anatomical and clinical viewpoints. In biomechanics it remains the last major joint system in the leg for which a comprehensive three-dimensional analysis has yet to be performed. Force analysis of the ankle joint for normal locomotion has hitherto been confined either to the consideration of external force actions (Bresler and Frankel, 1950) or to calculation of the internal forces acting in simplified twodimensional models of the ankle (Brewster et <I/..1974; Stauffer ef al.. 1977). The present study included the two principal joint systems of the ankle. the talocrural (Tc.) or upper ankle joint and the talocalcaneonavicular (Ten.) or lower ankle joint. The Tc. joint is usually considered to act as a simple hinge allowing flexion and extension of the talus relative to the shank segment. The Ten. joint is also thought to be basically uniaxial, permitting the motions of inversion and eversion of the hindfoot segment relative to the talus. The relative orientation of the Tc. and Ten. axes is illustrated in Fig. 1, using data published in the literature (Manter, 1941 ; Isman and Inman. 1969 : Inman. 1976). This figure illustrates the three-dimensional nature of these joints. This paper outlines the development and evaluation of a three-dimensional model of the Tc. and Ten. joint systems for normal locomotion activity.

tion studies ofembalmed cadaver material. Altogether five cadavers were dissected to obtain anthropometric data in re’spect of ligament. retinaculum and tendon lines of action, bony reference point coordinates, and joint profiles. The cadaveric Tc. and Ten. joint axes were determined using the optical methods of Hicks (1953) and Isman and Inman (1969); briefly this

The ankle models formulated were based upon data gained from the literature together with dissec-

Fig. I. The Tc. and Ten. axes projected on the right foot, annoted sources: (al Manter (1911), (b) lsman and lnman (1969). and (c) Inman (1976).

The ligamentous and retinacular constraints were not included in the first two models developed. In the case of optimisation methods. Physiologically acceptable solutions were obtained for walking activity without including these components. Variation in the line of action of some shank muscle tendons relative to the foot. since this has a considerable influence upon the complexity of model that can be analysed. at least in the authors’ minds.AS-\TOMIC. tendon Of the twelve muscles acting across the Tc. anterior tibial. Prior to the interpretation of the anatomical data the possible strategies for solution were considered. for each group in turn. PAI L and I\TERPRET. PH(K‘TI.a.) = . who used a profile gauge to investigate the curvatures in the Tc. Root et al. (FPH)) (1) Reterence‘pmnts f. From these an equilibrium method was selected as the approach ofchoice. One important finding of the dissection exercises was that. joint (the profile gauge is a simple device used for example by glaziers in fitting glass or tiles to irregular profiles).. being either small or absent altogether.H J. In the analysis the components of each group (with the exception of the calf group. The effect of this assumption was assessed by a perturbation method in which it was assumed. 2 for the achilles tendon and the tendons of the anterior tibia1 and peroneus brevis muscles. The remaining muscles were combined into four groups based on phasic EMG evidence (University of California. these are still being developed and have been shown in some cases to predict muscle activity that conflicts with observed behaviour (Barbenel. axis was assumed to pass).\TIOS OF THE . there being greater doubts. with s. 1973). 1953) anatomical division and innervation (Warwick and Williams. The anatomical studies were therefore assessed with a view to reducing the unknown loads in the ankle to a level at which an equilibrium solution could be obtained. optimisation function methods and equilibrium Flex. peroneus longus and peroneus brevis respectively. points of least motion indicating the location of the axis (for example fixing of the tibia and rotating the talus in Rexionextension gave stationary points medially and laterally on the talar body. P. b = cross-sectional area of the peroneus brevis tendon. y and z being components. and Ten. 1971). Invasive techniques are clearly precluded on ethical grounds. Yeo. Rexion*xtension for different angles. In addition joint profile information was established using the contouring techniques described by Inman (1976). The assumption regarding tendon cross-section as a weighting factor was made in the absence of any other factor that was known to be a reliabte predictor of load sharing between co-operating muscles.fne of a&on a angle -degrees b c Fig. subscripts p pI_ and .~L STL DIES involved fixing one segment whilst rotating the adjoining segment. and calf.(a. fF4 + b. joint where {Fj denotes a forcevector. that only one member was active [this is the equivalent ofputting a = 1 and b = Oand then n = 0 and b = 1 in . As an example the total force exerted by the peroneal group was calculated as : {F. joints. Tc. concerning the use of the former two.. The data collected were simply averaged to provide one set of anthropometric data relative to an orthogonal axis system (for a standard&d orientation of the shank and foot corresponding to erect stance). 1976).628 P. where the component muscles share a common insertion into the calcaneus) were assigned weighting factors corresponding to their average tendon cross-section as a proportion of the whole area for the group. The nutscles Achilles tendon Antersor t. through which the Tc. joint motion obtaining in stance phase of normal locomotion (approximately 30” and 10’ respectively. 2. The options considered included invasive techniques.b.5” relative to the hindfoot segment.on-extemion degrees ! t. and a = cross-sectional area of the peroneus longus tendon. The relatively small deviations observed in the remaining tendons were mainly attributed to the constraining effects of the bony and retinacular pulleys (although the effects of embalming upon soft tissues cannot altogether be discounted). for the range of Tc. the plantaris and the peroneus tertius were neglected. the achilles tendon was the only tendon that changed its line of action by more than + 2.xed to the hlndfoat segment reiat. and Ten. The groups were peroneal. This is illustrated in Fig.H referring to peroneal group. 1972. posterior tibial.

with an origin situated midway between the medial and lateral malleoli. ?(a) and 3(b). 51. The Ten. forces nrrc’ divided into medial and lateral components actins through points on the Z Tc.Y and 1. Free body diagrams for the ankle . A component of the Tc. Their orientation with respect to the Tc. the definitions mean that both the Tc. axis was then defined by a vector normal to the YZ Tc. A similar procedure established the Ten. Calculations showed that these procedures had only a small influence on the solutions obtained in respect of resultant joint forces. system as fixed relative to the hindfoot segment. the origin for each system approx- bi Talus lree body Profiles of the Tc. 3(a). and Ten. As in the Tc. fleets were also treated as two compartments. axis system is illustrated in Fig. Both axis systems were defined relative to external bony points (annotated in Fig. The Tc. axis midway between the anterior and posterior talocalcaneal articulations. The Tc. about the Tc. Tc. The Ten. joint. The calf line of action was calculated. The Tc.0cm either side of the origin. was not considered). The calfgroup was the only group for kvhich the line of action was considered to change relative to the foot during walking activity. force into two components. The Ten. axis + l. joint facets are slightly bicondylar and the . The Tc. The X Tc.4TIOS OF THE \IODEL\ . This pave two components of S and Y Ten. axis system was defined as fixed relative to the shank segment and the Ten. The axes illustrated in Figs 3 and 4 are an instantaneous representation of the axes. The Tc. 4(a) (the possibility ofsplitting the Z Tc. The choice of points on each Z axis through which the joint force components were assumed to pass was not arbitrary. axis. and Ten. plane. a single component ofloint force was assumed to act along the Z Ten. posterior talocalcaneal and anterior talocalcanesl plus talonavicular. as a line passing between the origin areas of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and the insertion of both muscles via the achilles tendon into the posterior surface of the calcaneus. plane and passing through the origin (positive direction posterior to anterior). one for each joint system. 4(b)]. namely the talus alone and the talus plus hindfoot. flexion-extension axis was used as the Tc. The three other muscle groups were assumed to have constant orientation with respect to the hindfoot segment (see earlier comments under anthropometric studies). the lines of action and points of application being so similar within the defined groups. system 2 axis (positive direction medial to lateral). It was found that the centre axis of rotation approximately systems were made systems as defined ofcurvature and the coincided for each Fig. axes respectively. joint specifically oriented to the axis above. There was hokvever some e\ idencs LOsuggest incongruence at the Ten. system Z axis (positive direction anterior to posterior). system. joint force components were assumed to pass through points on the Z Ten. defined the YZ Tc. These definitions were necessary because the talus is inaccessible to surface markers. FOR\IC’L. The joint force systems were represented as shown in Fig.Ankle joint blomechanlcs 629 equation (I)] uith the remaining groups keeping their assigned weighting factors. Z axis together with a vector passing through the origin. one acting medially and the other laterally. system is shown in Fig. system. joint was estimated at any instant from the relative orientation of the shank and hindfoot segments. The general form of the ankle models. inversion-eversion axis was designated as the Ten. and Ten. for the position of the foot relative to the shank corresponding to erect stance. using the features discussed abobe. 3. their relative orientation changing through stance phase. axis as shown m Fig.i\D THEIR SOLC TlO\ Two internal axis systems were defined for the models. is illustrated in Figs. 4. perpendicular to the sole of the foot. force was assumed to act as a single force along the Z Tc. joint force [se? Fig. The origin here was defined as the point on the Ten. for each instant of locomotion stance phase analysed.Ocm either side of the origin. axes systems rotate relative to the talus during stance phase. The S and Y Ten. The ankle was treated as two ripid free body segments. 3(b). axis system. axis f2.

The subscripts are : . provides the Ten. E = external force measurement.I. due to the external force and to the muscle force.) = 0 where f F) and (M) denote force and moment vectors respectively (the equations are expressed in vector notation for brevity and each comprises three component equations corresponding to . In this model there are eleven unknowns and the only component for which there is no obvious balancing factor is the moment acting about the ZTcn... The five components of joint force acting in each system provide suflicient necessary components for the force actions transmitted by the joints. 4. The joint forces together with the four muscle groups comprise a total of fourteen unknowns for which there are only twelve equilibrium equations. system. imately divided the respective joint facets into two compartments and the pointseither side ofeach origin were chosen to be centrally situated in the compartments. = 0 (2) (3) camponAs Fig. Modified joint loading criteria and ligamen- where subscript Ten refers the JTc components to the Ten.630 P. _r and z directions). axis thus generating no Z com- .. Mark I model solutiort /’ Fy This was obtained in two stages: (i) the equilibrium solution for the Tc. joint forces and residual moment. In this model there are twelve unknowns. and subscript JTm designates Ten. using the talar free body.d. (ii) the equilibrium solution for the Ten. axis. the relevant group being selected according to the sign of the external moment acting about the Z Tc.. The criterion chosen for the inclusion of one or other of these groups was the sign of the Ten. The joint force components may now be calculated. The actual dimensions used were based upon the cadaver data. residual moment. This moment was assigned the name Ten.) {M.ALI tous constraint were considered. Since there is a possibility that these two groups act as antagonists the solutions obtained are probably a minimum in respect of muscle and joint forces. and the tension generated by either the calf or anterior tibia1 group. The Z Ten.: = 0 (4) (5) rem+ (MJTcni = 0 This included an equiiibrant for the Ten.. moment equation contains only one component.: {&I.. system. that due to the Tc. Equation (3) hasonly twocontributions to its Z component. joint force. the joint force being assumed to pass through the Z Tc. The sign of the external moment Z component then indicates which of the anterior tibia1 or calf group should be selected (tensile force being assumed to act in tendon). P.) Tm + {F. bringing the total to twelve. axis has no moment about this axis. PK(KTI.Y. axis of the ankle in stance phase) and were neglected. joint force resultant (it was assumed that the Ten. but there is both EMG and clinical evidence to suggest that muscle force from either the posterior tibia1 or peroneal groups is the factor most likely to balance the residual moment in the Mark I model. Force actions assumed in the joint models. The Mnrk II model + {M. It effectively adds one more unknown. c) + IF.. residual moment when referred to the right hand side of equation (5): in this case positive moment indicates peronsal activity and negative moment posterior tibia1 activity.-i + {M.) + {F. The Tc. system using the talus plus hindfoot free body. Body segment inertial contributions to the moment equations were estimated to be small (typically 1.. The phasic EMG evidence indicates that these groups divide in their stance phase activity. joint force resultant passed through the Z Ten. . joint forces acting upon the superior talar facets.. JTc = Tc. The Ten..-it/C = anterior tibia1 or calf group. The Mark I model In this model either the calf group or the anterior tibia1 group were active.0 N m maximum acts about the Z Tc.Kand . This yields the Tc. equilibrium equations are: forces: moments: (F. residual moment. joint force... Two possible models were formulated.. axis. equilibrium equations are given as: forces: moments: {F. P.

moment contributions being negligible at the point where activity sivitches from anterior tibia1 to calf). residual moment. was earlier referred to as the and equation .: = -(IF. All the calculations involved were performed using FORTRAN programs written for an ICL 1900 series computer. Three orthogonally placed tine cameras (Bolex Paillard) filmed the subjects at fifty frames per second.. True three-dimensional space coordinates Mere subsequently calculated. the cadaver data being scaled to fit the living subjects on a basis of uniform dilatation as used by Morrison (1970).(lXl. The kinematic data was filtered at 10 Hz using a 4th order Butterworth filter. The solution for the joint force components proceeds as for the Mark I model.:\ ii\es systems defined for the kinematic analysis. (9) This \ras obtained in a similar way but this time equations 17) and (31 contain an additional unknown due either to the peroneal or to the posterior tibia1 group component : these equations become : forces: moments: IF . however one of their reconstructions with only 7 harmonics compares very well with the original signal over the stance phase period : 10 Hz was therefore considered acceptable. Equation (4) can novv be vvritten. systems were calculated relative to the external laboratory system.: 15 ). after correcting for parallax and errors introduced by the camera lens and shutter mechanism...:) (7) The Z Tc. It was known from the sign of the Ten. defined the position and orientation of the Tc. This component Ten. and Ten. (-1 + :>I..Ankle joint bivmechanics ponrnt ). these are both shown in Fig. Seven normal male subjects were studied during normal locomotion activity (ages ranged from twenty to thirty years). (: + :\1. The left hand sides ofequations (6) and (7) are the Tc.: = 0.L.. The external forces could therefore be related directly to the Tc. moment equation of (9) contains the same two unknowns (there being no Z moment components due to the joint forces in either case) thus simultaneous solution of both equations gives the two muscle forces..i + :F.. system.4n external shank system.4L PROCEDURES where subscript P Pr refers to peroneal or posterior tibia1 group. Force measurements of stance phase forces were made using a Kistler force platform.xtsrn...))(6) ~>l.. joint force contributions. systems. The origin and principle axes of the laboratory system coincided with those of the Kistler force platform. using equation (7).zi + .”L :Yl.. . using equation (6).. as: Fis. j E. The coordinates of the marked points were recovered from the films using a D-Mac trace analyser. whose coordinates relative to this origin were known. Frame by frame the orientation and position of the Tc. .‘. . Thus equations (6) and (7) could be written in terms of the approprtate unknown muscle forces. moment equation of (7) contains only two unknown muscle forces and the Z Ten. and Ten. the right hand sides can therefore bc substituted for the Tc. with equations (6) and (8).>\I .. their Z Tc. based upon a lateral malleolar origin. An external hindfoot system defined the position and orientation of the Ten.: f :F. the output from which was sampled at 50 Hz and stored on tape by a PDP 12 digital computer. Two slternal marker systems were defined from the kinematic data. residual moment lvhich of the peroneal or posterior tibia1 groups were active. simultaneously visible to all three cameras. THE ESPERISIE5T. . Zarrugh and Radcliffe (1979) considered that 20 harmonics were necessary for adequate signal reconstruction in the case olankle joint rotation. The kinematic data for the motion of the limb segments was obtained from tine film of bony point markers. The kinematic data were related to the force platform origin via a marker. joint force components of equations (4) and (5) respectively.-~~ = . From the Mark I solution it was already known which of either the calf or anterior tibiai group was active (the inclusion of either of the other two muscle groups was found not to affect this.<.. prior to the calculation of the external reference systems. 5.. as: 631 + :s1 (. axis system and associated internal structures.

-. 6(b)].. Secondly the Ten.mark I model ml 0 50% 100% stonce in the Mark II model. These observations suggest that balancing factors that influence both Tc. -------. residual moment. joint force resultant cl Summary EMG.... 7. residual moment. Fig. reported for the peronealiposterior tibia1 muscles. the lateral compartment Tc. joint force vertical component changed abruptly from compressive to tensile and then back again at 857. joint systems. residual loads and act on the Tc. again at 85% stance. -t bl Ten.. 6. acting medially and laterally. This is clearly unacceptable since the joint force can only be compressive.. are absent. Ten. which was small for the first SO’. 6(a).. residual moment . California study (1953) show that peaks in the activity of both groups occur in late stance.... joint lateral compartment vertical force for Mark I and II models. P. The only major elements missing from the Mark I model that are able to simultaneously provide equilibrium for the Ten. The EMG results obtained by the University of peak in the bl Postertor facet Fig. P \L L Mark I I model 8CC A Tensile KEY TO SUBJECTS . Firstly. 2 -. Key . of stance phase. joint are the peroneal and posterior tibia1 muscle groups. and Ten. suddenly peaked to 35540N m at 85% stance [see Fig. 8. A further piece ofevidence from the results was that for one subject a tensile peak was observed in the medial compartment Tc. -_-.-. 5 6 I. namely that reduced activity in the posterior RESULTS AND IX3XSSION Two factors observed in the results indicated that the Mark I model was incomplete. (a) Comparison of the Tc. Tc. curves- Unwers~ ty of Callfornla Fig. residual moment and the EMG.(b) and (c)Illustration of the similarity between the Ten. shown in Fig. [The University of California results are summary curves and through this an important observation may have been obscured. II model.:< ofstance (range O-5 N m). joint force vertical component coinciding with a marked negative Ten.632 P._ . joint force resultants in the Mark to subjects as in Fig.: --- -t ci Tc ]olnt lateral compartment veti~cal force. PK(X‘TI:K and J. 7..

There was only one case where the Mark II model was found to have in Fig. 1979). Key to tibia1 group may be associated with increased peroneal group activity and vice versa . and Ten. joint forces show similar peak characterlstics [see Fig. Unfortunately an X-ray study of normal subjects was not possible. joint force passed marginally outside the joint bounds as defined by the cadaver studies. but this is undoubtedly due to the assumption that no antagonistic activity occurs between these groups. joint forces show three distinct peaks. II model. IO) if account is taken of the latenq period. The B peak is associated with the anterior tibia] group activity. 6(c)]. 7 and 8. and Ten. B and C in Figs. 7. The phasic activity of the calf and anterior tibia] groups corresponds closely with published EMG results (compared in Fig. The A peak is part of the “passive” response of the foot to the heelstrike event (Nigg er (11. 6(c)]. It may have been that this subject had slightly larger Tc. The results for the prroneal and posterior tibia1 muscles do not show such close correspondence in respect of phasic activity. joint profiles than suggested by the cadaver study. 6(a)]. This is followed by a sudden peak in peroneal force (in one subject posterior tibia1 I.) for the first half of stance phase. hereafter B. The probable error due to anthropometric\ariation and the assumed load sharing between muscle groups cu]atcd Table I. nnnoted A. The peak forces observed and their ranges are tabulated for the Tc. see Fig. Magnltudesandphnsingofthepeak resultant forces . but play an important role in stabilising the Ten. for one subject at very late stance the Tc. S. There is a striking similarity in the overall appearance of the peroneal group tunes of Fig. The Tc. The anterior and posterior compartment Ten. 9. 9 and the envelope curves for EMG of the Cniversity of California [these curves are reproduced in Fig.5 times body weight. The associated muscle group forces are presented in Fig. the Tc. The resultant forcces cd for the Ts. This provided acceptable solutions at the point where the Mark I model failed. The dip between the B and C peaks coincides with the transfer from anterior tibiai to calf group activity. whilst the C peak is in response to the calf muscles plus the late stance phase force peak obsensd in the peroneal group. and Ten. joint vertical force components bein: compressive throughout stance phase [see Fig.Ankle Joint blomechanlcs 633 +t FIG 9 Muscle group forces in the Mark subjects . joint..W. The peroneal and posterior tibia] muscle groups show low levels of activity (range O-O. 7 and 8. The Mark II model was formulated as described above and solved. joint tlexion-extension control. joints and the muscle groups in Table 1. joints are presented for normal locomotion of seven test subjects in Figs. The prevailing clinical view is that the peroneal and posterior tibia] groups ha!e little effect upon Tc.

In C/itti& Biomechics. mean peak were estimated and the group was active up to 25”/. N. and Frankel.B. R. (1974) Force analysis of the ankle joint during the stance phase of gait. Iasr. Symp. V.W.7 B.E. Isman. Longman. Orthop.lo. The differences may be due in part to the problem of relating the external force system to internal structures whose exact position can only be estimated . B. Clinical Biomechanics Corporation. Sv. The Mark II model shows promise as a suitable vehicle for the study of effects of ankle pathology upon gait..vle~llleatp. mean in the present study. (1972) The biomechanics dibular joint-a theoretical study. Alliance for Engineers. and may be useful in the assessment of different types of ankle endoprostheses. Bull.W. StauNer. A later model used by Stauffer et al. recently submitted to the University of Strathclyde (Procter. Fig. muscle groups Acli. (19771 Force and motion analysis of the normal.. PALL force was less than 0. J.FV. B. E./ Res. Bi~rnechratic~s 5. this is a general problem that affects all such studies. These differences may be due to different walking velocities or to assumptions necessary in the two-dimensional analysis of Brewster and colleagues regarding Tc. axis orientation and position. E.0 B.2 B. and Brewster. Amrt. This gave an overall estimate ofvariation due to experimental error. Denoth. Sot. 1980). (1977) neglected the contribution of the anterior tibia1 group on the grounds that its peak . (1980) Ankle joint biomechanics. 1171/r A. Williams and Wilkins. 87. Y. Udine. F. V. 345-357. and that it was only active for the first lo”. L’rtir. Glasgow. M. (1973) (Editors) Grtq’s Amrrmn~ 35th Ed. The Mark II model. Zarrugh. tnman. J. 80. Engag Res. The authors wish to acknowledge the support of a British Science Research Council studentship during this study. (1976) Investigations concerning the principle of minimal muscular force. is somewhat less than that reported by Brewster et al. J. J. the calf group apparently being active for the whole of stance phase. PaocTEa and J. It might be expected that in level surface walking ligamentous loading would be minimal. P. Morrison. and StauNer. 127. T. of the temperomanJ. A Mark III model which includes the medial and lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle is currently under development. and Inman. Ser. 10. cadaver anthropometric data and individual subject variability of *20-25’x. The peak joint force for the Tc. H. Am.W.OB. joint force loading. Warwick. study indicates substantial anterior Brewster. REFERESCES Barbenel. 97-129.634 P. (1974) (4. London.D thesis. I-the joints.5-5. and Neukomm. H. Iss. W. R. University of Strathclyde. 397-410. C.C. Manter. J. Ph. Bicv?feclrLl/lics12. J. 1899196. E. The model of Brewster et al. (1950) The forces and moments in the leg during level walking.5 B. (1969) Anthropometric studies of the human foot and ankle. J.~lking. gave acceptable solutions for stance phase joint and muscle forces without the inclusion of ligamentous constraint. Los Angeles.). range).W.lrs-This work is part oi a Ph. Trcots. The tibia1 present activity. Bionwchtuti~ s 9. CONCLUDING COMMEKTS Bresler. frosrlt. prosth. M. Chao. Yeo. P. Baltimore. P. mean (2. (1979) Computer generation of human gait kinematics. C. the same source reported 3. 3. mean peak achilles tendon force compared with 2. T. M.5 B. Philadelphia. Biwnechmcs 3. L.. of stance phase (a result clearly at variance with the findings of the present study). rrteclt. The variation due to natural fluctuations in gait determinants was estimated as + IO’ib. Procter. and Williams. T. Man Under Vibration. B. (19-l I Sormal and abnormal function of the foot.9-4. R. Rec. Vol. W. Awr. (1970) The mechanics of the knee joint in relation to normal walking. Italy. The Mark I model was physiologically unacceptable in respect of Tc. did not include this group.W. 99-111. (1941) Movements of the subtalar and transverse tarsal joints.. L. diseased and prosthetic ankle joint. J. Nigg. A comparison between the temporal activity of the in the Mark II model and that reported horn EMG studies. and Weed. 2.9 B. J. J. Co/$ Berkziex. C. t 1979)The load on the upper extremities in selected sports activities. C. University of California (1953) The pattern of muscular activity in the lower extremity during v.W. Proj. Orien. R.D thesis was thought to be no worse than & lO_15?/. P. R. J. Y. C/h. a more realistic representation of the ankle joint musculoskeletal system. (1953) The mechanics of the foot. stance on average. 27-36. II 3-416. A. 51-61. The analysis presented in this paper is considsrably simpler than that required for joints higher in the leg where inertial contributions of the limb segments must be taken into account. Int. P. and RadcliNe..M. P. P. Chao. 251-256. Enyrs 12. B. Root. 25. joint. This model was used to investigate the behaviour of the normal ankle joint whilst walking upon planes sloping sideways at + 10’ and the results of this study aill be published in a later paper. Rex IO! II. Del. Y. Hicks. forces of 1. Il. (1976) The Joiuts ojrhe Ankle.

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