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EXECUTED AND PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF LELAND STANFORD BOSTON JAMES R.M.V WHICH IS DEMONSTRATED THE THEORY OP QUADRUPEDAL LOCOMOTION BY J.. A. D. OSGOOD AND COMPANY 1882 .THE HORSE AS IN MOTION SHOWN BY INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY WITH A STUDY ON ANIMAL MECHANICS FOUNDED ON ANATOMY AND THE REVELATIONS OF THE CAMERA /. B. STILLMAN. M.D.
1SS1.Copyright. BY LELAND STANFORD. . UNIVERSITY PRESS: JOHN WILSON AND SON. CAMBRIDGE.
to The time occupied in taking each of these calculated be not more than the five-thousandth part is a second. the number of cameras was afterwards increased to twenty-four. to For this purpose was necessary review the whole subject of the locoI motive machinery of the horse. to institute a series of experiments to that end. MUYBRIDGE. J. these experiments were When I publish the results. camera could be utilized to and by instantaneous pictures show the actual position of the limbs at each instant of the stride. this The method adopted described in the Appendix volume. I HAVE for a long time entertained the opinion that the accepted theory of the relative positions of the feet of horses in rapid motion was erroneous. but the facts was not contemplated to revealed seemed so important that it made determined it to have a careful analysis made of them. B. employed Dr. by which means as many views were taken of the progressive move- ments views of to of is the horse. viction I Under this con- employed Mr.*7 5 /e PREFACE. STILLMAN. D. a very skilful photographer. whom I believed to be capable of the undertaking. The result has been that much instructive information on the mechanism of the horse has been revealed. Beginning with one. . demonstrate that I also believed that the fact. which cient importance to be preserved is believed to be new and of suffi- and published.
The facts demonstrated cannot fail. to modify the opinions generally entertained by many. iSSi. PALO ALTO FARM. LELAND STANFORD. as they become more generally known. for the was the interest felt in the action of that animal that led to the experiments. it would seem.IV PREFACE. . and. The HORSE reason that it IN MOTION is the title chosen for the book . CALIFORNIA. will be seen that the same law it governs the movements of most other quadrupeds. and must be determined by their anatomical structure. the results of which are here published. to have their influence on art. though on the paces and the interest wakened of led to similar investigations It movements other animals.
Semi-membranosus. The Law Organs of Repair in Muscles and Tendons. Interference and Stifle AcElongation and Contraction of the Limbs. etc. Necessity of Technical Terms. The Trapesius and Yellow Cord. involved in the Construction of the Skeleton. The Order . of the Anterior Extremity to the - Centre of Motion. made to conform Beauty in the Form of Organized Beings 22 CHAPTER Special Anatomy. Tensor Vaginas Femoris. of Action in the Various Muscles of the Posterior Extremity in Locomotion 35 CHAPTER The Comparison IV. Its Three Characters of Crutch. Spokes of a Wheel considered.CONTENTS. PAGE 9 CHAPTER The Horse considered tion. and Mechanical. Utility Relation of the to Form of to their Functions. ductor. The Great Serratus. The Per- forans and Perforatus Muscles and their Tendons.i . Voluntary and the Joints. Semi-tendinosus. regarding Articular Ligaments. The Ilio spinalis. teus. . Anatomical.II. Great Gluteus. nition III. Necessity of understanding its ConstrucPrin- Physiological and Anatomical Facts. Deep GluGreat AdTriceps of Muscles. Levator Angu'. Muscles. ciples General Architectural Vertebra. Of General Facts. The Adduction and Abduction Automatic Action in Femoris. CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY I. Gracilis. The the Cartilages and Ligaments. tion. Defi- of Terms. Physiological. and Active Automaton. Small Adductor. Sartorius. Gastrocnemii. Difficulties in the U'ay of determining the Amount of Work done by Muscles. Pectineus. The The Muscles. Passive Tool. Psoas magnus. Involuntary. Suspensory Ligament. Iliacus. The Action of the Hock Joint to prevent Interference. Tendons. the Hind Leg. Long Vastus. Its Double Character of Tendon and Muscle. as a Machine.
humeralis as an The Mastoido Great Dorsal and Pectoral as Propellers. Il8 APPENDIX I2 3 . a Horse from breaking into Fast Trotting cultivated in America in Thoroughbreds. What is the Gallop? Objections of Artists answered. not to Quadrupeds. flex the Shoulder. The Function of the Triceps in resisting the Fall of the Locomotion. in the Pace known as Single-Foot IO S CHAPTER ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES VII. V. Elements of Speed CHAPTER Influence of Gravity constant. Analysis of the Movements of the Mechanical Points desirable in a Horse for Speed or Anterior Extremity. Why the Flexor Tendons of the Fore Legs are more liable to be injured in the Run. The Difficulty to be Distinction between a Step and a Stride. Why Boxers and Others liable to suddenly on the Defence have their semi-flexed. in the Leap. to be apprehended Correspondence in the Action of the the Trot. Analysis of the Run. The Danger Action in the Leap described. The same in all the Domestic Animals. accelerated. in The Pair of Muscles that The Muscles of the Shoulder-Blade. Momentum Locomotion. Long Levers. but a Habit. Body and Action. Extensor. The Bound of the Deer. Why Quadrupeds Limbs from Recumbe placed 60 bent Positions with Difficulty. The Law of Falling Bodies and its Application to is The nearer the Trajectory of the Centre of Gravity to a Straight Line the more perfect the Locomotion. Truth must prevail 83 over Conventionalism." Trot. The Theory of Quadrupedal Locomotion stated. cable to Bipeds.vi CONTENTS. Strength. Difficulty in restraining Difference in the Action in the Trot and the Run. a Run explained. or Pacing. Theory and Mechanical Action in the Trotting not Hereditary. " Definition of the Walk appliThe Action in Ambling. The Canter CHAPTER The Leap not VI. PAGE The Trachelo subscapularis. High Obstacles to a Full Understanding of the Functions of the Loco- motive Muscles removed by the Camera. The Action The Action in the Walk. Action in Leap and the Deer in the Bound. its Function hitherto unknown. Scapulae. properly a Pace. Low Centres of Motion. Comparison between rise the Anterior and Posterior Extremities. Horse in the encountered in increasing the Speed of Trotters. Function of the Flexors of the Forearm. The Standing Leap.
rafotngs. Ox RUNNING XXII. Two HOUNDS RUNNING AT UNEQUAL RATES XXI. DEEP LOCOMOTIVE MUSCLES SHOWN THE HAUNCH. PAGE I. STEER RUNNING XIX. GREYHOUND RUNNING GREYHOUND RUNNING . 36 SUPERFICIAL LOCOMOTIVE MUSCLES EXPOSED IV." RUNNING "FLORENCE A. "MOHAMMED" RUNNING "HATTiE H. WITH THE SARTORIUS AND GRACILIS REMOVED 38 40 42 42 VIII. VII. 63 XII. ARRANGEMENT OF THE CAMERAS FOR TAKING THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES (Heliotype) Frontispiece II. XVI." RUNNING (Heliotype) XIV. REFERENCE PLATE 26 Colored III. IX. XX. SHOWING AUTOMATIC ACTION OF THE HOCK AND STIFLE JOINTS INTERNAL VIEW OF THE ANTERIOR EXTREMITY 44 46 X. XV. VI.LIST OF PLATES. ." RUNNING 98 98 98 98 98 98 XVIII. THE DEEPEST MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH EXPOSED POSTERIOR VIEW OF THE MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH VIEW OF THE POSTERIOR EXTREMITY. V. XVII. 48 XI. WITH THE GREAT VASTUS REMOVED INTERNAL VIEW OF THE MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH INTERNAL VIEW OF THE MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH. "PHRYNE" RUNNING "FLORENCE A. SKELETON OF THE HORSE. SKELETON OF THE HORSE IN RUNNING POSITIONS 74 gS 98 98 98 XIII.
-CV. LIV. CVI. XLII. "SHARON. XXX." UNSETTLED TO A RUN .Vlll LIST OF PLATES. XXXVII." SINGLE. MOTION . XXXVI. HORSE HAULING IRREGULAR HAULING LV. . XXXI. Ox TROTTING BOAR TROTTING SKELETON OF THE HORSE IN 112 112 TROTTING POSITIONS 112 XLIX. LI I. XXIV. . Ox WALKING Cow WALKING 114 IRREGULARLY. DEER BOUNDING DEER BOUNDING CONVENTIONAL POSITIONS OF HORSES CONVENTIONAL POSITIONS OF IN 98 98 XXV. BEING DRIVEN (SEE PLATE XLVII. 102 102 HOG AND DEER RUNNING "MOHAMMED" CANTERING "FRANKIE" LEAPING A HURDLE "FRANKIE" LEAPING A HURDLE "PHRYNE" LEAPING "PHRYNE" LEAPING "PHRYNE" AFTER LEAPING 104 106 XXIX. LIII. XL. ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES 118 .FOOT LVII. OR AMBLING 114 114 "SHARON" WALKING LI. XXVI. VIEW OF THE TWENTY-FOUR CAMERAS IN POSITION (Hdiotype) VIEW OF THE BACKGROUND AND ARRANGEMENT FOR MEASURING THE STRIDES (Hdiotype) 123 124 . XLVII. CVII. XLI. XXXVIII. . XXVII. PACE XXIII. XXXIX. XXXII. "XXVIII. LVI. "EDGERTON" TROTTING "ELAINE" TROTTING (Hdiotype) 112 112 "EDGERTON" TROTTING "CLAY" TROTTING "OCCIDENT" TROTTING 112 112 112 WALK CHANGING TO A TROT A FOUR-MONTHS' COLT BREAKING FROM A TROT BREAK FROM A TROT TO A RUN "PHRYNE" UNSETTLED "HATTIE H. L. XLIII. 112 112 112 112 XLIV. XLVI. XLVIII. XXXIII. XXXV. HORSE PACING. XLV.) 114 114 114 114 114 BOAR WALKING. 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 112 "PHRYNE" AFTER PASSING THE HURDLE STANDING LEAP SKELETON OF A HORSE IN LEAPING POSITIONS XXXIV.
there a that could lead infer that the horse was known Egyptians of that early age. holds the most important relations to Though the earliest traces of his existence on the globe are found as fossils in North America. but in we have no evidence that Africa before the time of Rameses and tombs of Memphis. and it is probable that that is the oldest of the sacred writings of the Hebrews. They were undoubtand hardy. through the Moors small. ples Sais. .THE HORSE IN MOTION. CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY. . I. in India older than the dawn of Buddh. The genera were well represented in Africa and the deserts of Arabia. There was no representative of the race living in America at the time of the discovery of the New World. us to the First Empire. after the wars with the Persians. book and that curious production. previous to the invasion of Texas. active. edly of Arabian stock. and its descendants became feral on the Prairies of North and the Pampas of South America. Nowhere of in Eighteenth all the temis Abydos. but it was introduced by Columbus and his followers. or about before our era. in the Dynasty. sculpture to the the historic horse was known the Great. the There are no sculptures five is centuries The oldest written account of the horse is found in a very spirited description of a war-horse. though there is no clew to the date or origin of that of Job. of the human family. all animals. THE Horse. as an historical character he is traced to Central Asia with the Caucasian race. Their descendants were very numerous in what were the northern provinces of Mexico.
and the most efficient agent of have no history that is not interwoven with his. and mathematically formulated them. by means of apparatus attached to the feet." "Encyclopaedia of much by the author of Anatomy and Physiology. Vital force was as yet unknown. the relative importance of the horse as a factor in the progress of civilization has been reduced by the introduction of steam cannot be forgotten that he has been the constant companion of the Caucasian race in all its migrations. paces correctly. Professor Marey has contributed the result of many laborious and painstaking experiments on the slow paces.10 THE HORSE Though IN MOTION. thought it necessary that he should not confound flesh and muscle. thought not unworthy his investigation it but dur- with all other rational questions. attention of philosophers from ancient times. and time a chart could be made of and by the system of notation But it failed to interpret the the paces. named Weber. if We conquests. all and treated the subject as a physical science. Anatomy was studied and taught in the schools. it the father of Philosophy. of the footfalls This apparatus would determine the force of pressure. who in the are quoted "Animal Motion. or furnish the basis of a theory of quadrupedal locomotion." followed Borelli on the purely physical theory of Animal Motion. and attention became directed to that of our subject but even Borelli. Two brothers. and published the work on later writers Animal Mechanics that most have drawn upon. dispensable ally in its all civilization. and Science woke from her slumber. was lost to human thought the intellects of ing the long reign of religious bigotry. its and by some sudden cataclysm he should be eliminated. who wrote about two hundred . mankind. and deduced its laws from the motions of the pendulum. Whatever concerns him will never cease to interest The the interest in the paces of the horse is not new : it had engaged Aristotle. and connected by elastic tubes with registers in the hands of the rider. years ago. . When men were again set free. The importance of the subject had been fully appreciated by . an inin it our century. we should then be made to realize how indispensable he still is to our business and pleasure.
whose movements all are so open. and give rise to controversies as earnest as did the colors of the chaAll attempts hitherto made to analyze these meleon in the fable. whether in a gallop the legs were stretched out fore and aft." Bishop." says: "The study of the mechanism of which the locomotive organs of animals is composed. tance to a large number of persons engaged in special pursuits. II him.THE HORSE IN MOTION. movements have them . ground . and the facts have been most difficult to obtain. the author of the article on "Animal Motion" in the "Encyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. the mind is unable to distinguish the impressions conveyed to it through the eye. represented in motion. of the laws by which their progression the vital force which they is accomplished. as in many controverted questions. of a sea All were dabbling in the shallow waters of exploring. and of expend in propelling the body from one with different velocities. both of the ancient and modern world. whose depths there was no known method and . seems to many unaccountable. Any one who proposed time to write a treatise on the paces of the horse would have to discuss many different opinions put forward at the present by a great number of authors. the artist and the mechaniIgnorance of these laws has been productive of grotesque delineations of the human figure as well as of the lower animals. for it is not possible for the eye to distinguish or rather. as appears in the following quotation from his work on Animal Mechanics " : There is scarcely which has given rise to any branch of animal mechanics more labor and greater controversy than the The subject is of great imporquestion of the paces of the horse. that the horse. when cian. Controversies were going on to the last as to which foot was advanced first in the trot whether the toe or heel first touched the . to state the case more accurately. We have abundant evidence of this in the productions of painters and sculptors. or the knees were flexed. is to determine the facts. failed. should play such a leger-de-pied as to deceive eyes." The It difficulty in this. but its extreme complexity has caused interminable discussion. serves to interest point in space to another alike the anatomist and the physiologist.
at a glance to conceive how the eye could be so deceived but a little consideration of the physiology of that organ no dependence can be placed on it to interpret the motion of an object moving irregularly. as well as all others that . with the full accord of and our own eyes confirm the tradition. It is difficult . These 1 . they are heard. as that of the flash of an electric spark. are proved by the unerring finger of light to be incorrect as mechanical anatomy.12 THE HORSE of all IN MOTION. and the mind is incapable of distinguishing between impression and the last made during that space of time. ignited. or a millionth It part of a second. that the artists of all time. has been shown that the retina of the eye is capable of receiving a distinct image of an object in an almost inconceivably short space of time. furnished by the spokes of a wheel in motion yet these spokes will appear stationary. rapidly. represent the horse in galloping as extending his feet to the utmost. it is only necessary to look at the productions of the best animal painters of our day. a continuous line of Here there is a continuous line of impressions to the made upon the retina. but not distinguished. To understand how artists progress has been made in modern times. conveyed mind. degrees fell into the false and conventional manner of representing animals in rapid motion. had it been properly consultec would have demonstrated to be impossible. My answer is this : We now know . and moved fire will appear. The same it is is true of the auditory nerve when vibrations of air are too rapid. and that the impression remains for the space of a third to a seventh of a second. as untrue as were the Greek conceptions on the subject thirty centuries ago. they are suddenly illuminated by an electric flash or if the end of a stick be phenomenon is . The reader all may ask why men. this A familiar illustration of . and so . even at a comparatively slow will teach us that rate of speed. if. positions. little Why present ? is it that there have been such widely different interpre- tations of these movements from the time of Aristotle down to the have been represented. revolving in the dark.. according to the experiments of D'Arcy and and Plateau the first . the images run together and are confused. as seen in all the pictures of horses racing.
when so studied it will be found that all the parts are mutually dependent. while the action and relation have been treated as of secondary importance It has not been possible to study the action or altogether neglected. and the feet have been differently shod to distinguish the impression made by each foot upon the ground. that in the gallop the horse always to the same extent. nnd their image dwells longer upon the retina. each giving a different sound. portrayed by the best artists and the explanation that I have to offer moves his feet alternately. sible that it Indeed. that the forces pound and often action indirect. as well as men.THE HORSE that it IN MOTION. it how was it pos- should have been otherwise. 13 is not true that a horse ever did put himself in the position . cause that so many errors and contradictions found in all authorities all of them is that have been consulted are to be ascribed. and the impressions are more lasting than of the intermediate and more rapid movements which the mind is unable to distinguish any more than the order in which they are made. as such. All the systematic works on the the plan of anatomy of the horse have followed those on human anatomy. the intelligent treatment of the diseases which horses. which must be considered as a unit. of the muscles singly without falling into errors the correlation of . and is. When thus considered it will be found that the horse in motion is as perfectly harmonious in the dis- . and apparently for the same purand accidents to liable. are of the machine. so long as ? was not known what those actions were The progressive motions of a quadruped. namely. as the action better understood from the revelations of the camera. is understanding of the forces employed and their This necessity has now become more imperative. The study of the mechanical anatomy of the horse is a necessity in been attached to the order to a proper combined action. are very complex . pose. Others have studied the footprints. It is to this necessary to the understanding of any one. employed are comand that the compensation of one indirect may be found quite remote. feet by the rhythm of the strike the ground and bells have . at the limit of extension there is a change of direction given to them. The ear has been relied upon to determine footfalls the order in which the feet.
acts. and where they are employed they popular ones as far as they are known. to such it is of little consequence whether the action direct by muscular attachments fibrous tissue. It is very desirable that it should be understood by every one who is interested in his achievements. The writer thinks himself warranted in the assertion that the correct can it be expected that one will interpretation of the mechanical action of the horse cannot be obtained from any existing work. When. human anatomy had . cultivation of science. who be important to the anatomist or surgeon but to those desire to understand the mechanical action it is a matter of indif- may ference. It cannot be expected that many of those persons who are inter- ested in the cal movements of the horse will be familiar with the anatomi- terms necessary to be used in the description of the simplest motion. rectly give to bones. technical terms will be emitted as far as possible. be able to comprehend a full stride from any analysis that can be given without such knowledge. or indirect I In all cases through facia or other shall use such terms as will most cor- my meaning is in the interpretation of their action. often The muscles were named from their supposed function. already received much the principal organs. and it cannot be made intelligible without them much less .14 THE HORSE IN MOTION. in the study of the Another source tion in of confusion muscles of mo- quadrupeds attract the conflicting names given to them. anatomy on the restoration began to all of the the attention attention. and a fatal bar to the comprehension of the is subject . and names had been bestowed upon Some of them were purely fanciful others were based on their resemblance to other objects. will be accompanied by One function of the sources of difficulty to the non-professional student is the distinctive is names given to different tissues whose mechanical the same. comparative of naturalists. To facilitate this study. Whether a muscle has its termination in facia it aponeurosis or at the bone on which directly. and by artists as well. play of his forces and their balance as a steam hammer. or their correspondence to . which may be adjusted to a force sufficient to forge a shaft for an ocean steamer or to crack a nut. very perplexing. either directly or in.
" In using the term higher orders of animals. based on their supposed uses." he follows custom. then court we might . for if had depended upon life long struggle for speed in locomotion. and the mind of the student constantly biassed by this correspondence of names to muscles that do not have It may be taken for granted that organs corresponding functions. must dissect for themselves. This last has been the most is source of confusion. It may seem presumptuous to compare objects. He does not shrink from the use of terms that imply an intelligent Creator and all-pervading Spirit. established the foundations of the earth. later authorities Some of the have attempted a reform in the nomenclature of the muscles. and he wishes it understood that he uses that term in its literal and highest signification. have taken his place in the earliest paleontological deposits. in incomprehensible wisdom and power. like a crab. and in each the organisms are just such as best serve the offices which they were designed to perform. will Anatomy locomotion . infinite there must be a limit. who. and who. and have only added to the pre- vious contusion. If that distinction is founded on the complexity of his locomotive powers or organization. was made to go sidevvise. be treated no further than is necessary to demonstrate and those who would pursue it further. and those who would be more minute in their knowledge of structure. and so in will have frequent necessity for doing describing the complicated of which locomotion in the higher orders of mechanism by means animals is effected. The finite cannot comprehend the in the nature of things. that it Adductors and abductors have been so multiplied would seem that a horse.THE HORSE muscles found ful IN MOTION. through which he must have passed. If physical science could determine the to its laws of is hyperphysical. have the same diversity of form in man and animals as there is diversity of function. to all inquiry into the phenomena that which of life. he would. 15 fruit- in the human body. the lowest of which are beyond our comprehension. from the beginning. has fixed the laws which govern the organic world from the beginning through all its changes. then his preservation in the man could not justly claim the his first rank. . The writer has already had occasion to allude to design.
as in the exact sciences ? . is it falls with more than the all force of gravity. but when that is arm descends. whatever nature. with a tendency to variation by imperceptible existence degrees in every direction. and is But in say where it will end ? the knowledge of the laws which govern the origin of life. and who can form becomes altered or modified by the altered conditions of it has made no progress since the days of Job. and formulate it. and algebraic expressions could represent the unknown quantities. but " when I am mad is weigh a ton. its life. as a cell possessing certain inherent tendencies to develop by aggregation into other and higher forms. " whom I ordinarily I he inquired his weight. vital There a power that must enter into our estimates of force. weigh it. If physical science could establish the laws and solve all the questions phenomena. the useful variations favoring the This idea has become familiar of the individuals possessing them. Well. and that the will. To pans asinorum all the old They would test vital force by the this laws governing the motion of the pendulum or those of gravity. writers on animal mechanics came.1 6 all THE HORSE cases IN MOTION. the task would be easy. or aesthetical questions." that science has The progress still made in every department. and form carry involving ethical might be confounded with color. stranweigh two hundred and thirty pounds. and of ger. We could calculate the force of the right arm of a warrior as we could that arise in the investigation of vital the weight of his sword . of ficial means. a story of a countryman who attracted the attention of a traveller by the fine physical development Thomas Starr King used to tell he displayed. The whole although it is question of life receiving at this mystery. There are not many who deny that organic forms may be modified within certain limits by artiThere are many who believe that all organic beings. had their origin in the most rudimentary element. the vital organs and their functions. time the concentrated attention of the and vital force is still a great most intelligent naturalists of all nations. . of the nature of that force by which one making. It cannot be ignored in any calculation on animal motion and yet who can estimate it." said he. wonderful. unequally modified in various ways by surrounding influences.
Speculation should not be confounded with science. has been the vice of It is all ages. " Darwinism" it has become popular and invaded all ranks. find proofs in anatomy that the changes could not have been gradual. and science. to pin their faith to his. as was said by Virchow. it is inherent in the human mind. or what they supposed to be his: it is no less so in the scientific circles than in the religious.THK HOKSK under the terms " IN MOTION of the fittest. when it crosses . no person is utterly free from it. It before a society of naturalists would be considered to be a poetic license. in speculation. none existed before. at all events. Every knows that qualities are transmitted by heredity. We have long been familiar with the reference to if and we now begin to hear of the laws of evolution. a few years ago. and of the Society of Naturalists at was proposed at a meeting Munich." I"] natural selection" and "survival This Under hypothesis docs not presuppose design. or influence. to teach it in it has become so generally diffused in our own scientific circles that a reference to a Supreme Being in an essay read the national schools. and nature is usually personified to meet the necessity. by may brought about. the name of It found the soil of Germany especially fitted for the propagation of a theory of such an atheistic character. be bred by judicious crossing within certain limand he knows as much as any one of the force. and denies a Creator. We shall look by disuse. or science will lose its this is means of which claim to the respect of is whole question of evolution speculative when carried beyond proof. or altogether on the other hand. or one evolved by imperceptible degrees where by use and weakened. Dogmatism seems to be leaving the latter to attach itself to the former. rather than to examine the foundations of those opinions. In all . in vain for proofs of an organ changed in the mechanical principle of its construction. has been a tendency on the part of the masses to ages there follow some leader whom they desired to do their thinking for them the laws of nature. but we desirable ones its. well known that faculties and functions are strengthened lost. and to appeal to the opinions of those whom we believe to be better informed. one had the courage to make it. We know that organic . and that stable-boy shall. mankind and is lost this the vital boundary-line.
1 8 is THE HORSE IN MOTION. but it In nothing does man in needless to multiply this class of show himself to be the creation of an is intelligent power more than his in his own creative faculty. He has recently invented another. affection facts. voice. and is equally subject to the law of falling bodies. man of is a pro- and he has just invented an instrument by in ordinary vocal means which he can communicate sounds to a person miles distant. and and when its momentum same the velocity. with automatic power to adapt itself to the distance of objects. imagination. oxygen. has the most skilful which the chemist can prove by analysis. memory. the ear. it acquires mo- matter mentum. it is resolved to its original elements. all blood loaded with fresh sustenance to every part of the body ? And what does he know of that power that has kept it in alternate action and rest every instant since before the earliest ? memories of his child- hood He has been familiar with the laws of optics for centuries. and will fall with a force as great as if it were inanimate. to exalt the powers of his own vision . he can only wonder at and admire. and form aliment that replenishes the blood? With make the knowledge of physics ever acquired by man. sound . and has of glass made instruments and metal. can he that organ that forces the a pump so perfect as the heart. etc.. Without it the world would be without music. or a cannon-shot is . but that most wonderful instrument. vitality leaves it. or the faculty of speech. But chemist ever been able by synthesis to restore ? the lost element. in imperfect imitation of the eye of an animal. ! How great have been achievements mechanics But what comparison does . our consciousness. carbon. the equal to the weight multiplied by as that of a railway-car. such as the eye of the lowest of the vertebrates ? Acoustics is another of the physical sciences of which fessor. subject to physical laws like other matter: it is attracted by the earth. but what would not an optician give to be able to construct a concentric achromatic lens. by which he can register and preserve the intonations of his voice to be returned to him at will at any future time . the vital spark the Has he ever been able to imitate the products of that vital laboratory the stomach.
or to the altered conditions of his succumb . has been found in the fossiliferous deposits of the interior of this continent. which failed to con- nect his species with our time. when he discovers vibriones in a vegetable in all infusion. not only to preserve and protect itself through a long co-ordinated and controlled by one central will reproducing from generation to generation indefinitely. or protoplasm in a drop of serum. that this complicated machine should possess the power. with its compound system of levers. that we must be told that all these marvellous manifestations of both are but the inherent properties of matter. pulleys. " And that were true which nature never told "? " If it were an " attainment and an aim a creator. like the philosopher of Syracuse. shouting " " Eureka ? Can one who finds a shingle or a brick claim that he has discovered the cause of a house brick ? Let him account for the origin of the and the shingle ! fossil Because a skeleton of a four-toed horse. do to escape moral responsibility the solution farther off into the by getting rid of we approach any nearer by removing it of the question of the origin of life mytho-geologic eras ? Or is the difficulty in any way diminished by attributing to matter all the high intellectual functions that have been by unschooled people Can ages ascribed to supernatural powers ? the microscopist. tendons. and transmitting to posterity its own peculiarities of form and mental life. and motion through telegraphic communication distributed to every muscular fibre. or that he found life ? necessary and practicable to concentrate his four toes into one. in and mus- cular powers. springs. through the streets. and the whole of this complicated system of organs ? Another incomprehensible mystery of life is. but of qualities ! Does the whole organic world furnish no proofs of intelligence and design. that marvellous ingenuity results set in arrangement to produce all which man has not been able to understand until now. and. ig the highest bear to the locomotive apparatus or machinery of the horse. does soliped had an origin less remote it it follow that our noble and independent.THE HORSE IN MOTION. be excusable for running naked.
who be recognized as one of the leaders : new departure in science and the cell theory of development. and not really effected ' thesis is laid equivoca . . Ergo. is All science. a beneficent Spirit. It is sufficient that a Supreme Intelligent Will is the author and sus- tainer of all. science into public contempt science its . retarded much by the ignorance and zeal of the multitude who follow on the heels of Medicine has its mountebanks. and natural buffoons. as representatives of learning they as if the relation were a scientific truth. says " This much is evident. No alternative re' mains when once we say. at in a lecture delivered before the German Asso- and Physicians Munich.* If the latter. and say. who rush to their desired conclusions over his facts. and candidly admitting the difficulty when a fact antagonizes the hypothesis he is framing. as itinerant lecturers. will who in the * Virchow.20 THE HORSE IN MOTION. Organic life is the result either of chance or design there can be no middle ground. if I prefer to make for myself a verse after my own fashion. and put forth as proved truth the wildest speculations of enthusiasts. Not so with his zealous disciples. who are dragging a noble genius. 1877. No one has ever seen a generatio equivocal and whoever supposes he has is contradicted by the naturalist. you must go on to the second thesis. . collecting facts and placing them in their relation. the question of how it was brought about will never be solved by man. in whatever department of knowledge." ciation of Naturalists PROF. Tertiam non datur. when in fact it is only a specu- lation and all the evidence so far collected from fossil remains as early as the tertiary deposits gives no confirmation to the speculation. I do not accept creation. merely by the theologian. religion has its harlequins. drawing his conclusions cautiously. and call them sciIt is very common to hear of the origin of man from the ape. VIKCHOW. I assume the generalio But of this we do not possess any actual proof. he was as perfectly developed as he to-day. ence. nor is it important that it should be. far As away as any trace of the prehistoric is man far is has been found.' If that first down. If I do not choose to accept a theory of creation. perambulate the towns do not possess. who. but I will have an explanation. . He a model for a naturalist. as the fanatical Christians of Alexandria did over the last vestal altar of Greek philosophy. Darwin is is not responsible for what known Darwinism. then must make in the sense of generalio equiroca (spontaneous generation). lieve that there if I refuse to beit was a special Creator who took the clod of earth and breathed I into the breath it of life. and as removed from the as ape.
manifested to us through The consciousness of an all phenomena. Organic nature then speaks clearly to "There is something in organic progress which mere natural selection is among spontaneous which guides the variations will not account for. Vol. of design or contrivance in the same sense that he would when referring to similar manifestations of design in a humanly constructed machine.i rest satisfied. been progressing. p. refreshes in the breeze. while on the other-hand its nature transcends intui- tion. yet of an intelligence the ways of which are not as our ways. the writer claims his right. The certainty on the one hand. 108. S. and must be eventually freed from its imperfections. when. and beauty. and is beyond imagination. the writer has little doubt that the thoughtful mind will in due time * " ln. to us with faculties to admire the beautiful. many minds of the action of an intelligence resulting. who has endowed and true. G. whenever he has occasion in the following pages to do so. Spreads undivided. on the whole and in the main. MIVART. agency could form. F. growing ever clearer.irms in the sun. inscrutable power. the good know why so many things arc as we see them. are considered. Habit and Intelligence. pp." ST. of mimicry. harmony. as the expression of the method in creation. . in Genesis of Species. such a power exists. _M \V. operates unspent ". is the certainty towards which intelligence has from the first HERBERT SPENCER. extends through extent. also.THE HORSE " IN MOTION. First Principles. to speak. all Lives through all life. when those numerous instances in which nature has supplied similar wants by similar ' means are remembered. and blossoms in the trees. all the wonderful contrivances of orchids.. but none to know how* \ laving given some of the reasons for his belief in the spiritual ori- gin of the organic world." . without danger of being misunderstood. R. has n that. and the strange complexity of certain instinctive actions. this something that organizing intelligence action of the inorganic forces. In a theory of evolution. . in order. I. 273. on many minds that the organic world is the expression of an intelligence of some kind. other unintelligent and forms structures which neither natural selection nor any MURPHY. 3d edition. then the conviction forces itself ." When the remarkable way in which structure and functions simultaneously change is borne in mind. 348. p. 272. Glows in the stars.
PHYSIOLOGICAL. FORM OF ORGANIZED BEINGS. extensors. for the reason that the motions themselves have been altogether mis- interpreted. ARTICULAR LIGAMENTS. MECHANICAL. in order to understand the paces of the horse. and sometimes a very erroneous one. and the functions they perform in progressive motion. NECESSITY or UNDERSTANDING ITS CONGENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL FACTS. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SKELETON OF THE JOINTS. TENDONS. as well as to their general agency in locomotion. There can be no just appreciation of the qualities of a complicated organs of the horse as may machine without a comprehensive understanding of its construction. THE HORSE CONSIDERED AS A MACHINE. VOLUNGENERAL FACTS. and has never been understood. AND TARY AND INVOLUNTARY. THE LAW OF REPAIR IN MUSCLES AND TENDONS. In fact. THE CARTILAGES AND LIGAMENTS. these terms are used to express the action abstractly with reference to the bones to which . and the manner in which each of its parts acts to produce the comwas designed. ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTION. This study of the mechanism of the horse is a necessity which will become apparent to any one who undertakes to analyze these move- any manual of anatomy yet published.CHAPTER II. The distinction of muscles into adductors. So. REGARDING THE MUSCLES. abductors. we must understand the action of all the parts of the machinery by which they are produced. ANATOMICAL. of the action of the muscles to which those terms are applied. and flexors ments by the aid of gives a very inadequate idea. RELATION OF THE FORM OF UTILITY MADE TO CONFORM TO BEAUTY IN THE ORGANS TO THEIR FUNCTIONS.THE VERTEBRA. IT is proposed to present as concise a view of the locomotive be consistent with a proper knowledge of the parts. THE MUSCLES. It need for it pound movement which not be said that it is very complex. .
they are made was known. like the shoulder-blade. they are cylindrical . that they are the levers on which the muscles . angular. or scapula. the most important muscles as they were exposed in dissection skill but no can do justice to the nacreous tints of the tendinous envelopes of the deep muscles. is knowledge of the construction of the machine It is imperative upon one who would comprehend its action. and appreciate the source of the danger from injury in great trials of speed. and as there always the utmost economy used by the Creator where it needed. as limb. With all the aid which art can render. William Hahn. and speed. analyze his movements. as When it is they are to serve is columns support. The mechanical parts divide themselves into two classes. as could be wished.THE HORSK IN MOTION. A perfect familiarity with the subject. The forces employed in each The same muscle may be an other in the same stride. considered alone. The passive parts are the bones and ligaments all . were secured to delineate . extensor at one time and a flexor at anshall we show further on. an engineer to understand the construction of his With that knowledge one can understand the elements of a A as necessary as for engine. well. the active and pasfacts. and not sufficient attention has been given to their action in correlation to the others with which they are coworkers. so as to enable one to carry the plan of the whole machine in the mind. they are thin. it may act. Let us first review certain physiological and general anatomical horse's strength but not so generally known. sive. and by means of which their power is made their form depends upon the uses which they are designed intended for bases of action. as long ago as the first mammal was made. the ser- Mr. be said. can only be attained by the aid of dissection. the active parts are the muscles in which dwells the power. 33 they are attached. Of the bones available to serve. in general. the complicated mechanism of the horse cannot be presented by written description in such a manner as to dispense with a little close attention. that there was no loss of strength as a support in being so conhollow. When of and ribbed. are very complex.a Diisseldorf artist. for . In order to enable the reader to understand the muscles and their relations without too great a tax vices of on the powers of abstraction.
how can we conceive of function What conception can be formed of sight without the existence of the eye ? It is held by them that the roughened ridges and protuberances of bone are developed by traction of muscles upon the bony surfaces. For the purpose or. bones are composed of animal and earthy matter. the tensor vaince femoris and to give the the superficial glutens. The extremities of these bony columns are spread out to give . the rapidity with which these extremities increases greatly with the distance from the centre of move The motion.24 structed. and where the distance from the centre of motion renders the reduction of weight as very important. which not only serve widen the articulating surface. spines. why is it that the surface of the bone above the acetabulum which receives the insertion of the recttts fctnoris is smooth ? It certainly is not because there is want of traction On the other hand. whose insertions are low down on the femur a rough protuberance is for the necessary leverage. It THE HORSE IN MOTION. broader articulating surfaces at the same time the single hollow of the shaft is divided into innumerable small ones. without increase of weight roughened ridges. are of fat or lar made depositories all marrow for fuel. of about one of the former to two of the latter. is attained to resist the wrenching force to which they are . that the lateral strengths of two cylindrical bones of equal weight and length. on the part of that muscle. so that greater strength liable. of the in the proportion If the proportion former is increased. they are called by anatomists. as of still further increasing the surface for attachment of muscles. must find room between other muscles. formed most surface for attachment . they will bend under the but force applied to * Atheists maintain that function makes the organ without previous conception of the organ ? . supplemental bones are added. one being solid and the other hollow. and in the least space. being needless for the purpose of support. literally. and the law was learned by him. as are the angu- spaces not needed for more important uses throughout the body. are to each other as their diameters . by a strong ligamentous membrane that connects them with the main pillar. was long afterwards discovered by man. and the spaces in the shafts of these bones. coal-bunkers. If this is so. the to little metacarpels. and protuberances * are formed to give greater surface for the attachment of muscles. by means of which heat is developed. give the necessary space for attachment of important muscles. as in the splint bones. but. which primarily is the source of all motion in the animate as well as the inanimate world.
so flexible as to allow of the greatest freedom of motion. The extremities of bones which move upon each other. This membrane serves not only to nourish the bones through blood-vessels. IN MOTION. sometimes torn. or vascular system. in the construction of In studying the architecture of the skeleton. among quadrupeds. These all closed to the admission of atmospheric air and foreign sub- stances. and the slightest injury to this a serious accident to an animal whose value depends on the soundness of his locomotive organs. will be found that no element of strength in its is mechanics violated. The wanting. as at the joints or articular surfaces. or principle of bones are arched or bent are connected to each when such forms give greater strength. Some are simple hinges. The the periosteum. The joints are divided by anatomists into several The heads of all the four columns of support are provided with a kind of joint known to mechanics as the ball and socket. thickest where most exposed to and very concussion. is Variation from the normal proportions the result of disease. according to their mechanical construction. classes. and joints are covered with a membrane which secretes a glairy fluid adapted to lubricate the opposing surfaces all and reduce friction. but inextensible. they are liable to is break. as a whole. however. for the same purpose. and. but the motion is limited in extent by capsular ligaments . admitting of motion in one direction only. strengthen them and increase their The Californian Indian adopts the same method. They other by a strong tissue. This form admits of the greatest freedom of motion in every direction . are covered with a peculiar formation known elastic as cartilage. but to elasticity. for their admission would soon cause serious injury. either completely to be or partially. It is. which adheres so closely to their surfaces that considerable force is more common in the human family than required to detach its it. inelastic fibrous membrane. is 25 and if the proportion of the latter increased. it his bow. under all ordinary use. to pressure . too strong broken or detached from the bony levers whose motion it is designed to limit.THK IIORSK them and . structure. It is insensible in a state of health. bones are covered with a compact. as those of the lower parts of the extremities. in dislocations or sprains tissue is .
The quite unique. and it is hoped that it will. when the limb is off the ground it is supported in its place by the pressure of the atmosphere. The force thus gained is set free to be employed in locomotion. is some important and that of the construction of the hock joint in according to their uses. and yet not so far that they may not limit the motion to These capsular ligaments serve another useful purpose. a reference plate is presented. derived. its needs. and the limb is more fully when considering the action of the posterior extremity. Each all joint constitutes differ in by itself an interesting subject for study. They but for the convenience of those proverbially a dry subject who require it. and has no analogue man ." as applied to the skeleton of quadrupeds. the foot is carried obliquely inwards. carried obliquely outward. whose borders are attached to each of the bones so far from the opposing surfaces as not to intervene. the ground. Being air-tight. requires further is "spinal column. but to monograph be fully understood it must be studied ensis in manu. or spinal column. A are detailed description of the bones will not be attempted. so that is when the posterior extremity brought forward to pass its fellow. and not vertical. a misnomer. in the hip joint of a man.26 THE HORSE IN MOTION. like most anatomical names in comparative The term anatomy. The it is interlocking grooves are oblique. through the eye. the term its . to a lifting force of twenty-six pounds. machinery. The spine being horizontal " " column quadrupeds. fixed upon . . independently of volition of interference is danger again extended to reach the ground. But the vertebra. This will be referred to and when all passed. hock of the ox is quite different from that of the horse. lithographed from a photograph. as the keel or bed-plate the connecting attention. estimated by Borelli to be equal. which surround the joints as a continuous collar. give the necessary information to enable the reader to understand the mechanical movements without the study which the various parts of abstract description would require. The construction of the joints at large would serve as a subject for a of great interest. as in man. to resume its place under the centre of gravity. as they particular. from in analogue in man.
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being limited in a vertical direction by the long spinous processes and their intermediate inelastic ligaments. as are all the vertebrae. even more than in their physiological rela- These groups are the Cervical. which serve not only for muscular and ligamentous attachments. so is the term from which has been derived the name for the whole divi>ion of animals to which quadrupeds belong.THE HORSE is IN MOTION. either lateral or vertical. It will be apparent to the most superficial observer that the motion. from the processes which superficially mark its There seems to be no objection to the term " vertebra. cervical. There is great positions . especially along the withers. differing ma- terially in their mechanical. and it consists Like the of those vertebras that are articulated with the ribs. with which there are no connecting ribs. The word spine as is course. the Dorsal. especially at the articulation with the head and the first vertebra of the trunk. and in a lateral direction by the transverse processes and their articulating ribs. The spinous processes are longer than those of any of the other vertebras. where the suspending muscles of the anterior extremity originate." as derived a collective noun applied to the whole or any it number of its parts. This last is socket joint of a peculiar construction. Vertebrates. but as braces to the ribs. or the vertebras of the loin. the Caudal. The next division is that of the lumbar region. as will be relative shown of in a and with important subsequent chapter. the dorsal. in comparison a ball and with those of the next two divisions. these are pro- vided with transverse processes. The cervical vertebras have portant relation to locomotion. The tions. freedom of motion these bones upon each other. vertebra of the horse is divided into five groups. as in grazing The second group is and drinking. and transverse projections or processes. the an imare Sacral. to enable the animal to reach the ground. inapplicable it to them. lastly. so those of the lum- . " " is 27 also objectionable. second to no other division. the Lumbar. of the dorsal vertebrae upon each other is very circumscribed. As the former group was more intimately related to the thorax. which afford attachments to ligaments to maintain their muscles. They provided with spines along the median plane. and. As is the keel it and connection of the various parts of the animated engine.
It and the pubic is known in the lower or pubic portion of this pelvis that the cuplike cavities are formed into which the heads of the hip bones are lodged. the anterior and posterior extremities. and fourth in order. as it This is what is known as the "coupling." unites the two distinct systems of locomotive organs. the Sacral. Their broad and long transverse processes afford a protecting roof to the abdominal viscera. lays hold of the hip bone (crest of the ilium) on each side as far as possible from the centre of motion at the coupling. of the the vertebral bones as that interposed a layer of clastic carti- same nature which covers the opposing surfaces . is obviated by the freedom of motion that is secured in the articulation of the last of the dorsal vertebra with the sacrum. and the long muscle of the back (longissimus dorsi or ilio spinalis). side. so little that is bony union takes place between them cartilages that. an earlier period of and the elastic age were interposed between . have no function in locomotion but is " thereby hangeth a tale. They . the more effectually to limit the flexion at that point. The last group of vertebral bones is known to anatomists as the coccyx. and that condition obtains technically known as ankylosis. at in old life. Though in the embryotic stage the sacrum is developed from several centres as distinct vertebra. but as the resemblance totally we shall call them by all the Mammalia and all other vertebrates. and give attachment to important muscles of locomotion on the under surface. bar are in the same relation with the abdomen." Between lage. more general name of Caudal bones. is The next series. even less very little movement of these bones than in the dorsal series. yet before birth they are united into one broad triangular bone. uniting with the bones in front.28 THE HORSE IN MOTION. reaching out from its spinal attachments. forms the ring iliac bones on each as the pelvis. and where the force of the levers of the posterior extremities in is applied. each of the vertebra become degenerated into bony matter. The difficulty locomotion that would be experienced from the want of flexibility of the spine. but the ligamentous connections are very strong. There upon each other. which. In the skeleton the connection seems very slight. especially in old age. from its resemblance in fails in man the to the beak of the cuckoo.
the flexion to each other. and which is dis- parts of the body. ments they are said to become "stiff. and resist the moveof the joints. but it is only the former that are concerned in locomotion. they cannot be shortened. being commenced at a very early age. bility machine ab- we see the results of organic life . cartilages 29 by their elasticity admit of slight flexion of the vertebra. . we remove a fragment of muscle from an animal recently killed and examine it closely. and ligaments is greatest in the young as age advances. . and are impressed by the perfect adaptation of means to ends we look upon them as we . IX MOTION. ." Hence the importance of early training to give greater sweep and freedom of motion. their action The general appearance of muscle . This physiological principle is made the basis of gymnastic training by acrobats. is too familiar to every one to need description its special vital property is contractility. is limited by the liga- ments which bind them This restriction of motion is necessary for the protection of the vital organs of the thorax and abdomen. and the apparent shortening that takes place when the animal's is may be curved as may be readily elasticity of the limbs are gathered under him cartilages an illusion. as well as the great nerve trunk transmitted through a continuous canal above the bodies tributed thence to all of the vertebra. and the same is not lost sight of in the exercises of colts. The muscles are both voluntary and involuntary. these tissues become stronger and less flexible. look upon the piston. they are without sensiare familiar or power of spontaneous motion we with the mechanical principles involved in their action.THE HORSE of the joints in the extremities. These As has been already stated. The . of the vertebra While the three central divisions slightly. :i . connecting-rod. even temporarily. we shall find it to be made up of longitudinal If fibres of a red color bound together by gray fibres of a different tissue. In contemplating the passive parts of the animated stractly. and they also deaden the force of the shock transmitted from the powerful impulses of the posterior limbs. and crank of a steam-engine : but upon the muscles we look with far different thoughts has no similitude in the inanimate world.
and there will be left behind a bundle of strong cellular tissue. or the vegetative func- and any of the voluntary muscles its may off. of sixty demonstrated that the force of the extensors employed by a porter in carrying a weight of one hundred and fifty pounds upon the shoulder exceeds three tons. overmastering the will and is even cause contraction after it has left it . but the will not necessary to muscular contraction. Borelli estimated that the force exerted pounds held horizontally requires an expenditure of contractile force of the extensor muscles at the shoulder of more than six tons. is leading away from the special inquiry to which we * Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. as life has no influence on the muscles of animal tions of animals. they may be so violently stimulated as to be torn asunder. of the will the stimulus with almost inconceivable by the deltoid muscle of man in supporting a weight held horizontally in the hand was two hundred and nine times greater than the weight. we upon the edge the knife a red pulp without apparent fibre or tenacity.* It He follows that this enormous power is exerted on the extensors of each leg alternately. yet this pulpy bundle of fibres. continued indefinitely by further division to a microscopic degree still the fibres will be observed to contract upon the slightest touch. and stimulated in to violent contraction by others . " Animal Motion. so closely are the nervous fibres interwoven with those of the muscle. the latter has no more active power than other cellular tissue contracts under . though very interesting. plate upon a and scrape shall find it gently in the of direction of with a dull knife. The natural stimulant to the muscle is is the will transmitted through it the nerves. but if the current continuous. Electricity when passed through life the muscle in a broken current will." . Therefore a weight power. communication with the brain by severing contraction nervous connection yet may be excited in the muscle so cut and this may be . as muscle. as tetanus. is a strong excitant to muscular contraction.30 If THE HORSE we lay this flake of muscle its fibres IN MOTION. has no such power. fibres are paralyzed The muscular by certain poisons. and disease. art. This subject. It is to the former that the tractile property belongs . be cut off from .
one fourth* or one third t of the length of the transverse section of the muscle. bones for often all that depend upon them. in order that the the its may not give away the contraction effected by muscular tissue. the extremities of the muscles are its changed into tendon. Anat. requires the expenditure of an energy equal to 2oq times that weight.? . length to thickness is Deep-seated muscles are often attached to the bones upon which they act directly but as there is insufficient space on the surface of the . farriery as among the possible accidents to which the horse * t Bishop. or 5. and with a power proportioned to the area of the It will be found that the relation of as action to power. The power which lost is conserved body as momentum would be in the extremities. by the hand of an arm extended horizontally. what amount of muscular force is expended by the muscles of one of the extremities of a horse to move a 4-ounce shoe on his foot J If a weight of 25 Ibs. and incapable of elongation. Cyc. 31 The muscles are subject to fatigue. By means of this tendinous tissue the power of muscle is transmitted when necessary to a considerable distance. it In a humanly contrived machine the direction of the action of the . and contrived a way to avoid friction and wear that human ingenuity cannot hope to rival. Bowman. has been found necessary. By these means the power generated in the heavy muscles is limbs where all needless weight requires such great expenditure of exerted at the extremities of the power in the to give it the needful velocity. Muscular fibre has other properties to be considered in relation to motion. for the is arrested at every stride. or it direction may be changed by the tendon passing through a sheath or groove. when power requires to be changed. a substance altogether different in me- chanical properties. IN MOTION.THE HORSE are limited. and are unable to respond indefinitely with equal force to the will. 20 sec. and Phys. very flexible.. Its contractility is limited to fibre. sustained when he is trotting at the rate of a mile in 2 min. over an angle. $ The attachment tendons to the bones and the periosteum enveloping them is so great that detachment by natural means is not mentioned in motion of the limbs of these works on is liable. to use a friction roller or pulley but nature has done better. as a pulley. being compact.225 Ibs..
the thickness and power of the muscles may be . and a form of club foot is the result. is normal is acquired. in due time the injured part stored to health. so that greater freedom of motion than. The child has grown to manhood. the tension necessary to prompt action would be lost. and with proper increased. and in the life in the bulk of the lifetime of the indi- But while the muscles and their levers will retain their noris mal relation of length during in a healthy subject. he slips a tenotomy knife . at regular intervals. but when vitality no longer animates it it may of the be easily torn. but the muscle does not develop fully . re- it is shortened. and the effect would be similar to that upon the tiller ropes of a ship were they to become relaxed. and to claim an exception is virtually an admission that we do not understand the law. What would be the effect upon the length of the bones in the period of time contemplated by some it is useless to inquire. that balance sometimes a lost as the result of injury. But what He cannot do without anarchy his creature can . and long-sustained exercise they may increase in thickness. without corresponding increase in length of levers. But for this exception to the rule the whole plan on which animal mechanics was founded would have fallen to the ground with Were the muscles to become lengthened by use the animal himself. but we know that the increase of muscular muscle takes place vidual. it is otherwise with the muscular articular ligaments are subject to extension tissue While the and its tendons. The Creator works by law. but no amount of use and no length of time will elongate the muscle. in power by increase a short period. while walking.32 THE HORSE During the life IN MOTION. reach the ground with the heel. By exercise within certain limits. the wheel has passed over the muscles of the calf so as to is disorganize the muscular tissue. than that of its animal the tenacity of the muscle is greater tendon. A child has been run over by wagon . nutrition. while contraction will be feeble and not well sustained but they will not become elongated under whatever violent . and by neglect of these conditions they will become thin and pale. but not in length. in which the person cannot. Nature cannot elongate that muscle without anarchy. and elongation by early use and frequent tension.
cal interference. Beauty of form is never lost sight of in the construction of the horse. inelastic formed around the broken extremities. be that the same disaster would be encountered as in the last case. on the other hand. " act upon It is it is by Professor Marey that the comparison between ordinary machines and animated motive powers will not have been made in vain said if it has shown that strict relations exist . severs it IN MOTION. 33 with scarcely a visible external wound." This statement. between the form of the organs is and the character of their functions lated that this correspondence . the creative work to repair the damage. regu- by the ordinary laws of mechanics so that when we see the mus- cular all /./ and bony structure of an animal we may deduce from their form the characters and functions they possess. one of the bony col- umns power of support be broken. inscrutable power fills in the space left by the parted extremities of the tendon with new tendon. while prodigal where she can afford to be. without surgi- most cases be shortened by overlapping through the The consequence would contraction of the muscles on all sides of it. and especially in the form and arrangement of muscles. it would. A seques- trum. the thigh. and . many muscles is made to conform to the situation and i. and the more thorough organization of fracture is repaired. the proportion between the length of the lever and the muscles which restored. or casing. This is shown in numerous ways. is them in their position as a temporary expe- dient. while the slower processes of the perfect bone is effected. requires qualification. in where the muscles were supposed to be elongated from use but another law is observed. the muscular fibres retract the severed ends. While this change has been taking place in the bone. and the deformity is removed. Nature. called nature soon sets at is for example. and that general contour s of form that gave . which the main appears to be true. and even great sacrifices of mechanical power are made to maintain graceful lines. the organ is restored to proper length. consisting of to fix bony matter.^ The form of relation of sur- rounding organs. economical where there is need of it. after which the sequestrum absorbed and carried off through the circulation. If.THE HORSE beneath the tendon. and that ever-present. The muscle that could not elongate will shorten.
Numerous ficed to instances might be referred to where use has been sacri- to the economy of space and to beauty. superficial observer difficult beauty so great that to the eye of a to decide whether it is subordinate to Both are developed in a perfect horse to such strength or conversely. it is IN MOTION. but they cannot fail to occur mind of the anatomist and it is premature to introduce them in .34 to THE HORSE him his matchless beauty. this place for the general reader. a degree that he has been a favorite theme of poets and painters since aesthetic culture has had a place in the history of our race. .
THF. I think I am warranted in the belief that we are on a new era in the history of our old friend and fellow-traveller. FROM tive the general observations of the last chapter we will proceed to a consideration of the special . THE ILIO SPINALIS. PERFOKATVS MUSCLES AND THEIR TENDONS. AUTOMATIC ACTION IN THE . LONG VASTUS. DEFI- TENSOR VAGIN* FEMORIS. and the impulse that sure to be com- municated by the wonderful revelations of the camera. I I. Those who have studied and suppose they understand this action must study again. ETC. the increasing interest is that is felt in America as well as Europe. who would follow the movements by which the more various paces are performed. SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT. ACTION OF THE HOCK JOINT TO PREVENT INTERFERENCE. INTERFERENCE AND STIFLE ACTION. SARGREAT GLUTEUS. TERMS PSOAS MAGNUS. SEMI-MEMIIKANOSUS. DIFFICULTIES IN THE U'AY OE DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF WORK DONE BY MUSCLES. THE ADDUCTION AND ABDUCTION OK MUSCLES. TORIUS. DEEP GLUTEUS. TRICEPS FEMORIS. anatomy. and speak of a horse in intelligible terms than the slang of jockeys and the stables. nical Let no one be turned from this subject by techas well terms . ELONGATION AND CONTRACTION OF THE LIMBS.HIND LEG. and analyze the locomo- without this preparatory study it will be organs of the horse impossible for any one to analyze its movements. justify me in that I shall not follow the usual order of descriptive opinion.I ACL'S. THE PERFORANS AND GASTROCNEMII. NECESSITY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. has already been stated that it to teach anatomy any further than It is is not the purpose of this essay necessary to demonstrate the . GREAT ADDUCTOR. PECTINEUS. they are indispensable in order to make one's self under- stood by those as to those who have already made a study of anatomy. SEMI-TENDINOSUS. GRACILIS. SMALL ADDUCTOR. THE ORDER OF ACTION IN THE VARIOUS MUSCLES OF THE POSTERIOR EXTREMITY IN LOCOMOTION. anatomists.CHAPTER SPECIAL ANATOMY. NITION OF III.
* This is the function of the iliac wings. will be noticed that the spine legs flexed in a serpentine manner caused as the diagonal move alternately. it is attached anteriorly to all the spines of the vertebra. It and the best advantage is if the horse is trotting. very broad and thick over the loins. tendon-like in its construction. and the manner to in which the in muscles act upon their bony levers progressive motion. .* one takes an elevated seat with the driver on a coach. is covers nearly the it all the muscles. as seen in Plate III. which would seriously strain the articulation of the pelvis with the lumbar vertebra called the coupling. but for the action of the ilio spinalis. The ilio known as the tenderloin laid a section of the psoas that above is a section of the spinalis over- by its aponeurosis. It but specially in superficial thickness its and strength. that firmly fastened to the aponeurosis. q. motive muscles that the vertebra does to the bones plex muscle or system of muscles spinalis. not been its This tendinous thus far. mechanism of the locomotive organs. but it called tissue mentioned is very important relation to the muscles. it membrane. and looks down upon the wheel horse nearest him. same bones. and a strong is memhas in brane. . it is a very comilio it is called It by Chauveau the named from its attachments. and serves them often the If same purpose as fixed attachments. he can see the action to of this muscle. giving roundness to the back. and is attached to the whole anterior border of the ilium and strongly to its crest. as far as the neck. so . produce the movements The long muscle of the back holds the same relation to the loco.36 THE HORSE IN MOTION. and strength so great that muscular fibres are attached to its inner face as to a bone. fills the angular space on each side It is of the spinous processes. differs from fascia in several respects. acting as a brace wrenching violence of the action and preventing injury to the coupling. as part A familiar is example may be seen in a porter-house steak of beef. which contracts simultaneously with the impulse to the communicated checking the opposite side of the pelvis. This movement is by the impulses given to the pelvis by the heads of the femurs alternately.. or the hip bone.
PERFICIAL LOCOMOTIVE M.U3CLES EXPOSED .
The terms be used in the following pages to express the action of a muscle upon its attachments. the anterior half of the body The greater part when not supported by one of the fore legs. as we shall in the show of the course of this treatise. without reference flexion " and extension " will . The centres of motion between the vertebra are in the bodies of those bones which are most distant from the spines. to enlarge the angles and by so doing elongate the limbs is in but this extension may is be forward when the foot the air.. which fills the of the ilio spinalis is concealed in the plate by the great glu- tcus. express the fundamental " There is no word in use by idea. c. . Before cles of we proceed any further with the consideration of the muslocomotion. we must agree upon the signification of terms " necessary to be employed. a. The words muscles act as sors at flexor " and " extensor of their applications and express fully flexors and extensors at the same time others are exten. when they both act alternately. Some " may one part of the stride and flexors at another and some of the most powerful propellers in the whole machine are flexors. and its action downward it can have no influence. The term action is " extensor " is commonly applied to all muscles whose . ilio spinalis muscle it abstractly in would curve to wholly above this axis. to the heads of the thigh bones. propulsion. or supporting. first. The mass of the muscle angular spaces on each side the spines is called into action in rearing. f. when they act counteract the wrenching effect of the propulsion of The mechanical action of therefore. aiding support a back load. a. of the backbone as seen in the great In man lies they constitute the supporting column. and which form the rounded ridge cavity of the trunk. there. The fore.THK referred to in HORSI-: IN MOTION. f. or back- ward when the foot anatomists to " on the ground. a. but not in all. this in is long and powerful muscle is unison to support the anterior half of the body while the pelvis fixed by other muscles. great 37 Plate V. be proper enough in some the action. It will be seen that the actions muscular powers are sometimes quite too complicated to be expressed in one word. and in the second place.
but its origin being farther from the median plane. but in the horse they are not at all membranous or tendinous. Plate VII. should be glad to dispense with names altogether. meaning half membrane and half when applied to the muscles so to the named in the horse ? They are well enough when applied corresponding muscles in man. 'other. and. " to its functions in locomotion. a. and. just is below the head of the arises is another of this group the iliacus (c. These two muscles are of delicate organization. which from the lower face of the ilium. tor.). are directed is backward and downinserted into a rough terminates in a long tendon which on the inner side bone . VII. to advance the whole complete.. direction is more inward to join the last-named muscle at the same point on the inner face of the femur. with two exceptions. its The course of its fibres similar to that of those of the psoas. or thigh bone. unite in their function of flexing the femur upon the pelvis. determine the course of ward. and so carrying the whole leg forward. The iliacus. having its course more inward than the ward." the so important in the trotting horse. though differing in form. they mislead the mind no less with construction. and ridge it its action.38 THE HORSE IN MOTION. and apply abstract or algebraic terms to avoid misconceptions." The words drawing adductor " and " abduc- meaning the function of to or away from the vertical plane passing through the axis of the body.. . or eighty-five per cent. regard to their action than to their form and 'What can be more inappropriate than the names semisemi-tendinosus. membranosus and tendon. of the femur. but we must not be misled by the application of these names to muscles which may have such and the I action to the extent only of five per cent of their work. use least liable to the objection referred to. in have already referred to the misnomers muscles . devoted to propulsion. is is such as are is a group of muscles whose action posterior extremity after the act of propulsion all deep-seated. which . where there are synonymes. are well enough. or hip. but We we must There use such as are given. rest. if practicable. They are 1\\Qpsoas magnus (Plates VI. " has the effect of carrying the free end of the femur outstifle action. along the under surface of the lumbar vertebra its fibres. a) has its origin in the abdomen.
b- MTTS C I^E S S HOW 1ST .
t \ .' '.
This portion. a. and so called in man because it is the muscle which . and Chauveau This confusion has evidently arisen from confounding the action of its two branches. about one third down the length of the shaft. from its The sartorius (Plate VI. (This is made clear by Plate IV.. is upon the thigh to flex that bone upon the from the shortness of its fibres its action as a flexor cannot pelvis insertion in the crest of the ilium. it is very and functionally with the useful. a) has its fibres spread out beneath the skin and the broad fascia of the thigh. about one third of the distance from its head.. along with the tensor vaginae it will be seen that arises from the spine. when lias its aid is intimately associated locally its most required. but. which attachments at the hip bone. and its tendinous insertion II.. being exerted at the commencement of is the flexion. the movable insertion at the ridge on the femur. where the muscle in flexing the thigh. inches weight direct and indirect. and its . or hip. filling the angular space made by that muscle where it crosses the great glutens. or femur. v. It has its fixed its fibres arc about eight not less than two pounds.. indicated its use in locomotion. the fibres converge to it is of the opinion that an adductor. therefore. so remote from each other. but is value as an element of beauty The form of this muscle has never when removed. flexor of the thigh. v. It superficial glutens. at 6. and another at the thigh bone.. The action of this it muscle has been a controverted question. From these two fixed insertions. 39 vagimc femoris (Plate III. the other under consideration femoris. in front of the is origin of the long vastus. and between them the fibres of the muscle are lost in the fibres of the underlying muscle and barely distinguishable in the plate. and directly over the to consider the action head of the femur at as we shall see when we come of the posterior extremity as a unit in locomotion. i>) of the old authors. acts with the last mentioned one of branch extends alongside of the long vastus. the action therefore that of an extensor. e.) It is dissected away. its made apparent. so called analogue in man. v.THE HORSE The ten nor IN MOTION. as in Plate IV. or third trochanter of the femur (see skeleton. Bourgelot classes is it Blain teaches that is a with the extensors. Plate of this division is 6). as already stated. its action. extend beyond three inches. in length.
Equus and Homo. It has its origin on the tendons of the psoas muscles at a distance from the mesian plane equal. balance between the adduction and abduction of the it great propelling muscles. is named by Chauveau the long adductor. to the attainment of which the co-ordination of the locomotive forces are necessary. is simply as a flexor of the fully thigh upon the pelvis. action. are of equal age and still evolving. the adductor and abductor action of the muscles * Herein lies may be considered literally side issues. The seems to be allied to the last. and admit that the two families. for appears to be true that nothing vain. enables him to assume the cross-legged position of a tailor. but like parallel lines they can never meet that the Equus can never be so much as a ninth part of a Homo. to that of its insertion at the inner head tibia. this changes were by insensible degrees. or a Homo so much as an Equus asinus without tangling his legs worse than with a too free use of his favorite beverage. to the tendons of the psoas muscles across that body of the defenceless iliacus ? That it should have been effected by imperceptible degrees seems entirely out of the question and as there is a doubt as to priority in order of descent. it is impossible to determine whether adduction or abduction predominates: under the exercise of the will. such as to preserve the it is. that they cannot be supposed to have any special influence in locomotion. therefore. or an interchange of the origins of the sartorius. The distance of its corresponding origin in man would seven inches farther outward and across the great body of the iliacus muscle. or ascent as the case may be. .40 THE HORSE IN MOTION. . but mechanically they are of small weight. and the If a curious conundrum for the Darwinians of the atheistic school. or that of adduction. either may do so but when the mind of the quadruped is directed to . such as the pectincus. whose weight is so inconsiderable. some all exterior object. how did the origin of muscle become transported from the superior spinous process of the ilium in man. in the animal economy was made the ancients " in and no vacuum exists. small adductor. When propounded the law that "Nature abhors a vacuum. but from its great length. and whose action is so near the centre of motion. eighteen inches. it has a sustained action in carrying the limb forward to a new position.* There are some' other small muscles. Its action." In the complicated mass of muscular forces involved in each of the propelling limbs of the horse. . we will take the liberal side. etc. They are of more interest to comparative anatomists.. in the normal position of the carry it of the animal." they builded better than they knew.
This aponeurosis is repre- converge outward. The muscles will We consider the latter in their order.. it causes the foot when with great velocity. glutens (Plates III. as we have seen. and backward to their insertion into the great trochanter sented as dissected away in the plate. best represented in Plate V. and the action is automatic. or tendinous membrane overspreading the ilio It passes over the concave border of the ilium. bearing no comparison to the others. These figures must not be considered absolutely correct. V. very advantageous position to give speed to the movements of the leg. downward. until it to it leaves it after completing its propulsive effect.. 41 are called into play. Its fibres all behind the head of the bone. line not employed as propellers or carrying weight are few and small.100 Ibs. and was found to be sixteen average weight in two well-bred mares It occupies a pounds. whose length does not exceed four inches from the head of the bone as a fulcrum. or ridge spinalis. but relatively.) its The length of its longest fibres * is twenty-six inches. The length and volume of its muscular fibres enable keep up a sustained action from the time the hind foot takes the ground under or in advance of the centre of gravity. c. c. commencing with the great It is a muscle of the first rank.THK HORSK IN MOTION. covers the upper surface of the ilium and the ligaments that cover its openings. As seen in the plates. from the ground to move The weight of the animal from which the measurements and weights of muscles are given was about 1. c. and every muscle "of the propelling forces alone " has to contribute its part. between the hip and the angle of the croup. muscles of the back. and is attached to the spines of the lumbar vertebra and those of the sacrum it is also attached to the strong aponeurosis that covers it externally like all superficial . In a horse regularly worked the muscles will be found to be heavier than in the better bred but idle ones sacrificed on the altar of Science.). bent at almost a right angle to the shaft of the bone. it reaches forward over the loins and adheres to the strong aponeurosis. IV.. (The great trochanter is so largely developed that it forms the short arm of a lever.. 6 . The distance from the insertion to the fulcrum or head of the bone free being so short. c. offensive and defensive. c. When the foot is off the ground it furnishes the sinews of war. t.
. the severed tendons of the great gluteus may be seen at c. of Its tendon and muscle gives it sistance of the former and the active aggressive force of muscular fibre. this . for the posterior limb deeper. in its influence in locomotion must be The long its second only to the great gluteus in weight. the passive re- more especially to hold the head of the femur small.. At the attachments by tendon of the great gluteus to Plate V. and from its great advantage of position much vastus is it superior to it. lies is head of the femur. and is known to them Referring again to Plate VIII. Plate III. In the 'succeeding Plate IV. whirlbone. h. which is covered by the long vastus muscle crossing its fibres diagonally. its work required of IX. Plate II. V. to perform the Its its position may be is seen in Plates III.) is The a little centre of motion. It arises on the shaft of the ilium. Plate II.. The spiral course of its fibres indicates that it is intended to rotate the leg outward." The deep gluteus is well its shown at P. but socket.. muscle its extent forward he will find little difficulty in understanding the relations of this muscle with the surrounding parts. and by comparison with Plate VIII. IV. and fibres follow the course of that Its bone and adhere to it as they descend.. and the skeleton. absence is more conspicuous than presence could be. just outside of the capsular ligament. the concavity in the ridge of the ilium the aponeurosis which covers from b to g. (See skeleton. muscular fibres are intermingled with tendinous bands following the same course. and the insertion of the muscle is into the neck of the femur. or thigh bone. (see insertion into the external condyle of the femur Plates . Its curious construction of mingled bands the properties of both. upon by horsemen as the as a point for measurement.. are seen the trochanter. shows also the ilio spinalis and which serves as a base for the attachment of the gluteus forward of the ilium. he will see only a portion of is concealed by the pearly-colored aponeurosis which completely covered it and is only partially dissected away. equal in length. in effective power v. or in front of this. Plate VIII. the whole outer face of it is exposed except the extreme posterior border. and cannot be relied " felt externally. therefore. This trochanter. and in Plate Its II. c.42 THE HORSE If the reader will refer to IN MOTION.. Plate VIII.
. -t MUSCLES CF THE HAUNCH .
CIT. .iS MO CLHS REMOVED.1HK HAUN : : HE SAJRTOH1US AND ORA.
shows the superficial gluteus anterior margin of the long vastus exposed. its position fixed at that point.. While the great gluteus has some of its fibres measuring as long. Though it acts on the short end of the lever. is to consider the semi-tendinosus. that of the vastus is effective in pushing the body over the foot on the corresponding side. as in rearing gluteus effective the as in and leaping . which is is admitted detached.). the great mass of them. removed has its and the IV. that of this muscle is enormous. the in posterior branch. except as its mus- cular fibres give way to tendinous ones toward its lower insertion. The power of kicking.) This is done for reasons which will be given when we come so limited. origin on spines the it sacrum posterior fills to those occupied by the superficial tuberosity of the in is gluteus the deep fossa anterior to the the hip is ischium. The upon their number and not upon their length. being lodged its deep fossa. and as their power depends length. by (It anatomists to be distinct is structure and function. founded with that of the . and the circumference of the inches. the line of But the vastus acts upon the extremity of the long end of the lever. are not half that concentration of the fibres of the gluteus before their insertion into the trochanter is very great. The space occupied on the surface is front of the tuberosity of the ischium eight inches. where its tendon is conpatella. whose mode of progression is by a sue- . in the hare. interesting relation is . as nine pounds. and overlaps this joint four inches . they supplement one another. its Its weight. on which its strength depends. It Plate of . 43 in the plates as to and its relations are so perfectly shown scarcely require description. IN MOTION. when it is fixed upon the ground. or four inches over the trochanter of the femur. These muscles hold a very its action is very direct. direction it until then changed so as to run downward and forward reaches the lower end of the femur.THE HORSE and V. marked s' in Plate V. in length twenty-six inches. in giving velocity. and from the great length of its fibres sustains its action for a long time.\s thus described. It is body of the muscle at that point is fifteen nearly uniform in thickness throughout.
. while the extensor proper of the leg. It muscles of the the same calf. below which they unite. the latter insertion of the spread out as far forward as the long vastus . one on the inner and the other on is the outer face of the leg. the central is attached to the strong fascia covering the shown immediately behind one from the sacral spines and the is the vastus. while plays no part in the fourth.44 cession of bounds.. It divides into three branches. IX. this. These lateral weight to its is eleven pounds. or gastrocnemii. is upon the ground and the limb full feels the is then the power of this muscle weight thrown upon called into play. and not as an extensor. /).. As soon as the foot carries the foot to a new position in advance. situation has two origins. a flexor. V. is nineteen inches. The part of the muscle which has origin at the ischium. Its guishes the calf of the horse's leg. to the same point ference is of insertion. the inner to a corresponding position branches overlay the muscles of the calf. the other two reach forward to be attached to common fascia. nor even as a propeller. in the second quarter. developed enormously in comparison with represented in Plates The where semi-tendinosus its is III. which character it performs until the direction the ground in the inactive it of its fibres passes the perpendicular. The importance of the proper understanding of the action of . it THE HORSE is IN MOTION. the gluteus. action of this muscle cannot be represented by any abstract It has is two functions : it lifts the leg when the act until of the propulsion line complete. flexing the leg upon the thigh perpendicular from the centre of motion is passed. no longer it. begins. s. the triceps femoris (/. and a supporter in the third. i). so that of the stride when they is it cease to act until the next stride first when is the foot off is quarter it a flexor. s. and its greatest circum- ten inches. but as a supporter. s. The terms. when it relaxes. at The of distance of its is origin at the spine insertion the head the its tibia twenty-eight inches. first of the tail bones or their ligaments. and give that compressed form that distinIt is a powerful muscle. on the inner face.. the other from the lower face of the ischium (Plate V.
THE DEEPEST MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH.STERIOR EXTREMITY" EXPO SING. .
will be appreciated to the consideration of the fast paces. Plate V. by a thin layer of cellular while the connection between the branch in question and the is Their connection semi-tendinosus being an aponeurosis to which both are attached. the their attention called to it. great adductor into of the vastus . The semi-membranosus concealed by view. The thin posterior portion of the muscle acting on the fascia of the leg flexes it like the semitendinosus. while ted to be anatomically and functionally distinct.) arises It is from the lower surface of the ischium (Plate VII. Plate is The lower insertion broad. 45 as of other muscles of the haunch. and this branch is small a). as in penniform muscles.). also rises The great adductor last its from the ischium in front of the described. from which it I is impossible to separate the muscular fibres without laceration. especially since it is shown that the annexation with all its I propose makes a complete organ of the semi-tendinosus. and the anterior by tendon along with that of the the interior condyle of the femur opposite that weight is six pounds. thin pos- where overlaps the semi-tendinosus (at it /. teriorly c]. the posterior portion of it is into the fascia of the leg.. with which it is so closely united that it is difficult to separate them. but be- comes thick where VII. when we come anatomists The external branch of the semi-tendinosus has by all it been claimed as the posterior part of the vastus. relation ficial was admitis There and really no between them except in their juxtaposition is in their super- appearance. parts acting in perfect accord. unites with the so-called great adductor (g. but that at (Plate VI. Plate VII. This muscle also has two origins like the last.. its fibres its weight three and a half pounds. Plate IX. Plate VII. though thrown off along course to the femur. Their relation is seen in the posterior Plate IX. and is is inserted into the internal condyle of the femur. The it great mass of the muscle (/. and fibres are are fifteen inches in length.THE HORSE IN MOTION.). have no doubt that the point will be conceded by all anatomists when partition is most intimate.). the spine is by a thin tendon. but the great mass of it acts in unison with the great its adductor (g. tissue. it adjoins the last-described muscle and is in /. ..
all the muscles of the haunch that those acting upon the thigh bone. or femur. The course five fibres downward and about is contraction the force In its degrees outward. There is only one other muscle of the thigh which (It is we will notice. but like the semi-tendinosus they permit the limb to be advanced to the extended position to support the centre of gravity. but as a it supporter to the weight of the body when is not to be overlooked. and is called by Chauveau the short about two and a half pounds. while the great adductor acts as a propeller adductor. of its gracilis in is Its is weight man. the great gluteus acts as a proand peller and adductor. thins off each way. from above are inserted on the outer face of the bone. but. the animal is on which joint acts as an adductor when is at his ease. It is about an inch in thickness in the centre. m).46 THE HORSE it IN MOTION. as an adductor about ten per cent. This will be better understood when we analyze the movements in the gallop. and is nearly as broad as long.. It has led him to give first consideration to It will be seen by a general view of forces of secondary importance. and then. while those from the lower surfaces of the pelvic bones are inserted into the inner face of the femur. and then only for a limited time support all with do they act as extensors. attached to the fascia of the leg for a distance corresponding to its origin at the pubis. It is \hzgracilis (Plate VI. . rests on one foot its value The want of knowledge of the action of the limbs in locomotion has led the student of anatomy into a too circumscribed view of the action of the muscles. In a humanly constructed machine. all from the indirect manner necessarily of the application of the forces.) it is on the face of the thigh. they are example. has its fellow of origin on the symphasis of the pubis where it meets its the opposite side. at the They have no of the attachments forward of the centre of motion femur. superficial It dissected away in Plate VII. they the whole weight of the body. of the other. the Eduction of one being compensation for the seduction compound . in head common the great muscles of the posterior extremity. as a locomotive. It correis and sponds to the adductor. but the action of these two muscles as supporters. The primary object for in both is locomotion.
'. * H VIEW OF THE MUSCLES OF THE HAUNCH. rmn-x .
V. and in either case the animal might fall. like that in tibia. and for this end great . or knee cap. between the it femur and the has a place of its own. IV. It cannot parated into distinct muscles. The front portion of the lower extremity of the femur is elevated or built up. expressly for . either the feet would interfere or they could not be brought to support the centre of gravity. sacrifices of power were made. it The middle one has its upper insertion in the has three heads. the most inefficient locomotive apparatus.. being attached to the pelcircumference . 6). The other two heads are attached to the broad face of the femur.. but weight nine pounds. with cartilage and synovial membrane. Though full difficult of demonstration. Its length its eleven inches only. twenty.THE HORSE IN MOTION. man. and it acts as a unit in extending the leg forward through the patella... so that the action is to extend both bones on a line forward . and is called the rcctns. f) is the great muscle that occupies the front of the thigh. or cup. and vis. IX. How is it possible for the student to learn the action of the machine when the muscular wise like a crab forces are if represented as chiefly composed of adductors and abductors. or middle head. as ? the animal was designed to move side- the action of their These names may be perfectly proper to express analogues in man for man. its point of insertion but the rectus. if they did not. and the application of power is direct. The triceps fcmoris (Plates III. as well as of extending the leg in common with its fellows. in which the head of the femur rests (Plate II. As its name implies. we descend to those of the leg. but the patella is not. it may be taken for granted that at speed the adduction and abduc- tion of all the muscles in action counterbalance each other. /. Leaving the muscles of the haunch. smooth facet of the pubis. 47 where the angles are right angles. directly above the acetabulum. there is less need of composition of forces but the design of nature was higher: beauty was superadded to power. as close fering with its as possible to the free is head of the is bone without inter- its action.. has . has the power of moving the femur on which it lies. and furnished with a trochlea. or grooved surface. but the greatest diversity of action in his extremities. a part of the knee. of all his relations. or articulation.
that of the muscles of the calf is very complicated. is aid of the camera. Physiologists may say that the patella is being inserted into the patella. and the ligament below the patella does the same office as the tendon above.48 THE HORSE IN MOTION. the tendon of the triceps. It along with the gastrocnemii has a muscular body of own. not distinguishable in . and can only be understood action of the triceps is by a study of the whole limb as a machine of which the voluntary be possible for me to interpret the action of the muscles and the use of the tendons with their checks muscles form a part. its inserted into the femur about two inches from the muscles. ligament. The gastrocnemii calf. or superficial muscles of the hold a corresponding position on the leg to that of the triceps on the thigh. it has but little rest./. The force of this powerful muscle as determined by its circumference can only be compared to the great gluteus.. It rests. Anatomists call the portion below the patella. the patella to play on as over a pulley . therefore. g. us as if . maintains to the stride. Whether it will and reinforcements without the actual limb before us be determined. but for one fourth of a and if the rectus acts as a flexor of the thigh at the same time with the flexors of the thigh upon the pelvis in. is developed in the tendon. m). It is to the bone was developed in the tendon as it is developed in tenwill We dinous fibres elsewhere. and is called into action after the extreme of flexion has been passed. after extended beyond it to be inserted into a rough tubercle in the head of the tibia. from a careful drawing by Hahn. which close of the stride. but the results were not satisfactory. the perpendicular is After passed. or knee. g it again resumes the offensive and extends it the leg in giving the propulsive impulse. and the femur has been brought forward by its flexors already referred to. After the foot has taken the ground it steadies the stifle. and regulates the flexion of that joint as the angles close to shorten the limb. and in which the rectus may have borne a part. (Plate VIII. is a question to attempt was made to represent the parts by the Plate X. The gastrocnemius of the right side. as well as to the levers on which they act. but while the very simple and easily comprehended. This tendon joint. not discuss the question. to is An dissected away from its origin in the femur and raised by hooks is show the perforatus tendon.
S.//. and the extensors of the foot. apply short of breaking. to the pastern. are permitted to the flexed. to be dislocated. being strongly secured by liga/i. sion. as the hind foot is may be is seen in . reaches its insertion at is the outside of that of the gastrocnemius. which are located in front (a). On their way to their insertion into the point of the muscle lying hock the tendons of these two muscles are twisted upon each other half round. all the plates where is in the act of taking the ground but when the leg extended upon the thigh the tendon the joints of the foot sition. as seen at " r. is concerned This movement is and may be shown in the . it ments to the point of the hock. causes flexion of of muscular action. and flexion at effected. then forcibly extend the foot until the pastern joint. prevent it. except so far the act of the extensor of the foot (extensor pedis. so that the pcrforatus tendon.) It then passes to is its insertion into the bones of the foot. and acts to extend the metatarsus below but the tendon of the pcrforatus passes over the point of the hock. as in the act of propulthe inferior. a). or fetlock joint. where throws out a ring to encircle the tendon of the perforans. and flexes the foot with its added force. where it is provided with a pulley similar to that at the knee. beyond that it cannot be moved by any force that we can tense. as in When knee the plate. then passes down behind the it metatarsus. forming the back sinews." would be liable. the extensors at a offering no oppo- so that extension of the superior joints. tion it the posi- takes when the horse is standing. being inserted into the femur above the knee joint. is drawn upward. fixed it. or cannon bone. If we consider the limb in the position as given in the plate. tendon (perforatus). The tendon of the latter immovably to the bone. is relaxed. IN MOTION. from the extreme flexions and extensions which take place at that but for the extraordinary provisions made to joint. 49 of the the drawing. but the spindle-form body of the perforatus muscle connected with the tendon contracts by volition. and is in /. over it which glides to a very limited extent.THE HOKSF. will become and also the ligaments that limit its motion at the point of the hock. (These two tendons. being there confounded with the body upon it. It is tied by the ligaments at the apex of . as independent dead subject. which was beneath. this straighten or extend the foot. the tendon.
e\ and its Its tendon takes not influenced by the flexions of that joint. tendon is inner side and as near the joint as Strong ligaments cover the groove where the course of the changed. will not affect the length of its sides. k. the auxiliary tendon. t. n. its and a more direct course to insertion . When the horse is standing. tibia. the knee to the insertion of the tendon at the femur. whose tension requires an effect of the will and tires in time. m. for the tendon. In the plate this branch is is it shown relaxec the The ratus. it passes through a groove at the base of the calcaneum. c. This muscle. they form a parallelogram. tendon. and fror the posterior surface of the metatarsus an auxiliary tendon or ligament of nearly its own size. and also in the same contraction aids by its pressure at the back of the hock in extending that joint. and changes in the angles. and the distance from the hock the apex of the hock. which he never does with his fore except when one is of them is lame. the horse rests mechanically upon the tendons. may flex the foot independently. m. . will not change the relations. thus extending one joint while it flexes another. of the perfc and is inserted into the bones of the foot. and the shaft of the joint. on his hind legs alternately. which so intimately related to the last origin below the knee joint and on the upper and posterior face of the tibia action is below the popliteus (Plate X. b. union. so that we see him when at his ease rest foot. but the knee is extended by the triceps. as in flexion When must and extension. fibula. at being parallel. and that from the centre of motion.50 the hock. The perforans has its muscle. THE HORSE and if IN MOTION. it the knee and hock joints are both extended c.. and passes above the pastern through the ring. It then passes down on its behind the metatarsal bone and inside the tendon of the perforate On its course it receives the tendon of another small flexor. the other follow. of twice the size was before r. to /. When the foot rests in the standing position. n. and the knee joint is ex- tended. above mentioned . near possible. and does so ii propulsion in the last part of the stride. being equal and parallel. the knee or the hock joint is flexed or extended. thus reinforced. being entirely independent of the femur and the muscles attached to it. as well as the hock. to prevent its displacement.
converts the part below
the office of
into a continuous tendon, which performs
a ligament, in
with that of the perforatus, to
aid the suspensory ligament in supporting the
weight of the body
the extreme extension which the pastern undergoes
as in rapid locomotion.
tendons below the hock
by anatomists scattered through the but for all mechanical purposes the sources
power are above and away from the extremities, where the velocities are, at times, more than twice that of the body and the momentum
must be arrested
the heel in
quadrupeds represents man, and the elongations of bones and corresponding
at every stride.
tendons are necessary modifications of the plan for the development
group of small muscles which form what is called, by some horsemen, the second thigh they are on the outer face of the
thigh and below the
or knee, and in front of the
occupying the intermediate
flexor of the metatarsus has
front of the perforans,
upper attachment on the lower in the metatarsus, below
the joint, after passing under the annular ligament.
described by Chauveau.
a feeble anis
the gastrocnemii, but only acts
and anterior extensors occupy, as their names indicate, spaces on the tibia in front of the latter, and their tendons, after passing under the annular ligament, in front of the hock, descend to be inlateral
serted into the anterior face of the foot
act, therefore, to flex the
hock and extend the
to take the
foot, raising the toe as the
one of the most wonderful contrivances
whole locomotive machinery of the horse.
only, with its action
beyond the control
of the will,
indispensable to locomotion, and the interest
increased by the developments of the camera.
not necessary, in order to consider the relations and functions of this organ, that we should enter into a detailed account of all the
ligaments of the foot; they are very numerous. Anatomists limit the name to the strong band that has its upper attachment to the metatarsus below the hock,
lower one into the sesamoid bones, and
they have given the name of sesamoid ligament to that continuation will not discuss with anatomists the from those bones to the foot.
question of their identity, but, mechanically considered, they arc one, and, like the patella, the sesamoid bones may be said to be developed
in the ligament.
limited to the
would be a
suspend the weight that is thrown upon it, it is necessary that a counter force should act upon the opposite border of If either part the sesamoid bones equal in strength to that above it.
were divided, the other would have no function, but united they constitute an instrument that often bears the weight of the whole body.
a broad, thick band, resembling tendon, and
between the splint bones and the tendons of the perforatus and perforans or " back tendons." This ligament fixes the sesamoid
in the position
above and behind the articulation
of the first
second metatarsals, so that when the second metatarsal or pastern bone is thrown out from under the first metatarsus they are drawn
and, their articular surfaces forming an arc of the same
the loss of the pastern
but the sesamoids
whole weight of the body, and they have no support but the suspensory ligaments in which they are imbedded, and the tendons of the
perforans and perforatus, which cross the bridge between the sesamoids. The perfect equilibrium between the strength of the ligament
and the force
required to resist
the utmost importance.
four feet, the weight
distributed, and the angles formed by the pasterns with the bones above are small, for the weight upon each one is not great enough to spring it far; but in running, the whole weight in every stride is
borne by each foot
turn for a short time, and the elasticity and
suspensory ligament must be, with that of
ing tendons, just equal to
requirements to support the body,
placed beyond the control of the
much, the fetlock
liable to strike the
too rigid and
does not yield enough, there will be stiffness and a hobbling gait. \Ve shall have occasion to refer to this again when we analyze the
brought out by the experiments of Mr. Stanford with instantaneous photography, of more interest than the action
suspensory ligament. the horse is standing,
be seen that the pastern forms
Its position indicates
an acute angle with the metatarsus.
of the ligaments,
that prevents the further
extension of the joint
but in running and fast trotting, this ligament
shortened by the weight of the body, to such an extent that the pastern is made to take a position at right angles to the metatarsus and horizontal with the ground. (See
put upon the stretch,
the plates of horses speeding, passim.)
Elongation of the limb begins
immediately after the perpendicular
as the fetlock
the last joint to reflex in shortening, so
This spring continues
action during the rest
of the stride, straightening the fetlock joint as the leg
gated after the passage over it of the centre of gravity, still sustaining the body with undiminished force until it leaves the ground, when, being relieved from the superimposed weight, the flexor muscles regain control
the reaction of these ligaments, with that of
the flexor tendons acting as ligaments, that produces the quick
ment, quicker than
the feet to
possible in muscular contraction,
off the foot
effected after the weight
and the propulsive effort is complete. There is no muscular action en the foot until after the pressure is removed and the flexors regain
problem to determine the absolute, or
even the relative, work performed by the different muscular powers in locomotion. There are many different elements entering employed
the calculation, that are impossible to
quality as well as quantity
some contain a
of cellular or fibrous tissue than others,
For example, the glutens and vast us are coarse things being equal. muscles capable of resisting external force, and therefore popularly
believed to be strong
meaning corresponding to toughness, and that quality depends upon the amount of interstitial cellular tissue they contain, which tissue has no contractile property, and can;
not originate motion; while the psoas and iliacus, having but little such cellular or fibrous tissue, have little power to resist external force,
but have a larger contractile power as measured by the areas of their
Muscles do not often have their force concentrated
distributed over the face of their levers at different disall
tances and at different angles, as in penniform muscles, and nearly
others in a greater or less degree, and at different angles at each change
in the position of the levers.
recognize the same general
mechanical principles, we cannot apply the same mathematical rules add to these elements of uncertainty the comusual in mechanics
position of forces often in the
same muscle, and we
midable are the
difficulties in the
an exact science.
But while we cannot accurately determine the forces in detail, we can in the aggregate. We see all these different and often antagonistic forces united
in their action
centre of motion,
as the hip joint, to effect
certain general princius.
however, that we can deduce from the facts before
that the foot shall reach the
as far in advance as possible, to
as long as possupport the centre of gravity as early as may be, and sible, and that it may use its propulsive force later, it is necessary
should be possessed of sufficient length but it is bearing a burden whose weight we will suppose to be a thousand pounds, and
going at the rate of twenty miles an hour, and the
is a responproduct of that weight multiplied by the velocity. This on stilts. The difficulty is overcome sibility that could not be borne
by so constructing the whole limb that
be extensible, thus
the advantage of length without
centre of motion
actually lowered several inches that
purpose the system of levers
which, by their flexion and extension, practically shorten and lengthen the limb. The acutcness of the angles at which these bones
intersect each other
therefore, an important element in the
the angles to be acute require long levers, and long levers
-Mtate long and powerful muscles to
must be bred.
Flexibility of articular ligaments
may be acquired by
and regular exercise, but the proportions of the body are inherited. Length of muscular fibres and acute angles of the levers on which they
give sweep of limb, and strength depends
upon the number
and the effective power of both depends upon the will or courage but all these qualities would be vain if the motion of the extremities were
not so co-ordinated that their functions should be performed without
one with another.
the speed of the horse
twenty-five miles an hour the rate
miles an hour.
in its stride is
passing that on the ground is twice that, or fifty even greater than that, for the velocity of the foot
an accelerated one during most of the distance, and may be supposed to be most rapid midway. Now the movements of the posterior extremity on its centre are controlled by voluntary muscles,
to be irregular, as they must necessarily be from the ever-changing centre of gravity which it is designed to supThere would have been danger of one foot striking the other leg port.
from various causes
an accident technically called interference, but another greater existed at the stifle from the blows that joint would
be liable to give the abdomen in its extreme and violent flexions. It is the of the iliacus muscle to guard the abdomen from this vioduty
performs its office well, it gives the stifle action but while the upper end of the leg (tibia) is thrown
out in this action, the lower
more so but
unique construction of the hock
.The interlocking grooves
of this joint are not direct, as in other
hinge joints of the body, and as the corresponding joint in
oblique, so that
flexion takes place at that joint, the lower ray
carried obliquely outward,
and when the other leg
passed, and the
extension takes place again,
and the foot
returned to the position required to support the centre of gravity. By this simple contrivance the danger of this accident is placed
the will of the animal, and in well-formed horses beyond the possibility Some horses circumduct the hind feet more than others, of accident.
in others the stifle action is
to see both excessive in the
often considerable difference in different horses
length of the hock.
The long hock
gives the greatest power, for the
reason that the leverage
lost in speed.
greater; but what
gained in power
a looseness in the articulations of the tarsal
bones immediately below the hock joint, which, by their freedom of motion upon each other, enables the joint to become more extended,
last effort of
the gastrocnemii muscles
given with great
advantage of mechanical power from the practical shortening of the arm of the lever on which they act, and from the ability the limb
acquires of retaining
a point in some
upon the ground for a longer time. animals, but would be considered a defect in
a draught horse.
Having given a
detailed description of the parts concerned in the
of the posterior limb,
and their action,
show how the machine
acts as a whole.
the reader has familiarized
himself with the parts by reference to the plates, while he has followed the description, he will experience no difficulty but if he has not, it
would be as well
to pass over the rest of this chapter. to
any particular gait or co-ordination of the limbs with each other, but it is confined to the action of one posterior
limb alone, and
be found to be the same in
the paces, differ-
ing only in the degree of action according to speed. will take for our guide the posterior extremity as
the ground, after the act of propulsion
pace, the trot.
complete, and in the
when the foot is as far forward as possible to sustain the centre of gravity. The triceps also relaxes. by it mind which means we are enabled to adapt to. The semi- tendinosus relaxes. all superficial gluteus act in concert to . maintain their tension to keep the Imver extremity of the femur in its advanced position. goes the hock joint. and the great adductor. knee becoming more flexed as it is advanced and with the knee. and the . which marks the point of greatest flexion of all the joints. movement. and the tibia is free to respond to the contraction of the semivastus. extend the metatarsus synchronously with the feeble action of the extensors of the foot. and the muscles of the calf. The instant of contact. 57 upon their this levers. 8 The flex- ors of the thigh. XIV. The toe is raised to avoid tripping. every position required. by reference to that the bones of the entire limb are at angles best adapted the shock. with the anterior branch of the from the hip.) Retraction begins by the relaxation of the gluteus maximus. iliacus. tendons are released The flexors of the foot act at the instant their from the forced service as ligaments. XV.. already mentioned. and by It will its elastic frog it is pecul- iarly fitted to receive the plates. acting on the point of the hock. the heel being the first to make the contact. iliacus. acting from the hip the upon the knee. meet the contact with the ground. the sartorius. the psoas magnus. the semi-membranosus. The tensor vagina?. to be observed. or stifle. advance the thigh. and sartorius from inner and upper wall of the pelvis.TIIK In order to aid the HOKSM in IN MOTION. and allow the elastic frogs of the foot to make the first contact. as their action would counteract that In this order the foot takes the ground. tt nclinosus lifting its lower extremity. The perforans and perforatus do not take part in this of the extensor. tensor vaginae femoris. The flexors of the thigh. and continue their action until the perpendicular from the centre of motion to the ground is reached. by the relaxation of the gastrocnemii and the the mechanical arrangement before described. By means it is a comparatively easy matter for one to understand the action throughout (See Plates II. marks a sudden change. while the triceps extends the tibia upon the femur already well thrust forward. understanding the actions of the muscles the skeleton is mounted with movable joints..
the whole force it is will be. one half of the force is spent in supporting weight. and now that the foot is a fixed point. with the exception of the few small muscles just mentioned. the croup. a in employed in supporting weight. In this haunches and long muscle of the back manner there is no act of extension.58 THE HORSE IN MOTION. further in the . the more effective pendicular. the entire mass of the muscles of the is limb at this time to support the . has passed over the foot that extension is possible . until the leg has passed the perpendicular. is the contraction of this muscle to shorten the distance is between its two extremities end of the . in it is plain it would be is exclusive!] spent propulsion.). The function of the weight of the body and prevent it from pitching headlong and to this end. especially the vastus. while the weight of the body relieves the extensors of the foot. one of these extremities attached to the lower femur and the other to the spines of the is sacrum behind V. At that time it it it presses with most it force against the articulation pressing forward. This is the use of all the vast mass of muscular power developed (ilio spinalis). and then the nearer it to a horizontal the directior of the force applied. than the extension of the body upon the thigh it is not until tht centre of motion. From the time when the foot planted is ir advance. the semi-tendinosus acts in unison with the others to take the weight of the anterior half of the body. is per- employed supporting weight exerted upon the ground at an angle of forty-five degrees. so that extends act. but the course of the muscle not direct (see Plate being deflected foot first at the head of the femur. anterior branch of the superficial gluteus. and most so when the reaches the ground. way and contraction of the great propellers of the hauncl gastrocnemii. which forces the trunk over the supporting liml reduced to the minimum by the gradual giving of the triceps anc The act of propulsion hind foot by the vastus begins from the moment that the The effect of takes the ground and its contraction begins. and the other in propulsion if is in but when it could be exerted horizontally. and the other this last is resistance which must be drawn from the momentum part being . or head of the thigh. When the limb . the trunk upon the limb and forces forward in the same . give way. limb is called into action . the force alsc compound.
effected by the weight borne. 59 After passing the perpendicular. be seen that but a small part of the will immense power is of the extensors. which the effect bear no part their action could it is have no other proper than to bring the flexors body to the ground.THE HORSE IN MOTION. and muscles of the to the it end of the stride. and the extension calf. but in supporting is weight. power. spent in the act even when the animal is in full motion. in . and as the extension of the leg increases and the burden assumed by another limb. but effected by the gradual giving way of the triceps It and the suspensory ligament. triceps. and the angles of the extremity are increased. tions contained in these two endeavor to apply the demonstrabut such must take the facts on which will the theory of motion is based for granted. The reader who has not had the patience to follow us through the study to the end of this chapter will not be able to master the next. This analysis of the mechanism of the posterior extremity will become of importance when we come to apply it to the run or greatest speed of the horse. . In the flexion of the limb that takes place as itself shortens in order to give uniform support. and not be the flexion is crushed. where we . the semi-tendinosus ceases to act. they are in better position to exercise their functions as propellers. it is the better enabled to exert its propelling As the limbs are successively relieved of that duty by their alternates. and we would advise him to pass it over. or propellers of the posterior extremity. gluteus. of propulsion. and take up the fifth chapter. is con- tinued by the vastus.
THE FUNCTION OF THE TRICEPS OF MUSCLES THAT FLEX THE SHOULDER. OF OBSTACLES TO A FULL UNDERSTAND ING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE LOCOMOTIVE MUSCLES REMOVED BY THE CAM OF ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENTS THE ANTERIOR EXTREMITY. TRACHELO SUBSCAPULARIS. AND ACTIVE AUSIDERED. LONG LEVERS. CULTY. WHY QUADRUPEDS RISE FROM RECUMBENT POSITIONS WITH DIFF EXTREMITIES. the kangaroo. THE COMPARISON OF THE ANTERIOR EXTREMITY TO THE SPOKES OF A WHEEL CONITS THREE CHARACTERS OF CRUTCH. and the popular hypothesis of evolution from one common parentage. to the orang-outang. ITS FUNCTION HITHERTO UNK\O\V> ANGULI SCAPULAE.CHAPTER IV. MUSCLE. is and then to man by such easy leaps that persuade one that he has advanced to his opinions without substantial grounds. FLEXORS OF THE FOREARM. THE MASTOIDO HUME THE GREAT DORSAL AND PECTORAL AS PROPELLERS. HIGH ACTION. THE TRAPESIUS AND YELLOW CORD. MECHANICS POINTS DESIRABLE IN A HORSE FOR SPEED OR STRENGTH. PASSIVE TOOL. to look upon the anterior extremities as limbs in progress of like The mind jumps. THE THE P RALIS AS AN EXTENSOR. WHY BOXERS AND OTHERS LIABLE TO BE PLACED SUDDENLY ON ELEMENTS OF SPEED. from the marsupials to the mon- keys. it development into arms or tool-makers. ITS DOUBLE CHARACTER OF TENDON AM THE GREAT SERRATUS. anterior extremity furnishes a subject for the study of anirm THE mechanics of more interest even than that which has demanded our attention in the preceding chapters. TOMATON. There appear at first sight greater difficulties of in the way simili- human ingenuity in the application mechanical power for propul sion to the anterior part of the trunk. To these causes must be ascribed th difficult to . LEVATOH CENTRE OF MOTION. FUNCTION OF THE RESISTING THE FALL OF THE BODY AND IN LOCOMOTION. DEFENCE HAVE THEIR LIMBS SEMI-FLEXED. MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER-BLADE. The mind is led by the tudes of comparative anatomy. LOW CENTRES COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR MOTION.
to the reader before the conclusion of this chapter. and that the anterior of one does more than its share both It offices. . Baucher for the statement that borne by the anterior and posterior extremities. in latter required to also to bear share equally with her husband in his labors and burdens which he cannot share with her. that the strongest propulsive is legs given with the anterior one in each stride motion. The is beautiful contrivances by means of which the anterior limb enabled to support weight as a crutch. that each limb required to support the body and act as propeller in turn.* will be shown. was as 210 for the former to 174 for the latter. the hind legs. the total the weight weight of the horse being 384 kilogrammes.TIIK universal of HORSE IN MOTION. to be acted upon as a passive instrument in propulsion. and the horse.so already. the lower attachments being to the . s.. compares them to and standard authority on the the spokes of a wheel. they his wife may be compared which the all and in certain foreign lands. cannot fail to excite the most profound admiration. for the accomplishment of the same general result. independent of both the others. as determined by placing them upon different weighing-machines. indeed. fore 6l opinion writers on the horse that the latest legs are merely supporters. On reference to Plate IV. its fibres converging upward * Mr. the horse. one will see the posterior half of the great serratus brought into view by the removal it of the superficial its muscles that hide border first is in Plate III. is be apparent it is not . and wonder that its mechanism has not been better understood. and asserts and keep It will if that their only functions are to support the centre of gravity out of the way of the propellers. it is so strong as to raise the centre of gravity several inches line of its above the horizontal As the case now stands between the anterior to a peasant is and posterior extremities. in England. This muscle fan-shaped. It is so called because lower serrated or notched. eight ribs the anterior half of the muscle is is concealed by the shoulder. when we come to analyze the fastest pace of force of either of the . Walsh (Stonehenge) gives the authority of M. and at the same time to constitute an autonomy of its own.
while in the hind leg the labor of pure upon the triceps (Plate IV. which are in the greatest proportion in the long axis.) fibres The muscular when final of the serratus are most abundant at the aid in preventing shock anterior and posterior borders. being passive. tendinous fibres existing in this muscle is found in others. and extends over the whole exterior surface of the great serratints rivalling pearl. another muscle. having the same characteristic construction as the serratus. so he has no occasion to rest them.. whether acting alone. have no such power in themselves. useful when the animal is . . This pearly coat of the muscle is tendinous in its structure. but are centre or long axis (Plate XI. artist tus. .. rest his /). and the latter in giving the propulsive effort when it .62 to a THE HORSE IN MOTION.$. and whatever may be the direction of its axis for the with reference to the trunk . The former leaves it the foot first takes the ground. to when put to their tension absolutely limit elongation that degree. (See page 50. and he will be observed to hind legs alternately. s. common When ous this muscle is recently exposed it presents delicate nacre- has suggested them only in his drawing. the horse is enabled to stand in his stall all day without resting either falls of his fore legs . as seen in Plate XL. muscular fibre. or scapula. a. as the deep gluteus described in the last chapter. enabling it to perform The tendinous fibres the functions of both muscle and ligament. or bands. which. in greater proportion near the fibres. but this centre of motion must not be of confounded with the centres motion existing " in the joints . and by their joint action they relax the tendinous fibres. a). The These tendinous fibres extend throughout the muscle. or in conjunction with one or more of the other limbs. These tendinous centre of motion concentrated at mav be considered the whole limb when supporting the weight of the body. which we shall describe further on. and ar as these tissues are incapable standing With the aid of of fatigue." or hip joint This intermixture of muscular and of the posterior extremity. it holds a corresponding position with the whirlbone. centre on the inner face of the upper border of the shoulder-blade.
XI. n --77 INTI - .
as in man and the anthropoid animals. which. Plate XL. But when the foot of one of these limbs is off the ground the . which are continuous below.. which fibres limit elongation their contraction and take the not called from the muscular when The upper attachment of this muscle XI. rests the is lined with loose cellular tissue. and is much intermingled strain for. nects the centre. is tendinous covering to the with tendinous fibres.TIIK 1IORSK IN MOTION'. be considered as a joint possible in joint. The body in a standing position weight of the anterior half upon these serratus muscles as upon a sling to which the anterior extremities correspond to crutches. and the limb would drop but for another set of muscles. with the dark line markIn the centre ing the boundary between it and other muscles. 63 may. allows of unrestricted motion upon the and prevents friction. its s. thrown out as it is in advance of the centre of gravity. from which name. are sufficient for the purpose which . and the only kind of that position. the great serratus will be seen as a fan-shaped muscle which has eight ribs. For the same reason it is not provided with a collar-bone. though feeble. or shoulder-blade (Plate below the cartilaginous border.. a. while it con- opposing surfaces. in its The centre of motion in the anterior extremity mechanical function. it would be inevitably broken by the contact with the ground. "serratus. On first reference to Plate IV. it vies This is the muscle. serratus is relaxed. s. The space below the section of the serratus. in which with the mother-of-pearl. The its space covered on the inner face of the scapula greatest is nine inches in measurement by two in its least. in whom that bone fixes the shoulder and makes it the centre of motion for the limb. or clavicle. were it constructed like the corre- sponding joint in the posterior extremity. is From lower attachments spread out over the the attachment to the different ribs its lower its border like a saw. and between that muscle and those of the inner face of the shoulder-blade. as seen in s. and enable the animal to rest the muscular fibres and limit their elongation. are seen the gray fibres of tendon. is on the inner face of the scapula. which." The artist it has vainly attempted to represent the nacreous color. (?).
It it becomes merged of this into ordinary is may be that the branch cord that inserted into the spine of the scapula of the anterior limb. and which has been dissected away from the whole body of the drawings. Plate III. divided into two parts by the spine of into which both divisions are inserted along with a band of the ligament of the neck. It is separated from the skin only by the general aponeurosis. so perfectly represented in the plate that It is requires but little description. THE HORSE This It is is IN MOTION.. where ligament. or fibrous covering described in a former chapter. the trapezius is This muscle in brought into so named from the corresponding muscle in is is removed. the levator anguli scapula (Plate IV. and the name of levator anguli scapulae should . exerting their forcj at the upper or cartilaginous extremity of the scapula and above the centre of motion or attachment of the serratus . of the special function the trapezius it (g. the two parts acting alternately. anatomically or mechanically. but corresponds to that in man there but since Cuvier's time it has been made when so united they are no more like a rhom- boid than a tent-pin. whom it is in the form of a rhomboid it . which seems to be sent off for the purpose of aiding with its passive force the trapezius in holding the limb to of both divisions are in the as it its place. a special contrivance to afford means for the attachment of important muscles when the spines of the vertebra It extends from the head to the are too remote to afford it. The upper insertions or origins same ligament its of the neck. is seems to be. the rhomboideus man. but however that may half be. is itself sufficient to support the weight is and that the muscle under consideration used. /) To this union in the horse there can be no objection. its aid in locomotion does not exceed two ounces. or yellow cord.). the scapula (see Plate II. and if the name were limited to the muscle so far as could be no objection to it. indeed. is well called by hippo-anatomists. g. cannot be great. as its entire weight Its thickness does not vary much from an inch.).64 they serve. to embrace another muscle. its This cord from all not only by It color but by elasticity distinguished other ligaments. in the subject When view. to aid in locomotion. strong spines of the dorsal vertebra.
can it be said to lift the angle of the scapula. the restoration of the its name if levator anguli scapulae to is old association becomes necessary. Their the inner border of the cartilage (Plates IV. of the scapula. having its origin in the transverse processes of the its vertebra of the neck. could be more inappropriate than this. at the anterior border. the limb are few. its name levator anguli scapulae to include rhomboideus as does not take place until the leg is extended and the foot rests upon the ground it then acts to draw contraction of fibres . the trachclo subscapularis (Plate IV. the and we will apply the well. so far as I No name The function of this last-named musuntil know. there need of definite terms. if 65 either. confusion arising from hippo-anatomists being misled by human anatomy. known before the time of Cuvier as the levator anguli scapulae 9 they form a . In order to is make intelli- gible a description of the mechanical action. directly or indirectly. . however. g. while in the horse origin is in the spinous processes of the vertebra. The course of being in its its fibres is accurately drawn in the plate. part of the history is but the worst that the name of levator anguli scapula? was applied to another muscle. never been understood now. The forward the tipper or short end of the whole extremity as a lever with its fulcrum on the ground and its weight at the centre of motion.THE HORSE IN MOTION. is the insertion of the muscle . The levator anguli scapulas is quite distinct from the rhomboideus in man. . and XL. it not to be abandoned altogether. in no way. for the reasons given. of restoring name to the trachelo subscapularis. g). as may be seen by reference to the plate.. Its posterior fibres extends forward they insertion is into . '. its name.) is In man. but even more of the angle function in man. it is good. for that expresses its no locomotive organ. lifter . and will But this furnishes another example of the be explained further on./). become numerous and more powerful. have been applied to the united muscles. From the old the necessity which exists. necessary to the complicated movements his superior extremities are required to perform. as far back as the withers and along the yellow cord. (See Plate IV. but as it normal position. cle has.
and join on to the serratus. Its general appearance is so like the muscle above the scale nus (m. separated by interstitial fibrous or cellular tissue. Plate XI. as far as permitted by the tendinous fibres of the serratus and the branch from the yellow cord but that cannot be . As of there seen. having similar origins along the cervical vertebra nearer the head. but when the animal is motion of the scapula running. and its insertions into the spines of the dorsal m. function Until the theory of quadrupedal motion was understood its may it well have been overlooked. though with the joint action of the levator anguli scapulae it may move the upper end of the it scapula forward. triangular. motion that it may be that they act in coninsertion is junction with the trachelo subscapularis. a line with the centre of motion and directly upon a in the is cannot be supposed to aid about that point. it receive the weight of the whole body or be This will required alone to its itself crushed by momentum. It is now clear. The last-named muscle it is is well exposed in arises Plate IV. its fibres being nearly horizontal on an average. and their insertion on a line with the centre of motion . bered. Its attach- ment being on fixed point. admit of great freedom of motion upon each other in the extreme It is a powerful muscle. g. so nearly in the considerable mass. vertebra (hidden in the plate by the overlaying levator anguli scapbut the scalenus is ulae). whose at g. line of the centre of s. culce.66 THE HORSE IN MOTION. It from the transverse processes fibres the last six cervical vertebra. and tion its converge to their inser- on the inner face of the scapula. or centre of motion. vertical flexions of the neck while grazing. m). or a little upward. g. its function being to raise the head when . but its action has not been comprehended. to its weight being three and a half pounds . can have no active agency in locomotion. that it is apt to be confounded with it. not a locomotive muscle. brachii at the be resumed after the action of the is triceps same instant shown. and the fore leg is thrown forward and takes the ground. much. in front of the insertion of the Its muscular fibres are in little fasciserratus. It is sufficient for the present that the action of this muscle abstractly be understood and rememit.. or bundles.
\Ve have shown how the anterior extremity to the trunk. acting. the greater will be the space moved over. The mechanical in principles involved The method same limb as a lever if in which mechanical power is applied to the locomotion will be found to be no less so. of being very primitive. in required . its and it is difficult to conceive better. order in the joints. should have the power to move it applied as low down as possible. is used as a supporter its and how it is itself supported in position are very when not so simple. as is high as a bony base could mechanically a joint. as has been stated. . the centre of motion is attained equally well. The limb. but there is all that is it is placed considerably higher than in the latter. and the restriction point compensated result is The total by the superior flexibility of the lower that the stride of one limb is just equal to for its that of the other. but the same mechanical limb is relation. This. acting as a lever of the third order. order that at that joints. IN MOTION.* dorsal (Plate III. 67 laterally and to bend the neck when each muscle acts separately. and corresponds to the hip joint of the posterior extremity.. display of the : \Yhile there of no bony connection between -the anterior extremity the horse and its trunk. be reached. or crutch. having centre of motion as high as possible. different relations to the trunk any how it could serve The centre of motion in the anterior extremity if is in the scapula. the power is applied. d). and the contrivance does not display as great ingenuity as some parts locomotive organs. the longer must be the fibres of the muscle. or centre of motion. therefore no fixed point of resistance is and reaction. This requisite is furnished by the great which has for its base the spines of the last See page 31. more motion should not be required is . and. within the periphery of the body but the farther . consequently. and the elbow to the hock. as in the posterior extremities. d. from the fulcrum. it is because there was no occasion for such it has the merit.THE HORSE the pair act unitedly. not anatomically so. at least. there is no reversed the stifle. the shoulder to In this view. The freedom of motion at its centre in the less than in the corresponding joint in the posterior extremity.
Its fibres con- verge as they are directed forward. tissue is Though spread over so space. inserted with it into the internal tubercle of the humerus./") tendon (Plate in the same region by change and the dorsal division of the trapezius. and form a mass of muscle between the arm and thorax so great as to be second in power to no other loco- motive muscle in the body. shoulder. f. and the limb its weight of the body.. and its from the moment that the foot touches the ground. flexion The great dorsal or propulsion. and the lumbar vertebra. If this muscle acted when the foot is off the ground. p). Plate XI. /. may perform two funcThe muscle now under of the consideration has but one. tions.. and most so just behind the scapula. as mentioned. flat tendon. after passd. the muscular not correspondingly extensive. much The pur- pose was to gain advantage of position as far back as possible to give As the the most direct action in the line of motion to be produced. it is plain that it would play flex the shoulder./. there is Acting directly upon the angle no loss of its immense power by indirect force.) its ing beneath the muscles of the shoulder fibres again seen in Plate XL. is which unites with the tendon of the muscle. about one third of the way from the shoulder to the elbow.. to a thin.68 fifteen dorsal THE HORSE IN MOTION. where it unites with its fellow of the opposite side. and as low as the middle of the thorax. It is represented limits of this muscle are a little in doubt. which is covered at its posterior angle by it. fibres of its thin converge forward and downward. supporting the Under such con- forces the body forward over the foot. and ditions peller it articulations are all set. purpose. as near to the shoulder joint as possible. power is felt in . covering the serratus magnus as high as the lower border of the great dorsal. and it is covered in turn III. is The in the plate with the boundaries as given by Chauveau. as seen at p. they become more muscular. (as g . Its insertion is into the inner tubercle of the head of the humerus. but is its function as a propeller is is called into when the foot the fixed point. but its power as a pro- second to that of the great pectoral (Plate III. extending from the tenth over the thorax. but it is confounded so closely with the superficial muscle of the skin (paniculus carnosus) For our on its upper border that it is difficult to separate them. rib it is sufficiently shown in the plate.
behind the ear. half-way from its two extremities. caused by the the artist drew the parts as he saw them. are interwoven with those of is the muscle under consideration in its its function to aid that muscle. This branch. and an inch in thickness. about i. is known to anatomists as the cuticularis colli.THE HORSE forcing the body over action. passing downward and backward along the whole length of the neck and over the point in Plate III. This force two sets of muscles. and is inserted at the humerus. m. that office adduction or abduction. a branch to be inserted at the anterior border of the sternum.- is necessary that should be fixed. There seems no room sets of doubt that the conjoined action of the two is the most powerful propelling force in the whole locomotive organism of the horse. m.) It is six It is upper portion in inches in width where envelopes the shoulder joint. There does not appear to be any occasion to consider it a distinct muscle . and gives off. or in supperformed by the muscles of the limb its acting automatically. inaccuracy was overlooked until too late to be corrected. there was necessary tion forward some force to return the limb to its posiis when the act of propulsion was completed. To make this apparatus muscles last described complete. Though its so thin. the former has its fixed insertion at the mastoid process of the found in temporal bone. or base of the skull. and its allies of This relation is cord used in suspending the subject not well shown in the drawings. is 69 As is there in no loss of force in indirect none spent porting weight . which could not be well shown in the drawing. owing to displacement. situ. about thirteen inches above its insertion. IN MOTION. the masloido humeralis and the superficial pectoral. . enveloping it. its (See Plate IV. the weight of the mastoido humeralis it is not less than five pounds. its fibres . shown of the shoulder. so there is it. is and the effect of it traction upon the shoulder is to support its it and prevent from giving way while the limb playing independent part for a in sustaining the superimposed weight of the body. or breast-bone. and fix it position over the shoulder joint.* It is first four m. where the muscle also severed at/.. ' This is effected by the complexus. To give effect to this muscle. and the .. has been cut leaving only it away from its tendon of insertion. and to the cervical vertebra. the head. base.
the faster the greater must be the expenditure of acting from without upper end will move. the similitude will be complete. and is the muscle against which the collar rests . whose It arises has been doubtful. where it is turned over space in front of the scapula. the fast rowlock from its place and substitute for his hands shall if next make the blade of the oar in the water. by giving graceful contour to the parts. The muscle the superficial pectoral. or fulcrum. but the power. in speeding. attached to the muscles of the scapula strong aponeurosis that covers it. should be allowed to follow ally of this instinct in fixing the position of the head. and passing between the shoulder and the neck. to fit the space it fills. and to the . The course of its fibres : is backward. and becomes smaller as it is reflected on the scapula. The it is action of these two sets of muscles is so unlike any other that Let us suppose a man propelling a boat not readily understood. from the keel of the sternum. which has its insertion on the anterior extremity and lower margin bone. in common with the last described. this is a muscle of considerable power. being two and It is a half pounds in weight. through the water by means of an oar. spread out on the fascia of the inner face of the leg. this illustration be modified so that the oar shall be vertical. the breast. then apply his strength to the oar : the boat will move. downward. There is another muscle. From this its is it follows that the horse. triangular in form. the angular It is thick below. or breast. and the blade of the oar be fixed to the bottom. THE HORSE IN MOTION. The action of this muscle is to carry the whole limb forward. along . of the sternum. and the handle to a fixture above the man's head. and at the same time to adduct it to counteract the abduction of that muscle. and the man Now. or fills bone. Besides being an element of beauty. breast- the small pectoral. Of course the nearer the power is applied to the foot. and the handle end of the oar made fast to the side of the boat opposite to that on which he is seated. office upon the shoulder. but free to move about a pin .JQ the neck. it seems to have no other function than to pull forward the whole by strong cellular tissue. and outward is inserted into the anterior they divide into two branches one ridge with the mastoido humeralis the other is of the humerus. then it let the man remove .
and one third This from the point of the shoulder to the elbow. is attached to this cartilagi- nous border. or shoulder. The other tendon is inserted near the internal it tuberosity. n. This border. The spine of the scapula may be traced from the cartilage downward. No muscle of the anteto the bone indicates its former connection. rotate it the most consider- and acts to extend the humerus on the scapula and outward. and by to take the ground farther in advance. In Plate IV. is the superspinatus muscle. and its flexi- bility is such as to prevent any danger of fracture by force so applied. machine. one to be inserted into the external tubercle on the outside. by the closing of which the limb is shortened. have thus far considered the anterior extremity as a passive it remains to tool taken as a unit study it as an active automatic We . it Con- sidering this muscle mechanically. n. it. near the middle of cord were attached. unites with its fellow in extending the humerus. of it which the trapezius and branch of the yellow This spine divides unequally the scapula in front to . rendering tense the tissues connecting so doing extending the limb to enable it with the trunk.THE HORSE IN MOTION. but a rough margin tilaginous. it 71 limb. would be proper to regard its . whose terminal tendons pass of the distance is over the head of the humerus. but in the system of levers. It is difficult to trace any analogy between the mechan- ism of the anterior and posterior extremities thus far. which car- not seen in the prepared skeleton. s s. the external view of the shoulder and arm to is is given showing its relation to the trunk and that of the muscles each other. able division. that time might be lost in giving support to the centre of gravity. as an automatic machine. and opening of which it is lengthened. and leads us to infer how great importance was attached by no the Master Mechanic to utilizing every available fore foot to reach the means to enable the ground as far in advance as possible. we recognize the same mechanical combinations that are employed for the same purpose in in the the posterior extremity. is tenacity sufficient to withstand great traction. rior extremity. The pearly-colored upper border of the scapula. still seen with is the levator anguli scapulae is attached. but its It has not sufficient firmness to resist force from below.
by Percivall and the scapula humeshoulder is . but they are powerful braces to the joint. and of same power. Acting simultaneously. the hip joint. the abduction of the one cancelling the adduction of the other. One is called. and acting on the head of the of the humerus as a direct extensor humerus . another pair of muscles. at directly opposite the <?. lower insertions as one. they neither flex nor extend the humerus. by Chauveau. directl) opposite to the insertion of the infraspinatus. overlaying the joint beneath the mastoido humeralis. but the head of the humerus is broader and less convex. . each weighing two and the same length. and inserted into the inner side of the head of the humerus. which is attached to the exthat especially ternal surface of the scapula. Though freedom of motion is not so great as in the corresponding articulation in man. articular surface of the scapula too but it is supplemented by cartilage and ligaments. shoulder joint is constructed on the same principle as that of the hip. in its position of and held still more strongly it. fore leg and watch the action of the from the time that the foot leaves the ground until it takes a new position in advance. whose functions cannot be underIf the reader will refer to any one stood unless considered together. shoulder joint. and occupying the whole face of the bone below the insertion is of the serratus.72 THE HORSE IN MOTION. There is of the silhouettes of the trotting horse. /). it is much greater than that of The two muscles displacement are : guard the joint and prevent later the infraspinatus (i s). he will perceive that all the joints are flexed rapidly before the foot passes the perpendicular. which envelop The head by the powerful tendons the humerus is held in its place by the further assistance of the atmospheric pressure equal to one hundred pounds. s. the other is the subscapularis ( Plate XL. and its length seventeen inches. having its attachment on the inner surface of the scapula. It is inserted into and nearly fills the space below its spine. the long adductor teres minor. . the head of the humerus. The and the cavity of the opposing small to lodge it. its weight is two pounds. are of the These two muscles a half pounds. The flexion at the performed by these two muscles.
in part.* It is inserted into the capsular ligament of the elbow joint. or a pulley. When that time comes. glides as a synovial articulation. the limb is is brought forward by the mastoido humeralis. the lateral same manner as the grooves being deep so as to prevent Below the shoulder it forms displacement in extreme flexion. moulded to the double groove on the anterior angle of the humerus. at equal distances from the shoulder joint. Its muscular fibres are intermingled with tendinous bands. The other is called . (ors major. internal and external. a cylindrical muscle ten inches long. originating from the lower anterior extremity of the by a strong tendon. and nearly one third of the distance from the articulation one from the outer. and the weight of each is one pound. which inserted into the same ridge as the external of these two muscles. and it is enabled to act as a ligament to support the weight of the body without fatigue. while their length is the same. it is to be hoped they will be determined by the time When comes for a mechanical action without reference to the action of corresponding muscles in man. by Percivall and the great scapula humeralis. over which it scapula. There are two flexors of the forearm. and is one of the muscles on which. the humerus. page 62. and it is useless to consider what their function would be when so acting. Conjointly they are neither adductors nor abductors. The camera has now made the task comparatively their easy. The flexor brachii is a short tendinous muscle. 73 by Legh. and the rough tuberosity at the head of the radius. which is developed into a patella-formed cartilage. It raises the forearm. IN' MOTION. . these muscles should be known as the flexors of the shoulder. and the . for it is now confusion worse confounded). While the bone is thus flexed. in the patella of the stifle joint. thorough revision of the names of the muscles of the horse (and that time must come soon. the adductor of the arm. by which its elongation is limited. just above the centre of the shoulder joint. by Chauveau by Legh. They cannot be conceived as acting independently of each other.THE MORSE ralis. . the high See description of serratus muscle. One acts on the outer and the other on the inner aspect of other from the inner surface of the scapula. but flexors of the shoulder.
being independent of the scapula. a powerful combination of muscles. varies with the distance from the joint at the shoulder. as is the case in every instance before the fore foot leaves the ground in runIts length. as their lever. being larger and more muscular. i s. K) fills the angular space between the point of the elbow (olecranon process) and the lower border of the scapula. and acts as an assistant to the flexor brachii the two muscles originate from It opposite sides.. As its name implies.74 THE HORSE IN MOTION. but to the posterior face of the . The two upper heads are attached to the lower border of the scapula.. It is the furrow of torsion (Plate II. but the correspondence in name with the triceps extensor of the thigh should not lead us to confound its mechanism with that of the latter. and. may act in extending the arm when the angle formed by the latter bone and the humerus is so small that the limit of contraction of the other two branches is reached. is not attached to the scapula. if we choose to consider it one muscle. or lower head. 34). humerus. action nearly direct. and from . This branch. spinatus. it is a three-headed muscle. and is inserted into the olecranon process of the . It The other fills the humeralis externus of originates behind and below the head of the humerus. The triceps of the arm it is (Plate IV. The is infra- covers the origins of the three heads. therefore. inserted into the anterior heads of the radius : and ulna. is The anconeus a small muscle attached to the capsular ligament of the elbow joint. full Its weight which for its is eight pounds. and an extensor. The triceps is teen inches at its greatest and eight at the least distance. clearly shown a strong tendon. Percivall. but act as a unit lifting the forearm. but their com- mon insertion at the short in end of the ulna. spiral course its fibres are longer its' it is capable. sometimes called the short extensor. being seven- ning. and when these divisions contract they tend to close the angle between these bones but the third. winding around that bone. is action of the knee depends. does not give a is conception of its power. is The triceps of the arm a powerful muscle which plays a very important part in the mechanism of the anterior extremity. of giving higher action than associate. power than its its has greater associate.
It plays a crutch consistently. to afford better protection to the tendons in the flexions of the knee joint. is It contracts synchronously with the to pull it triceps. and greater flexion of the metacarpus effected than upon the radius It will would be possible were the foot joint single. Now it that the camera has ren- dered those motions easy of analysis. the anatomical relations In the posterior limbs of the great flexors of the feet are changed. but it performs a lively part in another character when relieved from the weight of that responsibility. or cannon bone. simple their levers. and other ligaments or tendinous connections are of the made to prevent extension of the joints is beyond that standing position. joint as The muscles tremity. like those of the foot. The tendons ments as of the perforatus and perforans are utilized as liga- in the posterior extremities. 75 or point of the elbow. into the outer wall of which the pisiform bone is placed. below the knee. so that when the flexion of one is completed it is continued in is the other. . to But the complex forces are the more difficult understand the nearer we approach their sources. a ligament is thrown out to the perforans tendon to reinforce it. IN MOTION. From the posterior surface of the metacarpus. extending and flexing their functions have been well studied and are well known. their tendons passed over the angles of the hock to be inserted into the bones of the feet. is its be noticed. on reference to the silhouettes. that the knee is never bent part in the when the corresponding role of on the ground. which is double. but with some variations rendered necessary by the different conditions. like those of the posterior ex- and direct their action in and. is not difficult to show how angles being reversed. of the forearm in are. and have led to great diversity of opinion the manner in which a movement was produced could not be explained for the reason that the motion itself was not understood. The corresponding In the anterior extremities the corresponding tendons are enclosed in a sheath of the strongest possible construction. they are produced.THE HORSE ulna. of the and its action upon the capsular ligament out it way and prevent its being pinched in the elbow becomes relaxed in the extension of the forearm. by which the tension taken from the flexor .
being both inelastic and (per physical force) inextensible. and their tendons act as ligaments. It is therefore. between them and the skin. or proper. giving to inflammation and adhesions.' But sinews or tendons. as we have elsewhere shown. pastern to take a horizontal position. but when they are serv- ing as ligaments. muscles. what part the sprain or lesion is likely to be situate. but its use in exten- beyond a certain point it that of a ligament to limit extension for it . but as a ligament does not absolutely arrest extension. they are put upon a strain that muscle is incapable of applying or resisting. it will be advisable to submit the leg in its normal state to anatomical examination. and at the expense of the elasticity of of the pastern the strain all combined. to allow the sible. is It stated as a general proposition that the tendons are inexten- sible. their size being out of and in the extreme extension all proportion to their use as tendons . which I shall give in extcnso. in they maintain their cohesion of substance. comes upon both tendons and the suspensory ligament. tunic of the . " If we strip or dissect off the skin from the flexor tendons. While rupture of these tendons is of rare occurrence under the glide rise strain thus put upon them. a quantity of loose cellular tissue. " The parts sprained are naturally supposed to be the sinews.76 THE HORSE IN MOTION. and extension beyond that in the standing position is effected only by the weight of the body. they themselves can neither be stretched nor strained so long as To discover. the sheaths through which they above the pastern are not unfrequently torn transversely. will tion conveyed by it is very important. all This statement requires qualification. sion of the foot not The organic tissue is is tendon. That they are so under ordinary uses as tendons must be admitted. cutting away which we come to a close. \ve find underneath. and few in America ' have an opportunity to consult his works. therefore. Further proof of this will be given after Percivall. it is is elastic and allows of further extension after put upon the stretch . for the reason that the informa- would not be posa quotation from Mr. in concert with the suspensory ligaments. or the extreme extension that takes place in the fetlock. that powerful branches are it is attached to the cannon bone to relieve the muscle of a strain capable of resisting. from their extreme rarity.
and thereby formed. as they run from the annular ligament of the knee to be implanted into the external border of the cannon bone behind the external This forms the sheath of the tendons. however. 77 same substance immediately enveloping the tendons. and on that elasticity. of these tendons. is This under. slit it And when we a synovial open we discover . or dursa. . trate likewise filled with interuniting cellular sub- This brief and imperfect anatomical sketch may serve to illusIt will at once strike us that. it their chief The now be the toe action of the anterior extremity as a unit in locomotion studied. which extends half-way then closed. it is which in all ordinary cases consti. stance. the nature of sprain. Through the bursa runs the per- forans tendon. as well as to the them. a cavity possessing a surface of nature and a sac. although the tendons themselves are incapable of extension. The indeed be said to form a posterior boundary interval between the flexor tendons and the suspensory may is ligament. which it. covering. contiguous to and connected together. The knee is kept in a straight position by the tension of the extensors. delicate tissue which must. and contact is made with the heel. as in the posterior extremity. be extremely liable to stretch and lacerate and this. When the weight comes upon the foot the suspensory ligament is put upon the stretch by the reflexion of the pastern. may . in conjunction with that of the suspensory ligament proper. in fact. tion.' " is proved from the facts presented in the above quotation that laceration of the sheath of the tendons could not take place exis What cept by the elongation of the tendon itself. the mechanical action depends and in value consists. is forms a straight line from the elbow to the heel raised. in their front. or fibrous as well as cellular in composi- For the space of a hand's breadth below the knee the glistening (tendinous) fibres may be seen crossing obliquely over the tendons. is down to the leg. and are too firm ind strong in their texture to sustain hurt from any that they are surrounded aarts common accident. or spring. every ime they are forcibly pulled or stretched. proper.THE HORSE IN MOTION. As it the limb is thrown forward and in the act of taking the ground. tutes the true and sole nature of ' sprain of the back sinews. splint bone. by a soft.
In this action the limb of the practically shortened. in holds an analogous relation to the vastus of the posterior extremity.78 THE HORSE is IN MOTION. the application of mechanical power being utterly dis- which action it similar. but the result in locomotion the same. however. at the same time that it forces the body over the limb . arm upon the humerus. as already ex- subscapularis. and the fetlock joint must be as gradually straightened. too rapid flexion at that joint being prevented by the force of the triceps at the point of the elbow and the contraction of the great pectoral. The take place in the action of the superspinatus. that had been yielding to allow of flexion. prevents the sudden flexion of that joint. its Some changes now contracts with greater force. This order continues to the close of the first . During this time the levator anguli scapulas has been contributing it its force by acting on the short end of the lever. drawing forward and adjusting the axis of the limb to its changing requirements. The passing of the body over the limb in a position perpendicular to the ground enables the limb in its character as an automaton to exert a propelling force as well as a sustaining one. It is necessary. as they had closed. The branches of the triceps acting from the scapula relax altogether that from the humerus by its continued contraction extends the fore. as before. The great dorsal aids in this office. acting from the scapula upon the upper end of the humerus over the shoulder joint. and labor is rendered easy by the continued traction of the two great propellers acting from the thorax. which. performs the same function for that joint. the angles must open as gradually forces. that the support should be constant. which transmits plained. until from the position of a right-angled hypothenuse triangle. In this order the angles at the shoulder and elbow close while is the fetlock joint bent until the pastern is is horizontal with the ground. and during it becomes the perpendicular change of position it this has given uniform support to the centre of gravity without deviation of the direct line of its motion. though less efficiently. while the impulse transmitted to the humerus at the angle of the elbow. The traction of the triceps its upon the scapula it is so great that it would be torn away from position but for the counter action of the trachelo to the cervical vertebra. acting on the shoulder. preventing its flexion too rapidly. The superspinatus.
the great pectoral. but the modus operand! is as follows: As the foot is about to leave the ground. again straighten the knee. and the great serratus. which had been serving as reinforcements to the suspensory ligament. are capable of deflecting the centre of gravity of the whole body of the horse. action of the anterior extremity in the three characters whose performs at the same time. and to graduate that support so that it should be uniform and constant. The proof will be given hereafter. of all the tissues The sterno prescapularis pulls the slack out connecting the shoulder with the trunk. we have endeavored to represent. at the same time the mastoido humeralis and superficial pectoral.THE HORSE half of the stride. and just the flexor muscles regain control of their tendons. and that there should be no loss of momen- . . that settles effectually the question of the power of the anterior extremity as a propeller. The object in its construction greatest was to enable the limb to support the body for the length of time. the great dorsal. four inches in a distance of ten feet ! At the completion of the stride. the foot being off the ground. In this order they pass the perpendicular. by a vigorous and simultaneous of the suspensory ligament and effort. the angles of the limb being extended to their utmost. acting on the shoulder. going with a velocity of twenty miles an hour. when the order retrograde is quickly reversed foot is in twice the speed used in the again in position to take the ground. after a rest of three fourths of a stride. is the last impulse given by the like the spring of a reaction of the suspensory ligament bow. that nothing may be The parts it lost to effect the last line in extension. and the triceps is ready with all its movement. the knee bends under the contraction of the perforatus and perforans muscles. IN MOTION. in its conjunction with the spring reinforcing tendons. niperspinatus and all the muscles of the triceps are relaxed flexors of the The . The extensors of the feet. carry the whole limb forward on its centre. the shoulder and of the arm contract . At this moment. 79 when it is in the power of the animal to give an impulse to the movement. the great pectoral and great dorsal consenting. In these three characters it is a complicated machine. the heads to take the shock. raise the toe.
The application of propulsion to the anterior limb it is is unlike that to the posterior. the angle formed by them would necessarily be less obtuse. low hip joint set well back. This rendered necessary the use of the legs alternately. So far as these principles can be applied to the anterior limbs they hold true of them as of the posterior extremities. would be a long oblique scapula and long humerus these bones long. we ought to be able to determine the mechanical elements of the qualities desired in a horse. it power by correcting deflection of the line in which intended the body shall move. was observed of the pos- terior limbs that long full propellers (the vasti and glutei). to take place and permit as little loss of time as possible between the end of that of the next. gave great length of limb when extended. was observed by Bishop that all animals distinguished for great speed have the angles of the bones most inclined to one another. the levers on which they act and the relation of the limbs to each other. but this speed must be attained in their at the expense of power. at the same time the power was more directly applied when the head of the bone was lower down.8o turn or waste of is THE HORSE IN MOTION. If speed is desired we must look for those mechanical conformations of parts that determine speed. and as an advantage in the latter to have the heads . and vice versa. ical force to The anterior limbs must conform It mechan- the posterior. of the performance of If one limb and the beginning the we have comprehended movements of a limb and the relative value of the forces that produce them. it The requirements : for the anterior extremities. so that while one should be performing these functions the other should be its moving in the reverse direction. But It while this mechanical arrangement gives great advantage for speed is a source of weakness in bearing burdens and hauling. The great pectoral and great dorsal are the muscles that hold the mechanical relation to the anterior extremity that the great gluteus and vastus do to the posterior. so as to afford room for long it femur and tibia. and to give equal advantage to them the thorax should be long to give sufficient distance between the ribs of origin and the insertion at the shoulder. to be in harmony with the posterior ones. enabling to support the weight of the body and exert its propulsion for a longer time.
as is illustrated by the difficulty In the and slowness with which an animal rises from a recumbent posture. at the earlier or They are positions incompatible with speed. that they act with the greatest . Weber asserted that the velocity in walking will be greater the nearer the head of the femur is to the ground . 81 femurs low down centre of contrary.THE HORSE of the IN MOTION. as this height in- creases the velocity decreases. the nearer the power is applied to it . the muscles act at great disadvantage. He proved his by on the way. in other words. as represented in leaping. the points of shall act to the best . motion corresponding to on the of to the head the femur sible. . The . as was shown when describing the action of the great pectoral for. action and reaction are in a line forming a more acute angle with the ground. So the horse in fast trotting "settles to his it work. and the application the greater will be the velocity of the upper end of the extremity acting as a crutch. the centres of motion are nearer the ground in order that the muscles is advantage. the push more directly. but while the leg of his our living horse has gone forty." as technically intended to represent the idea that In this expression called. though he may to position by the pendulum. extreme of flexion and extension. Whether the muscles act with the greatest energy later stage" of contraction far as I know. is not at the shoulder. There is has not been determined with certainty as no doubt. M. and that in propulsion the act shall be most direct and longer sustained or.-lightly promptitude in response to the will when the limbs are Boxers will instinctively put themselves in that poflexed. the foot being the fixed point. to start for a race will relax their extensors to until Boys when about get a good send-off. in sition when attitude for offence or defence. however. and trial they do not fully extend them again the of it speed is is over. which has been made have lost himself One sometimes arrives at a truth demonstrate many a knotty proposition physical horse has swung three feet. a very devious route. and his extremities have performed two complete revolutions. in the former. but as high under the withers as posof the propulsion as low as possible.
the correlation of all the mechanical parts. the angles and lengths of the bony levers on which they act. speed of the horse does not depend upon the length of the limbs acting as pendulums. technically known as . will transmitted to the muscles. the freedom of their articular ligaments.82 THE HORSE IN MOTION. but upon the length and thickness of the locomotor muscles. and much also on the nervous energy or courage.
fall in first second would be 4 feet in the first \ second. BODIES IS TO A STRAIGHT LINE THE MORE PERFECT TORY OF THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY THE THEORY OF QUADRUPEDAL LOCOMOTION STATED. THE LAW OF FALLTHE NEARER THE TRAJF. or that force THE all which is bodies toward the centre of the earth. V. ANSWKKED. attraction of gravity. ANALTHE LOCOMOTION. IXC. momentum a constantly varying By yielding its to the force of gravity is it power.* body falls. removed and the body there enters another element that must be taken instant that support is is into account. or 32 feet /. and that momentum. one. and the consequences that one moment suspended. WHAT IS THE GALLOP ? OBJECTIONS OF ARTISTS TO HE INJURED IN THE RUN. g. 7. D = Jgf From in which D = distance any given . THE BOUND OF YSIS OF THE RUN. Like the air we breathe. It therefore an increasing quantity in a rapid is It is this force. OF CKAVITY CONSTANT. TRUTH MUST PREVAIL OVER CONVENTIONALISM. but this rest or inertia. THE CANTER. WHY THE FLEXOR TENDONS OF THE FORE LEGS ARE MORE LIABLE THE DEER. 3 inches.68 inches in the first J second. time the seconds. constantly drawing a phenomenon so familiar is to us that we fail to realize it it at all times. it is one of the necessary conditions of our existence. is the measure of that force in bodies in a state of The yields to that force. MOMENTUM ACCELERATED.CAND ITS APPLICATION TO LOCOMOTION. . which constant and measured by the weight will fall in * The formula for the determination of the distance which a body time in is. neither an object does not escape from reduced one grain in its influence at whatever is rate the ratio. . and the force with which it acts on all bodies is exactly measured by their would ensue were to be for weight. While gravity is is a constant quantity under similar conditions.CHAPTER IXFLUFXCF. THE SAME IN ALL THE DOMESTIC ANIMALS. \ this we learn that the distance which a . acceleration of gravity. body unsupported would .
The power of resistance of these organs must be equal to the attraction of gravity and counteract it.the means is it of propulsion in a horizontal direction. is necessary to resist the attraction of gravity and overcome resistance. force necessary to correct it increases with the momentum. It is power that which is and plain that. but the resistance of the to air and the constant force of grav- would soon bring the motion It is an end without the continuation of that projectile force. development of the loco- of the horse. at whatever speed. full it will represent the momentum of a horse of equal weight at speed. From what has been said it follows that the only muscular required to keep a body in motion. affected The to influence of gravity it. The force that projected it was stronger than that of gravity at the time of the impulse ity . represented by the weight. continue its motion without diminution of velocity requires a it continuous application of for the and the greater the velocity the greater the necessity that the trajectory or line of motion should suffer no force. that we call locomotion. and at the same time be in such excess as will afford . the result of this continuation of force in such directions as will resist the attraction of gravity. may be projected into the air by a force greater than that of gravity. another physical law to the effect that a body put in motion will continue in motion in the given direction until diverted by There is another force from another direction. deflection. and is called its momentum . that renders necessary the great motive organs and columns of support. being constant same If the body be reprebody. the momentum will be as the velocity. in order to maintain a uniform support of gravity.84 THE HORSE IN MOTION. but it does not escape from it in any degree. not by motion It in the body subject at whatever rate may be moving. sented by an iron ball weighing one thousand pounds. therefore the in the force of gravity. . The is force with which a body moves above the its surface of the ground determined by multiplying weight by its velocity. and overcome resistance to a movement in a horizontal direction. To arrest To is suddenly would be its destruction. moving at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour in a horizontal direction.
a continuous impulse in the direction of motion, the limbs must move,
such manner as best
to attain that
end; that the
more rapid the motion, the more uniform must be the support.
time occupied by a racing horse in going a mile be one minute and forty seconds, and the length of stride twenty-five feet,
as represented of
would follow that he must be
half-second at each bound, and according to the law of
he moved horizontally, during that time fall But in the gallop he is supposed to be moving a distance of four feet. by a succession of bounds in which he rises as far as he falls. This
would give one fourth
foot of vertical fall
second as the time of descent equal to one to twelve and a half feet movement in a horizonof a
and a consequent deflection
of the centre of gravity to
can imagine the effect that would be produced upon a railway car of any description if, when going at the same rate, it should pass
over an obstruction that would produce such a deflection of the line of
instead of the railway car
substitute the horse,
but a broken neck could be expected
ament, or back tendon, or joint of the body that could be submitted to such a shock in a state of tension, and not go through bankruptcy
this deflection in the line of
obstacle to be
motion that constitutes the great methods of locomotion. It is that
which retards the progress of a ship
rough sea; a certain amount every undulation, and power is spent in lifting the ship against the force of gravity that might in a smooth sea be But a ship is an inanimate object spent in accelerating velocity.
acted upon by inanimate forces, and though speed
no exhaustion from waste of strength, as is sustained by all living beings in contending against the law of gravity, which requires a
greater expenditure of force to arrest a
a state of
of quadrupedal locomotion, therefore,
which the greatest speed is attained with the least expenditure vital force. This is found in those quadrupeds in which the devia-
tion of the line of
motion from the horizontal
these are the horse and hound, whose
of progression is
the deer and hare
the advantage for
a short run, yet the method of progression by bounds, used by these animals, sooner fatigues them, and in a fair field they will be run down
by the former from sheer exhaustion.
again when we analyze the paces of the deer and dog. In the two preceding chapters we have condensed the anatomy of the locomotive organs into as small a space as possible, and at the
same time have, with the
accurate drawings, endeavored to
the limbs individually so intelligible
the mechanical action of
any one of ordinary information may comprehend them.
these forces are co-ordinated in the produc-
tion of the different paces
the limbs are in action.
limbs and display of brute force, one may of the mingled In the slow movements see the most perfect order and regularity. the limbs of the horse are without doubt much under the control of
use his anterior ones to strike,
the ground, and
the control he has of different muscles in the
performance of their various functions he may rear and kick, toss his head and lower it to the ground, as in drinking, grazing, or sauntering; but when speeding, whether from ambition or terror, all this trifling is
laid aside, the position of the
head becomes fixed as a base of action
of the va-
for the muscles of the
neck and head, the detailed action
rious parts of the animal are lost in the complicated machine,
the whole acts automatically, as the
of a locomotive are lost in the
of the various parts
combined action of the engine
which they are subordinate.
the perfect gait of the horse, for
that which displays
most perfectly the play
tains his greatest speed,
of all his locomotive organs,
by which he
and to which he owes his preservation in the long struggle for existence through which he must have passed before he came under the protecting care of man. It is the gait, therefore,
which best serves as a subject to study the law, or the theory of his To any one who has followed the anatomical analysis locomotion.
of the last t\vo chapters, the
theory may have already outlined itself; should be made clear to all, and many of the
anatomical facts demonstrated in the
chapters must be taken for
by those who have not given the necessary attention
Perfect quadrupedal locomotion re-
the anatomical descriptions.
quires uniform support to the centre
of gravity and continuous pro-
pulsion by each extremity in turn. In order to avoid the abstract study of the co-ordination of the
limbs in locomotion, figures are given to aid the
in following the
They were executed by a process called photo-engraving, drawings made with great care from a series of photographs, and
represent twelve views of as
horizontal lines are
positions of a running horse.
at intervals of
drawn above the base
one hand, or
four inches, as a guide to the eye in determining the elevation of the
and a fourth near
back to show the deviation from a horizontal
line of the
centre of gravity, which we will suppose to be under the
for their accuracy
These cuts are not introduced
been subjected to too
to lay claim to that precision
of outline that will be found in the heliotypes
silhouettes in photo-
lithography given in illustration of the paces.
gives the position of the animal in readiness to start,
in excess of sixteen hands.
have inserted two plates of the skeleton in the positions corresponding with Figs. 6 and 1 2 in order to enable the reader to understand their action in the various movements, and by reference to Plate II. he will be enabled to follow the descriptions in this chapter, and
the action of the various muscles that produce them, as described in the previous chapters.
fore foot Fig. 2 represents the left
upon the ground nearly under
the centre of gravity; the centre of motion for the corresponding limb has passed in advance of the foot, and a line drawn through these two
of the ground or, for points would not be perpendicular to the surface the perpendicular. brevity of expression, we will say he has passed The limb is elongated or extended by the straightening of the
these means pastern joint and the joints at the elbow and shoulder by In this position there the support given by the muscles is continued.
no muscular force exerted upon this limb below the knee. shown at page 76 how the " back tendons," while the limb is
position, are converted into ligaments over
for the instant surrendered control,
which their muscles have
conjunction with the suspen-
their passive sory ligament are supporting the weight of the body by As the body advances by its own momentum and the conresistance.
tinual action of the great pectoral
and dorsal muscles, the pastern
HORSF. IN MOTION.
becomes nearly straight, and the pastern bone resumes its position under the metacarpus, or cannon bone, and while that joint is still
convex posterior surface by these powerful ligaments and as the limit of extension is reached and the limb is at an angle
with the ground of forty-five degrees, a vigorous concerted action of the
forward and upward
in the direction
of the axis of
the limb with a force so great as to close the space between the croup
and the gauge line above it, and all his feet are in the air. If this force had been applied, as is popularly supposed, by the posterior extremity and behind the centre of gravity, the result would inevitably have been
to pitch the
animal headlong to the ground.
position of the fore
leg just before
in Fig. 12.
upon the ground
to the front.
eleven inches above
and moving rapidly
horse in position No. 2
time between the photograph of the and that of No. 3 was greater than that which
passed between No. 3 and No.
tension of the threads
of uniformity in the
making the magnetic
This defect was
in the series of
views illustrating the run,
which the gait was more thoroughly analyzed by a larger number
of cameras, the intervals are
In No. 4 the upward impulse given by the fore leg
to have reached its limit, the croup
may be supposed
having passed above the gaugeline marking the elevation, and the feet are all gathered under the trunk more than a foot above the ground. There is now an opportunity for the animal to change their order
he cannot change the order of his feet when one of them is on the ground, and he is going at a rapid rate, without subjecting himself to a fall. Although the distance passed over from the time the last foot
the ground until the next one reaches
only equal to the
any of the
and the time that has elapsed while
has been taking place does not exceed perhaps a fifth part of a second, still it is sufficient to enable the animal to choose whether
shall lead with
one foot or the other
sufficient to cause a
in the next stride.
time, short as
it is, is
descent of four inches, and
acquired makes the contact with the earth a
serious matter than in any other portion of the stride.
much To make
with either of the anterior extremities, or both, as
lieved to be the case,
would seriously check the momentum, if it did But this has been disastrously to the unlucky member.
shown over and
take place in
by numerous observations at Palo Alto, never to The first check to the descent of the centre running.
The picture was taken almost at the instant of contact anterior portion of the by the right hind foot with the ground. but lifted. a lever with point upon the is How this is effected. 91 is given by one of the hind legs. but. femur. beneath the centre of gravity or in advance of to prevent the anterior part of the and then. that pushing the pelvis forward from its fossa behind the head of the The body is propelled forward with a part of the same power lifts it. is necessary that all the available as force be brought to bear fixed upon the right hind leg ground. while the momentum in a horizontal direction is maintained chiefly by the contraction of the vastus shortening the distance between the lower extremity of the femur and the spines of the sacrum. not by its own limbs. In this manner it does not check the momentum ac- . 5. neck to the flexors of the by which combination of forces the whole body forward of the head of the femur is not only arrested in its downward course.THE HORSE of gravity is it IN MOTION. its all The body is arrested in downward course. and by what muscles. but by the contraction of the muscles forming the external periphery of his body. and by that one which diagonal to the fore leg leaving the ground 'last. it must be planted it. to reach in such manner as to prevent a catastrophe. This situation is shown at Fig. shown at page 58. FIG. in order it body from should its falling forward. from the foot .
As progression continues. and the left hind foot descending repeat the same action. will be unable to continue nal fore leg is support. 6. 6 is passing the perpendicular. of stumbling is averted. in Fig. as THE HORSE IN MOTION. . the limbs are all taking positions in the order they will be required to perform their functions. thrust forward to the ground. when the right. 7. turn after the left hind one. and the right or diago- straightening to take FIG. from the advancing position of its its the body. of the fore legs been would have been the case had one and the danger FIG.92 quired. the pastern The is is right leg bent to the to ground to shorten the limb.
while it continues to give uniform support to the body. 93 hind foot is supporting the weight. and takes its position as a supporter of the weight of the body. the foot contact. dividing the burden with the left hind leg still upon the ground. The right hind leg has given its final propulsive impulse in iliacus. while the right. 8. and the right fore leg reaching forward to take the ground as far as possible in advance is exercising its . at the same time that it shortens by the and shoulder . it was shown how the limb of contact is is thrown forward and how the shock transmitted. the a and superficial to is gluteus are in the act of flexing the new position. to the humerus and scapula joints is and unneces- sary flexion of the elbow prevented by the triceps of the arm and superspinatus muscles. and already the has passed over it. through . 8. The left and advancing the leg hind leg has passed the perpendicular. the straightened extremity. sartorius. is function as a propeller. and no longer of gravity in a position to give . stifle Fig. FIG. much aid as a supporter to the centre but the right fore foot has reached the ground. first in its The fore leg is straightening to take place in the order of succession. is extended to bring the left heel. In the last chapter into this position. 7 the left IN MOTION. relieved from that centre of gravity duty. with its elastic cushion.THE HORSE In Fig. and the tensor vaginas femoris.
5. while the weight is divided with the hind Propulsion toral now going on and in the in the fore leg through the great pecits and dorsal. and the right has been elevated by stifle. 9. extended forward in the position to take its turn. gradual flexion of those joints and the bending of the fetlock as the body passes over its point of support. does ar- momentum is of gravity has of been rested by the posterior extremities. the action of the semitendinosus slightly flexing the The settling of the body has not varied much from the position seen in the last figure. is only four inches from the ground.94 THE HORSE IN MOTION. The is left hind foot clear of the ground. and the centre gravity has leg. and must be considered as in the position in whicl . hind leg through FIG. dorsal on the fore leg. which is Propulsion by the great pectoral and also bearing alone the full weight of the body. 9 is now taking the entire weight of the its is and nearly perpendicular. 9 anc 10 the left fore foot has descended twelve inches. as in Fig. propellers proper. fellow is right fore leg in Fig. and to the best advantage. The danger to be apprehended in the use the downward movement when the body was not exist in this position. The body. is correspondingly shortened. is most energetic. In the interval that has passed between the position of Figs. as the of the fore leg to arrest falling. reached its lowest point.
right leg is elongating. .THE HORSE I\ MOTION. weight of the body and the gauge line. by the great dorsal and pectoral making traction it. The increased flexion of the stifle renders necessary the flexion of the hockFlG. FIG. Both the hind feet are nearly equally elevated. but the right leg is more flexed. in its function as an automaton and making propulsion by also as a passive tool. the heel makes contact with The from the flanks upon the shoulder. II. 10. is The support it is giving to the shown by the narrowing This action is of the space between it not yet complete. and so doing.
it be seen that the body is advanced somewhat beyond that in the the ground with the left fore foot. are inactive. and the left is in a position right is corresponding with that of the right in Fig. and it is again about to leave and the energy of the propelling forces nearly to the horizontal gauge-line. 2. and the semiflexec is position of the joints of the feet owing to the reaction of the suspen- sory ligaments. 1 1 the right fore foot is clear of the ground. as already shown. In Fig. stifle is being drawn forward. 9. but not in a corresponding position with the left in the same right hind foot is preparing to take its place in the order of succession. The FIG. for. The flexors flexors proper of the thigh are now making their force felt with that of the semitendinosus. figure. to when. and the of the foot. to be followed by the other hind foot in its turn. is in his power change it and leave the ground with the other fore leg. . latter. On comparison with Fig. 12. In Fig. The being propelling muscles. they act together automatically. will 1 2 the stride is completed. THE HORSE IN MOTION. continued until the animal feels fatigue in the have already sent the body up This order in the movement is left fore leg from the continued use of it in giving the final it impulse to clear the ground. as before said.y6 joint.
as may what is more usual. it could have been so arranged that the hiatus would not have been necessary. While the run requires that each limb in turn should act as propeller and supporter in regular order. fatigue would be inevitable. if he could.TIIK IIORSK IN MOTION. The coincidence the feet with the exposure of the negative plate in the camera. at first thought. he will change to a canter. is which too short a time for computation. the result would be called a misstep and a fall. It 97 in seems. projects the body upward. or. for the base of support is confined to one foot. but the Creator did not. which a pace modified from the run. been observed in any of the the change it is felt and is said to by the have been discovered many pictures taken at Palo Alto but driver when the feet again take the ground. during which the body has no support from cither.. must be very rare. If the attempt should be made while one foot is on the ground. and. but for some ar- rangement that would permit of a change. in be seen by reference to Plate XXVII. machine that would not figures as The animal same is shown in the above moving his feet in the order. If the machine had been constructed of inorganic and inanimate material. it cannot be executed at a low rate of speed. to a trot. incapable of fatigue. that the theory of constant that a perfect support and continuous propulsion does not hold true. in the changed order of the footprints. and has not . build an animate tire. from the manner which the labor is thrown from the leading fore foot to the diagonal hind one. The opportunity is afforded when the extraordinary propulsive force. giving a time equal to one fifth of a stride for the hind foot of the same side to take the place of the one that would have followed had the same of the act of changing the order of order continued. which he uses two diagonal feet as '3 bases of support. given by the fore leg that leaves the ground last. but that change would not be possible until all the feet are clear of the ground. for the same reason that a boy on stilts requires and it to be continually in motion. . machine should require no such hiatus. If the horse's speed is is diminished to a great degree. must be rapidly adjusted to the changes of the position of the centre of gravity.
and this line will when the speed is the greatest. This is owing it to the variations of the centre of gravity. The numbers. they will . Plate XX. them were going at a moderate rate. and the effect is to This instinct must be cause us to stagger even when we are sober. all . and the last. our feet accordingly. Th All of that of " "Mohammed. gauge line shows how little the centre of gravity is deflected in its trajectory from a direct line.. By be found to vary least the aid of these lines and their of figures the reader strides. indicate spaces of one foot and as the photographs were taken in succession at the same intervals. and will be found to hold true of quadrupeds whose four limbs are of like proportions.. This we do not always do. It is the same in two hounds running the ox running. in. and speed. order and action of the limbs are uniform in the numerous running horses photographed at Palo Alto so that it may b considered that they are in conformity with a law. The position of the camera is indicated by the direct line In the last series the on the ground. Five series of th trials of photographs are given. regarded as existing apparatus If is more is a higher degree in a horse. those . as his locomotive complicated and of a higher order than that of man. in the reader of interested in knowing how it far this law of the mech- anism running holds.98 THE HORSE The IN MOTION. Plate XXL. at unequal rates of XIX." with a stride of 20 6 in. 9 ft. and make use of when we fail to give proper attention to the ground on which we are walking and govern the movements of . is and determine has been observed that there not perfect regularity in the line if of the footprints of a running horse. the corresponding variations of the positions of which compel the small base which supports through an instinct of the same kind which we recognize in ourselves. of horses representing different first is rates." whose stride is 15 ft. Plates XVIII. he may follow the in in the succeeding plates. be understood to show the position of the limbs at each interval of one foot. that of Florence Anderson. and has been all proved true of the goat. and is that of the observer.. It may be able to measure the strides and parts their respective intervals. He will see same movement in the greyhound. and corresponding lines on the ground. especially the ground is uneven.
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and from the theory of motion as given in the preceding pages. one of of the fore foot them advance fore and the centre of gravity. their mode of progression varies more or less the same order of succession of the feet it may be observed . form by reason of the length and angles of the bones of his limbs and the lightness of his body. as legs. as to the action of the feet in running. . and where the horse plain. would be at as great a disadvantage as the deer is upon the gait For reasons already stated. the anterior extremities . the answer to the questions propounded by William Percivall thirty years ago is obvious: " From What is the reason ? why the flexor tendons fail so much more fre- quently than others fail Another. to disThis mode of progression the deer is able to pertribute the shock. 346. at the moment when might be expected that he would.THE HORSE There is IN MOTION. The only one of this class of whose In this animal stride \ve are able to present an analysis is the deer. rise from one of the fore owing to its feebleness he fails to do in so. " I the heretofore accepted theory of the run. one of them being a pace in advance of the other. by the combined action of the posterior extremities he projects himself by legs still a bound. it is not possible to sustain this The for a long time from the exhaustion which it produces. not upon one of the hind feet. to contrast these and with the comparatively light duties of the fore limbs. while one of the supports the weight of the anterior part of the body. but upon one of but the action of the limbs in pairs is not synchronous. and alights. knowledge we have gained. Why those of the fore limb should * rather than the flexor tendons of the hind leg. 99 another class of quadrupeds. the action of the horse in leaping will be reserved for another chapter. but the hind legs are thrust forward to the ground." In the following quotation he gives the answer to his in accordance with own question. Vol. but. IV. Hippopathology. and it is adapted to the nature of the ground among the hills where he finds his only safety. p. in the horse. and. have more than once had occasion to direct attention to the important functions performed by the hind limbs in the acts of progression. by the use of instantaneous photography. whose posterior extremities are developed to a much greater degree than the anterior ones.
as they must be. par" . lest the body I forward to the ground. the hock being the part most exerted in the hind. 12. like a pair of oars at work in a boat. Hippopathology. have likewise afore observed. or the fastest known to the horse and other domestic animals. to receive it and it is . the pace used in racing. for- While the former. it. or in whenever any weight or force any sudden or unexpected manner. fore limbs so What distresses the sinews of the much is the extreme distension. of extraordinary amount. by lifting alternately the fore feet and the hind feet together. from that to which reference is made above. and is shown in Fig. all is then. Webster " mode of progression by quadrupeds. have designated the pace under consideration as the run. to which these legs are put in hard galloping and leaping every time the weight of the body descends upon them. are plying wards and backwards. like fall are employed in sustaining the propelling parts. it generally accepted by we is are forced to the conclusion that there defines the gallop as no such pace.100 THE HORSE IN MOTION. is the gallop ? If we are to be con- the definition of the gallop given in the dictionaries. that two such different functions necessarily distress different parts of the limbs. the feet and legs the parts most tried in the fore limbs. and writers on the horse. Vol. 346. Sprains involving the ligaments of the joints may occur at any time when the foot from any cause is not set squarely upon the ground. in successive leaps or bounds and Worcester. though there little doubt that the weight of the rider were not superimposed to that of the horse. forcing the body onward. . p. IV." is That the pace which we is call not such as will bear the definition given * very clear. fined to We What. at a moment when they are stretched out to their utmost. the latter. that a a fiction. more stilts." in now perfectly clear that their action as propellers that the flexors of the fore leg in the position if become injured in their tendons. ticularly by a horse. is is descends upon It is that strain or sprain it * produced. almost preternatural. but this is an accident of quite a different nature this accident would rarely happen. to this identical position of the limb. " to move forward the run as a horse by such leaps that the hind legs rise before the fore legs quite reach the ground.
for hippo-anatomy has been always taught that and under the light of a the simple of false hypothesis. the first subject in elementary all studies in art of horses in but from what source have been derived ? the models motion Who does not tire in looking over the monot- onous repetition of outstretched legs. next to the . the photo- ments with twelve cameras were distributed graphs sent met everywhere with surprise and incredulity. Stanford. When. human figure. and he made. all under the direction of Mr. and none has been discovered that answers to has. been made the paces. All artists is know the value of the horse as a chef d'ceuv re. as if their bearers had been shot from a cross-bow. instead of one that as they But art must represent things proved to be impossible ? Those who think they see a horse in seem. We are told that the object is to \Yould not that object be more readily attained represent action. could not help but laugh they do not understand them now does not surprise us. is it a matter of wonder that the of the trot movements complicated mechanism of the run had been kept so profound a secret in the open face of day from time immemorial revelation so startling as that ? A came works made by the camera carried results it too far-reaching direct of and revolutionary to be at once accepted. " . that one . and to all received the revelation was so an- opinions from the earliest times. three or four years ago. though from heaven. and in some ridicule and burlesque. Stanford's experiin art circles. and were moving at a mark without any agency of their own." says an objector. listic They were not understood. the results of Mr.THE HORSE The camera analyze yet it IN MOTION. and but a low order of talent for its display. if some position were represented that is is known to be true. IOI to it . is to this pace that the term "gallop" has been always applied. and ridicule is the cheapest argument that can be employed in controversy. When we consider how little were understood by the most learned the teachers of animal motion. and when the slightest variation of that inflexible form would spoil the pose and ruin a picture. There is too much capital invested in over the civilized world to permit the innovation without protest. Such result ought to have been quarters with expected. for it does not require truth for its foundaart all tion.
One movement more readily in a dog running than in seem grotesque. those' who are initiated into the true difficulty in movement experience no perceiving the movements of the limbs in precisely the plates here given.102 THE HORSE IN MOTION. while the error of the old theory of the gallop becomes so manifest. But in this case she cannot she would. After what has been said. ask. as is to her mission when she wilfully persists in perif petuating a falsehood. represent sketches taken from elemenin tary drawing-books manufactured London and Berlin and used in the schools. They are heliotyped. Once attention is called to the true theory of quadrupedal motion. and XXVI. but not understood. is so quickly recognized. she is false all the parts acting in perfect harmony.stereotyped for thousands of years. false if comment is unnecessary . or the XXV. Some of these positions is no other reason it than because the action When is so. for a horse. claimed. . If Art is the interpreter of nature. and the interpretation of them in relation to progression. on a reduced scale. full when they depict a horse in mythical gallop. Plates run in the conventional manner. the positions given in the conventional way have their conceptions formed by a theory of the false hypothesis. in order that there shall be no suspicion of inaccuracy in the copies. but I would animal motion is to be always taught to follow such severely models. the truth of each one of these positions. that artists will no more be able to claim that they represent nature as she seems. with whom all forms were . Quadrupeds will be recognized as being possessed of locomotive machinery. they will appear as necessary progressive stages in a never varying series of movements. and it will appear that the eye that understands them it cannot be performed without them . self-moving. can never be deceived. with and not passive projectiles. will recognize this manner represented in the and wonder they never saw them so before. and the slightest deviation from the law of their co-ordination will instantly be detected in a silhouette as surely as the animal would be to suffer the consequences of a misstep. the result of which is locomotion. wherein is it better teaching than that of the priests of Osiris.
CONVENTIONAL POSITIOJS OF QUADRUPEDS IN MOTION .
COTSiVETSTTlOtTAL POSITIONS Of QUADRUPEDS IN .PL.
it would carry me far beyond the special this subject of of the essay. truth. to manner But does one ever represent the horse's legs in that express their action ? Why not ? If it cannot be done. is : The track of the electric spark is unquestionable. and the other three it feet upon the ground ? any one No who such position was ever true. when reality a spark it is rapidity that but this spark moves with such inconceivable quite impossible to calculate the time of its passage. not only the spark. but To represent them thus is to represent the actual is and so it expresses action. of seem to be so to The theory of the the run and the mechanism of the locomotive apparatus of the horse will soon be common property among admirers and when that knowledge becomes general. and the varia- . and it when that is represented there lightning in the track it no untruth would be impossible is to represent any other way. will be relegated to the museums is as examples of old masters. it but is I will limit myself to the consideration proposition as applied to the representations of the movein ments of the limbs of the horse motion. understood. the general proposition. and no error inculcated. first ? IO3 last stages of their art were worse than the still And here would diverge farther from the path I had marked out for the myself. are it lost. illustrate If the progressive stages in the development of the theory of the run . is represented as a zigzag line. to art. all the " famous paintings in which he is a prominent figure in the " gallop animal . nor can gets his impressions from nature. a false why assume hackneyed position that cannot be true ? Why must every equestrian statue in Europe follow the model of the Antique Balbi in the Neapolitan Museum. with the bones of the fore and leg flexed at right angles. first of a carriage -wheel in motion as dis- but they are made is to run together as they really appear in where new images are made upon the retina before the Lightning .THE HORSE and the 1 IN MOTION. I am often told that we do not represent the spokes tinct spokes. Lightning describes in the sky also. the action in the canter will present no difficulty for the theory is the same in both. to the eye. to protest against soundness of that dogma that art should I will not enter upon a discussion of represent things as they seem.
if clear that the animal moved with more will and greater speed. as indicated by the lines on the ground. The time during which three feet support the body gives time for . its the fore leg has given quick thrust. 4). it is necessary that one of the fore feet should support it. and the knee 1 1 is slightly I bent as it is about to leave the ground. Plate XXVII. In order to prevent this result. and therefore cannot prevent the body from falling forward. i in the time of exposure of the sensitive plate of the camera. 1 1 nearly i . He corresponds to Fig. low. the difference observed is owing to a want of cor- respondence In Fig. three feet upon the ground. ground only for the distance of two feet and five inches. Fig. The other hind foot follows at the usual distance from its fel- has now. i. of the feet are changes rendered necesIn Fig. but behind it (see Fig.104 tions in the order of THE HORSE movement IN MOTION. as in the walk. as in the run. it is still acting as supporter It is and propeller. and causes that easy cradle-motion which makes it a favorite gait with ladies. and it is always that fore foot which is diagonal to the hind one that is upon the ground.. sary by the low rate of speed in the latter. through three Figures. . there would have been no necessity for the fore leg to have performed that office length of and the pace would not have differed from the run. not under its and his feet are clear of the centre. while in Fig. when the diagonal hind foot comes to the support of gravity. planting his hind foot farther forward in support of the centre of gravity. the cantering horse is seen in the act of leaving the ground with one fore foot as in the run. after which the order of the run is resumed. the rider to settle in the saddle.
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ACTION IN THE TROT. mode of action of the various parts of the locomotive machinery. it him and with it his momentum. it.. THE DIFFICULTY TO BE ENCOUNTERED IN INCREASING THE SPEED OF TROTTERS. although it is a of progression. IN THE LEAP. ACTION IN THE LEAP DESCRIBED. venture to undertake Before any quadruped he must have acquired a considerable degree of experience in locomotion. BUT A HABIT. THE STANDING LEAP. FAST TROTTING CULTIVATED IN AMERICA IN THOROUGHBREDS. THEORY AND MECHANICAL ACTION IN THE TROT." DEFINITION OF THE WALK APPLICABLE TO BIPEDS. OR "PACING. THE ACTION IN THE PACE KNOWN AS SINGLE-FOOT. as shown in Chapters IV. action is so full of interest that we have given a number of illustrations I'rom the to enable the reader to observe the 14 many different phases the leap .CHAPTER VI. THE ACTION IN AMBLING. TO BE APPREHENDED CORRESPONDENCE IN THE ACTION OF THE HORSE IN THE LEAP AND THE DEER IN THE BOUND. is before he can safely attempt erate height. necessary for The weight to reduce of the horse's body. DIFFERENCE IN THE ACTION IN THE TROT AND THE RUN. as it is necessary to all quadrupeds in a wild state to enable them to overcome obstructions otherwise limbs insurmountable. and V. the reader will experience little The difficulty in understanding what takes place in the leap. That it is naturally acquired. DISTINCTION BETWEEN A STEP AND A STRIDE. however. and even by man himself. not a continuous one. it. renders his speed. DIFFICULTY IN RESTRAINING A HORSE FROM BREAKING INTO A RUN EXPLAINED. there cannot be a doubt. THE mode will leap cannot be properly considered as a pace it is . THE DANGER THE LEAP NOT PROPERLY A PACE. TROTTING NOT HEREDITARY. NOT TO QUADRUPEDS. the quadrumana. his and that confidence in the use of which experience only can give. all even when the obstruction is of mod- It is a feat in which he excelled by most quadrupeds. THE ACTION IN THE WALK.
io6 presents. are now separating in order that they shall not make contact with the ground at the same time. increased confidence. the posterior extremity are the extreme of The eras. In Plate XXIX. or passive parts of the machine. and both the posterior and anterior limbs. and apparently measure its distance. after he has passed the hurdle and is nearing the ground. and instantly the fore leg resting upon the ground gives the thrust explained in Chapter IV. we see the same horse under somewhat altered conditions. The anxiety and want of confidence of the animal are betrayed by the nearness of his approach to the obstacle and the arrest of his momentum before he ventures the leap. in the act of leaving the ground of in leaping. and he advances with it. pass to the opposite extreme of flexion as they pass the barrier. or what is called prancing. are so nearly in unison that they ette to coincide. placed at an elevation of three feet his anxiety XXVIII. when he plants his hind feet well under the centre of gravity. on leaving the ground. THE HORSE IN MOTION.. run . that coincided in passing the hurdle. are shown in Plate XXXV. where the positions extension. last seem in the silhou- Plate XXXII. i. the hurdle is and the horse betrays by shortening his paces. shows the same horse as seen in the preceding plate. which project the body to required height. The anterior extremities. All the plates show the horses approaching the barrier at a but no sooner is it observed than they begin to shorten their steps In Plate six inches. as they pass successively in pairs. until he has approached the barrier sufficiently near to satisfy himself that he can surmount it. by which the anterior portion of the body is raised. next plate represents a of full series of views by twenty-four cam- by means which the movements in leaping are carried four feet farther. By the arrest of his to the momentum he has diminished the danger of injury back tendons on reaching the ground again. leaving the ground eleven feet from The relations of the levers. and the action is immediately followed by the all the muscles of the haunch. Fig. and advancing with both hind feet nearly simultaneously and alternately with one fore foot. The hurdle is six inches lower. One of the fore legs is extended as in the . The posterior extremities from the extreme of extension.
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. which The action after the leap is may be still further traced in Plate XXXIII. and by their great lifting force relieve the ante- and is all the limbs are free to act their various parts in not fairly resumed in this series. Plate XXXV. When both the action on leaving the ground is the hind feet are upon the ground. and in the run. one after the other. are planted under the centre of gravity. the order being the same as curious. from the loss of hori- zontal momentum. the moment of extreme clanger to the pastern joint and flexor tendons. and XXIV. the same. and satisfy him- as to the forces that are On great employed in producing the movements. but before these parts are put to the extreme test the other fore leg comes to the relief of its fellow. is shows the position of the skeleton of these as the animal meets the contact with the earth. The last illustration of the leap that we offer is The only after great urging did he attempt to the locomotive series surmount it. has This is little more than the momentum of gravity to deal with. 2. only with less courage manifested and As the horse lost his horizontal there is little danger in its execution. where the run not yet fully resumed. representing the leap. the speed being only equal to the disposition of the limbs as in the canter. well under the In . should be observed that in these series the between the successive pictures are those of space and not of as the horse makes his own pictures in a manner that will be explained in the Appendix. very horse was very reluctant to perform the leap required of him.. rior extremities.TIIK HOKSI-: ix MOTION. reference to Plates XXIII. and came to a standstill immediately in front of the hurdle. to 107 check the force of the descent. The action of organs is shown to be the same in this as in the other . and immediately after the posterior extremities. which. momentum intervals lime. the velocity at no time being sufficient to enable the animal to clear the ground. it will be perceived how is the correspondence in the action of the deer in bounding and the horse in leaping. run. Fig. so he had none It when he reached all the ground on his descent. fully before leaping. enabled to build By means skeleton views the reader motive apparatus with the aid of self up the entire locothe anatomical plates. the run. The intervals in all the series of twenty-four pictures represent distances of one foot in a horizontal direction.
in certain distance. while in the trot there is greater or less amount. but. but adapted to a higher rate is of speed. constant. in which all differences will be noticed when we always a space of time.I0 8 THE HORSE IN MOTION. is They correspond in that the weight of the body borne by the diagonal extremities alternately. for there must be added a points. here used to signify the distance passed over by one foot from the time it leaves the ground until it reaches it again. the step will vary as x. as well as distribute the shock of contact and equalize the support of the weight of the body. The stride is divided in the 5 a. and when a the step in the trot would be expressed by a In the run. the action of the posterior extremities immediately fol- lowing. The theory of the trot is the same as that of the walk. It differs from a walk in that the latter has always two feet upon the ground. x. and in the general co-relation of the limbs in The action in the trot is the more vigorous their mechanical action. he will usually drop into a trot. x the distance passed over by the foot after the other foot is raised. which When a gait having two feet as bases of support instead of one. It is often used synonymously with stride. . and so diminish the danger of stumbling. The stride is measured to corresponding the trot this definition will equal to two steps but not hold good. centre of gravity. This will vary with the muscular energy. the whole body is projected into the air. of Other the feet are off the ground. + and an interval when all the stride would be expressed by the feet are off the ground equal to a step. the deer being in more rapid motion. differing according to speed. of both quadrupeds and bipeds it is understood to mean the distance spanned by the two feet both resting on the ground. is somewhat In the step ambiguous. there being four steps. and. the horse reduces his speed in running so that he can no longer maintain his balance upon one foot. as the distance in The definition of which the body moves unsupported the word step in its general use is increased. but is limited by anatomical proportions. his feet take the ground at longer intervals and more regular order. in which neither of the If a represents the step in the walk. and is . and feet will be on the ground. come to analyze the walk. the spring of one fore leg lifts the anterior half the body.
works one fifth of each stride and rests the other four fifths. without a corresponding increase of power of the muscles and weight of the body to he borne. Each limb. which is incompatible with rapidity of movement. and tendons. power of resistance. the time of support by two limbs is about the same. so that the limits of speed attainable in a trot are reached more rapidly than in a run. in the flying trot it exceeds that in which the body is supported. while the time in which there is no support given is greater. As was stated in the preceding chapter.mce depends. and an interval between the last fore leg and the first hind one representing a fifth of the whole stride. whose So in Plate XL. or strength of becomes a questhe parts on which that It :. distance is small. alternating every four feet. is The that of longest stride given of the run. In the run the stride is in which the limit is to be found in the divided into five parts. (Plate more than four feet as the portion in the trotting It will be observed that is horse given at eighteen feet three inches. so that in the trot the The step being suptwice clear of the ground in each stride. involves increase of weight. bones. XXXVI. the law of falling bodies increases the difficulty in locomotion in the ratio of the square of the time in which the tion of body is so unsupported. ligaments. the gravity is supported about half the time by and the other half by none.). four limbs to secure uniform support and propulsion while the feet rest upon the ground. On the other hand. the stride to can be ex- tended only by increasing the space which the body passes over with \Yhile in the slow or jog trot this ntre of gravity unsupported. therefore. each limb taking turn as supporter and propeller. nished. where it is given at twenty feet six inches. Notwithstanding the wonderful mechanical provision in each of the limbs. or a . be a constant quantity in the fast trot. and hence arises the great difficulty in attaining a high rate of speed.THE HORSE trot into IN MOTION. measure of activity. and divided into two interstride vals. 109 horse 1 is two periods by the alternate feet. the strength of the parts. in the examples fur" Florence A. instead of two. as in its the trot." (Plate little XVII ). as the joints. the instant that the body ceases to be supported it .ned to each limb. with a scarcely appreciable interval between.
while great attention has been paid to breed- oped in the time that has elapsed since " " has been being those qualities that insure speed. and has not been one that has particularly interested us. however goaded by his driver and his own ambition in a sharp contest. it is the cause of serious damage to the finest stock. from our analysis not to have been designed as the but for the medium one between the run and the walk. and the greater . will however thoroughbred. and it is claimed his pedigree to thoroughbred ancestry. not more yet a century. speed in the trotting pace after his arrival in America. into a pace in which he is conscious he can make better time with far more ease than in the one he is forced to take. It will be difficult for one to believe that a new function has been develMessenger's importation. It is no small accomplishment in a horse. The when trot appears fastest gait. is beyond the pale of this essay. But the habit is no may i . It is owing to this fact that it has become the favorite pace in America. as to the law of the descent of falling bodies and all its mentioned in the last chapter. of which he be equally capable. however. and manifested extraordinary tent than in . equally great care stowed upon training. so that the fast horse shall display his powers in the trot rather than in the run. and has been cultivated to a greater exis which he any other country indeed. to be so well disciplined that he not break from a fast trot." who was a thoroughbred running horse. and in he may excel his powers in the superior gait. It is much reasonable to believe that. becomes subject consequences.110 THE HORSE IN MOTION. the strong business gait. It is very diffi- cult to discover wherein the mechanical proportions runner would not apply equally well to a fast that there has been no fast trotter who did not trace and points for a fine trotter. in capable of travelling farther in a day's journey with less fatigue than any other. This question. we fail to learn anything of the " trotting horse from any source before the importation of Messenger. and it is not urged too far beyond his supports. and placing it upon a sulky. even by the most advanced Darwinian. In this way the fast trot becomes a habit with the individual. the speed of the animal the more serious the possible consequences and though no small advantage is gained by relieving the horse of the weight of the rider.
you pursue. his acquirements. mature the colt first life. and he will move off in a trot with no uncertain trot step. Functions and asserted by some which acts are perpower by formed and habits acquired. whether mental or may is be transmitted to offspring. When you next visit him. child of the until he is most profound scholar will taught them. or the authors. as faculties. but not great doubt whether the complicated It is movement of the run. but the inherited. after a r interval of time. or . and in for the existence. may be inherited. More than this he cannot do. all are not congenital. IIOKSK IN MOTION. and others. tendency proper time. first and the functions protection. and will learn them no more whether of mind or body. not made) it as true sense now as ever was. in which he instinctively obeys the law to alternate the limbs and so preits balance. is and development of the individual. if longer period for the less its development. Visit him a few days and the efforts of his later. non Jit (horn. like consumption. he has acquired much greater control of his locomotive organs. but most of them are like developed. Even these will are not congeni- or coincident with birth. he will break into a run (Plate XLII. The last pace is no less intuitive than the first. and the identical character of the move- through so many species of them shows that it is inherited. is intuitive. for the full be developed at the the order that their exercise will be required. No man is able to trans- mit to his off sprint. When is seen soon after birth. There an acquired pace. then all the powers successively with which it The law of inherited or constitutional disease the same . and he will be found not only able to walk with firmness. which has so long eluded the comprehension of man. was ever any better understood by the most sagacious of the quadrupeds that practised nent it . but to away from your approach. from inherited tendencies. The not know one letter from another easily for all his is parent's attainments. is Ill nor can it be transmitted to descendants. The faculty through which the parent was enabled to acquire physical. in this Nascilur. but required a and.). tal any accomplishment. at the cancer. employment of mhnved by inheritance. as the function of breathing is. at age of puberty.THK heritcd. he must be helped upon his long and feeble limbs are to walk.
the co- ordination of them presents interesting points for consideration.112 natural. it acts in a lesser degree. Instead of the great impulse being given by the fore leg. is the same in both paces. and run are equally natural. is least it when it would seem that should be the greatest. and the bony levers are allowed to resume their normal angles. body gives it a momentum that forces the suspensory ligament to yield and the angles to close to the requisite degree to prevent the alternative of deflection of the trajectory. that the centre of gravity shall leave be supported constantly and propulsion made uniformly they reach the ground until they at a time. At each half-stride the centre of gravity regains nearly. THE HORSE The IN MOTION. all walk. raising the centre of gravity only so far as to give its co-operating posterior extremity an opportunity to use its . or that point where the supporting limbs are shortest. While the action of the limbs in the two paces is similar. as in the run. The action is the same. as was shown in the last chapter when analyzing some the action in the run. Every rider knows from experience the uncomfortable trot is the slow one. namely. to enable them to begin the support early and continue it late. and each is best adapted to each of the three degrees of speed which the animal finds state. It will it convenient or necessary to employ in his be seen that the theory of the trot the feral or unbroken is same as that in the run. if not quite. that when passes the perpendicular. The action of the limbs in shortening and extending. trot. the The undulations is are greatest in slow trot. and diminish . as the speed increased. from the lime but by two alternate limbs and not by one as in the run. by all the extremities it. enables the extremities to reach farther and sustain the weight longer. In the slow trot the action of the muscles is not sustained. it it of the height of the horse at different portions of it will be found that is. and. differing only in degree. or crushing of the limb . while the rapidity of the movement of the elevation . in so doing. The reason for this was explained when treating of the run in the last this chapter. its but as the horse increases his speed he lowers the centre of gravity. and if measure- ments be taken the stride. and permit the centre of gravity to pass over them without being deflected.
X ri CO O 2 O H K a o Q .
fc H CO CO rH w M ffi H M rt ' r H H O e w si w i -'a .s .
w H <o H Pu w p H K H H H O K H O H K q w -V .
-e les -S (4 185 Q M K H m H O o Si .
' J H <7> k >" -s w p K H 1-1 6 H H O W HH ./H O O O -= .
w EH O H 4 o H 0) I o W I .
CC -PI /s /a CM o H H O K H -M O -ffl PJ o I < W /s CM ft CD Q U) W H -co CC D o to -M .
p Pi V o H H O K H O K . f w m .
w H p pa Hi H H H (fi J3 (T s 0- .
w P t- b I UJ 4 .
H (H 00 w 9 H 05 c!> & H H O P! H O (0 .
H O PJ H .
and in Plate XXXIX. 2. or the . 113 in the direction of the centre of gravity. 10. In the case of the anterior extremities there is no it corresponding contrivance. latter rises. exposes the fetlock and heel to injury from the shoe of the hind foot but generally the hind foot is pushed under the forward one as the tory. Comparing this series with a trotting series . show by shown in the camera the Plate XXXVI. where the animals are seen in various aspects of the same position.). which difficult same base line. and that is that the limbs do not move diagois nally in pairs. as may be seen by referring to the illustrations of the paces in the latter part of this volume. 9. above it the animal would be pitched headlong. and differing from it one particular. The hind . and yet compels the feet to be planted successively near the by the already explained. is Interference with the posterior feet rendered very mechanical arrangement of the hock joint. There only in is a pace closely allied to the trot.nil-: iioKsr. a supporter at the same instant co-operating The position in which the feet fall is as nearly on a line as is possi- ble without their interference. For obvious reasons it is not possible to is occurrence of interference. as foot. or overreached. but the breadth of the shoulders renders unnecessary. Fig. foot should be the last to leave the ground on a priori reasoning the silhouettes of the trotting horse (Plates h and on consulting such will it XXXVI. The fore foot being dila- disproportion in the length of the body to that of the legs. -XL. IN MOTION. but those on the same side move together. as in Unpropelling power bound of the deer and the leap of the horse for if it were given . The early start of the fore foot enables to clear the way for the hind one on the same side to advance to the its in support of the centre of gravity turn without being hit by it. This pace shown in Plate XLIX. found to be the fact. In the travel. it is technically called. is mean time as its the fore its having a more circuitous route to as enabled to attain position partner. both in the trot and run. but overreaching Figs. causes an involuntary circumduction of the hind feet as they pass each other.
being free from the sharp undulations The necessity which exists of rapidly changing the base of the trot. though the greater number are dexterous instinctively. The outlines are quite perfect. in America. as some people are sinistrous. be found to be impossible to distinguish one pace from the other. as the right or left feet alternately support the weight. and therefore falls leads to ambiguity. and others are ambidexterous. would seem to give great no danger of overreaching.. as there in the photolithographs. owing to the shortness of his it body and the great length of his legs. which take to it instead of the trot. as he would overreach is the only method of loco- in the paces used by the horse. to which all were reduced. and afterwards learn to trot and travel equally well in both paces . in the amble it is shifted from side to side. from the great elevation of the centre of gravity. were imperfect in lights and shades. and the details in other respects are quite unimportant to the study of the . it IN MOTION. indeed. Some horses are amblers first. when the subjects were dark-colored. and ambling in England. In the camelopard. to may be thought and the record made by them on the have no disadvantage over the regular trot. and the consequent slow oscillation of . and others. This pace is called The objecracking.114 (Plate THE HORSE XXXVII. He is able to make it progressive motion in this way at whatever rate. for the time of its oscillation increases with the length of the line from the centre of gravity to the base of support. It is an easy pace for the rider. or pacing. were in silhouette. The amble is natural to some horses. advantage to a short-bodied horse. as shown in the silhouette. The effect of this is to give a rolling motion to the body like that of a ship with the wind abeam. Many of the photographs reproduced and used in this volume to analyze the paces. motion possible. it It is fall into this pace. considering the small proportion of horses that turf. will tion to the name pacing all is that the word pace is used constantly as a general term for the different modes of progression. of support from side to side makes is it practicable in the horse only when the speed considerable. While in the trot the centre of gravity near the intersection of the two straight lines drawn through the diagonal footprints. and quite impossible in the rate pur- sued in the walk.).
B j M W B! P p H N 3 H w p M K H W O o ffi : . i I* L Lxl If .
tJ R ITS .
Oi fH "0 w B 3 .
Q s H
only necessary, in order to determine the movements of the several limbs, to suppose either of them to be right or left, and
as such throughout the stride.
Examples have been
the two principal
the horses were light-colored, to
furnishes an exact
a process which
by the same agency, namely,
the simplest of the paces, and best understood.
defined to be that pace in which one foot
not raised until
upon the ground.
as applicable to quadrupeds as
former we assume the two anterior and the two
posterior extremities as pairs.
walk, or saunter, represents
supposed to swing like force being used except to counteract the attraction of gravity. A man in walking throws the centre of gravity over the leg, which
on animal mechanics, by whom the leg was a pendulum on its centre, but little muscular
to serve, for the
and leans forward
until the centre of gravity is in
advance of the foot as a base
necessary the advance of the other foot to serve as a
and the action
of the flexor
the suspended leg,
weight of carries the centre of gravity diagonally forward until
muscles upon the
toes, with the
These movements are all again supported by the other foot. detailed and formulated by the old writers, and are referred to here for
animal dynamics, as it has been taught until now, freshly to the mind of the reader. It must be conceded that we have advanced the science of animal
the purpose of bringing the science of
in this treatise,
and demonstrated the
problems are not to be solved by physics, as heretofore attempted,
nor yet by vital force exclusively that animal motion in its highest manifestation is the resultant of both, chiefly of vital force, but neither
can be ignored by one
who would understand The walk
elementary acts of progression
a step, and a
and perfect than that of a biped
for while the latter
order to balance
compelled to each foot alternately, the upon
quadruped uses the diagonal
feet alternately, so that the
gravity always falls within the quadrangle formed by them, and near
the intersection of the lines connecting their diagonal feet.
that there should be
upon the ground while the diagonal ones are being the legs moved synchronously in pairs, there must be
for from the defifour on the ground for a brief time at each step, nition of the walk one foot does not rise until the other is upon the
follows that in two pairs of feet the two feet cannot rise
two are upon the ground. This, one would think, should be proved by the camera; but it shows that sometimes three
until the other feet are
on the ground, but never four at the same time. How is It is so when applied Is the definition of the walk incorrect ? this ? In fact, the diagonal limbs do not act synchronously to quadrupeds.
in the slow
of the walk, for
in a slow
as a top falls
revolutions are slow,
and for the reason that a horse never
but always on the two anterior and one posterior, so
that the centre of gravity always falls within a triangle
so in the
walk one of the reserve
the other has the
feet holds the
for a brief
to shorten the time
centre of gravity has but two points of support.
walk, being the slowest pace of the horse, has been best observed and most discussed, but chiefly as to the order in which the
There can be
doubt that habit
in the horse, as
man, determines which foot
often be determined by. their accidental relation to each other at the
instant that he has occasion to
be doing no injustice cient freedom of will
though it would to the brute to suppose him to have a suffito choose which foot he should put forward
he waited to think
the horse quickens his walk, he does not at once change his
pace, but extends his strides
and makes them more uniform,
break into a
which there are never more than two
upon the ground
at a time,
Single-foot compatible. in The same horse made to illustrate the regular Plate L. is an irregular pace.THE HORSE as has IN MOTION.). falls is same kind and move in the same diago- It is illustrated characteristic. I 17 is been already stated. The rhythm of the footand once heard will ever after be recognized. in This change from a walk to a trot shown the fine silhouette (Plate XLI. by Plate LV. is even walk in the dark. rather rare. and distinguished by the posterior extremities moving in the order of the fast walk and the These mixed paces are quite anterior ones in that of a slow trot. . as they are of the nal order.
which. a brief explanation. ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. The same ground was used as that on which all the experiments full were made that are detailed in the Appendix Plate I. the action of the horse in every possible position in all the paces they require. so that five views of the animal were produced different directions. Experiments were made with various processes to reproduce them with all their defects. but instead of a battery of twenty-four cameras. when the breast of the horse all came magnetic communication with five of the cameras at the at the made same same instant. so all . At this point a thread was drawn across the track in contact with it. . two on each side. . time. however.CHAPTER VII. bay horses were without any details of light and shade. and that was in the other four were placed at nearly equal distances. arranged in the manner shown in One represented the battery. . of every one of the series. showing him from as many The time that few of was so immeasurably small the pictures taken were perfect in all the details and as of exposure of the negatives . simply as silhouettes and even when the horse was light or gray there would be some defect in some part red appears as black in the photograph. and they were only middle of the series the (frontispiece). but it was found that the making of tlu . so as to represent the arc of a circle whose centre should be occupied by the horse at the moment he appeared opposite the central of the five cameras. THE series of plates which follow are intended to show more fully than was possible in the silhouettes that precede them. only five were employed.
RtJNKTNG. .TIONS OF THE PA.PLATE LVI1 JSTFA.CES.
t - ILL I iHSTG. .
: : : PLATK LX ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. .
*.: : t.. t t>'.* r A . . .
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE FACES. . TROTTING.
PLATE LXV ILLUSTRATIONS CF THE FA. . RTJW1J IN G-.CES.
TIO-NS OF THE PACES. . WALKlTsTG-. II/LUSTRA.FLA'.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. TROTTING- .
. AMBLING-.ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES.
P/-. .L20CV.' '.IN"O. CP THE PAC E 3 .FI.
.ILLUSTRATIONS OF THt : iHG-.
. .'.:: :'/':.RXTTsTN INO.. XXXI ILLUSTRATTOTS5S OF THE PACES.:- .-. .
PLATE LXXXtll ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. LEAPING. .
LEAPING-.CES.PLATE LXXXIV ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PA. .
RtTtSTNTtTCr.LXXXV II/LUSTRATIOTSTS OF THE PACES. .
.PLATE IX XXVI II ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES.
PLATE. TROTTING-: . LXXXIX ILLUSTRATIONS CF THE PACE 3.
.' II/LUST RATIONS OF THE PACES. RUMN IH G-.
xrn ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. .
E PACKS. .:i.
PLMTE XCV ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES WALKING-. .
. RUNNING-.XCVT ^ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES.
CANTER. .ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES..
.PLATE VCIX II/LUSTRATIOKS OF THE PACES. LEAPING.
.- .' : : : ::.:.
ABOUT TO I_tAP.ILL/US THAI' IONS OF THE PACES. .
.Cl ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. LEAPING.
CE3. RAPID "WALK. .PLATE CIII ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PA.
PLATE CIV <f\. ni ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES. 'RtnSTNTN'G .
.ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PACES WALKING-.
Stanford for the enlightened liberality with which he has pursued this costly investigation. In to some of these plates there are but four pictures. . page 95. n. and there will be found no two exactly alike . the These drawings were then reproduced on stone by camera. They and the public generally are greatly indebted to Mr. These prints. Plate LVII. Under direction the Heliotype Printing original Company another plan was adopted. reproduced them rately with diminished the sharpness. From the photographs. and given its results to the public without any prospect be observed that some of these pictures are so nearly alike . while they reproduced accunecessary transfers from all the defects of the original photographs. reduced to their original size.THE IIORSK IN MOTION. especially those who would perfect themselves in animal drawing. I 19 the originals. wanting. by the helio- were produced on gelatine magnified. and that animals in motion. of artists skilled in drawing on wood for who drew them with a pen india ink. of and these methods were abandoned. the of fifth. differing only in the fact that the right fore N performing its functions rather than the left. copies taken on Bristol board in blue ink in the same manner as in the ordinary heliotype process. under careful supervision of the writer. and prints type process. of pecuniary advantage to himself. It will that at a superficial sible view they appear the same but it is almost imposthat the times in which any two should be photographed should coincide. owing is some serious defect or failure the apparatus altogether. with the originals. as in From this extremity the body will be projected from the ground. represents a position in the run corresponding with the cut. and the near approach to the same posture proves the universality of the law in which all the paces are performed. and the prints given in the volume were printed from these stones as in ordinary lithography. in were put into the hands engravers. so as to preserve the outlines as they were rendered by the camera and avoid reproducing the blotted defects of the originals. They cannot fail to be of great advantage to artists. acknowledged difficult branch of their art. that in Fig.
but it is recognized by . the foot is under the centre of gravity.I2O THE HORSE is IN MOTION. represents the horse in a similar position. which The left hind plate. fast walk. Plate XC. is also an attitude of the trot. Plate LXXVIII. from it is the right fore foot was the one by which the . This plate may be compared with LXX. From this last position there is an interval of one fifth of a stride. in which there is no support given to the weight of the body. wanting. advanced and the supporting leg is farther The missing picture should be the first of the horse Comparing again will be this plate with Plate CII. and the posterior extremities are being gath- ered under the body in the order with which they will successively take their turn.. and the diagonal hind but on careful is inspection it will be perceived that in the quartette the body less from the perpendicular. which we know that foot will about to do in the following be the first to make the contact. advancing to the support of the centre of Comparing this with Plate LXV. as seen in the former. exhibits the same movement on is the instant that is the propulsive effort of the limb concluded and the foot leav- ing the ground... the body have advanced from the position in the former until the supporting leg is quite perpendicular. Plate LXI. as seen in the succeeding plate it is only when the instant of exposure of the sensitive plate of the camera is coincident with that in which all the feet are off the ground that the walk can be distinguished from the slow trot. there is still further advance.. but it is moving as a projectile until the diagonal hind foot reaches the ground. in which one figure is gravity. the correspondence will be found so close that at first sight it is difficult to convince one's self that they are not identical pictures . in the regular order. In Plate CIV. and the other limbs are found to relatively advanced. and is not distinguishable . The slow from the trot is shown in Plate LIX. body had been projected into the air the right hind foot will follow and take the ground a step farther in advance. in which the right feet are in corresponding positions with the left.
groom trot. as indicated both by their position and the yielding of the pasterns.kable. This could not occur where the reader has the advantage of a is consecutive series of views. urging the horse into a be interpreted into either a walk or a trot. The support is here given by the left fore leg. LXXI. makes the contact. it is ened and is the toes raised. this action indicates a 121 and higher un- speed than as is possible in the walk.THE HORSE the higher action of the free limbs. the three feet are supporting weight. in the am- bling pace in which the weight of the is borne and the propul- performed by the two extremities of the same canter is The illustrated in Plate LXXVIII. I. forward to reach the ground. we see the sluggish run in which the speed or momentum to of the horse does not permit the propulsion of the fore carry the body clear of the to the support of the centre of ground before the hind ones come gravity prematurely. a position in the trot is shown where the which it feet clear of the ground. in The The fast trot is shown Plate LXIV. As difficult some of the "Illustrations" to determine a slow trot from a fast walk. seems to be a fast walk. The walk In Plate arc all further illustrated in the two following plates. and is fully ex- plained in the sixth chapter. Before the fore leg. onal right indicates that tion. it and the greater flexion of the diag- is the next in order to perform that funcindicates The degree of action a low rate of speed. as in in Plate LXIV. in which the position may I. is In the succeeding plate the walk again represented and is . is trot the both paces. 16 not . In Plate LXIII. The heavy Clydesdale sion in Plate LXXI body is shown side. which if could be attained in the trot with greater ease to the horse to his rider. for there feet are when three same in on the may be an instant of time in the The mechanical action is ground. and the distinction difficulty based on the speed.) Plate stitutes the pace known as the canter. and which con(See page 103. Plate LXVI is represents a position in the leap. is LXVI. extending must be straightalready stated. as shown in Plate L. rate of IN MOTION.
122 Plate THE HORSE IN MOTION. The posterior extremities have successively performed their functions as supporters LXXXI. extensors of the foot. The fore leg must be straight from the elbow to the makes contact with the ground. Plate 10. A moment's consideration of the mechanical construction of the knee-joint will suffice to convince tion of the bones one of this. page 93. as only in that relaillustrates the forming the columns of support could the weight suddenly thrown upon them be borne. but the weight of the is is only for an instant pulsive force left body already on the fore leg. though a little in advance of it. it and the instant . . 8. the for anterior limbs are extended to relieve them. and the only proin the hind one is derived from the reaction of the This position suspensory ligament and its reinforcing tendons. nearly corresponds with that in Fig. it page foot when run in the position shown in Fig. LXXXV. represents the animal in the greatest degree of extension he reaches in the run. the diagonal feet are upon the ground. and a weakness is at that point which renders the animal it liable to stumble the loss a very serious defect. and propellers. and where exists it in- dicates of the balance of power between the flexors and This inflexible position of the knee-joint will be found to be universal in all the paces when the limb is sustaining weight. 95.
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was furnished by Mr. retouched. and distributed among various parties interested. A and one of these. the photographer by whom they were executed. Muybridge. J. the matter rested. in ordinary photographic parlance. and for several years. representing him with all his feet clear of the ground. being desirous of settling some controverted questions as to the action of the trotting horse. the results of which arc contained in this volume. Muybridge being absent from the State. renewed. or under half a second. . a lens with a large angular aperture. for extreme rapidity of exposure are a good and quick-acting shutter. E. as there given. and induced him to undertake some experiments in instantaneous photography. end he consulted with Mr. Stanford. Instantaneous pictures were defined to be. 1872 Mr. the experiments were " few pictures were taken of " Occident while in motion a noted trotter. Mr. and chemicals in perfect condition. it In the liritish Journal in Photographic Almanack for 1868 part of a second. Tin: following account of the methods by which the original that served as the basis of the . owned by Mr. Muybridge. Muybridge having returned. is stated that good street views had been taken a twelfth The conditions. at that time. Stanford.* The experiments made at that time were inconclusive.holographs were produced analysis of the paces. it though In was not abandoned by Mr. was enlarged. 1877.APPENDIX. when the exposure has been very brief. conceived in Some time the idea that the To this camera might be made available for that purpose. Mr. Stanford with a single camera.
with the magnet connected with each of the twelve cameras in succession.* latches. Muybridge was authorized to procure the needed apparatus. assumed. and a building suitable to the purpose was erected on the west side of Mr. The by Kleffel (Handbuch der Practischen Photographic. as nearly as possible the double shutter used by Muybridge. with double shutters to each. had an opening through centre. 201). and illustrate the various stride positions in an entire Mr. exposing the lens to the light during it. Stanford's private track at Palo Alto (see frontispiece). every resource of the photographic art had been provided that was thought to be required or attainable. result of this experiment was so successful that Mr. one above and the other below the opening through which light was admitted to the lens.124 APPENDIX. p. shutters were arranged. . as revolved. having a cylinder with a row of twelve pins arranged spirally. 1874. and the whole series of exposures was of the horse. as described is is somewhat obscure. and by increasing the number of cameras increase The to the same extent the number of ? views. Muybridge's modification of this consisted in the use of rubber springs in lieu of weights as priority in the though no claim is set up by him to use of rubber springs. why not an indefinite number. it This was put in motion by a spring. In the following year. dropped past the lens. at intervals of Twelve cameras were placed in the building These twenty-one inches. Kleffel's shutter was held by which a spring. the time of the passage of the opening across He recommended weights to be used when greater rapidity was required. recommended by Kleffel . 1878. with a lifting power of one hundred pounds. if one picture could be taken instantaneously. made in the time occupied by a single complete stride * This description of the shutters and their mode of action shutter. and secured by pletion of a magnetic current. and the its shutter. Stanford He determined to try another one on a more extended scale. and held by india-rubber springs. each pin in succession established a magnetic circuit. and when the picture was to be taken the spring was touched. and. the preparations were complete. Leipzig. as one Thomas Skaife obtained a patent in England for rubber springs for camera shutters as early as 1856. constructed in the form of a ring. a machine was constructed on the principle of a Swiss music- box. to be liberated on the com- of For the purpose of making the exposures at the proper intervals time.
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a wooden frame was erected. These wires were placed at distances from each other corresponding with the cameras on the opposite side of the track. feats of acrobats. etc. Eighteen inches in front of this background was placed a base-board twelve inches high. it and to regulate correspond This contrivance was found to be best adapted to the more irregular movements of other animals. so arranged that when the wire crossing the track was in Each wire was held depressed by the wheel with it. upon the top of which wires were secured at an elevation of about an inch (Plate CVII. The wire was exposed in a groove to one only of the wheels of the sulky. and in such position as to receive the best exposure to light. the apparatus in motion at the exact time required. and covered with white cotton sheeting by vertical lines into spaces of twenty-one inches. From the first be readily seen that the depression of wire would complete the circuit and cause the magnet conthis description it will nected with the corresponding camera to move the latch and liberate is the shutters. about fifty feet long and fifteen high. proper tension by a spring on the back of the base-board. being protected from contact with the horse's feet and the other wheel. In front of this base-board a strip of wood was fastened to the ground. On the side of the track opposite the building where the cameras that were placed. was desirable to find some method would better represent the regular movements of the horse. exposing the sensitive plate for a space of time that .125 This arrangement gave the attitude of the horse as he arrived before each of the cameras in succession at the instant of exposure of In practice it was found to be extremely difficult to the negatives. each space being consecutively numbered. It to to the speed of the horse. and on which were drawn longitudinal lines four inches apart. as the running of dogs. divided above the ground and extending across the track.). and make should draw upon the spring connected contact with a metallic button and complete the it electric circuit. the flight of birds. and with the spaces between the lines drawn on the background. and which should be regulated by his own movements. at a suitable angle.
instead of being at the base of the screen. take the pictures at every twenty-one inches until the whole series were taken. Lines were drawn across the track at correspond- ing distances. and some elicited a great variety of opinions and not a little ridicule artistic persons displayed great ingenuity in burlesque. in cameras were position. The number placed at cameras was afterwards doubled. The method just described . and a thread was driven to sulkies high to come in contact with the horse's breast. When the horse passed with great velocity over the wires these shutters were discharged with such force and rapidity that the horse was not unfrequently startled and broke If his gait. but not so strong as to wound the horse when drawn across sufficiently going at full speed. no one under. They were very accurately taken. . as the wheel passed over the hardly conceivable. was used in all cases where horses were but when wheels were not used this arrangement with wires under the track had to be modified. and it would. the shutters would be liberated on the second camera. represent the cameras and the screen as they were when twenty-four heliotype plates Nos. By these methods many views were taken and parts of the country : distributed to all they attracted a great deal of attention. battery of The CVI. The whole volume of the series of twenty-four figures each used in this to illustrate the paces were taken in this manner. and are specimens of the best results attained after years of expensive experience and the heliotypes are perfect . stood them. and they were intervals of twelve inches to still closer analyze the moveof ments of the horse. everything was properly arranged the driver had but to keep the wheel of his sulky in the groove which was sunken for it. and so on until the whole series were discharged.I2 6 APPENDIX. second wire. and strong enough to cause the contact and establish the circuit as before. In like manner. and the numbers indicating them. and CVII. transcripts of the original photographs. by depressing the wires successively. were on a board between the horse and the cameras.
. Cambridge. University Press: John Wilson & Son. Mr. It 127 will readily be understood that the accuracy of these analyses upon the uniform tension and strength of the threads conis nected with the springs through which the circuit perfection of the pictures depends icals formed. This time is be conceived. Muybridge of the horizontal estimates of by comparing the enlargement diameter an object photographed with the vertical diameter of the same This can only be deterobject at one five-thousandth of a second.APPENDIX. of the The chem- upon the sensitiveness and the time occupied it in their as nearly instantaneous as can well exposure to light. and that approximately even considerable size . in objects of is it is so nearly instantaneous that there no appreciable loss of proportions from differences between vertical and horizontal diameters. mined by measurement.
14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN This book DEPT. or on the date to which renewed. No. are subject to immediate recall.'70 (N8837slO)476 A-32 . is due on the last date stamped below. SANTA NOV 3 a UZ MAY Q 2 2006 1972 1ECTJC0 ILBL 'JAN 2 9 2006 I g General Library University of California Berkeley LD21A-60m-8. 642-3405 Renewals may be made 4 days priod to date due. Renewals only: Renewed books Tel.
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