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Chromium 1 1 16 16 20 20 22
Isotopes of chromium
Chromium toxicity Chromium deficiency
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 26 27
Chromium Appearance silvery metallic
General properties Name, symbol, number Pronunciation Element category Group, period, block Standard atomic weight Electron configuration Electrons per shell chromium, Cr, 24 English pronunciation: /ˈkroʊmiəm/ kroh-mee-əm transition metal 6, 4, d 51.9961(6) g·mol [Ar] 3d 4s
5 1 −1
2, 8, 13, 1 (Image) Physical properties
Phase Density (near r.t.) Liquid density at m.p. Melting point Boiling point Heat of fusion Heat of vaporization Specific heat capacity
solid 7.19 g·cm−3 6.3 g·cm−3 2180 K,1907 °C,3465 °F 2944 K,2671 °C,4840 °F 21.0 kJ·mol−1 339.5 kJ·mol−1 (25 °C) 23.35 J·mol−1·K−1 Vapor pressure
10 k 2530
100 k 2942
at T/K 1656
Oxidation states Electronegativity Ionization energies (more) 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 (strongly acidic oxide) 1.66 (Pauling scale) 1st: 652.9 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 1590.6 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 2987 kJ·mol−1 Atomic radius Covalent radius 128 pm 139±5 pm Miscellanea Crystal structure Magnetic ordering Electrical resistivity Thermal conductivity Thermal expansion body-centered cubic AFM (rather: SDW (20 °C) 125 nΩ·m (300 K) 93.9 W·m ·K (25 °C) 4.9 µm·m ·K
−1 −1 −1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5940 m/s Young's modulus Shear modulus Bulk modulus Poisson ratio Mohs hardness Vickers hardness Brinell hardness CAS registry number 279 GPa 115 GPa 160 GPa 0.21 8.5 1060 MPa 1120 MPa 7440-47-3 Most stable isotopes iso
NA 4.345% syn
DM DE (MeV) DP 0.320
> 1.8×1017y εε 27.7025 d ε γ
52 53 54
Cr 83.789% Cr Cr 9.501% 2.365%
52 53 54
Cr is stable with 28 neutron Cr is stable with 29 neutron Cr is stable with 30 neutron
Chromium ( /ˈkroʊmiəm/ kroh-mee-əm) is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is also odorless, tasteless, and malleable. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word "chrōma" (χρώμα), meaning colour, because many of its compounds are intensely coloured. Chromium oxide was used by the Chinese in the Qin dynasty over 2,000 years ago to coat weapons such as bronze crossbow bolts and
Chromium steel swords found at the Terracotta Army. It later came to the attention of the west when it was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in the mineral crocoite (lead(II) chromate) in 1797. Crocoite was used as a pigment, and after the discovery that the mineral chromite also contains chromium, this latter mineral was used to produce pigments as well. Chromium was regarded with great interest because of its high corrosion resistance and hardness. A major development was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding chromium to form stainless steel. This application, along with chrome plating (electroplating with chromium) are currently the highest-volume uses of the metal. Chromium and ferrochromium are produced from the single commercially viable ore, chromite, by silicothermic or aluminothermic reaction or by roasting and leaching processes. Although trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) is required in trace amounts for sugar and lipid metabolism, few cases have been reported where its complete removal from the diet has caused chromium deficiency. In larger amounts and different forms chromium can be toxic and carcinogenic. The most prominent example of toxic chromium is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). Abandoned chromium production sites often require environmental cleanup.
Chromium is remarkable for its magnetic properties: it is the only elemental solid which shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature (and below). Above 38 °C, it transforms into a paramagnetic state. Passivation Chromium metal left standing in air is passivated by oxygen, forming a thin protective oxide surface layer. This layer is a spinel structure only a few atoms thick. It is very dense, and prevents the diffusion of oxygen into the underlying material. This barrier is in contrast to iron or plain carbon steels, where the oxygen migrates into the underlying material and causes rusting. The passivation can be enhanced by short contact with oxidizing acids like nitric acid. Passivated chromium is stable against acids. The opposite effect can be achieved by treatment with a strong reducing reactant that destroys the protective oxide layer on the metal. Chromium metal treated in this way readily dissolves in weak acids. Chromium, unlike metals such as iron and nickel, does not suffer from hydrogen embrittlement. However, it does suffer from nitrogen embrittlement, reacting with nitrogen from air and forming brittle nitrides at the high temperatures necessary to work the metal parts.
Chromium is the 21st most abundant element in Earth's crust with an average concentration of 100 ppm. Chromium compounds are found in the environment, due to erosion of chromium-containing rocks and can be distributed by volcanic eruptions. The concentrations range in soil is between 1 and 3000 mg/kg, in sea water 5 to 800 µg/liter, and in rivers and lakes 26 µg/liter to 5.2 mg/liter.
Chromium Chromium is mined as chromite (FeCr2O4) ore. About two-fifths of the chromite ores and concentrates in the world are produced in South Africa, while Kazakhstan, India, Russia, and Turkey are also substantial producers. Untapped chromite deposits are plentiful, but geographically concentrated in Kazakhstan and southern Africa. Although rare, deposits of native chromium exist.  The Udachnaya Pipe in Russia produces samples of the native metal. This mine is a kimberlite pipe, rich in diamonds, and the reducing environment helped produce both elemental chromium and diamond. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the location, but in most cases, the Cr(III) is the dominating species, although in some areas the ground water can contain up to 39 µg/liter of total chromium of which 30 µg/liter is present as Cr(VI).
Naturally occurring chromium is composed of three stable isotopes; 52Cr, 53Cr and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most abundant (83.789% natural abundance). 19 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 50Cr with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years, and 51Cr with a half-life of 27.7 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 minute. This element also has 2 meta states.
53 Chromite ore
Cr is the radiogenic decay product of 53Mn. Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology. Mn-Cr isotope ratios reinforce the evidence from 26 Al and 107Pd for the early history of the solar system. Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotopic composition must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. Hence 53Cr provides additional evidence for nucleosynthetic processes immediately before coalescence of the solar system. The isotopes of chromium range in atomic mass from 43 u (43Cr) to 67 u (67Cr). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. 53Cr has been posited as a proxy for atmospheric oxygen concentration.
Oxidation    states −2 Na2[Cr(CO)5] −1 Na2[Cr2(CO)10] 0 Cr(C6H6)2
+1 K3[Cr(CN)5NO] +2 CrCl2 +3 CrCl3 +4 K2CrF6 +5 K3CrO8 +6 K2CrO4
Chromium Chromium is a member of the transition metals, in group 6. Chromium(0) has an electronic configuration of 4s13d5, owing to the lower energy of the high spin configuration. Chromium exhibits a wide range of possible oxidation states, where the +3 state is most stable energetically; the +3 and +6 states are most commonly observed in chromium compounds, whereas the +1, +4 and +5 states are rare.  The following is the Pourbaix diagram for chromium in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium hydroxide:
A large number of chromium(III) compounds are known. Chromium(III) can be obtained by dissolving elemental chromium in acids like hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. The Cr3+ ion has a similar radius (63 pm) to the Al3+ ion (radius 50 pm), so they can replace each other in some compounds, such as in chrome alum and alum. When a trace amount of Cr3+ replaces Al3+ in corundum (aluminium oxide, Al2O3), the red-colored ruby is formed. Chromium(III) ions tend to adopt octahedral molecular geometry, with six ligands. The colors of these solutions is determined by the ligands attached to the Chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate Cr centre. The commercially available chromium(III) chloride hydrate is the dark ([CrCl2(H2O)4]Cl·2H2O) green complex [CrCl2(H2O)4]Cl, but two other forms are known: pale green [CrCl(H2O)5]Cl2, and the violet [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3. If water-free green chromium(III) chloride is dissolved in water then the green solution turns violet after some time, due to the substitution of water for chloride in the inner coordination sphere. This kind of reaction is also observed in chrome alum solutions and other water-soluble chromium(III) salts. The reverse reaction may be induced by heating the solution.
Chromium(III) hydroxide (Cr(OH)3) is amphoteric, dissolving in acidic solutions to form [Cr(H2O)6]3+, and in basic solutions to form [Cr(OH)6]3−. It is dehydrated by heating to form the green chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3), which is the stable oxide with a crystal structure identical to that of corundum.
Anhydrous chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3)
Chromium(VI) compounds are powerful oxidants at low or neutral pH. Most important are chromate anion (CrO) and dichromate (Cr2O72-) anions, which exist in equilibrium:
Chromium(VI) halides are known also and include hexafluoride CrF6 and chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2). Sodium chromate is produced industrially by the oxidative roasting of chromite ore with calcium or sodium carbonate. The dominant species is therefore, by the law of mass action, determined by the pH of the solution. The change in equilibrium is visible by a change from yellow (chromate) to orange (dichromate), such as when an acid is added to a neutral solution of potassium chromate. At yet lower pH values, further condensation to more complex oxyanions of chromium is possible. Both the chromate and dichromate anions are strong oxidizing reagents at low pH: Cr2O + 14 H3O+ + 6 e− → 2 Cr3+ + 21 H2O (ε0 = 1.33 V) They are, however, only moderately oxidizing at high pH: CrO + 4 H2O + 3 e− → Cr(OH)3 + 5 OH− (ε0 = −0.13 V) Chromium(VI) compounds in solution can be detected by adding an acidic hydrogen peroxide solution. The unstable dark blue chromium(VI) peroxide (CrO5) is formed, which can be stabilized as an ether adduct CrO5·OR2.
2 [CrO4]2- + 2 H+
[Cr2O7]2- + 2 H2O
Sodium chromate (Na2CrO4)
Chromic acid has the hypothetical formula H2CrO4. It is a vaguely described chemical, despite many well-defined chromates and dichromates are known. The dark red chromium(VI) oxide CrO3, the acid anhydride of chromic acid, is sold industrially as "chromic acid". It can be produced by mixing sulfuric acid with dichromate, and is a strong oxidizing agent. In 2010, the Environmental Working Group studied the drinking water in 35 American cities. The study was the first nationwide analysis measuring the presence of the chemical in U.S. water systems. The study found measurable hexavalent chromium in the tap water of 31 of the cities sampled, with Norman, Oklahoma, at the top of list; 25 cities had levels that exceeded California's proposed limit. Note: Concentrations of Cr VI in US municipal drinking water supplies reported by EWG are within likely, natural background levels for the areas tested and not
Chromium necessarily indicative of industrial pollution (CalEPA Fact Sheet) taken into consideration in their report.
7 , as asserted by EWG. This factor was not
Chromium(IV) and chromium(V)
The oxidation state +5 is only realized in few compounds but are intermediates in many reactions involving oxidations by chromate. The only binary compound is the volatile chromium(V) fluoride (CrF5). This red solid has a melting point of 30 °C and a boiling point of 117 °C. It can be synthesized by treating chromium metal with fluorine at 400 °C and 200 bar pressure. The peroxochromate(V) is another example of the +5 oxidation state. Potassium peroxochromate (K3[Cr(O2)4]) is made by reacting potassium chromate with hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures. This red brown compound is stable at room temperature but decomposes spontaneously at 150–170 °C. Compounds of chromium(IV) (in the +4 oxidation state) are slightly more common than those of chromium(V). The tetrahalides, CrF4, CrCl4, and CrBr4, can be produced by treating the trihalides (CrX3) with the corresponding halogen at elevated temperatures. Such compounds are susceptible to disproportionation reactions and are not stable in water.
Chromium(I) and chromium(II)
Many chromium(II) compounds are known, including the water-stable chromium(II) chloride, CrCl2, which can be made by reduction of chromium(III) chloride with zinc. The resulting bright blue solution is only stable at neutral pH. Many chromous carboxylates are also known, most famously, the red chromous acetate (Cr2(O2CCH3)4), which features a quadruple bond. As verified by X-ray diffraction, a Cr-Cr quintuple bond (length 183.51(4) pm) has also been described. Extremely bulky monodentate ligands stabilize this compound by shielding the quintuple bond from further reactions.
Many chromium(0) compounds are known. Most are derivatives of chromium hexacarbonyl or bis(benzene)chromium.
Weapons found in burial pits dating from the late 3rd century BC Qin Dynasty of the Terracotta Army near Xi'an, China have been analyzed by archaeologists. Although buried more than 2,000 years ago, the ancient bronze tips of crossbow bolts and swords found at the site showed no sign of corrosion, because the bronze was coated with chromium.
Chromium compound determined experimentally to contain a Cr-Cr quintuple bond
Chromium later came to the attention of westerners in the 18th century. On 26 July 1761, Johann Gottlob Lehmann found an orange-red mineral in the Beryozovskoye mines in the Ural Mountains which he named Siberian red lead. Though misidentified as a lead compound with selenium and iron components, the mineral was Crocoite (lead chromate) with a formula of PbCrO4. In 1770, Peter Simon Pallas visited the same site as Lehmann and found a red lead mineral that had useful properties as a pigment in paints. The use of Siberian red lead as a paint pigment developed rapidly. A bright yellow pigment made from crocoite also became fashionable.
8 In 1797, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin received samples of crocoite ore. He produced chromium trioxide (CrO3) by mixing crocoite with hydrochloric acid. In 1798, Vauquelin discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating the oxide in a charcoal oven. He was also able to detect traces of chromium in precious gemstones, such as ruby or emerald.  During the 1800s, chromium was primarily used as a component of paints and in tanning salts. At first, crocoite from Russia was the main source, but in 1827, a larger chromite deposit was discovered near Baltimore, United States. This made the United states the largest producer of chromium products till 1848 when large deposits of chromite where found near Bursa, Turkey.
The red colour of rubies is from a small amount of chromium(III).
Chromium is also known for its luster when polished. It is used as a protective and decorative coating on car parts, plumbing fixtures, furniture parts and many other items, usually applied by electroplating. Chromium was used for electroplating as early as 1848, but this use only became widespread with the development of an improved process in 1924. Metal alloys now account for 85% of the use of chromium. The remainder is used in the chemical industry and refractory and foundry industries.
Approximately 4.4 million metric tons of marketable chromite ore were produced in 2000, and converted into ~3.3 million tons of ferro-chrome with an approximate market value of 2.5 billion United States dollars. The largest producers of chromium ore have been South Africa (44%) India (18%), Kazakhstan (16%) Zimbabwe (5%), Finland (4%) Iran (4%) and Brazil (2%) with several other countries producing the rest of less than 10% of the world production. The two main products of chromium ore refining are ferrochromium and metallic chromium. For those products the ore smelter process differs considerably. For the production of ferrochromium, the chromite ore (FeCr2O4) is reduced in large scale in electric arc furnace or in smaller smelters with either aluminium or silicon in an aluminothermic reaction.
Piece of chromium produced with aluminothermic reaction
World production trend of chromium
chromium, remelted in a horizontal arc zone-refiner, showing large visible crystal grains
For the production of pure chromium, the iron has to be separated from the chromium in a two step roasting and leaching process. The chromite ore is heated with a mixture of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of air. The chromium is oxidized to the hexavalent form, while the iron forms the stable Fe2O3. The subsequent leaching at higher elevated temperatures dissolves the chromates and leaves the insoluble iron oxide. The chromate is converted by sulfuric acid into the dichromate.
Chromium ore output in 2002
4 FeCr2O4 + 8 Na2CO3 + 7 O2 → 8 Na2CrO4 + 2 Fe2O3 + 8 CO2 2 Na2CrO4 + H2SO4 → Na2Cr2O7 + Na2SO4 + H2O The dichromate is converted to the chromium(III) oxide by reduction with carbon and then reduced in an aluminothermic reaction to chromium. Na2Cr2O7 + 2 C → Cr2O3 + Na2CO3 + CO Cr2O3 + 2 Al → Al2O3 + 2 Cr
The strengthening effect of forming stable metal carbides at the grain boundaries and the strong increase in corrosion resistance made chromium an important alloying material for steel. The high speed tool steels contain between 3 and 5% chromium. Stainless steel, the main corrosion-proof metal alloy, is formed when chromium is added to iron in sufficient concentrations, usually above 11%. For its formation, ferrochromium is added to the molten iron. Also nickel-based alloys increase in strength due to the formation of discrete, stable metal carbide particles at the grain boundaries. For example, Inconel 718 contains 18.6% chromium. Because of the excellent high temperature properties of these nickel superalloys, they are used in jet engines and gas turbines in lieu of common structural materials.
Decorative chrome plating on a motorcycle.
Chromium The relative high hardness and corrosion resistance of unalloyed chromium makes it a good surface coating, being still the most "popular" metal coating with unparalleled combined durability. A thin layer of chromium is deposited on pretreated metallic surfaces by electroplating techniques. There are two deposition methods: Thin, below 1 µm thickness, layers are deposited by chrome plating, and are used for decorative surfaces. If wear-resistant surfaces are needed then thicker chromium layers are deposited. Both methods normally use acidic chromate or dichromate solutions. To prevent the energy consuming change in oxidation state, the use of Chromium(III) sulfate is under development, but for most applications, the established process is used. In the chromate conversion coating process, the strong oxidative properties of chromates are used to deposit a protective oxide layer on metals like aluminium, zinc and cadmium. This passivation and the self healing properties by the chromate stored in the chromate conversion coating, which is able to migrate to local defects, are the benefits of this coating method. Because of environmental and health regulations on chromates, alternative coating method are under development. Anodizing of aluminium is another electrochemical process, which does not lead to the deposition of chromium, but uses chromic acid as electrolyte in the solution. During anodization, an oxide layer is formed on the aluminium. The use of chromic acid, instead of the normally used sulfuric acid, leads to a slight difference of these oxide layers. The high toxicity of Cr(VI) compounds, used in the established chromium electroplating process, and the strengthening of safety and environmental regulations demand a search for substitutes for chromium or at least a change to less toxic chromium(III) compounds.
Dye and pigment
The mineral crocoite (lead chromate PbCrO4) was used as a yellow pigment shortly after its discovery. After a synthesis method became available starting from the more abundant chromite, chrome yellow was, together with cadmium yellow, one of the most used yellow pigments. The pigment does not photo degrade and has a strong color,  and was used for school buses in the US and for Postal Service (for School bus painted in chrome yellow example Deutsche Post) in Europe. The use of chrome yellow declined due to environmental and safety concerns and was replaced by organic pigments or other lead-free alternatives. Other pigments based on chromium are, for example, the bright red pigment chrome red, which is a basic lead chromate (PbCrO4·Pb(OH)2). Chrome green is a mixture of Prussian blue and chrome yellow, while the chrome oxide green is Chromium(III) oxide. A red color is achieved by doping chromium(III) into the crystals of corundum, which are then called ruby. Therefore, chromium is used in producing synthetic rubies. Chromium oxides are also used as a green color in glassmaking and as a glaze in ceramics.
Because of their toxicity, chromium(VI) salts are used for the preservation of wood. For example, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is used in timber treatment to protect wood from decay fungi, wood attacking insects, including termites, and marine borers. The formulations contain chromium based on the oxide CrO3 between 35.3% and 65.5%. In the United States, 65,300 metric tons of CCA solution have been used in 1996.
Chromium(III) salts, especially chrome alum and chromium(III) sulfate, are used in the tanning of leather. The chromium(III) stabilizes the leather by cross linking the collagen fibers. Chromium tanned leather can contain between 4 and 5% of chromium, which is tightly bound to the proteins. Although the form of chromium used for tanning is not the toxic hexavalent variety, there remains interest in management of chromium in the tanning industry such as recovery and reuse, direct/indirect recycling, use of less chromium or "chrome-less" tanning are practised to better manage chromium in tanning.
The high heat resistivity and high melting point makes chromite and chromium(III) oxide a material for high temperature refractory applications, like blast furnaces, cement kilns, molds for the firing of bricks and as foundry sands for the casting of metals. In these applications, the refractory materials are made from mixtures of chromite and magnesite. The use is declining because of the environmental regulations due to the possibility of the formation of chromium(VI).
Several chromium compounds are used as catalysts for processing hydrocarbons. For example the Phillips catalysts for the production of polyethylene are mixtures of chromium and silicon dioxide or mixtures of chromium and titanium and aluminium oxide. Fe-Cr mixed oxides are employed as high-temperature catalysts for the water gas shift reaction.  Copper chromite is a useful hydrogenation catalyst.
• Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2) is a magnetic compound. Its ideal shape anisotropy, which imparts high coercivity and remanent magnetization, made it a compound superior to the γ-Fe2O3. Chromium(IV) oxide is used to manufacture magnetic tape used in high-performance audio tape and standard audio cassettes. Chromates can prevent corrosion of steel under wet conditions, and therefore chromates are added to drilling muds. • Chromium(III) oxide is a metal polish known as green rouge. • Chromic acid is a powerful oxidizing agent and is a useful compound for cleaning laboratory glassware of any trace of organic compounds. It is prepared in situ by dissolving potassium dichromate in concentrated sulfuric acid, which is then used to wash the apparatus. Sodium dichromate is sometimes used because of its higher solubility (50 g/L versus 200 g/L respectively). Potassium dichromate is a chemical reagent, used in cleaning laboratory glassware and as a titrating agent. It is also used as a mordant (i.e., a fixing agent) for dyes in fabric.
Chromium has no verified biological role and has been classified as not essential for mammals. (Cr(III) or Cr3+) occurs in trace amounts and appears to be benign. Chromium deficiency is controversial or is at least extremely rare. It has been attributed to only three people on parenteral nutrition, which is when a patient is fed a liquid diet through intravenous drips. In contrast, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI) or Cr6+) is very toxic and mutagenic when inhaled. Cr(VI) has not been established as a carcinogen when in solution, although it may cause allergic contact
Chromium dermatitis (ACD). Although no biological role for chromium has ever been demonstrated, dietary supplements for chromium include chromium(III) picolinate, chromium(III) polynicotinate, and related materials. The benefit of those supplements is still under investigation and is questioned by some studies.  The use of chromium-containing dietary supplements is controversial owing to the absence of any verified biological role, the expense of these supplements, and the complex effects of their use. The popular dietary supplement chromium picolinate complex generates chromosome damage in hamster cells. In the United States the dietary guidelines for daily chromium uptake were lowered from 50–200 µg for an adult to 35 µg (adult male) and to 25 µg (adult female).
Water insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1.5 and 3.3 mg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and the use as dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. The acute oral toxicity for chromium(VI) ranges between 50 and 150 µg/kg. In the body, chromium(VI) is reduced by several mechanisms to chromium(III) already in the blood before it enters the cells. The chromium(III) is excreted from the body, whereas the chromate ion is transferred into the cell by a transport mechanism, by which also sulfate and phosphate ions enter the cell. The acute toxicity of chromium(VI) is due to its strong oxidational properties. After it reaches the blood stream, it damages the kidneys, the liver and blood cells through oxidation reactions. Hemolysis, renal and liver failure are the results of these damages. Aggressive dialysis can improve the situation. The carcinogenity of chromate dust is known for a long time, and in 1890 the first publication described the elevated cancer risk of workers in a chromate dye company.  Three mechanisms have been proposed to describe the genotoxicity of chromium(VI). The first mechanism includes highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radicals which are by products of the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III). The second process includes the direct binding of chromium(V), produced by reduction in the cell, and chromium(IV) compounds to the DNA. The last mechanism attributed the genotoxicity to the binding to the DNA of the end product of the chromium(III) reduction. Chromium salts (chromates) are also the cause of allergic reactions in some people. Chromates are often used to manufacture, amongst other things, leather products, paints, cement, mortar and anti-corrosives. Contact with products containing chromates can lead to allergic contact dermatitis and irritant dermatitis, resulting in ulceration of the skin, sometimes referred to as "chrome ulcers". This condition is often found in workers that have been exposed to strong chromate solutions in electroplating, tanning and chrome-producing manufacturers. 
As chromium compounds were used in dyes and paints and the tanning of leather, these compounds are often found in soil and groundwater at abandoned industrial sites, now needing environmental cleanup and remediation per the treatment of brownfield land. Primer paint containing hexavalent chromium is still widely used for aerospace and automobile refinishing applications.
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(1997). "A Conformational Study of Collagen as Affected by Tanning Procedures". Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association 92: 225–233.  Sreeram, K (2003). "Sustaining tanning process through conservation, recovery and better utilization of chromium". Resources, Conservation and Recycling 38 (3): 185–212. doi:10.1016/S0921-3449(02)00151-9.  Weckhuysen, Bert M. (1999). "Olefin polymerization over supported chromium oxide catalysts". Catalysis Today 51 (2): 215–221. doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(99)00046-2.  Twigg, M. V. E. (1989). "The Water-Gas Shift Reaction" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=YlJRAAAAMAAJ). Catalyst Handbook. ISBN 9780723408574. .  Rhodes, C (1995). "Water-gas shift reaction: Finding the mechanistic boundary". Catalysis Today 23: 43–58. doi:10.1016/0920-5861(94)00135-O.  http:/ / www. orgsyn. org/ orgsyn/ prep. asp?prep=cv2p0142  Mallinson, John C. (1993). "Chromium Dioxide" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=rNifWsBxnWkC& pg=PA32). The foundations of magnetic recording. Academic Press. ISBN 9780124666269. .  Garverick, Linda (1994). Corrosion in the Petrochemical Industry (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=qTfNZZRO758C& pg=PA278). ASM International. ISBN 9780871705051. .  K. R. Di Bona, S. Love, N. R. Rhodes, D. McAdory, S. H. Sinha, N. Kern, J. Kent, J. Strickland, A. Wilson, J. Beaird, J. Ramage, J. F. Rasco, J. B. Vincent "Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a "low-chromium" diet." Journal Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 2011, volume 16, p. 381-90. doi:10.1007/s00775-010-0734-y  Mertz, Walter (1 April 1993). "Chromium in Human Nutrition: A Review". Journal of Nutrition 123 (4): 626–33. PMID 8463863.  Moukarzel A (November 2009). "Chromium in parenteral nutrition: too little or too much?". Gastroenterology 137 (5 Suppl): S18–S28. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2009.08.048. PMID 19874946.  "ToxFAQs: Chromium" (http:/ / www. atsdr. cdc. gov/ tfacts7. html). Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. February 2001. . Retrieved 2007-10-02.  Heimbach, J.T.; Anderson, Richard A. (2005). "Chromium: Recent Studies Regarding Nutritional Roles and Safety" (http:/ / journals. lww. com/ nutritiontodayonline/ Abstract/ 2005/ 07000/ Chromium__Recent_Studies_Regarding_Nutritional. 13. aspx). Nutrition Today 40 (4): 189––195. doi:10.1097/00017285-200507000-00013. .  Vincent,, John B . (2003). "The Potential Value and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate as a Nutritional Supplement, Weight Loss Agent and Muscle Development Agent". Sports Medicine:Volume 33 (3): 213–230. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333030-00004. PMID 12656641.
 Cronin, Joseph R. (2004). "The Chromium Controversy". Alternative and Complementary Therapies 10 (1): 39–42. doi:10.1089/107628004772830393.  Stearns, D. M.; W; P; W (1 December 1995). "Chromium(III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells". Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 9 (15): 1643–8. PMID 8529845.  Vincent, J. B. (2007). "Recent advances in the nutritional biochemistry of trivalent chromium". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63 (1): 41–47. doi:10.1079/PNS2003315. PMID 15070438.  Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). "Chromium". Clinical Toxicology 37 (2): 173–194. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102418. PMID 10382554.  Eastmond, David A.; MacGregor, JT; Slesinski, RS (2008). "Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement". Critical Reviews in Toxicology 38 (3): 173–190. doi:10.1080/10408440701845401. PMID 18324515.  Katz, Sidney A.; Salem, H (1992). "The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: A review". Journal of Applied Toxicology 13 (3): 217–224. doi:10.1002/jat.2550130314. PMID 8326093.  Dayan, A. D.; Paine, A. J. (2001). "Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: Review of the literature from 1985 to 2000". Human & Experimental Toxicology 20 (9): 439–451. doi:10.1191/096032701682693062. PMID 11776406.  Newman, D. (1890). "A case of adeno-carcinoma of the left inferior turbinated body, and perforation of thenasal septum, in the person of a worker in chrome pigments". Glasgow Medical Journal 33: 469–470.  Langard, Sverre (1990). "One Hundred Years of Chromium and Cancer: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence and Selected Case Reports". American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17 (2): 189–214. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700170205. PMID 2405656.  Cohen, M. D.; Kargacin, B.; Klein, C. B.; Costa, M. (1993). "Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity". Critical reviews in toxicology 23 (3): 255–281. doi:10.3109/10408449309105012. PMID 8260068.  "Chrome Contact Allergy" (http:/ / dermnetnz. org/ dermatitis/ chrome-allergy. html). DermNet NZ. .  Basketter, David; Horev, L.; Slodovnik, D.; Merimes, S.; Trattner, A.; Ingber, A. (2000). "Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium". Contact Dermatitis 44 (2): 70–74. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.440202.x. PMID 11205406.  Baselt, Randall C. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City: Biomedical Publications. pp. 305–307. ISBN 9780962652370.
References External links
• ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Chromium Toxicity (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/ chromium) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • IARC Monograph "Chromium and Chromium compounds" (http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/ vol49/chromium.html) • It's Elemental – The Element Chromium (http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele024.html) • National Pollutant Inventory – Chromium (III) compounds fact sheet (http://www.npi.gov.au/database/ substance-info/profiles/24.html) • The Merck Manual – Mineral Deficiency and Toxicity (http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec01/ch005/ch005b. html) • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – Chromium Page (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ chromium/) • The periodic table of videos: Chromium (http://www.periodicvideos.com/videos/024.htm)
Isotopes of chromium
Naturally occurring chromium (Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most abundant (83.789% natural abundance). 50Cr is suspected of decaying by β+β+ to 50Ti with a half-life of (more than) 1.8x1017 years. Twenty-two radioisotopes, all which are entirely synthetic, have been characterized with the most stable being 51Cr with a half-life of 27.7 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 minute, the least stable being 66Cr with a half-life of 10 milliseconds. This element also has 2 meta states, 45Crm, the more stable one, and 59Crm, the least stable isotope or isomer.
Cr is the radiogenic decay product of 53Mn. Chromium isotopic contents are typically combined with manganese isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology. Mn-Cr isotope ratios reinforce the evidence from 26 Al and 107Pd for the early history of the solar system. Variations in 53Cr/52Cr and Mn/Cr ratios from several meteorites indicate an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio that suggests Mn-Cr isotope systematics must result from in-situ decay of 53Mn in differentiated planetary bodies. Hence 53Cr provides additional evidence for nucleosynthetic processes immediately before coalescence of the solar system. The same isotope is preferentially involved in certain leaching reactions, thereby allowing its abundance in seawater sediments to be used as a proxy for atmospheric oxygen concentrations. The isotopes of chromium range from 42Cr to 67Cr. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. Standard atomic mass: 51.9961(6) u The atomic mass is originally 53 but as an isotope rounded to the nearest tenth is 52.
nuclide Z(p) N(n) symbol isotopic mass (u) half-life range of decay daughter nuclear representative   spin isotopic natural mode(s) isotope(s)  composition variation (mole (mole fraction) fraction) β+ (>99.9%) 2p (<.1%)
14(3) ms [13(+4-2) ms] 21.6(7) ms
40 43 42
Ti V Ti (3/2+)
β+ (71%) β+, p (23%) β+, 2p (6%) β+, α (<.1%)
Isotopes of chromium
54(4) ms [53(+4-3) ms] 50(6) ms β+ (93%) β+, p (7%) β+ (73%) β+, p (27%)
44 43 45 44
V Ti V Ti
45 45 46 47 48 49
Cr V V V V V
46 47 48 49
Cr Cr Cr Cr
24 24 24 24
22 23 24 25
45.968359(21) 46.962900(15) 47.954032(8)
0+ 3/20+ 5/2-
500(15) ms β+ 21.56(3) h β+
48.9513357(26) 24 26 49.9460442(11) 24 27
42.3(1) min β+
EC 50.9447674(11) 27.7025(24) d
5.94(10) 55.9406531(20) min 56.943613(2) 57.94435(22) 58.94859(26) 21.1(10) s 7.0(3) s
57 58 59
Cr Cr Cr Cr
24 24 24
33 34 35
57 58 59
Mn Mn Mn
(3/2-) 0+ 5/2-# (9/2+)
460(50) ms β96(20) µs 560(60) ms β261(15) ms β(>99.9%) β-, n (<.1%)
59m 60 61
503.0(17) keV 24 24 36 59.95008(23)
Isotopes of chromium
199(9) ms β(>99.9%) β-, n
61 63 62 64 65
Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn Mn 0+ (1/2-)# 0+ 1/2-# (1/2-)#
Cr Cr Cr Cr
24 24 24 24
40 41 42 43
63.96441(43)# 64.97016(54)# 65.97338(64)#
43(1) ms 27(3) ms 10(6) ms
66.97955(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns]
 R. Frei, C. Gaucher, S. W. Poulton, D. E. Canfield (2009). "Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes". Nature 461 (7261): 250–3. Bibcode 2009Natur.461..250F. doi:10.1038/nature08266. PMID 19741707.  http:/ / www. nucleonica. net/ unc. aspx  Abbreviations: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition  Bold for stable isotopes  Suspected of decaying by β+β+ decay to 50Ti with a half-life of no less than 1.3×1018 a
• Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses. • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
• Isotope masses from: • G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Bibcode 2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. • Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from: • J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Böhlke, P. De Bièvre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman and P. D. P. Taylor (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://www.iupac.org/ publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6): 683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683. • M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)" (http://iupac.org/ publications/pac/78/11/2051/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary (http://old.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/ atomic-weights_revised05.html). • Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. See editing notes on this article's talk page. • G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 729:
Isotopes of chromium 3–128. Bibcode 2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. • National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.1 database" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/). Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved September 2005. • N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0849304859.
• Chromium isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's (http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/ Cr_iso.htm)
Classification and external resources
Chromium ICD-10 ICD-9 T56.2 985.6  
Chromium toxicity refers to the toxic effects of chromium. Water insoluble chromium(III) compounds and chromium metal are not considered a health hazard, while the toxicity and carcinogenic properties of chromium(VI) have been known for a long time. An actual investigation into hexavalent chromium release into drinking water was used as the plot-basis of the motion picture Erin Brockovich. Because of the specific transport mechanisms, only limited amounts of chromium(III) enter the cells. Several in vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of chromium(III) in the cell can lead to DNA damage. Acute oral toxicity ranges between 1900 and 3300 µg/kg. The proposed beneficial effects of chromium(III) and the use as dietary supplements yielded some controversial results, but recent reviews suggest that moderate uptake of chromium(III) through dietary supplements poses no risk. World Health Organization recommended maximum allowable concentration in drinking water for chromium (VI) is 0.05 milligrams per liter.  Hexavalent chromium is also one of the substances whose use is restricted by the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. The LD50 for chromium(VI) ranges between 50 and 150 mg/kg. In the body, chromium(VI) is reduced by several mechanisms to chromium(III) already in the blood before it enters the cells. The chromium(III) is excreted from the body, whereas the chromate ion is transferred into the cell by a transport mechanism, by which also sulfate and phosphate ions enter the cell. The acute toxicity of chromium(VI) is due to its strong oxidational properties. After it reaches the blood stream, it damages the kidneys, the liver and blood cells through oxidation reactions. Hemolysis, renal and liver failure are the results of these damages. Aggressive dialysis can improve the situation. The carcinogenity of chromate dust is known for a long time, and in 1890 the first publication described the elevated cancer risk of workers in a chromate dye company.  Three mechanisms have been proposed to describe the genotoxicity of chromium(VI). The first mechanism includes highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radicals which are byproducts of the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III). The second process includes the direct binding of chromium(V), produced by reduction in the cell, and chromium(IV) compounds to the DNA. The last mechanism attributed the genotoxicity to the binding to the DNA of the end product of the chromium(III) reduction.
Chromium toxicity Chromium salts (chromates) are also the cause of allergic reactions in some people. Chromates are often used to manufacture, amongst other things, leather products, paints, cement, mortar and anti-corrosives. Contact with products containing chromates can lead to allergic contact dermatitis and irritant dermatitis, resulting in ulceration of the skin, sometimes referred to as "chrome ulcers". This condition is often found in workers that have been exposed to strong chromate solutions in electroplating, tanning and chrome-producing manufacturers.   In some parts of Russia, pentavalent chromium was reported as one of the causes of premature dementia.
As chromium compounds were used in dyes and paints and the tanning of leather, these compounds are often found in soil and groundwater at abandoned industrial sites, now needing environmental cleanup and remediation per the treatment of brownfield land. Primer paint containing hexavalent chromium is still widely used for aerospace and automobile refinishing applications.
Monitoring excessive human exposure
Overexposure to chromium can occur in a welders and other workers in the metallurgical industry, persons taking chromium-containing dietary supplements, patients who have received metallic surgical implants and individuals who ingest chromium salts. Chromium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum or urine may be measured to monitor for safety in exposed workers, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.
 http:/ / apps. who. int/ classifications/ icd10/ browse/ 2010/ en#/ T56. 2  http:/ / www. icd9data. com/ getICD9Code. ashx?icd9=985. 6  Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). "Chromium". Clinical Toxicology 37 (2): 173–194. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102418. PMID 10382554.  Eastmond, David A.; MacGregor, JT; Slesinski, RS (2008). "Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement". Critical Reviews in Toxicology 38 (3): 173–190. doi:10.1080/10408440701845401. PMID 18324515.  Katz, Sidney A.; Salem, H (1992). "The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: A review". Journal of Applied Toxicology 13 (3): 217–224. doi:10.1002/jat.2550130314. PMID 8326093.  "WHO Guidelines on Drinking-Water Quality -- Chromium" (https:/ / www. who. int/ water_sanitation_health/ dwq/ chemicals/ chromiumsum. pdf). .  Dayan, A. D.; Paine, AJ (2001). "Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: Review of the literature from 1985 to 2000". Human & Experimental Toxicology 20 (9): 439–451. doi:10.1191/096032701682693062. PMID 11776406.  Newman, D. (1890). "A case of adeno-carcinoma of the left inferior turbinated body, and perforation of the nasal septum, in the person of a worker in chrome pigments". Glasgow Med J 33: 469–470.  Langard, Sverre (1990). "One Hundred Years of Chromium and Cancer: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence and Selected Case Reports". American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17 (2): 189–215. doi:10.1002/ajim.4700170205. PMID 2405656.  M. D., Cohen; Kargacin, B; Klein, CB; Costa, M (1993). "Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity". Critical reviews in toxicology 23 (3): 255–81. doi:10.3109/10408449309105012. PMID 8260068.  "Chrome Contact Allergy" (http:/ / dermnetnz. org/ dermatitis/ chrome-allergy. html). DermNet NZ. .  Basketter, David; Horev, L; Slodovnik, D; Merimes, S; Trattner, A; Ingber, A (2000). "Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium". Contact Dermatitis 44 (2): 70–74. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.440202.x. PMID 11205406.  Chromium Toxicity (http:/ / www. corrosion-doctors. org/ Pollution/ chromiumtoxicity. htm) on the Corrosion Doctors Web site maintained by Canadian Physical Chemist, Pierre R. Roberge, PhD, P.Eng. (access date 27 april 2009)  R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 305-307.
Classification and external resources
Chromium ICD-10 DiseasesDB E61.4 2625 
Chromium deficiency is a disorder that results from an insufficient dietary intake of chromium. Whether or not such a deficiency ever occurs in people eating a normal diet is debated,  and clear cases of deficiency have only been observed in hospital patients who were fed defined liquid diets intravenously for long periods of time. Although chromium is an essential trace element in humans, the basis for this need is not fully understood, since no chromium-containing biomolecules with beneficial effects have been characterized. 
The US dietary guidelines for adequate daily chromium intake were lowered in 2001 from 50–200 µg for an adult to 30–35 µg (adult male) and to 20–25 µg (adult female). These amounts were set to be the same as the average amounts consumed by healthy individuals. Consequently, it is thought that few Americans are chromium deficient. Approximately 2% of ingested chromium(III) is absorbed, with the remainder being excreted in the feces. Amino acids, vitamin C and niacin may enhance the uptake of chromium from the intestinal tract. After absorption, this metal accumulates in the liver, bone, and spleen. Trivalent chromium is found in a wide range of foods, including: whole-grain products, processed meats, high-bran breakfast cereals, coffee, nuts, green beans, broccoli, spices, and some brands of wine and beer. Most fruits and vegetables and dairy products only contain low amounts. Most of the chromium in people's diet comes from processing or storing food in pans and cans made of stainless steel, which can contain up to 18% chromium. The amount of chromium in the body can be decreased as a result of a diet high in simple sugars, which increases the excretion of the metal through urine. Because of the high excretion rates and the very low absorption rates of most forms of chromium, acute toxicity is uncommon.
The symptoms of chromium deficiency caused by long-term total parenteral nutrition are severely impaired glucose tolerance, a loss of weight, and confusion. Another patient also developed nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy).
Chromium picolinate is the most commonly used synthetic supplement. However, recent studies "have concluded that such supplements have no demonstrated effects on healthy individuals." A meta-analysis in 2002 found no effect on blood glucose or insulin in healthy people, and the data were inconclusive for diabetics. Subsequent trials gave mixed results, with one finding no effect in people with impaired glucose tolerance, but another seeing a small improvement in glucose resistance. In a 2007 review of these and other clinical trials it was again concluded that chromium supplements had no beneficial effect on healthy people, but that there might be an improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetics, although the authors stated that the evidence for this effect remains weak. A 2003 pilot trial of 15 patients suggested that chromium picolinate might have antidepressant effects in atypical depression. A larger trial in 2005 set up to test this finding found no effect on depression in its test group, but suggested that the use of chromium supplementation could help to reduce carbohydrate cravings and regulate appetite in these patients. A post-hoc analysis of a subpopulation of patients in this study that experienced high carbohydrate cravings suggested that these patients experienced significant improvements in their depression compared to those treated with a placebo. This supplement is purported to correct imbalances in glucose metabolism due to chromium deficiency, even though the occurrence of such a deficiency is extremely rare in countries where the supplement is sold. The mechanism by which this complex enters the cells in the body differs from that for the introduction of trivalent chromium found naturally in food does, and for this reason the safety of this supplement is debatable, since chromium is toxic at high levels. Although it is controversial if supplements should be taken by healthy adults eating a normal diet, chromium is needed as a component of the defined liquid diet that is given to patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN), since deficiency can occur after many months of this highly restricted diet. As a result chromium is added to normal TPN solutions, although the trace amounts from even in supposedly "chromium free" preparations may be enough to prevent deficiency in some individuals. Indeed, a 1992 paper in The Lancet suggested that adding chromium to feeding solutions given to children produces excessive levels of this metal in their bodies.
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Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Chromium Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464100011 Contributors: 12dstring, 28bytes, A Macedonian, A2Kafir, AHEMSLTD, Accurizer, Adashiel, Addshore, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Akradecki, Alansohn, Alchemist-hp, Ale jrb, Alecmconroy, Alex43223, Alexcalamaro, Ali@gwc.org.uk, Andonic, Andres, Anna, Antandrus, Anwar saadat, Apparition11, Arcadian, Archimerged, Artichoker, Athaler, Atjesse, Audrius u, Aussie Alchemist, Aveilleux, Bbernet13, Bcorr, Beetstra, BenFrantzDale, Benbest, Bender235, Bently34, BillFlis, Billwiki2008, Binary TSO, Blastwizard, Bobo192, Bogey97, Bomac, Bork, Bowlhover, Brian Huffman, Brian0918, Brutaldeluxe, Bryan Derksen, Buddy431, Burritobeatle, Cacycle, Cadmium, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Capricorn42, CaptainP, Carnildo, Cbc21com, Cenaboy2054, Chameleon, Chelcal, ChemNerd, Chemicalinterest, Cheminterest, Chemonger, Chester Markel, Chiu frederick, ChrisfromHouston, Chrissy385, Christian75, Chzz, Cometstyles, Conversion script, Coppertwig, CorvetteZ51, Courcelles, Cremepuff222, Curps, Cybercobra, Danelo, Daniel1221ex, DanielCristofani, Dano312, Dantelebeau, Daqu, Darrien, Davewild, David Latapie, DavidCary, Davidmello, Davidruben, Dcrunner, Decatoncale, Deflective, Deli nk, Delldot, Delta G, DerHexer, Deutschgirl, Deville, Dhp1080, Discospinster, Dolovis, Donarreiskoffer, DoubleBlue, Doulos Christos, Drhaggis, Duk, Dwmyers, E Wing, E0steven, Ebob 101, Echosmoke, Edgar181, Ekke44, El C, Eldin raigmore, Elkman, Elvey, Emperorbma, Epbr123, EstebanF, Euryalus, Everyking, FF2010, Favonian, Femto, FetteK, Fifo, Finalius, Frank Warmerdam, Fratrep, Fredrik, FrenchIsAwesome, Frotz, Fuosing, GRAHAMUK, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, Geno-Supremo, Giftlite, Gilliam, Gimboid13, Gman124, Gordjazz, Graham87, Greatpatton, Grendelkhan, Gurch, Gurps npc, Gwernol, Gypsypkd, H Bruthzoo, Haddendaddendoedenda, Hak-kâ-ngìn, HappyM, Haza-w, Headbomb, Hellbus, Heron, Hobartimus, Hondai, Honua, Hroðulf, Hurmata, Hut 6.5, Hut 8.5, Hydrogen Iodide, Ian Pitchford, Icairns, Iridescent, Isindil, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, Jake Wartenberg, Jakeoula, Jambeeno, James086, Jaraalbe, Jaxl, Jimp, Jj137, Joan-of-arc, Joanjoc, John, John Bahrain, John Doe or Jane Doe, Jose77, Jpgordon, Jsonitsac, Juliancolton, KGasso, Karl-Henner, Karlhahn, Karlo, Kbh3rd, Keilana, Kjkolb, Knife Knut, Krawi, Kumorifox, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, Kyanite, LA2, La goutte de pluie, Labnoor, Lankiveil, Larrybobb, Leebo, Lethalgeek, Leyo, Life Adventure, Lightblade, LinguisticDemographer, Linkbook, Little Mountain 5, Lordryker, LorenzoB, Luigi30, LuigiManiac, Luwilt, MPerel, MZMcBride, Mackant1, Madlobster, Magioladitis, MarkRose, Markhurd, Materialscientist, Mav, Meaghan, Medic, Meeples, Mgimpel, Miar65, Michael Devore, Michaelbusch, Mikelieman, Mikeo, Mild Bill Hiccup, Minesweeper, Mkweise, Mm40, Modify, Mrbman92, Naffer, NawlinWiki, NellieBly, Nergaal, Nick Y., NickelShoe, Nihiltres, Ninly, Nirmos, Novel tubes, NuclearWarfare, OccamzRazor, Omegatron, Omicronpersei8, Onebravemonkey, OrbitOne, Otisjimmy1, Oxymoron83, Paddyer, PericlesofAthens, Periglas, Persian Poet Gal, Pgk, Phantomsteve, PhilT2, Philip Trueman, Physchim62, Pinethicket, Plexust, Poeloq, Poolkris, Potterfa11, PrestonH, Pretzelpaws, Prodego, Pseudopanax, Psyche825, Pzavon, Quadrius, Quintote, R'n'B, RA0808, RJaguar3, RTC, Rada, Rallette, Ravichandar84, Rbaselt, Red Alien, Remember, Renaissancee, RexNL, Rfc1394, Rich Farmbrough, Richard D. LeCour, Rifleman 82, Rjwilmsi, RobertStar20, Roberta F., Robin Patterson, Robinh, Romanm, Ronhjones, Rotflolx, Rrburke, Rursus, SHARD, SamHB, Sanchogalileo, Saperaud, Saros136, Scarian, SchfiftyThree, Schmid1, Schneelocke, Scot.parker, Scott Adler, ScottyBerg, Seaphoto, Sengkang, Sfuerst, Shaddack, Sheitan, Shjacks45, Silentaria, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Sixpence, Skraz, Sl, Slashme, Smallweed, Smith609, Smokefoot, Snarius, Some jerk on the Internet, Sound Minded Man, Specter01010, Squids and Chips, SteffenB, Stephenb, Stifynsemons, Stone, Strait, Suisui, Sunborn, Syrthiss, Szaszicska, Tagishsimon, Tenguopr, Tetracube, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The Hokkaido Crow, The Sanctuary Sparrow, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheHerbalGerbil, Theeman0000, Theone00, Thricecube, Thumperward, Tide rolls, TimVickers, Tisdalepardi, Tom harrison, Tomcruise0011, Trevor MacInnis, Useight, VASANTH S.N., Vanka5, VasilievVV, Verdatum, Versageek, Versus22, Voyagerfan5761, Vsmith, Vuong Ngan Ha, WaldoJ, Watch37264, Wayne Slam, WereSpielChequers, Weregerbil, West Brom 4ever, Wikiborg, Wilfred Glendon XXVI, William Avery, Wimt, Wizard191, Wknight94, Wperdue, Wrenchelle, Xiglofre, Xxduckyxx, Yamaguchi先生, Yettie0711, Yonatan, Yyy, 939 anonymous edits Isotopes of chromium Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459609429 Contributors: Bobo192, Bryan Derksen, Discospinster, Donarreiskoffer, Download, Femto, Headbomb, Hqb, John, Karlhahn, Remux, Rjwilmsi, RobertMfromLI, Shoy, Smith609, XinaNicole, 20 anonymous edits Chromium toxicity Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462106923 Contributors: Arcadian, Rjwilmsi, Snaxalotl, Stone, 4 anonymous edits Chromium deficiency Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455971109 Contributors: AIH Llyn, Adnanzubairy, Anastrophe, Arcadian, Benbest, Bryan Derksen, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Deirdre, Edgar181, Eleassar, Giftlite, Headbomb, Imnotminkus, Katharineamy, Kurrupt3d, Mmortal03, Narayanese, RB's private jet, Rich Farmbrough, Richwales, Rjwilmsi, Rod57, Scottalter, Selket, Smokefoot, TimVickers, Uthbrian, Vsmith, Watson Ladd, 32 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
file:Chromium_crystals_and_1cm3_cube.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium_crystals_and_1cm3_cube.jpg License: Free Art License Contributors: Alchemist-hp (talk) ( www.pse-mendelejew.de) File:Loudspeaker.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Mirithing, Myself488, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, Wouterhagens, 16 anonymous edits File:Crocoite from Tasmania.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crocoite_from_Tasmania.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Eric Hunt File:Chromit 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromit_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Piotr Sosnowski File:Chromium in water pourbiax diagram.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium_in_water_pourbiax_diagram.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Cadmium, Materialscientist, 4 anonymous edits File:Chlorid chromitý.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chlorid_chromitý.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Ondřej Mangl File:Chromium(III)-chloride-purple-anhydrous-sunlight.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium(III)-chloride-purple-anhydrous-sunlight.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ben Mills File:Chrom(VI)-oxid.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chrom(VI)-oxid.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: BXXXD File:Chroman sodný.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chroman_sodný.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Ondřej Mangl File:5-fold chromium.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:5-fold_chromium.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Rifleman 82 File:Cut Ruby.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cut_Ruby.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Bkell File:Chrom 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chrom_1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benutzer:Tomihahndorf&action=edit File:Chromium - world production trend.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium_-_world_production_trend.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Leyo File:Chromium zone refined and 1cm3 cube.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium_zone_refined_and_1cm3_cube.jpg License: Free Art License Contributors: Alchemist-hp (talk) ( www.pse-mendelejew.de) File:World Chromium Production 2002.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:World_Chromium_Production_2002.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Motorcycle Reflections bw edit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Motorcycle_Reflections_bw_edit.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: Atoma File:Laidlaw school bus.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Laidlaw_school_bus.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dori File:Cr-TableImage.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cr-TableImage.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: user:Schneelocke Image:Chromium picolinate.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chromium_picolinate.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Edgar181
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