# Terminology and performance features of Proportional valve and Servovalve

Direct controlled or Pilot controlled valves

Direct Controlled
Spool of the Mainstage valve is direct driven by the Motor

Motor
Z.B.: Linearmotor

Mainstage

P

A

T

B

This type of valve also named Single Stage Valve

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Direct controlled or Pilot controlled valves

Pilot Controlled
The spool of the mainstage is driven by a Pilotstage in generall by a electromechnical, hydraulic amplifier.
Pilot stage

Mainstage

This kind of valves are designs as 2 or 3 Stage valves.
In the upper example a 2 stage valve (pilot and mainstage) is shown.
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Rated Flow

Rated Flow (QN)
The specified control flow corresponding to the rated current (100 % and specified load pressure drop (10 bar/ 70 bar) at a 100% ).

Valve flow calculation:

Q = QN *

Detla p Detla p N

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Flow Curve / Flow gain

Flow Curve
The graphical representation of the controlled flow versus input signal. This is usually a continuous plot of a complete cycle between plus and minus rated input signal
Flow

1

1) Seturation Region 2) Normal Region 3) Null Region

2

Flow Gain
Flow gain is the nominal relationship of the flow (Q) to input signal. The flow curve is subdivide into • Null Region • Normal Region • Saturation Region
- 100 %

Input signal

3

100 %

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Flow gain

Null Flow Gain (null region)
The slope of the controlled flow versus input signal relationship at null. Null flow gain can be between 0 (Overlaped) and 200% (Underlaped) of the nominal flow gain due to the lap condition. Moog specified there the flow gain between 50% and 200% for Servo valves with axis cut.
Flow (%) Flow Gain (200%) Input signal
- 10 % 10 %

Flow Gain (50%)

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Lap Types / Zero lap

Zero lap (axis cut)
Also called closed center

The lap condition where there is no separation of the straight line extension of the normal flow curve, generally corresponding to precise alignment of the spool land to the bushing / body lands.
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Lap Types / Overlap

Overlap

The lap condition which results in a decreased slope of the normal flow curve in the null region. It depends on the overlap of the spool land to the Bushing/ Body lands. The complete area of overlap is also called “deadband”.
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Lap Types / Underlap

Underlap
Also called open center

The lap condition which results in a increased slope of the normal flow curve in the null region. It depends on the underlap of the spool land to the Bushing/ Body lands.
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Lap Types / Measuring of

The flow curve can be measured in to different way‘s
• Flow measurment between the valve ports A(C1) and B (C2). • Flow measurment in the drain line (Tank).

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Lap Types / Measuring of Flow measurment between A(C1) and B (C2).
Flow (Q)
B

M

A

Input signal

x

y

P

T

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Lap Types / Measuring of Flow measurment in the drain line (Tank).
Flow (Q)

A

B

x

y

P

T

M
Input signal

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Lap Types / Internal Leakage

Null Leakage
Null leakage Q leakage [L/min]
The total valve internal leakage flow at the null position, expressed in “cis” or “l/min”.

Under lap Zero lap Over lap

0

Spool stroke X [mm]

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Delta P / Pressure Gain

Delta P
Is the different between the measured pressure in Port A (C1) and Port B (C2) of the valve.
PA

manometer
PB

A

B

Delta P calculation: Delta P = PA - PB
P T

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Delta P / Presssure Gain

Pressure Gain
Delta P (%)

The increasing of the Pressure Signal - Curve is defined as the pressure gain. The pressure gain showed the relationship between the Delta P and the input signal, measured at a closed actuator (see sketch Delta P). There is direct relation between the pressure gain and the precise of the positioning of the actuator.

70%

2% -4 4

Input signal (%)

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Hysteresis / Threshold

Hysteresis
The maximum difference in the valve input signal, required to produce the same valve output (flow, pressure, spool position) during a +/-100 % signal cycle of the valve.
Flow Hysteresis X

Input signal
-100% 100 %

Threshold
The increment of input signal required to produce a change in the valve output (flow, pressure, spool position). Threshold is normally specified as the input signal encountered when changing the direction which was previously demand.
Threshold X

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Dynamic Characteristics

The dynamic characteristic of a valve can be determined in two ways :

• Stepresponse • Frequency response
The knowledge of the dynamic characteristic of a valve is very important for the integration of then valve into a close or open loop system.
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Dynamic Characteristics

Stepresponse
Stepresponse - A measure of the time required for a spool to change the position (typically from “0” to 100% flow or position) in response to a stepped input signal.

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Dynamic Characteristics

Frequency response
The relationship of no-load control flow to input signal when the signal is made to vary sinusoidal at constant amplitude over a range of frequencies. Frequency response is expressed by the amplitude ratio in decibels (dB) and phase lag in degrees (°) over a specific frequency range.

A
90°

Amplitude
X (dB)
270° 360°

T

A
90°

Phase Angle
270° 360°

T
X (ϕ)
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Dynamic Characteristics

Bode Diagram
The different measured points will will be transfer into the Bode Diagram. The Frequency responds test will be made with different input signal (e.g.: 10% , 25% , 90%).

At a small signal inputs (<10%), the frequency at which the valve output experiences a 90º phase lag relative to valve command is identified as the valve NATURAL FREQUENCY (ωn).
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Open and close loop

Open Loop (no feedback of the output)
Input Amplifier Valve Actuator Output

Closed Loop (feedback of the output)
Input + Amplifier Valve Actuator Output

Sensor
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