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Applying ultrasonic waves on atmospheric smog to improve visibility and accelerate transportation system Debraj Roy (B.

Tech, Mechanical & Automation, IIIrd sem) Amity School of Engg. & Technology, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan-302006, India

Abstract
We propose the construction of a device powered by the energy within the vehicle which would work on ultrasonic scrubbing like employed in vacuum cleaners at a much higher scale. It would serve as a powerful means to improve visibility in winters especially foggy situation. We Ultrasonic Waves: - Starting from the basics... Ultra means beyond & sonic means sound. These waves are basically longitudinal sound waves of frequency of 16 kHz which are not audible for us. For years, we have come across various applications of ultrasonic waves; let it be SONAR for ships, metal flaw detection system for industries or let it be in the field of biology for noticing the development of foetus. In recent years, we have noticed use of ultrasonic waves in cleaning purposes. My thought is somewhat related to this point.

What is Ultrasonic Scrubbing? We commonly hear about the terms ultrasonic scrubbing. It involves the use of high frequency ultrasonic waves of frequency nearby 500 Mhz to coagulate dust particles (like in vacuum cleaners)without reflecting much damage to surrounding & proving out to be very much cost effective. If the high frequency & high energy carrying energy waves are subjected onto the smoke or fog or haze surrounding the transport system then these waves would coagulate the dust and other particulate matter into heavier lumps which would subsequently settle down while the simultaneous conversion of dense fog to vapours could be achieved which simply serves our purpose of rapidifying the transport process.

How to generate the waves effectively on transporting vehicles? For Railways -> Trains have proved very effective in various science modelling. People have innovated various ways to harness the energy that is associated with trains. I would like to focus open the fact that trains have heavy & strong magnets which drag the bogeys across the tracks. If it consumes gallons of diesel for driving the train the a few litres wont harm to support the piezoelectric & inverse piezoelectric devices fitted nearby the magnets joining the bogeys.

This is one of the either ways of utilising the heavy magnets between the bogeys to exert mechanical stress to produce electricity. For airways-> Airways have been one of the consistent users of ultrasonic scrubbing for cleaning purposes but this way round they can easily sort out issues but in a smaller scale. Using the rotor blades of aircrafts for rotating a small cylindrical churning device would be the easiest way of producing the mechanical stress for generating piezoelectricity which can then be used for USW production

Process

Once the train starts to roll the 16-17 bogeys are dragged by the strong magnets which also links them to each other. Subjecting a piezoelectric device as above to this heavy stress generates potential difference between the faces of piezoelectric material (I wont support the use of Quartz because of the cost of production of these crystals being sky-high so I would suggest BaTiO3 as this compound meets the requirements of the project. The other alternative is the use of magnetostriction method to produce ultrasonic waves but it requires more electricity), while on aeroplanes the cylindrical churner would serve the purpose. The electricity thus generated is continuously stored & simultaneously forwarded to another device consisting of Quartz or BaTiO3 crystal which causes inverse piezoelectric effect i. e, Ultrasonic waves would be produced due to subjecting such material to electricity. This unit would be present at the train engine side or above it for proper transmission of these waves. Subsequently, the waves would propagate till there energy gets consumed in coagulation of particulate matter & humidification of dense fog. The reduced fog & smoke would greatly reduce the delays.

For proper transmission of the waves a 5-10m SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) device would be of great help as this plank- form device would allow the USW to reach fog at a bit expected distance or else the purpose of this setup wouldnt be served.

This SAW device is commonly used in all devices working on ultrasonic waves for preventing them from scattering in the environment & so maximum efficiency could be attained.

Result Thus if one can create a device something like the picture above which subjects Ultrasonic waves to nearby atmosphere then just like SONAR, these waves would serve the purpose of clearing the ways for a much faster transportation system. Summary

A simple but efficient process for removal of smoke & fog using ultrasonic waves which is generated from the transport facility itself is formed which rapidifies the process of transportation.

Bibliography Applied Physics (Dr. Manjeet Singh) Info about Piezoelectric, USW, Magnetostriction ehow.com (to know about ultrasonic scrubbing) google.com (values & data for various frequencies & measures) Wikipedia.org (Basic info about various phenomena )

FAQS What about the harmful effects of using the ultrasonic waves in atmosphere?

Ans: -Due to continuous consumption of the energy of ultrasonic waves for coagulation of particulate matter & humidification of dense fog the effect on animals would be very less & as per common observations the winters are the prime time for the smog to occur & in these weathers animals tend to move towards warmer places & not towards railway tracks or airports. What is the expected budget for this device or complete unit?

Ans: - Looking at the prices of a complete railway train & aeroplanes, I guess the unit would prove of negligible cost. The whole unit will be around 30-40 thousand if the right materials are used like BaTiO3 Other side-effects?

Ans: -Cloud burst possibilities are there if the frequency is more than necessary but if France can use supersonic Concorde aeroplane for over a decade without such issues then definitely this system can do wonders How many components are there?

Ans: - Mainly 4 components 1. Piezoelectric unit for the generation of electricity by harnessing the energy present within the system of vehicles. 2. Storage Unit for storing of energy in D. C. Form so can use rectifier if necessary & amplifier circuit if less stress is obtained. 3. Inverse Piezoelectric Unit for producing the ultrasonic waves when electricity would be subjected on it.

4. SAW unit for proper transmission of USW to the fog & smoke to achieve maximum efficiency