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Introduction .......................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1. Rolls-Royce ......................................................................................... 4 Rolls Royce Phantom .................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2. Bentley................................................................................................. 8 Bentley Continental ....................................................................................... 9 Chapter 3. Jaguar ................................................................................................ 11 Jaguar X-Type ..............................................................................................13 Chapter 4. Aston Martin...................................................................................... 15 Aston Martin DB5 ........................................................................................16 Chapter 5. Land Rover ........................................................................................ 18 Defender.......................................................................................................20 Chapter 6. Mini ................................................................................................... 21 Mini Cooper .................................................................................................23 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 25
It was one of the primordial wishes of man to get from one place to another as fast as possible. Inventing faster and faster means of transport was a continuous challenge. The invention of the automobile in the 18th century was one of the most important changes in transport industry. Since then, the cars evolved from being just a machine that could carry people and objects around to either a label that reflects one’s social status, a mean of entertainment, a tool in logistics or a state-of-the-art design object. The English people, even though they are known for their conservatism, showed an opening to the new invention. English engineers proved innovative spirit and remarkable technical skills and they created car models that are known and desired all over the world. The British motor industry is known for exclusive brands such as Rolls-Royce, Land Rover, Aston Martin and Jaguar, the iconic Mini and consistent representation in auto racing. I will present six of the over 40 car companies that produce automobiles in the United Kingdom, as well as a representative model for each of them.
” Only one 1904 car is known to exist. and promptly earned renown for being “the best car in the world. was officially formed in 1904. Phantom Coupe. Rolls-Royce Owned by: BMW Based: Goodwood. During the ‘20s. England Current models: Phantom. a car that was powered by an all-new engine with detachable cylinder heads 4 . the automaker acquired a second factory in Springfield. the fate of the three Royce prototypes is unknown. the company’s dedication to excellence was clear. Phantom Drophead Coupe Famous for: Widely known as the most luxurious cars in the world. Right from the start. British-based Rolls-Royce Ltd. the marque has set a standard that other luxury carmakers have aspired to reach. The ‘20s also saw the launch of the Phantom I. A partnership between Charles Stewart Rolls and Frederick Henry Royce. Massachusetts to help keep up with rising demand.Chapter 1. The company’s Silver Ghost was unveiled that same year. History It doesn’t get much more stately. the Silver Ghost exhibited amazing attention to detail and remarkable quality. For decades. opulent and luxurious than a Rolls-Royce.
Problems with an engine contract led to severe financial difficulties. however. and BMW seemed like a frontrunner to take the reins. Competition is increasingly fierce at this rarefied price point. The 1960s saw the introduction of the Silver Cloud III. As a result. to accommodate the distinguished British manufacturer. The automaker hit a rough patch in the early 1970s. In 1930 Rolls-Royce badge was changed to black letters instead of red. but we wouldn’t doubt the company’s ability to keep rolling for the foreseeable future. Rolls and Bentley vehicles were almost identical mechanically. Rolls was purchased by Vickers PLC. 5 . The Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit was launched in 1981. Rolls-Royce unveiled its Phantom IV in 1950. Vickers put the marque up for sale. With BMW at the helm. very similar brand to its family with the acquisition of Bentley in 1931. Aesthetically. The first Rolls to be produced postwar was the Silver Wraith. in a surprise move. which in turn caused the manufacturer to file for bankruptcy. In 1980. Silver Shadow and Phantom VI. The two German automakers arranged for VW to relinquish control of the Rolls-Royce name on January 1. The majestic cruiser held the distinction of being the most exclusive Rolls ever. The company was eventually nationalized by the British government. The 1940s saw the opening of Rolls-Royce’s celebrated Crewe factory. Rolls changed hands yet again in the ‘90s. Rolls-Royce has returned to what many would consider its rightful place at the front of the ultraluxury pack. with VW keeping Bentley and the Crewe plant. 2003. For decades following the takeover. the car was the first of a new generation of Rolls vehicles. with a clean new look that was very much in step with the times. The ‘50s also saw the debut of the king-sized Silver Cloud I and Silver Cloud II. the car was styled to appeal to a younger generation of buyers. BMW has built a $100 million facility in Goodwood.— cutting-edge technology for its time. Volkswagen outbid BMW. England. Rolls-Royce added another.
exclusively for royalty and heads of state The first Phantom IV was purchased in 1950 by Princess Elizabeth. Just 18 were made between 1949 and 1956. herself later to become Queen Elizabeth II.1. The Rolls-Royce Phantom III was the final large pre-war Rolls-Royce.1 Rolls Royce Phantom The Phantom was Rolls-Royce’s replacement for the original Silver Ghost. The Duke of Edinburgh. The Duchess of Edinburgh. There were 727 Phantom III chassis constructed from 1936 to 1939. it replaced the Phantom II. with an impressive survival rate for these cars. the Phantom was constructed both in the United Kingdom and United States. Like the famed Ghost. The Phantom II replaced the New Phantom in Rolls-Royce’s offerings in 1929. on her marriage in 1947 to Prince Philip. The Phantom IV is the most exclusive Rolls-Royce model ever built. Introduced in 1936. The purchase reflected a shift 6 .
The Phantom V was an ultra-exclusive Rolls-Royce model from the 1960s. whose three customized Phantom IVs (two laundalettes and a cabriolet) are still in ceremonial service with King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Queen Elizabeth. with the Rolls-Royce preference to continue until the delivery of two customized Bentleys in 2002. A total of 516 were made. Other famous owners included Queen Elizabeth II. the late sister of The Queen and the Spanish Head of State. After selling 805 units in 2006. Rolls-Royce first met its annual sales target of 1. This first Phantom IV. Those owned by Elizabeth II were official state cars. General Francisco Franco. The Countess of Snowdon. 7 . John Lennon’s Phantom V came from the factory with a regular white paint finish but he commissioned a psychedelic paintjob for it. The Governor of Hong Kong used a Rolls-Royce Phantom V for ceremonial occasions. This was only the first of two Phantom IVs that The Queen ordered. and her mother.000 vehicles in 2007. in 1954. Other owners included The Princess Margaret. It was removed from Hong Kong by the Royal Navy immediately following the handover to China on 1 July 1997. the Queen Mother. which became an official state car upon The Queen’s accession to the British throne in 1952 still remains in the Royal Mews to this day and is occasionally used to ferry Royal aides and friends to Royal Ascot.from the traditional royal preference of King George VI for Daimler motor cars. adapted for that purposed with a flag staff and illuminated heraldic shield above the windscreen.
Bentley sales increased. Owned group by: Volkswagen Based: Crewe.Chapter 2. Financial woes (brought on in part by the Wall Street Crash of 1929) triggered the brand’s sale to Rolls-Royce in 1931. England Current models: Arnage. and it produced the Mulsanne Turbo sedan. Continental GT. Azure. A new company policy dictated a more distinctive brand image. Bentley Motors was born in England in 1919. Continental Flying Spur Famous for: Being the most expensive and luxurious sports cars. In subsequent decades. at times. This relationship created a conflict when Volkswagen made a surprise bid later that year and acquired both 8 . the rapid “3-litre” Bentley. Brooklands. The company’s fortunes finally took an upturn in 1980s. Bentley slowly slid into anonymity with vehicles that. named after the famous corner on the Le Mans circuit. Larger cars followed. History Founded by Walter Owen Bentley. and racing success at Le Mans earned the Bentley motorcars status among British sports car enthusiasts. were little more than re-badged Rolls-Royces. Bentley. The first new Bentley after this event was the “3 1/2-litre. Continental GTC. Two years later.” introduced in 1933 and based on a Rolls chassis that never saw production. and in 1998 BMW began supplying engines to both the Bentley and Rolls-Royce brands. the first model debuted.
while keeping Bentley and the Crewe factory.1. gracing almost every square inch of its interiors with premium hide and timber. Bentley owners seeking a one-of-a-kind vehicle are able to get just that thanks to the extraordinary degree of customization that the brand offers. Leather and wood trim have become popular in less prestigious nameplates. however. but the two German automakers reached an agreement that saw VW handing over control of Rolls to BMW in 2003. or Bentley can completely customize the interior colours to the customer’s liking. 9 . The traditional Bentley qualities remain. VW’s ownership has given Bentley the opportunity to expand its model range and improve quality.marques. 2. but Bentley vaults the concept to new heights of opulence. Fabrics and colours may be handpicked by the customer from an existing selection. Bentley Continental Bentley has used the Continental name on a number of automobiles since 1952.
The Bentley Continental R is a large. Bentley S2 Continental was a luxury car produced by Bentley from 1959 until 1962. and the quickest. luxury coupé made by Bentley from 1991 to 2002.The Continental R Type was the second series of post-war Bentley automobiles. expensive. replacing the Mark VI. the Bentley Azure. The Bentley Continental Flying Spur was introduced in 2005. The Bentley Continental Flying Spur is a four-door variant of the Bentley Continental GT coupe and the Bentley Continental GTC convertible. It was the first Bentley to feature a body not shared with a RollsRoyce model since the S3 of 1965. was launched in 1995. A two-door Continental model manufactured for the European marketplace was the most expensive automobile of its day. 10 . and most powerful Bentley of its day. most expensive. A convertible derivative. and is presently Bentley’s fastest four-door sedan.
1922. England. England Current models: X-Type. low vehicle with a short passenger compartment. S-Type.Chapter 3. Jaguar Owned by: Tata Motors Based: Coventry and Halewood. In 1926 the company built the small Austin Seven. In 1933 the name of the company was changed to SS Cars Ltd. The company’s first car. in Blackpool. In appearance the larger SS1 was a long. two young motorcycle enthusiasts. William Lyons and William Walmsley. XJ luxury saloon. and moved to a larger manufacturing space. Swift. XF sports saloon. was based on a Standard engine and a modified Standard chassis. History On September 4. It was introduced to the public at a London exhibition in 1931. At this point the company changed its name to the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Co. with Lyons becoming managing director. set up the Swallow Sidecar Company to produce sidecars for motorcycles. XK Convertible Famous for: Being a by-word for style and performance. There it made custom bodies for such cars as Morris. the SS1. and Standard. Its expensive looks belied its excellent monetary value. Fiat. wire wheels. The company continued to make sidecars until the advent of WWII. Wolseley. XK coupe. and a luggage boot with a spare tire at the rear. 11 . He bought his partner out in 1936. a “people’s car” .
After the war. His retirement was followed by a period of confusion and confusing changes at Jaguar. Jaguar needed to cement a stronger position by producing a car that could be sold at home and to a larger market. The Jaguar MK II evolved as an instant success with a much larger glass area and a redesigned dash. the company’s name was changed to Jaguar Cars Ltd. The vehicle was designed to fill their product gap and to appeal to the home market. Morale among workers dropped to a low point in April of 1980 when a strike over grading and pay provoked Sir Michael Edwarde’s ultimatum “return to work or lose your jobs. This was the fastest and most famous pre-war Jaguar. the Jaguar MK I was introduced at the 1955 Motor Show. and production resumed. Another Jaguar classic. Harry Weslake. The most notable vehicle of the period was the SS 100 model. The firm’s production included limousines. production shifted to the war effort. In 1966 Sir William Lyons stepped down as Managing Director of the Jaguar Group. It also needed a full-time chairman. its fog/spot lights. convertibles. also became optional at this time.In 1934. regarded as one of the industry’s top engine experts. William Heynes joined the company as chief engineer.” Jaguar needed a boost as never before. Enter Jaguar’s new full-time chief executive John Egan in April of 1980. but he remained Chairman and Chief Executive. He was 40 years 12 . joined the company. and sports cars. Also in 1935. of course. 50 years after forming Swallow Sidecar Company on his 21st birthday. In 1972 Sir William Lyons retired. This Jaguar was of monococoque construction which in itself was new for the company. Thus. During World War II. The name Jaguar was used for the first time in 1935.
was intended to spearhead the company’s efforts in emulating the sales of German rivals Audi. By 1985 it was clear that Jaguar was stable once more and that Jaguar people do not give up. BMW. and Mercedes-Benz 13 .old. alongside the 1998 S-Type. 3. Egan’s first quote was.” He definitely brought an air of optimism and new life to Jaguar that was soon reflected in production and morale. Jaguar X-Type The X-Type is a compact executive car produced by Jaguar since 2001. It is the smallest of the current range of Jaguar saloons and. the “new blood” Jaguar so desperately needed.1. “One cannot have better ground to build on.
The current facelifted model is expected to continue through to the 2010 model year in its remaining markets and will not be directly replaced. the estate was officially known as the “Sportwagon”. a further body style was added with the introduction of an estate version. the X-Type was facelifted to give the car a more dynamic and contemporary look.Codenamed X400. making it the second-ever Jaguar estate car. the X-Type was Jaguar’s attempt to compete in the compact executive car segment. 14 . In the United States. In 2004. In 2007.
DBS. the brand had launched yet another model -. Aston Martin Status: Active Owned by: Consortium headed by David Richards Based: Gaydon. Aston Martin was sold to David Brown. he set his sights on developing new models. The first was the DB1 (named after his own initials). Founders Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford started Aston Martin in 1914. with an emphasis on sophistication and refinement. The postwar years saw the brand change hands once again.Chapter 4. Born in England. and is known worldwide as a supplier of sleek. Aston Martin was known chiefly in racing circles. the brand has made an incredible name for itself. undergoing numerous changes in ownership. introduced in 1948. Still.the DB4. England Current models: DB9. 15 . As the decade drew to a close. roadhugging machinery. where the duo’s Singer cars had competed. The brand took its name from co-founder Martin and the Aston Clinton Hill Climb. The marque saw its share of financial difficulties during the ‘20s and ‘30s. After purchasing the company in 1947. top-of-the-line. Originally. Aston Martin makes cars that place equal emphasis on highthrill performance and discreet British elegance. an industrialist with a successful tractor company. It was soon followed by the DB2 and DB3. but wanted to craft their own vehicles. Vantage Famous History for: Being James Bond’s choice of car. The two had seen some success selling Singer racing cars.
The brand was sold by David Brown in 1972. The 1970s were a rough decade for Aston Martin.In 1963. The car was a hit with both critics and buyers alike. it went through another phase in which it was passed from owner to owner. it’s fully expected that the brand will continue to produce highly desirable sports and grand touring cars that exude luxury and exclusivity. Though recent financial trouble at Ford has led to the sale of Aston Martin to a group of investors. and invested millions in research and development. By the time the ‘60s came to a close. the DB7. the Aston Martin family had grown to include the DB6 (which stands as the first four-seater produced by the marque) and DBS V8. Aston Martin began production on the DB5. Ford’s considerable efforts had begun to pay off. Aston Martin was taken over by Ford Motor Company in 1987. By the 1990s. and once again. A new model. was unveiled at the 1993 Geneva Motor Show.1 Aston Martin DB5 16 . Help came for the financially troubled brand in the 1980s. 4. The automaker was determined to restore the brand to its former glory.
Thunderball. GoldenEye. was a slight upgrade from the DB4 which preceded it. seen in Goldfinger. the car featured a number of “optional extras”. the DB5 was the company’s newest model when the film was being made. It is most famous for being the first and most recognised James Bond car. 17 . Within the universe of James Bond. The DB5 also returned in Tomorrow Never Dies (1997). and was set to make a cameo at Castle Thane in The World Is Not Enough (1999). the same car was used again in the following film. Although Ian Fleming had placed Bond in a DB Mark III in the novel. but the scene was cut. The Aston Martin DB5 became the most famous Aston Martin car due to its use by James Bond in Goldfinger (1963). GoldenEye. Thunderball. and Tomorrow Never Dies. For Goldfinger. A different Aston Martin DB5 was used in the 1995 Bond film. as Q reveals to Bond: · Front firing Browning machine guns behind the front indicators · Retractable blades in the tire spinners · Rising bullet-proof rear screen · Radio telephone · Radar scanner and tracking screen · Passenger ejector seat · Oil slick spray from rear light cluster · Caltrops from rear light cluster · Smoke screen from exhaust pipes · Revolving number plates: “BMT 216A” UK. and “LU 6789” Switzerland · Front and rear extending rams · Gun cabinet under driver’s seat · Bullet-proof windshield and rear windscreen. “4711-EA-62” France.The Aston Martin DB5. released in 1963.
He worked with the British automaker Rover to create the first Land Rover in 1948. chief designer at the British car company Rover.Chapter 5. this truck was equipped with permanent four-wheel drive. the Land Rover name originally referred to the iconic Defender model that survives today. A distinctive feature is their bodies. Range Rover. constructed of a lightweight rustproof proprietary alloy of aluminum and magnesium called Birmabright. It is 18 . History Formed 60 years ago as part of the Rover group. Called the Series I. England Current models: Freelander. It is said that he was inspired by an American World War II Jeep that he used one summer at his holiday home in Wales. Discovery. The first Land Rover was designed in 1948 in the United Kingdom by Maurice Wilks. Land Rover Owned by: Tata Motors Base: Solihull and Halewood. Defender Famous for: Iconic 60-year-old Defender 4x4. a canvas roof and optional doors. This metal’s resistance to corrosion was one of the factors that allowed the vehicle to build up a reputation for longevity in the toughest conditions. Land Rover’s 4x4 models were ideal for use in the country and were used around the world by the British military.
which was initially offered only in two-door form. Land Rover’s storied Range Rover made its debut in 1970. The automaker officially entered the U. while still retaining their go-anywhere attitude became more luxurious. The Land Rover family of vehicles has continued to grow. so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green. The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint. In response. Land Rover’s vehicles. It was sold to Ford in 2000 and Indian automaker Tata in 2008. Launched in 1958.reckoned that 75% of all those ever built are still in use. It was followed in 1989 by the Discovery. the sudden popularity of the burgeoning SUV segment placed the brand in an enviable position. The 1950s saw Land Rovers moving toward increased power and refinement. 19 . in a production run that lasted from 1961-’71. automotive market in 1987 when the Range Rover made its debut on American shores. The Series IIA came next.S. the Series II offered added horsepower and a somewhat less rudimentary exterior. In the 1990s. Within a decade. the company changed hands twice more. particularly after BMW bought the company in 1995. The late ‘90s saw the introduction of the Freelander.
when it became the Land Rover Defender.5. Land Rover Defender vehicles have been used extensively by many of the world’s military forces. they are supplied with the entire range from Land Rover itself. The Land Rover was launched in April 1948 at the Amsterdam motor show.1 Defender Originally designed for farm and light industrial use.road events. The British police have used Land Rovers (including the Defender) in their service for many years. The British Army has used Land Rovers since the 1950s. and others can be seen heavily modified at off . The biggest change to the Land Rover came in late 1990. as have many countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. instead of the Land Rover Ninety or One Ten. including the US. 20 . the first prototype was built in the summer of 1947. many have undergone restoration. Many thousands of the Series I’s can still be seen on the roads today. Some are still in original condition.
Australia. Within these was a series of variations including an estate car. a pickup truck. This distinctive two-door car was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England. History Designed by Alec Issigonis in response to demand for cheap family cars and shortage of fuel due to the Suez Crisis. The Mini Mark I had three major UK updates: the Mark II. Portugal. Belgium. and later also in Spain (Authi).Chapter 6. Mini Owned by: BMW Base: Oxford. The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000. Uruguay. a van and the Mini Moke — a jeep-like buggy. Venezuela and Yugoslavia. the Victoria Park factory in Sydney. Cooper. The original is considered an icon of the 1960s. England . Chile. The Mini Cooper and Cooper “S” were sportier versions that were successful as rally cars. the Clubman and the Mark III. the Mini became an icon of British ingenuity and swinging 60s style. due to its striking design and numerous media appearances. 21 . Current models: One. not least in The Italian Job. and its space-saving layout (that allowed 80% of the area of the car’s floor pan to be used for passengers and luggage) influenced a generation of car-makers. South Africa. Italy (Innocenti). Clubman estate Famous for: Being driven through Turin in The Italian Job.
050 kg rather than 650 kg . The new MINI is larger than the classic Mini. BMW (the new owner of the brand) announced the successor to the Mini – which is variously called the “BMW MINI” or the “New MINI”. has proven objectionable to some enthusiasts. That.yet a few were amongst the first to buy the new MINI when it was launched. However. MINI has produced the successor of the original Mini in Oxford. Others resent the manner in which BMW took the Mini brand name from the Rover group. It is around 55 centimeters longer. many Mini owners take the opposite view and embrace the new car as a logical succession of the original.When production of the classic Mini ceased in 2000. Some Mini clubs go so far as to ban MINIs from their club meetings . England since April 2001.others actively seek car enthusiasts from both camps. The brand name for the new car is MINI (written in capital letters). Most Mini enthusiasts reject the claim that the MINI is the natural successor of the original car . together with the departure from the spartan minimalism of the original. 30 centimeters wider.many simply dislike it . weighing 1. 22 .
Mini Cooper John Cooper. The Mini Cooper S earned acclaim with Monte Carlo Rally victories in 1964. The Austin Mini Cooper and Morris Mini Cooper debuted in 1961. dubbed the “S”.6. saw the potential of the Mini for competition. but were disqualified after a controversial decision by the French judges. BMC probably received more publicity from the disqualification than they would have 23 . a nimble. Cooper S cars were produced and sold until the model was updated in August 1964. but after John Cooper appealed to BMC management. Minis were initially placed first.1. second and third in the 1966 rally as well. owner of the Cooper Car Company and designer and builder of Formula 1 and rally cars. 1965 and 1967. was developed in tandem and released in 1963. A more powerful Mini Cooper. economical and inexpensive car. Issigonis was initially reluctant to see the Mini in the role of a performance car. the two men collaborated to create the Mini Cooper.
The styling of the car. It proved so popular that the new Cooper-marked Mini went into full production in late 1991. optional bonnet stripes. 24 .gained from a victory . optional rally lights and with black trim around the wheel arches and rocker panels that mimic the wide wheel flares found on many classic Minis. which began to produce the Innocenti Mini Cooper 1300 and the Authi Mini Cooper 1300. it would have been the only car in history to be placed in the top three on the Monte Carlo for six consecutive years. A new Mini Cooper named the RSP (Rover Special Products) was briefly relaunched in 1990-1991. with slightly lower performance than the 1960s Cooper. is a retro design that is deliberately reminiscent of the original Mini with contrasting roof colours. In 1971.but had the Mini not been disqualified. respectively. like that of the Volkswagen New Beetle. the Mini Cooper design was licensed in Italy by Innocenti and in 1973 to Spain by Authi (Automoviles de Turismo Hispano-Ingleses).
there is a british car for everyone. The varied offer of automobiles in United Kingdom meets the requirements of different categories of costumers. Their innovative spirit influenced the evolution of the motor industry in the rest of the European countries.Conclusion I have chosen this subject thinking of the influence that British culture always had upon the rest of the world. 25 . Therefore. and that lies behind the longevity and success of the British motor industry.
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