Written text analysis on University Management Questionnaire-Look from Inside recommendations

VALENTIN LEONTI1 PhD student “G. Asachi” Technical University, Iași, Romania, leonti_valentin@yahoo.com
Objectives. To identify what univestity corpus recommends to/expects from university managers to do. Prior work. University ranking based on image universities have among employers, graduates and students in Romania (KIENBAUM Management Consultants in cooperation with CAPITAL (2009)). Approach. We apply written text analysis on recommendations to/expectations from university managers. Results. We identify what university corpus want university managers to do in order to increase the functionality and performance at different levels: department, faculty, university and ministry. Implication. The paper will help university for a better description of university manager’s responsibility, power and professionalism. Value. Innovative approach to study university corpus’ declarative knowledge using written text analysis. Keywords. University manager, written text analysis, textuality criteria,

BACKGROUND Based on the relevance criterion for this research we identify three main works: University ranking based on Shanghai criterion (Ad-astra, 2007); University integrity ranking (Romanian Academic Society (2008)) University ranking based on image universities have among employers, graduates and students in Romania (KIENBAUM Management Consultants in cooperation with CAPITAL (2009)). According to KIENBAUM-CAPITAL study while student/graduates in Romani are in all satisfied with the quality of their universities the implicit/explicit knowledge of corruption within the system ranks high. More than 80% believe that academic excellence in not the only means to succeed with in academia. INTRODUCTION We may define discourse as particular dialogues where text producers (speaker or writers) anticipate the text processors (hearers or readers) questions; which is based on De Beaugrande (1997) set of criteria for textuality. De Beaugrande (1997) set of criteria for textuality: cohesion: the relation between forms and patterns coherence: the way meanings are understood intentionality: what text producers intend, mean to achieve informativity: the extent to which the text tells you what you don't already know situationality: the relation between the text-event and the situation in which it occurs intertextuality: the relation between this text and other texts We adopted the Bloor’s view of discourse as a communicative process and text as a product. We may distinct two main categories of text products based on each criterion: Length: complete text (e.g. a whole research paper, an entire book, etc.) and a text fragment (e.g. a paragraph from a book, five minutes of one hour lecture, etc.) Authenticity: authentic text (e.g. real meeting recorded text) and inauthentic text (e.g. invented meeting text). According to Bloor authentic text is “an instance of language in use, either spoken or written: a piece of

language behavior which occurred naturally, without the intervention of the linguist” (Bloor, 2007). Inauthentic (or invented or constructed or artificial or simulated, etc.) text is used for pedagogic purposes but they lack the “real thing” of authentic text. From the computational linguistics perspective there is a practical consideration for authentic text rather than some fanciful preoccupation with the notion of authenticity itself. There are four basic options for making written text more readily accessible: Measuring text readability based on relative difficulty, in terms of the reading age norms of native speaker/reader; Write controlled texts from scratch conform to lexicogrammatical constraints; Rewriting an existing text according to similar constraints (e.g. word number, text space, etc.); Abridged text, a text that has been changed only by removing parts. For our analysis texts constitute potential data. Data are phenomena under investigation or the phenomena that provide evidence for the claims that the analyst makes. Thus, the research process in which we engaged is the investigation of texts. We put together a collection of texts from which the data are to be selected. Our text corpus (collection) represents 173 answers on 8th question from UMQ-LFI1. We appreciate text corpus size to be appropriate for our research We would be cautious to generalize because we needed a corpus varying in subject matter, purpose of production, degree of formality, etc. which we have pretty much from university personnel only. From a stakeholders view upon universities we had to investigate 8th question answers from lots of societal categories, for the purpose of research textuality we limit ourselves to university personnel 8th question UMQ-LFI investigation. We focus on university management issues in depth analysis as a relation between our hypothetical goals and the practical drawbacks.

UMQ-LFI – University Management Questionnaire – Look From Inside

Tacit knowledge. Our text corpus is formed by 173 authentic texts. Due to our on-line questionnaire. We’ll be able to meet the first criterion with a reasonable degree of satisfaction.e. past research. faculty.g. mean to achieve According to our requirements respondents as text producers formulate recommendations to increase the functionality and performance at different levels: department. according to their degree of openness to recognize the real and not the ideal state in their own universities. First. Quality of university outputs. Intertextuality criterion: the relation between this text and other texts 2 Schema represents a mental construct into which you can attempt to fit aspects of the present conversation. With 8th question we insist on describing the relations between every category of respondents up to the level where we’ll be able to appreciate the strength of links in logical-formauthentic-text. . We assume that responders are influenced by the socio-economic and political situation in Romania. So we assume that they intend to propose actions that can help to increase university management’s performance. That period had an influence on respondents because: socially – there were trade unions strikes. (Bloor. We only asked them to take 15-20 minutes to complete it. To be able to predict the type of text determined by the context of the situation we’ll use logical form of text. We assume that each category of respondents is aware of University Quality Management Procedures (UQMP) which constitutes University Quality Manual. Coherence criterion: the way meanings are understood Bloor argues that text coherence depends on what text de facto says and also what inferences the reader/listener makes [Text producers automatically assume that text processors bring a great deal of prior knowledge with them to the text. university and ministry. questionnaire background). recommendations as explicit actions that can be implemented by managers with personnel support. Textuality Cohesion criterion investigates the relation between forms and patterns. We appreciate that there exist two main categories of proposed actions. Situationality criterion: the relation between textevent and the situation in which it occurs We assume that respondents will elaborate recommendations mostly according to the selfuniversity reality. depth-first schema development). etc. In our research we appreciate that each respondent bring prior knowledge according to their background.To create a context for our on-line research we used 7 questions prior to the 8th analyzed question. Bloor suggests that we can describe background knowledge by deploying schema theory 2. salary cuts.e. Quality of university learning associated processes. In this logic.e. The questionnaires were distributed and completed from 1 February to 15 March 2010. We consider that if between two respondents’ schema are: (1) enough similarity then they compute an elaboration activity (i. University management quality increase strategies. We have to be able to: (1) describe the context of the situation that produced a given text. we’ll deduce and describe the context of situation that produced a given text or a collection of texts. Frequency of university management’s HRM practices In the 8th question we ask for three recommendations for Romanian university managers to increase the functionality and performance at different levels: department. we have no knowledge of context of situation which affected the 8th question answers (discourse/written text). Based on the authentic text we’ll transform it to logical form and correlate it with the context of the situation. Those 7 questions created a well defined context for university management practices: Quality of university inputs. We make no clear distinction between tacit knowledge and background knowledge of the respondents. recommendations which represent the desired output of the first group (i. (2) predict the type of text which it generates. faculty. We may inference that the context of situation is influenced by the prior 7 questions and that we encouraged implication due to our promise to distribute the result to all those who demands it. Second. indefinite actions).) so we do not focus on this kind of innovative information. every text-event will be associated with a lack of university management reality. In our research we investigate this issue by appointing relevant respondents group for each question. university and ministry. reports. We evaluate declarative knowledge by analyzing the answers as text for each respondent. Intentionality criterion: what text producers intend. Frequency of management behavior. Quality of Romanian university management’s general management practices. economically – financial crisis stabilize. 2007) ]. unemployment rises. Informativity criterion: the extent to which the text tells you what you don’t already know We appreciate that we know enough about university management from the information available (e. Declarative knowledge. politically – chaos in Romanian no law educational. We assume that tacit knowledge is associated with the knowledge needed to understand the questions (i.e. From the AI perspective there are three categories of knowledge: Procedural knowledge. breadth-first schema development). the government policies don’t stimulate economic recovery. We were interested to describe the knowledge for each category of respondents. (2) enough dissimilarity then they compute a narration activity (i.

Text corpus We had 217 respondents to our UMQ-LFI questionnaire. we call it a second level of schema development (elaboration). and they identify actual problems already known (narration). Petre Maior 8 Mureș D. first group produced a text that deploys a first level of schema development. Respondents as text producers deploy their university manager’s schema at every level: department. Area Town University Number of name respondents NorthIași Gh. Blaga Transilvania 8 4 29 7 5 4 16 Timișoara Craiova Politehnica Universitatea din Craiova 13 3 16 92 describe contextual criteria. We conclude that our text corpus meets the De Beaugrande’s textuality criteria. faculty. So. Second group. We will analyze the 8th question only for the specified universities with at least 3 respondents. Politehnica ASE Universita tea maritimă We identify two main categories of respondents: first group. A number of 106 respondents didn’t specify their university (48. so we look confident forward to analyze the text corpus. I. those that specify their university and second group those who did not. From 28 universities included in our research we shrink it to 14 universities (table 1). Asachi 24 east Al. Alecsandri 3 Total 31 Area Center Tg. Cuza 4 Bacău V. Fill the banks We understand that from a methodological perspective our approach seems naïve. we created a list of verbs that can describe all recommendations. university and ministry. Cantemir 3 Cluj Universitatea 3 Napoca tehnica Babeș-Bolyai 3 Sibiu Brașov Total area South – South east Total area WestSouthwest Total area TOTAL București Constanta L. We assume that each group did in a different way. deploys a more elaborated schema. but because of this we concentrate on how context criteria help us to legitimate our work.8%). From each perspective: text producer or text receiver it is equally important to .This criterion will be met by how frequent we find same recommendations’ meaning in text corpus. We know that the meaning of the word is based on the context.

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