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Enhancing Participation in Local Governance: Experiences from the Philippines

Correct citation IIRR,LGSP, SANREM CRSP/Southeast Asia. 2000. ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: Experiences from The Philippines. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program and SANREM CRSP/Souteast Asia. 197 p.

Published by International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y. C. James Yen Center Silang, Cavite, Philippines !(63-46) 4142417 !(63-46) 4142420
Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program National Program Management Office Unit 1507 Jollibee Plaza Emerald Ave. Ortigas Center, Pasig City 1600 Philippines !(63-2) 6373511 to 13 !(63-2) 6373235

SANREM CRSP/Southeast Asia Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines !(63-49) 5360014 to 20 !(63-49) 5360016

Printed in the Philippines ISBN 1-930261-03-9

abbreviations & acronyms used

a b

ABSCDP

Area-Based Child Survival and Development Program

BPT B-O-T

Barangay Planning Team Build-Operate-Transfer

CADC CADT CBFM CBMFA CBHP CBO CDF CLCA CO COA CPH CRM

Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title Community-based Forest Management Community-based Forest Management Agreement Community-based Health Program Community-based Organization Countryside Development Fund Claveria Land Care Association Community Organizers Commission on Audit Community Primary Hospitals Coastal Resource Management

DENR DILG DOST DSWD DTI

Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Interior and Local Governments Department of Science and Technology Department of Social Welfare and Development Department of Trade and Industry

GIATSD GINTO GO GSIS GSO

Guagua Integrated Approach Towards sustainable Development Guagua Integrated Tree Planting Operation Government Officer Government Service Insurance System General Services Officer

k l

HES HRMDO HRMO

Human Ecological Society Human Resource Management and Development Office Human Resource Management Office

ICRAF ICRMC IMIP IPAS IPRA IRA ISWM

International Center for Research in Agroforestry Intermunicipal Coastal Resource Management Council Integrated Municipal Implementation Plan Integrated Protected Areas System Indigenous Peoples Rights Act International Revenue Allotment Integrated Solid Waste Management

KIP

Key Informant Panel

LADP LCCs LCEs LGC LGC-CRM LGSP LGUs

Local Administrative Development Program Local Counterpart Committees Local Chief Executives Local Government Code Local Government Cooperative for Coastal Resource Management Local Government Support Program Local Government Units

MDC MDCCs MFD MNDC MMDA MOA MPMS MPDC MPTF MRLF MSWDO

Municipal Development Council Municipal Disaster Coordinating Councils Macro Founders and Developers Metro Naga Development Council Metro Manila Development Authority Memorandum of Agreement Municipal Program Monitoring system Municipal Planning Development Coordinator Municipal Planning Task Force Municipal Revolving Loan Fund Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer

NRM NRMC NRMDP NVS NIPAS

Natural Resource Management Natural Resource Management Council Natural Resource Management and Development Plan Natural Vegetative Strips Natural Integrated Protected Areas System

PAMB PENRO PHC PHIC PNP POs

Protected Area Management Board Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Officer Primary Health Care Philippine Health Insurance Corporation Philippine National Police Peoples Organization

SANREM SDC SSS TNCs ToP

Sustainable Agricultural and Natural Resources Management Social Development Committee Social Security System Trans-National Corporations Technology on Participation

foreword

ne of the major changes sweeping the world today is the increasing recognition of the changing role of local governments in development and rural reconstruction. Undergirding these changes is a realization that participation is a key to good local governance.

Assessing the global context of these changes, Corrigan, Hayes and Joyce (1999), observed that the role of local governments has changed in the following areas over the recent years: ! The way in which local government influences local issues ! The issue of democracy for local government ! The delivery of services by local government ! The way in which local government views the public ! Local government being more honest and providing people with more information Indeed, where before, local governments were relegated to playing secondary roles as mere agents and implementors of policies and programs crafted by the national government, now, their role as major actors in the development process has been recognized. As pointed out above, local governments play a fundamental role in defining local issues, many of which are transformed into national issues and concerns. They serve as the bedrock for democracy. They are in the forefront of the delivery of basic services. They have become increasingly aware of viewing the public as their client. And they have realized the value of being more transparent in the conduct of the business of governance by making information available to the public. For many people in the rural areas, the local governments are the government. What the local government is, so is the national government. If the local government is inept, corrupt and sluggish, the national government is perceived to be likewise. But if local governments are dynamic, creative and responsive to the peoples needs, so will government institutions in general be seen. As frontliners , the extremely vital role of local governments cannot be overemphasized. It is within this context that this book on Enhancing Participation in Local Governance: Experiences from the Philippines is very timely. In 1992 when the Philippines boldly embarked on sweeping reforms that radically transformed the nature of local governance in the Philippines: a Local Government Code was enacted that transferred, through the process of devolution, substantial powers and authorities to local government in recognition of their frontline roles in local governance. They were made responsible for the delivery of basic services at the local level, that included health, agriculture, social services and certain aspects of environmental management. The Code transferred some 70,000 personnel from the national to the local governments. Financial resources were made available to local governments by substantially increasing their internal revenue allotment shares. It encouraged the emergence of entrepreneurialism among local governments. Finally, the Code lay the foundation for active citizen participation and involvement in the process of local governance.

This source book zeroes in on the participatory approaches in local governance which is a key feature of the devolution process in the Philippines. As a source book, it tried to incorporate the vital aspects of the specific topics on local governance as drawn from the original materials surveyed. It points out other references that may eventually be referred to by the reader. This book will indeed be useful for all stakeholders in local governance, be they local government practitioners at the local or national level, trainors, researchers and academics. It is divided into three major parts: Part I discusses the various perspectives and issues relating to broad concepts of decentralization, devolution and governance. Part II shares some of the more successful experiences in public sector reform and the adoption of modern management approaches and techniques in the areas of local governance, including local development planning, as well as financial and disaster management. Finally, Part III highlights some successful experiences in other local development endeavors such as health service delivery, natural resources management and the promotion of local economic development. Underlying all these is the fundamental ideology and spirit of participation and active involvement of the people. This source book contributes to telling the story of good local governance in the Philippines. The modest experience of the Philippines may provide information - and perhaps be a source of inspiration - to other countries in the region that have embarked on a similar path of decentralization and participatory approach to local governance. The IIRR - through the leader of this project, Mr Enrique G. Mercaida, should be commended for its efforts in contributing to the general discourse on local governance through this source book. Alex Brillantes Jr Ph.D. Associate Professor University of the Philippines National College of Public Administration and Governance Executive Director, Local Government Academy (1993-1997) Director, UP Local Government Center (1989-1991)

Reference:
Corrigan, Paul, Mike Hayes and Paul Joyce, Managing in the New Local Government, London: Kogan Page Ltd, 1999.

ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

acknowledgments

his project to produce this resource book was carried out and completed through the combined efforts and support of persons and institutions whose current work is geared towards the promotion of sustainable development through the institutionalization of good governance, enhancement of active local participation and empowerment at all levels of the government and in all fronts of society. In this connection, we wish to acknowledge the invaluable assistance provided by the following: the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), the Center for Local and Regional Governance of the U.P. National College of Public Administration and Governance, SANREM-CRSP/Southeast Asia of the Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) and the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), whose key officers and staff comprised the Steering Committee (SC) for the project. Ms. Joy Rivaca-Caminade led the project team at IIRR consisting of Mr. Celso Amutan, Mr. Jeff Oliver and Ms. Lilibeth Sulit. in the sourcing, editing and repackaging of relevant studies and materials, and the systematic organization and facilitation of SC meetings and publishing work, respectively. For the clerical and administrative support, our commendation goes to Ms. Shirley Caparas and Ms. Renell Pacrin. Ms. Ma. Stella Oliver undertook the editing and initial major desktop publishing tasks. Mr. Ariel Lucerna provided the illustrations. Ms. Hannah Castaeda undertook the final desktop publishing and prepared this document for print. The cover design and production was undertaken by Mr. Celso Amutan. Special mention is due to the members of the Steering Committee who gave suggestions regarding the content of the resource book and for facilitating the logistical requirements: Dr. Proserpina D. Tapales, Dr. Alex B. Brilliantes, Jr. and Dr. Victoria A. Bautista of the University of the Philippines; Ms. Marion Villanueva, Mr. Rene Garrucho, Luz L. Rodriguez and Atty. Evelyn Camposano - Jiz of Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program; Dr. Rogelio Serrano of SANREMCRSP Southeast Asia at PCARRD; and Dr. Julian F. Gonsalves of IIRR who assisted throughout this project and helped in conceptualizing this effort, carefully reading drafts of this resource book and suggesting improvements. Funding for this production came primarily from SANREM-CRSP/ Southest Asia, Philippine Council of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Research and Development Supplementary support was provided by the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program. Indeed, the whole effort would not have been possible without the constant encouragement and guidance of Dr. Julian Gonsalves, and the wholehearted support of Dr. Pratima Kale, President of IIRR and Ms. Victoria Rialp also of IIRR. Finally, and most of all we would like to thank the authors whose work have been featured in this publication. Enrique G. Mercaida, MPA
former Associate Senior Specialist International Institute of Rural Reconstruction

how this resource book came to be how this resource book came to be

he project to produce this resource book was conceptualized as early as January 1999. Its primary objective was to document existing participatory approaches and best practices, tools and techniques on local governance from LGUs, NGOs, the academe and other development organizations in the Philippines and to compile them into a user-friendly and easy to read form. A Steering Committee (SC), composed of local governance practitioners and representatives from Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program, SANREM-CRSP/Southeast Asia and UP-NCPAG, was organized to actively support the publication process (from the selection of topics to the review of the final output). The International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) took the lead role in coordinating the collection and acquisition of existing published materials

Flow of activities
Identification of an initial list of topics Formation of multi-agency steering committee representing major projects, donors, government agencies, NGOs and academe Revision of topics based on the inputs of the steering committee Collection of available materials (modules, published documents, case studies) Critical review/planning of materials and preparationOf revised/repackaged first drafts

Meeting at the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Revision and repackaging of second draft Program, UP-NCPAG and PCARRD, the SC finally approved the materials concept note, along with the list of topics and helped review the draft in its various stages. Six months spent in collecting the required materials (e.g. modules, published documents, case studies and their Editing, desktop publishing and printing critical review), rewriting and compiling these materials. In July 1999, an early draft of the intended resource book was produced. Distribution Copies were furnished to the aforementioned partner-organizations for their feedback. The revised first draft was made available only in January 2000 as difficulties were encountered in meeting some of the financial requirements of the project. SANREM-CRSP, Philippines- Canada Local Government Support Program and IIRR providing the much needed financial assistance insupport for the costs incurred for SC meetings, rewriting and editing of materials/documents, desktop publishing/layout, artwork and final printing of the resource book. It is hoped that this resource book will make a difference, basically because of the wide range of topics covered in a single compilation and the manner in which it was repackaged and presented. There is always a value in patiently soliciting feedback, getting comments and suggestions from as many people as possible since such process opens up other rich sources of related information. This resource book will be useful for trainors, local planners and development practitioners since it is a collection of field-tested, people centered approaches. More importantly, however, is the knowledge management agenda served by this publication: readers are provided short summarized versions of previously published/ unpublished materials in a single compilation. They can then seek further information from the original sources listed at the end of each article.

introduction

uring the last two decades a revolutionary shift by development players (i.e. government, civil society organizations and the business sector) has taken place, from a centralized system of government to a more democratic and decentralized one. In a recent study entitled A Survey of Capacity-Building Initiatives of NGOs Toward Good Local Governance, it is claimed that as governance is decentralized, more local energies can be harnessed and mobilized for local development. Further, the same study asserts that the more democratic the participation in governance is, the more responsive and effective governance becomes. This proposition reinforces the observation that effective governance depends largely on :
!

the skills with which the government governs; ! its ability to provide for the efficient delivery of public goods and services; and ! the empowerment of the people to be able to actively and responsibly participate in governmental decision making processes relative to programs and projects that should benefit them in the first place. It is very encouraging to note that recent developments in governance and local participation manifest the strong resolve and interest of governments in the use of participatory methods, the importance of which has been underscored by the UN Agenda 21. Many governments, including the Philippine government, recognize that as they remain to be the biggest development agency in the country, they must act as facilitator and enabler of progress towards sustainable development, coordinating efforts of various stakeholders rather that attempting to undertake country-wide development on its own. Local government units (LGUs) in the Philippines have placed a high premium on the value of using successful experiences and field-tested ideas. This can be seen in their continued interest to introduce, develop, document and institutionalize innovative approaches and best practices, in managing the affairs and activities of the government and promoting the participation of their constituencies. A milestone in the promotion of local participation, autonomy and governance was the enactment and implementation of the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) of the Philippines. This legislation devolves certain powers from the central to the local governments so that they will become self-reliant communities and effective partners in national development. The Code, which is designed to help foster a responsible and accountable local government, has also empowered LGUs to increase their revenues through taxation of mining, fishery, forestry and other resource development activities.

Moreover, the Code has paved the way for joint partnerships with the private sector through build-operate-transfer schemes, bond floatation and easier access to loans from the banking system. Finally, the Code has also elicited the participation of civil society organizations in local governance through representation of NGOs and POs in special bodies (i.e. local development councils, local health board and local school boards), thus allowing the promotion of accountability and responsiveness. While there have been problems and lapses in the Codes implementation, the consensus is that in many parts of the country, major benefits have been derived from local-level partnerships resulting in the improved delivery of public services and the promotion of sustainable development. The successful experiences on local governance in the Philippines need to be documented and shared. This gave rise to the idea to produce a resource book on tested approaches in local governance, including the methods and tools adopted by the various development actors across the country. Although excellent literature on the subject already exist, some of these related materials are hard to find and are often highly technical in content and usually not available in summarized forms. Many previous publication efforts have emphasized the legislative framework, guidelines and case studies. Some of these materials are often highly technical and usually not available in summarized form. They may not also be available in single, easy-to-use compilations. In this light, the project aimed to come up with a user-friendly resource book on the subject for use by trainors, local government officials, planners and workers from NGOs and other development organizations. The project features a unique compilation of field-tested approaches from a wide range of local government initiatives and projects in the Philippines. All articles are based on existing literature and secondary materials. Sources are indicated at the end of each article. It is hoped that after reading the short summary pieces , the reader will become interested to seek the basic and original sources. Each article can be read separately and can stand on its own. Readers are encouraged to use these materials provided the original authors are acknowledged. The resource book is divided into three chapters. Chapter One presents various perspectives on the concepts, frameworks, principles, issues and challenges in the pursuit of decentralization and local governance and, ultimately that of genuine and sustainable development. Chapter Two shares some of the successful experiences in public sector reform or the adoption of modern management approaches and techniques in the areas of governance such as local development planning as well as financial management. Chapter Three highlights similarly successful experiences in other development endeavors, (i.e. health service delivery, natural resource management, local economic promotion, among others).

ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE: EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

T C

A O

B N

L T

E E

O T

F S

List of abbreviations and acronyms used Foreword Acknowledgment How this resource book came to be Introduction Chapter 1: Good Governance for Genuine and Sustainable Development Sustainable Development in the Philippines Context Sustainable Integrated Area Development The Philippine Local Government System The Local Government Code of 1991 Decentralization in Governance Trends in the Implementation of Devolution in the Philippines The Challenge of Good Governance The Local Government as a Catalyst of Economic Development Modern Management in Philippine Local Governance Efficient Delivery Systems and Public Accountability NGO-PO Participation in Local Governance Chapter 2: Public Sector Reform through Modern Management Approaches and Technology Organizational Development in LGUs Human Resources Development and Management in LGUs Financial Management Innovations in LGUs Enhancing LGUs Fiscal Administration Tax and Administrative Codification for Efficient Local Governance Property and Supply Procurement in Local Governments Successful Municipal Management Innovations Municipal Level Development Planning Basic Strategies In Municipal Development Planning (The Ilog experience) Basic Strategies and Methods in Municipal Development Planning (The Iloilo Experience) Development Planning at the Barangay Level

1 7 13 16 21 26 29 31 38 42 44

50 54 59 64 69 74 77 79 82 89 94

Chapter 3: Exemplary Practices In Participatory Governance Decentralizing Natural Resources Management Landcare as an Innovative Approach in Natural Resources Management at the Local Level Local Government Innovations in Watershed Management LGUs and Tree Farms: Partners in Community Resource Generation and Environmental Protection LGUs Role in Protected Areas Management under the NIPAS Law Local Governments in Coastal Resource Management LGUs in Marine Reserves Preservation and Management Homelots for the Poor: The San Carlos City experience Primary Health Care: Issues from the field Primary Health Care as a Devolved Responsibility Establishment of Community Primary Hospitals in the Hinterlands Establishment of a Province-wide Community-based Health Program: The AlayKa Palawan Experience Empowering People and LGUs through Health Insurance Transforming the Mainstream: Mainstreaming Gender in Local Governance LGUs in Disaster Management LGUs in Integrated Solid Waste Management The Leagues of LGUs as Aggressive Shareholders in Governance

102 106 114 118 123 128 133 138 145 149 155 158 162 166 172 176 181

Annexes

Foreign-funded Programs / Projects Related to Local Development and Municipal Development Municipal Development Fund Projects Foreign-funded Programs / Projects Related to Local Development Steering Committee Publication Development The Publication Production Staff

186 188 191 195 196 197

CHAPTER

ONE

Good governance for genuine & sustainable development

evelopment actors - government, non-government organizations (NGOs), academe, the business sector and peoples organizations (POs) have been driven by the necessity to look back and review concepts, issues and approaches to development, governance and local participation vis-a-vis the ever-changing trends and realities of development work. Concerns now focus on accelerating the pace of development but with a deliberate shift towards genuine and sustainable development, good governance and people-centered development. These challenges have grown bigger especially in developing countries like the Philippines. The problem of poverty and marginality that affect the majority of the population remain.The impact of rural underdevelopment, resource depletion and pollution, the inadequacy of food supplies limited social services, the erosion of traditional values, including graft and corruption in government, the alleged ineptitude of bureaucrats and personalized politics have done irreparable damage and squandered the countrys now scarce natural resources. During the past decade, these development actors- (institutions and organizations and partner-beneficiaries of development assistance) have tried to address the problem of poverty and marginality on the basis of a growing realization of the continuing relevance of an integrated, holistic approach to development and the primacy of decentralized governance.

There have also been efforts at various levels to balance economic and technological progress with societal, ecological and human development concerns. One concrete action step in this regard was the launching of the Philippine Agenda 21 in July 1995 as the governments response to the commitment at the 1992 Earth Summit. As the countrys blueprint for sustainable development, the document embodied the common ground for collective action among the various stakeholders. Another earlier milestone in the countrys development history was the enactment of the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) or Republic Act (RA) 7160. It is considered a landmark legislation as it envisioned the complete administrative autonomy of local government units and some degree of political autonomy as it provided for the devolution of certain powers from the central to the local governments. The Code also called for active partnership among non-government organizations and that of local government units. Specifically, it provided mechanisms on initiative and referendum, cooperative undertakings, recall of local officials, representation in local special bodies, mandatory and periodic consultation with the people. This chapter attempts to present the various perspectives, frameworks and strategies on sustainable development and local governance.

Sustainable Development in the Philippine Context

ny concept of development, especially a multi-stakeholder approach to sustainable development, is implicitly or explicitly grounded in both an image of society and a shared vision of the development path of that society.

Sustainable development must therefore take into consideration the reality of the Philippine context. The image of society that guides Sustainable Development in the Philippines recognizes that the key actors in any critical and principled partnership or conflict regarding sustainable development are the government, business, and civil society (Figure 1). To humanize development, there must be interplay of market forces, state intervention, and civil society participation.

Civil Society

Government

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Business

Figure 1. Key Actors in Sustainable Development

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The existence and recognition of the three key actors in multi-stakeholder or counterparting processes, in turn, point to an equally significant reality: the functional differentiation (not division) of modern society into three realms, interacting with but independent from each other. These three essential societal dimensions - economy, politics, and culture, are the realms where the key sectors are active and from which the actors derive the substance for their dialogue and interaction with each other (see Figure 2). This image of society animates the vision, parameters, and strategies of sustainable development.
HUMAN BEING

CULTURE SOCIETY

POLITICS

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ECONOMY

NATURE
Figure 2. The Three Essential Dimensions of Society in Relation to Nature, the Human Being and Sustainable Development

Business is the key actor in the realm of the economy where the central social concern and process is the mutually beneficial production and distribution of goods and services to meet the physical needs of human beings. Government is the key actor in the realm of politics where the central social concern and process is participatory, democratic governance and rule making to secure the human rights of all citizens including justice and equity. Civil society is the key actor in realm of culture where the central social concern and process is the development of the social and spiritual capacities of human beings in order, to advance the frontiers of knowledge, to achieve clarity and coherence of values and to advocate the public interest. The three key actors in sustainable development can simply be viewed as the most organized and significant representatives of the prevailing social processes in each of the three essential dimensions of society.

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The multi-stakeholder or counterparting approach in Philippine Agenda 21 recognizes that while these realms are functionally differentiated, they are interacting, dynamic and complementary components of an integral whole. Creative social unity and harmony can, therefore, only occur from a respect and appreciation of the mutually enhancing perspectives and roles of the key actors in these dimensions of society and ultimately of their free choice to collaborate towards achieving the higher, common good of society. Society and its key actors, in pursuit of sustainable development, are bounded by two key considerations. On the physical and material side, the key actors must nurture the integrity and carrying capacity of the varied ecosystems, landscape ecologies, and ultimately the biosphere of the earth. On the human side, the key actors must also affirm that their respective social processes empower the freedom, creativity, and caring capacity of individuals who are the essence of society (Figure 2). Hence, the pursuit of sustainable development is grounded on the primacy of people and nature in the development process. Thus the essence of sustainable development is in the harmonious integration of a sound and viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion/harmony and ecological integrity to ensure that development is a life-enhancing process. In this context, the ultimate aim of development is human development now and through future generations. Failing this, development is bound to be jobless and ruthless (in the realm of the economy), rootless (in the realm of culture), voiceless (in the realm of polity), and futureless (in the realm of nature) as detailed in the 1996 UNDP Human Development Report. Philippine Agenda (PA) 21 is a consensus response by Philippine society to the following four questions:
!

What is sustainable development? ! What is the situation with respect to sustainable development? ! Where do we want to go? ! How do we get there? Philippine Agenda 21 envisions a better quality of life for all through the development of a just, moral, creative, spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.

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Substance-wise, PA21, simply put, is the countrys highest framework for development. Memorandum Order 399, dated 26 September 1996, directs all government agencies to review their policies, plans and programs and to realign these with PA21. The plans to be revised include Philippines2000 and its component frameworks, policies, and programs. PA21 is also, arguably, the highest policy framework for civil society. In 1996 the leaders of more than 5000 organizations under the informal banner of the Asia Pacific Sustainable Development Initiatives (APSUD) rallied around PA21 as their framework for negotiations with government on APEC. Even those who questioned APSUDs stance in APEC did not oppose PA21; rather they questioned the sincerity of government in carrying out the promises they made to have the Individual Action Plan (IAP) governed by PA21. Process-wise, PA21s Principles of Unity (POU) is the consensus product of government and numerous organizations within civil society. The governments version of the POU was reconciled with civil societys version of the POU. And together, civil society and government, in different parts of the Philippines, crafted the final POUl. All told, more than 20 regional consultations and 3 national consultations were convened to discuss PA21. PA21 was produced under the guidance and supervision of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD), Office of the President. The PCSD was created by President Ramos to ensure that all government undertakings are consistent with the global Agenda 21 commitments the Philippine government made at the Earth Summit in Rio. The number 21 means twenty-first (21st) century.

SOURCE: Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (3/27/2001)

This vision of society provides a guiding framework for sustainable development where the parameters and strategies of sustainable development are operational throughout society. The Philippine Agenda 21 approach adheres to the following principles of sustainable development: 1. Primacy of Developing Full Human Potential. People are at the core of development initiatives. 2. Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology. The search for solutions to the complex milieu of development problems has to be undertaken with the perspective that situates specific problems in the larger social and ecological context. This approach facilitates the development and use of appropriate technology. 3. Cultural, Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurturing the inherent strengths of local and indigenous knowledge, practices and beliefs while respecting the cultural diversity, moral norms and spiritual essence of Filipino society. 4. Self-determination. Respecting the right and relying on the inherent capacity of the country and its peoples to decide on the course of their own development.

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5. National Sovereignty. Self-determination at the national level where the norms of society and the specifics of the local ecology inform national governance. Includes human and environmental security as well as achieving and ensuring security and self-reliance in basic staple foods. Recognizing the crucial role of farmers and fisherfolk in providing for the nutritional needs of the nation. 6. Gender sensitivity. Recognizing the important and complementary roles and the empowerment of both men and women in development. 7. Peace, Order and National Unity. Securing the right of all to a peaceful and secure existence. 8. Social Justice, Inter-, Intra-Generational and Spatial Equity. Ensuring social cohesion and harmony through equitable distribution of resources and providing the various sectors of society with equal access to development opportunities and benefits today and in the future. 9. Participatory democracy. Ensuring the participation and empowerment of all sectors of society in development decision-making and processes (and to operationalize intersectoral and multisectoral consensus).

Sustainable Development Principles


! Development of Full

Human Potential
! Holistic Science &

Appropriate Technology
! Cultural, Moral & ! ! ! ! !

! ! !

Spiritual Sensitivity Self-Determination National Sovereignty Gender Sensitivity Peace, Order and National Unity Social Justice, Inter-, IntraGenerational, and Spatial Equity Participatory Democracy Institutional Viability Viable, Sound & Broadbased Economic Development

10. Institutional viability. Recognizing that sustainable development is a shared, collective and indivisible responsibility which calls for institutional structures that are built around the spirit of solidarity, convergence and partnership between and among different stakeholders. 11. Viable, sound and broad-based economic development. Development founded on a stable economy where the benefits of economic progress are equitably shared across ages, communities, gender, social classes, ethnicities, geographical units and across generations. 12. Sustainable population. Achieving a sustainable population level, structure and distribution while taking cognizance of the limited carrying capacity of nature and the interweaving forces of population, culture, resources, environment and development. 13. Ecological soundness. Recognizing nature as our common heritage and thus respecting the limited carrying capacity and integrity of nature in the development process to ensure the right of present and future generations to this heritage.

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14. Biogeographical Equity and Community-Based Resource Management. Recognizing that since communities residing within or most proximate to an ecosystem of a bio-geographic region will be the ones to most directly and immediately feel the positive and negative impacts on that ecosystem, they should be given prior claim to the development decisions affecting that ecosystem including management of the resources. To ensure biogeographic equity, other affected communities should be involved in such decisions. 15. Global Cooperation. Building upon and contributing to the diverse capacities of individual nations.

Sources:
Republic of Philippines. Philippine Agenda 21- Principles of Unity. Philippine Council for Sustainable Development. September 26, 1996. Center for Alternative Development Initiatives (3/27/2001) Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM).

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Sustainable Integrated Area Development (SIAD) as the Evolving Framework in Participatory Governance

SIAD is Sustainable

SIAD strives for a sound, broad-based and viable economy. It envisions vibrant economic development in an area. Economic sustainability is rooted in mobilizing the skills, talents, capital and culture of local communities and utilizing resources that stimulate the local economy. SIAD seeks to establish a socially cohesive society. The key stakeholders and major sectors come together to set priorities and agree on principles of unity so as to draw common courses of action oftentimes translated into their formulation of realistic and doable plans.

SIAD is a framework for promoting local development that incorporated the concepts of sustainable development (SD). As the name depicts, SIAD pursues a kind of development that is sustainable, integrated, and area-based.

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SIAD is ecologically sustainable. SIAD, serving both as framework and tool for local development, builds upon a community-based approach to management of local resources. Planning and management of resources is anchored on the carrying capacities of the resources or the ecosystems. SIAD is culturally sustainable and gender sensitive. SIAD recognizes that, ultimately, culture is vital to economic and political development. SIAD encourages maximum feasible participation of communities in development processes. The community's values, culture, spirituality and morals become the foundation stones of a SIAD process. SIAD seeks to address the full needs of human beings in the community. It aims to develop the full range of human potential. It therefore gives priority and bias to the needs of the marginalized and economically deprived sectors in the community. SIAD planning integrates their knowledge, skills and creative energies into the process of SD. SIAD builds upon responsible governance. Sustainable development requires responsible governance. Given the wide-ranging concerns of the community, SIAD necessitates an integrated process of multisectoral participation and community involvement at all levels of government and in all phases of the planning process.
SIAD is Integrated

SIAD incorporates the concerns and concepts of PA 21. It endeavors to mirror in concept and practice, the wide-ranging vision, framework, principles, parameters and strategies of PA 21. SIAD integrates the various sectors of development. It allows the various sectors to come and work together towards sustainable human development. Health services, housing, education, infrastructure, agriculture and fisheries can now move and complement each other toward achieving the development vision and goals of the community. SIAD harmonizes potentially conflicting imperatives of local society. SIAD endeavors and works towards a mutually beneficial and harmonious interaction between the potentially conflicting interests and influences of the business, government and civil society. Using the SIAD framework, each of the key sector collectively pursues a unified strategy for holistic development.

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SIAD is area-based

SIAD is rooted in a bio-region which include both the towns and cities, or the urban centers and rural areas. Pursuing local development is done on a clearly delineated and geographically defined area of unit. A SIAD area then is taken as an active vessel of development, with the area itself assuming certain physical attributes that could point to either its potential or constraints to development efforts. The SIAD area as a planning unit may be defined using the ecosystem approach or by adopting the administrative political boundaries as the basis for delineating it for planning purposes. The Philippines, owing to its archipelagic character, has good cases of SIAD initiatives that use the ecosystems as the approach adopted in planning and management.

Laying down the foundation and enabling conditions for multi-stakeholder partnership and participatory governance: The 1991 Local Goverment Code (LGC) in Philippine Agenda 21
!

1991 LGC is considered as a landmark legislation that opened several windows for participation of Non-Government Organizations, People's Organizations (Pos) and the Private Sectors. It also established a favorable policy environment of LGU-NGO/PO cooperation. Some of the windows for participation are:
#

NGO/PO representation in the Local Development Councils (LDCs) and other Local Special Bodies (LSBs) # Local Sectoral Representation in local legislative bodies # Mandatory Consultations with LGUs and other concerned sectors in the community # LGU-NGO/PO partnerships, joint ventures and undertakings

Gaps between policies and realities on the ground

After almost 10 years of implementing the LGC, implementation of the law may still be far from ideal as major issues and concerns remain that impede the realization of the objectives and intent of the Code. Many of these issues relate to the inability of some LGUs to appreciate the roles of the non-government sectors in the local governance processes. Put it another way, government and non-government sectors have varying perspectives in development, both in terms of approaches and substance which remain to be irreconcilable sans the process of inter-sectoral deliberation and consensus building.

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The Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21), SIAD as the Localization Framework

PA 21 is the highest development policy in the Philippines as it embodies the agenda of the country for the 21st century. It draws key insights from the lessons learned from decades of development efforts. It ensures that all government undertakings are consistent with the Global Agenda 21 commitments made by the Philippine Government at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992.
National Mandates and Legislative Measures in Support of PA 21 Operationalization:
! MO 399 issued in September 1996 directs all government

agencies, including LGUs, to review their policies, plans and programs as to realign these with PA 21
! MO 47 issued in January, 1999 strengthens the

implementation and localization of PA 21 by directing LGUs to formulate and implement their respective SIAD plans building on the existing planning structures and mechanisms

As the highest policy framework, PA 21 also opens an unusual opportunity between civil society organizations and government agencies, including LGUs, for principled partnerships in pursuit of local sustainable development. Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) are non-government and non-market organizations that are active in pursuit of the public interest.

SIAD has become the operational framework for PA 21 localization, the essential element being the development of multi-stakeholder/tripartite-multipartite partnerships, giving recognition to the functional differentiation, not division, of society into three dimensions: Polity, Economy, and Culture. Key actors in these three realms are Government, Business and CSOs, respectively.

SIAD: proposed process framework


The SIAD process champions and integrates the participation of these sectors at all levels of engagement. Since sustainable development addressed a wide range of problems, it necessitates the involvement of all key institutions of CSO, government and business to fully appreciate the different dimensions of development issues.
!

Constituency Building. This is the most extended phase, even a continuing process undertaken by civil society organizations to prepare and fortify their ranks toward forging principled partnerships with other major stakeholders (government, business), in the area.

Critical Activities involve: # Networking and mobilizing the community-based organizations around mutually-defined "burning issues" or development concerns. This issue serves as a rallying point for these groups and organizations to pursue in their engagement. # CSO strategizing and advocacy to enlist participation of concerned sectors in drawing up courses of action to respond to the issue identified, and further defining the role/s of other major sectors i.e., government, and the mechanisms to resolve or address that issue.

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Developing capacities, organizationally and skills wise to enable the NGOs and POs effectively engage with other key stakeholders leading toward substantial resolution of issues or, responses to sector-based concerns and agenda. More often, having an organized federation or network of CSOs gives a distinctive advantage to these sectors in terms of acquiring a level of leverage in their engagement with government or other major stakeholders.

Consensus Building. The stage where the various key sectors from government, NGOs/POs and business come together and try to explore possibilities of working together in an activity, project or on a more strategic basis such as in local development planning including the identification of strategies to implement the plan. This phase usually involves:
#

Leveling off on the issue/problem, that nature of the problem that the stakeholders want to be solved. # Agreeing on what to be achieved, identify options, strategies, targets, activities # Identify/Organize mechanisms that can best pursue the management and implementation of options, strategies, activities ! Mainstreaming. Describes the stage wherein the community, through the CSOs are able to participate in mainstream development planning, implementation and policy formulation processes of local governance and along the way effectively incorporates SD concerns and agenda in plans, polices, programs and projects of government. Mainstreaming in development processes maybe manifested through
#

Creation/reactivation of relevant mechanisms or bodies that are multi-sectoral in character with multi-stakeholder participation such as the Local Development Councils (LDCs), Municipal Environment and Natural Resource Council, Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Councils (FARMCs), Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), among others. # Development of an Action or Development Plan, Programs and Projects that directly respond to identified concerns and priorities # Installed mechanisms within the CSOs to ensure adequate representation and information sharing within the sector
!

Institutionalization. This means that the multi-stakeholder mechanisms begin to acquire the necessary legal mandate and fiscal support for their dynamic and vibrant operations. This include the regular adoption of participatory tools and processes used and continuously innovating on these tools and processes. Advocacy. Advocacy. This could be done internally within the concerned sector, i.e., CSO or across sectors in line with their organizing objectives (of consolidation or expansion) for Sustainable Development. Policy Advocacy is emphasized here to ensure the existence of a favorable policy environment to partnership initiatives and for their potential replication in other areas.

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Moving ahead: confronting challenges and discerning opportunities


Fuller localization of PA 21 and enabling local governance as an effective strategy and venues brings into fore certain challenges that have to be confronted as well as opportunities that NGOs and Pos, along with concerned LGU partners have to consider: Challenges: ! Continuing need for local organizational/institutional strengthening and capacity building to manage SD and SIAD ! Grapple with the effect of political turnover (e.g. change in administration) which impacts on the continuity of SD planning and implementation ! Continuing challenge of raising public awareness on SD and SIAD ! Need for integrated strategies in resource generation, maximizing available local resources for SIAD Opportunities: In facing the complex challenge of achieving Sustainable Development, it would be worthwhile to look at and transform the challenges into potential advantages. Pursuing multi-stakeholder partnership offers vast opportunities such as: ! Venues for building higher level trust and understanding ! Opportunity for synergizing initiatives for common goals ! Building upon each other's comparative advantages as distinct sectors with unique qualities/resources ! Venues for conflict resolution

Sources:
Lopez, Divina Luz. Participatory Governance and SIAD: Proposed Framework. Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas. March 2001 Perlas, Nicanor. SIAD Guidebook, A Framework for the Localization of Philippine Agenda 21. Philippine Council for Sustainable Development. September 1999 Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA) PA 21 Localization Project and the People Participation Support Component of the Governance and Local Democracy project as presented during the SIAD Conference on March 14-15, 2001 held at the Palm Plaza Hotel, Ermita, Manila

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The Philippine Local Government System

he Philippine local government system, as of the year 2000, is composed of 78 provinces, 95 cities, 1,514 municipalities, 42,000 barangays, one metropolitan government and two autonomous regions in the Muslim South. All these represent local authorities that have the capability to assume the great burden of development. An important development of the decentralization scheme in the Philippines is the continued and increased role of local governments in national development. A pre-condition to a meaningful assumption of this role is an efficient and effective local bureaucracy. At the base of the local government system is the barangay government, which reflects the home-rule concept. However, in the case of the Philippines, its implementation apparently has gone beyond the technical and financial capabilities of the barangay. Thus, many of them are ineffective in complying with the ever-increasing delegation of development and service delivery responsibilities. What become imperative under the circumstances are continued reform measures to strengthen administrative and fiscal capabilities of the barangay.

Local governments translate abstract national government programs into meaningful specific projects, in response to the needs and aspirations of the people.

A set of criteria (income, population and area of jurisdiction) is needed for the creation of these local government units (LGUs). In a unitary system such as the Philippines, there is no intervening level between the national government and the LGUs. The Presidents power of general supervision is delegated to the Department of Interior and Local Government.

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Inter-governmental Relationships
Department of Interior and Local Government

Provinces

Highly-urbanized cities

Regional Agencies

Component Cities Barangays Barangays Barangays Barangays

Municipalities
Legend:

Barangays Barangays

In the Philippines, the constitutional legal basis of local governments is Section 1, Article X of the 1987 Constitution, which provides that the political subdivisions of the state are the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays. The constitutional provision likewise, mandates the creation of regional governments. Being community - based political institutions, local governments are the closest to the people of the whole governmental system.

Consisting of multi-tiered political units, the Philippine local government system performs the primary functions of interest articulation and political representation, including socio-economic development, all designed to improve the quality of life of their constituencies. The corporate powers of local governments are: ! continuous succession in its corporate name; ! to sue and be sued; ! to have and use a corporate seal; ! to acquire and convey real or personal property; ! to enter into contracts; and ! to exercise powers as granted to corporations.

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Line of supervision Service delivery Coordination

Local governments are not liable to injuries or damages to person or property arising from its acts or omission of local officers or employees while in the performance of other official functions. While the Constitution guarantees the existence of local governments, they perform their functions and tasks primarily guided by the provisions of the LGC, which is the bible in the local government administration. At present, the local governments are at a crossroad of veering towards greater local autonomy and decentralization while at the same time, assuming increasing roles in national development and increasingly complex responsibilities in the delivery of basic services.

Sources:
Sosmea, Gaudioso C., Decentralization for Rural Development in the Philippines. Second Project Review Meeting on Decentralization for Rural Development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. September 29 - October 3, 1986. Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local Government, Philippines: German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center CPA-U.P., 1996. pp. 8-9.

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The Local Government Code of 1991


Ph Gov ilippin ern e Lo me nt C cal ode

199

s a landmark legislation, Republic Act No. 7160, more commonly known as the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991, introduced sweeping changes in the Philippines political processes.
The LGC drastically shifted power from the central government to the local governments. Its end goal is to unleash the potentials at the local level.

The Code transferred substantial power, functions and responsibilities from the national government to the local government units (LGUs) , allowing the impetus for change and development to originate from the local communities. It redirected the countrys development thrusts and encouraged a shift from nationally driven to locally driven strategies. Furthermore, it transferred the responsibilities for the delivery of basic services to the LGUs, including appropriate personnel, assets, equipment, programs and projects.

The delivery of various aspects of basic services that used to be the responsibility of the national government are now devolved to the LGUs. These basic services include:
! ! ! ! !

field health and hospital services and other tertiary services; social welfare; community-based forestry; projects on agricultural extension and on-site research; public works funded by local fund;

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school building program; ! tourism facilities; ! promotion and development; and ! telecommunication services and housing projects for provinces and cities and other services such as investment support. From the organizing standpoint, the Code has altered the mode, configuration and level of services that local governments provide. Having bestowed greater powers and responsibilities on Philippine local governments, there is now a common awareness of the need to improve their organizational processes and performance. Hence, the Code embodies a major rationale for the development of local government organization in a number of ways. The code:
! ! ! ! ! !

enlarges local bureaucracy because of the devolved personnel and programs; expressly grants local governments the authority to implement organizational reforms in order to perform effectively in a decentralized setting; increases the financial capacity of LGUs; allows local governments to seek alternative forms of service delivery; provides for popular participation in decision-making and program implementation; and localizes accountability.

Globalization and Local Government


Globalized competition induces vulnerability among nations whose industries and services cannot meet international standards of quality and cost-effectiveness/cost-competitiveness. Even public organizations, in as much as they shape policy and provide various kinds of support to private development activities, must meet these criteria to avoid becoming irrelevant. In relation to local government, globalization has the following impacts on organizational improvement:
!

performance. It creates pressure to maximize organizational performance Organizations that ignore constant improvement lose out and eventually die down. The repercussions for government organizations may be less dire, in the sense that governments are not meant to create profit. Nonetheless, their experience illustrate attainable management reforms towards maximizing the potentials of organizations, including local governments.

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It makes more people aware of the choices open to them. Information technology enables a great segment of the population to be more informed of the activities of the government and the economy. Such awareness educates them of their opportunities for political participation. This also empowers the public to identify crucial gaps in local government services. If not addressed, it may compel their constituents to seek from the private sector, often at the cost of political support.

leaner, Globally competitive organizations tend to be leaner, personnel-wise and managementwise. Higher production is registered by companies even with lesser layers of management and sizes of human resources. These characteristics are related to a host of management innovations that they continually improve. The challenge to improve and develop local government organization comes from the external environment as well as the additional responsibilities brought about by devolution. The remaining task now is to identify what specific aspects of the organization need reforms and what resources are available to accomplish them. Consciousness and will are only the beginning, but they will keep LGU on track.

Issues and concerns


Implementing the provisions of the LGC has not been exactly smooth sailing, considering the number of intervening factors that delayed its smooth implementation. The issues and concerns on devolution include:
! ! ! ! ! ! !

upgrading of the position of devolved personnel particularly the municipal social welfare offices; residency and prerequisite of appointment of devolved personnel; low priority of LGUs on matters regarding devolved personnel; inequitable distribution of Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA); non-functionality of the Local Health Board; disparity of salaries between devolved health workers and LGU personnel; and non-receipt of salary increases.

Problems encountered ! Culture of suspicion and insincerity works against the participation of NGOs and POs in local governance. ! Many non-government organizations (NGOs) and People Organizations (POs) find it difficult to sustain their involvements as they have to adapt to new systems and procedures as well as bureaucratic accountabilities.
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The need to strengthen marginalized sectors of civil society as well as build up the capabilities of the state to resist crisis-causing interests, which include: # lack of basic information on government programs; # lack of effective institutional mechanism; # need for tax incentives; # lack of appropriate mechanism for channeling direct government organizations (GOs) support to NGOs; # question of accreditation; and # selectivity of GOs for dealing with NGOs.

The Devolution Master Plan


The Master Plan for 1993-1998 for the sustained implementation of the LGC played a key role in the implementation of the Code. Formulated after intensive consultations with the various stakeholders, the plan was adopted by the President in October 1994 to serve as the framework for the Codes implementation. Indicators and milestones regarding Codal implementation are likewise included. The following are 20 areas of concern in the mandatory review of the LGU of 1999:
! ! ! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Equitable distribution of IRA, increase the share of LGUs in the proceeds of the exploitation of national wealth and provide LGUs a share in local e-vat collection. Enlarge and diversify revenue raising and credit and financing option to lower classes of LGUs. Enhance basic service delivery and expand regulatory powers to LGUs in crime prevention and environmental protection. Encourage national government agencies to expand devolution and decentralization process through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with LGUs prepared to perform basic services and regulatory functions. Establish incentive system to promote LGU-NGO cooperation in the management and in the delivery of basic services. Repeal rules and regulations discouraging LGUs to mobilize and use private investment resource flotation, deferred payment plans, cash account or secured borrowing. Expand operational control and supervision over local police to administrative control and supervision. Stop the creation of mandatory positions in the local governments requiring the use of local funds. Resist unfunded mandates and oppose the implementation of national programs and projects that require funding by local sources. Define the supervisory power of the president over local officials and LGUs. Require mandatory consultation and approval of LGUs in the implementation of national projects in their respective jurisdiction. Devolve public works with local application and rationalize road construction and maintenance.

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Power to reclassify agricultural lands to meet developmental plans and programs of LGUs. Adopt the honoraria system for all barangay officials. Integrate national and local developmental plans. Limit the use of Countryside Development Fund (CDF) to the approved local development plans. Strengthen and improve the function and management of local special bodies. Streamline the process of recall and peoples initiative to promote participatory democracy. Provide certain provincial officers administrative supervision over municipal officers to maintain efficient delivery of basic services. Expand franchise and licensing powers of LGUs over public utilities.

A quiet revolution is going on in the countryside proving that devolution is working. Due to the increased powers and responsibilities of local governments, innovativeness and creativeness at the local level has been endangered by the Code. And before long, these LGUs will no longer need the assistance of regional offices or even national offices in performing their expanded tasks and responsibilities. Likewise, NGOs and POs have been encouraged by the Code to be active participants in the process of governance at the local level. Thus, partnerships between various sectors, GOs and NGOs alike, have been endangered.

Sources:
Mistal, Teresita M. Operationalizing Devolution in Regional Offices and Local Authorities. in Local Government Bulletin. P.C. LGC-CPA-UP, Volume XXXII. No. 2-4. April December, 1997. Joaquin, Ma. Ernita T. Organizing for Development in Local Government Bulletin. Q.C. LGC-CPA-U.P., Volume XXXII. No. 2-4. April-December, 1997.

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Decentralization in Governance

ecentralization refers to the systematic and rational dispersal of governmental powers and authority to lower level institutions to allow multi-sectoral decision-making, better administrative and political penetration of national government policies into areas remote from the central government. This is especially applicable to countries like the Philippines whose basic problem is the inability of the government to penetrate many parts of the country because of the structure of its archipelago.

Decentralization is not an end in itself but a means to achieve desirable ends such as democracy, equity and efficiency. However, decentralization is not a panacea for social and economic ills. While there are many reasons for this principle, the supporters of centralization can also give strong reasons for continuing it.

Likewise, it allows greater representation by various political, religious, ethnic or tribal groups in decision-making, which enable their voices to be heard. Furthermore, it leads to greater administrative capability among local governments and private institution in the regions and provinces.

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Decentralization and local autonomy


Local autonomy is the ability of local communities to govern and serve themselves, to determine their own future, as well as to initiate, integrate, make decisions and take action with minimum outside direction, approval, help or other forms of intervention (particularly by the central authorities). It implies an attitude of assertiveness, self-reliance and confidence that the local community knows better where its interests lie and how to best pursue them. It involves, first, the right of local entities to administer their own affairs freely in accordance with their own will and second, the right of the local citizenry to determine that will. Furthermore, it is the operationalization of the human ascent to full development, liberating a community of individuals from the constraints and restrictions of forces irrelevant to the concept of home-rule and the consent of the governed. As an empowered / organized community, the citizens are thus, able to produce intended and foreseen effects among themselves.

Types of decentralization
Administrative ! Decentralization of power or authority from the highest level of the institutional hierarchy to the

lower levels of the same organization. ! Ministries or departments establish a system of regional or local administration to facilitate decisionmaking and more responsive delivery of services. ! The transfer of functions and powers can be temporal and can be recalled by the authority who made the transfer.
Political ! The devolution or absolute transfer of power from the central government to local authorities through

legislation. ! People are given the opportunity to govern themselves so they can have mastery and control of their own environment.

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Other decentralization schemes ! Use of PARASTATAL semi-autonomous bodies that perform specific governmental functions (e.g.

regional development authorities and individual estates empowered to perform certain corporate functions). ! Privatization or the transfer of governmental functions to non-government organizations (NGOs). ! Complementation, which includes prototypes of decentralization schemes (e.g. small efforts of local communities, which take initiatives with or without outside help to get organized for their own development).

Advantages of decentralization
!

Increased access to central government resources and institutions by people living in previously neglected rural regions. The introduction of decentralization policies increased the capacities of local bureaucratic and political leaders in some countries to put pressure on central government agencies and leaders to obtain larger amounts of national resources for local development. In many developing countries, the administrative and technical capabilities of local organizations have been improved due to increasing, though still limited, experiences in running their own affairs. A number of new organizations have been established, mostly in Asia and Latin America, at the regional and local levels to plan and manage development.

Disadvantages of decentralization
!

There seems to be a kind of twisted view in developing countries about the desirability and feasibility of transferring powers and responsibilities from central ministries to other organizations. This is characterized by the granting of authority and power, at least on a formal level, to local government units (LGUs) while continuing to be indifferent in providing the necessary financial and human resources. There are evidences to show that there has been very little success in the pursuit of decentralization policies in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia.

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Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of decentralization


! The extent to which decentralization contributes in achieving broad political objectives manifested in the

promotion of political stability, mobilizing support and cooperation for national development policies.
! The extent to which decentralization increases administrative effectiveness. This can be shown by promoting

greater cooperation among units of the national and local governments, including NGOs to encourage close cooperation in the attainment of mutually acceptable development goals.
! The extent to which decentralization contribute to the promotion of economic and managerial efficiency by

allowing governments both at the central and local levels to achieve development goals in a cost-effective manner.
! The extent to which decentralization increases government responsiveness to the needs and demands of various

interest groups within the society.


! The degree to which decentralization contributes to greater self-determination and self-reliance. ! The appropriateness of the means, by which policies and programs are designed and carried out to achieve the

goals.

Source: Decentralization for Rural Development in the Philippines. Second Project Review Meeting on Decentralization for Rural Development. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. September 29 October 3, 1986.

Factors affecting decentralization


Capability of implementing agencies

Apparently, this is not highly developed among the agencies that were given the task of implementing decentralization. Their capabilities suffer as far as the following are concerned: ! ability to identify development problems and opportunities ; ! ability to identify or create possible solutions to development problems ; ! ability to make decisions and resolve conflicts; and ! ability to mobilize resources.

Inter-organizational relationship

The ideal state would be for central, regional, provincial and lower-level governments to get their acts together. Experience shows, however, that there are many sources of friction political, ideological and personal matters.

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Political environment

The local political history and structure also constitutes a very important source of obstacle, which must also be studied. Opposition might come from local elites whose power and authority in the locality might be undermined by decentralization. In the Philippines, the relationship between local and central governments is highly developed. People have been used to running to somebody important to solve their problems. Habits of dependency develop through time and these are reinforced by economic conditions. Poor people can hardly be empowered because of their dependence on rich people. Unless peoples economic conditions improve, the habits of dependency will just continue to persist.
Resources for program implementation

Most LGUs belong to poor territories. Thus, even if they have been given resource-generating powers, there is very little revenue to generate because of the very limited tax base. Political support is another resource needed. Decentralization is almost always perceived as a diminution of central authority. To this extent, many central level officials oppose it. Furthermore, local officials do not wholeheartedly support decentralization efforts for one reason or another.

Sources:
Endriga, Jose. Decentralization: Concept and Strategy for Local Development, in Reform of Centralized Administration Structures in Southeast Asia The Contribution of Local Administration to Economic and Social Development. Local Government Development Foundation and Konrad Adeneur Foundation. Manila, Philippines, 1996. pp. 5-10. National Seminar on Decentralization Towards Rural Development Reading Materials. Local Government Center, UPCPA, Manila, 1986. Sosmea, Gauidioso, Jr. Decentralization and Empowerment. Local Government Development Foundation. Manila, Philippines. 1991.

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Trends in the Implementation of Devolution in the Philippines

he implementation of the Local Government Code (LGC) has been regularly monitored by periodic Rapid Field Appraisals (RFA) conducted by the Associates in Rural Development, Inc. with the support of the USAID through the Local Development Assistance Program in the early nineties and then through the Governance and Local Democracy Program.

The eighth Rapid Field Appraisal conducted in the October 1998 identified a number of trends as far as the progress of devolution in the country is concerned. These are the areas of local finance, inter-local cooperation, and private sector participation in local governance and organizational and human resource development.

The RFAs documented by the Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD) have documented many good practices at the local level. These best and good practices have proven that transferring power to local authorities and local communities could result to good governance. It has been seen that local governments can do things differently-and better - at the local level given adequate powers and authorities.

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On local finance
!

! !

Local governments are increasingly looking at credit finance options. Local governments traditionally relied on their internal revenue allotments (IRAs) and local taxes to generate finances. Now, local governments have begun to explore the avenue of borrowing from banks - both government and private banks - to finance local development efforts. Even if local governments have begun to explore borrowing directly from banks, there has been a prudent (and conservative) attitude especially among lower class local governments to borrow, considering the inability of other local governments to meet their financial obligation. While local governments appreciate the continuing importance of the IRA, they have stepped up efforts and explored options to access external sources, such as Official Development Assistance, getting their right share from national wealth located within their jurisdiction, etc. Local governments have been seen to be more innovative in generating local resources. These include build-operate-transfer arrangements, joint ventures, bond flotation, etc. Local government has also increased their local investment initiatives.

On inter-local and local government-private sector cooperation


!

Collaboration and cooperation between different levels of government - vertical collaboration, say between the province, city, municipality and barangays - have become more apparent. ! There has been an increase in horizontal and inter-local cooperation among the same local governments. ! In terms of local-national government cooperation, local governments have begun to take ownership of appropriate national programs implemented in the area, where before these were seen as impositions by the national government.

On private sector participation on local governance


!

There has been an increase in local government-private sector partnership. Where before, local governments tended to carry out development efforts on their own. Now, they have become more open to seeking out partnerships with the private sector for effective governance. ! Mechanisms for civil society participation in local governance, through local special bodies, have begun to be institutionalized.

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On local organizational development and human resource development


!

Local governments have begun to explore innovative ways in organizational development. ! Local governments have not invested enough in comprehensive human resources development (HRD) concerns. When the financial pinch-hits, it is usually the HRD and training concerns that are first sacrificed. Not to overemphasize, these are some of the very areas where local governments have begun to be creative and innovative towards the general purpose of good local governance. The LGC has laid the policy infrastructure for good governance at the local level. While there may be challenges and problems, these are not enough to devail the devolution process, much less reverse it. Philippines countryside is dotted with many good and best practices.

Source:
Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Doing Things Differently and Better: Innovations Among Philippine Local Governments. EROPA 45 th Executive Council Meeting and Seminar on Administration in Transition. 25 - 29 October 1998.

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The Challenge of Good Governance

he recent move to create a Presidential Commission on Effective Governance may be viewed as recognition of the fact that, at the heart of many of our problems today is the quality of governance. This observation is definitely not new considering that many local and international organizations including the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations Development Program have concluded that governance-related issues and concerns such as prevalent graft and corruption, lack of transparency and absence of meaningful citizen participation are actually the reasons for the continued underdevelopment and poor performance of many third world countries, the Philippines included.
!

If governance is to be brought about, it is necessary to focus on three fundamental institutions: the civil service and bureaucracy, local governments and nongovernmental and peoples organizations.

The Civil Service Commission of the Philippines, being the primary agency responsible for human resource development of the 1.3 million-strong Philippine bureaucracy has played a big role in the continuing search for responsive institutions and processes. Fundamental questions such as what is the proper role of government in the delivery of basic services continue to be addressed. The implementation of decentralization and local autonomy in the Philippines with the enactment of a radical local government code at the beginning of the decade is the second major area where the debate on governance continues to rage. The imperative for decentralization takes place within a historical context or highly centralized political and administrative institutions that have shown themselves to be irrelevant in this day and age of global competitiveness.

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A third area in the debate on governance that must be addressed refers to the role of civil society, nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and Peoples Organizations (POs) and the private sector in governance. As suggested earlier, because of the general inability (some would say failure) of government to govern, alternative and complementary structures, institutions and processes to governance have evolved and developed.

The possible changes and obstacles in the operation of government work


1. That there continue to be lags in areas of administrative structures and processes. This means that reforms introduced may be articulated at the level of policy (e.g. a Civil Service Reform Law or a Local Government Code). However, these reforms have to be operated at the organization level, and it is entirely possible that existing processes and procedures may not be able to cope with the (radical) demands of the changes (hence the term lag). 2. When developing partnerships and cooperation between the public and private sector towards reform, it is necessary for civil society (business, the private sector, NGOs, POs, etc.) to develop new perspectives about the government. 3. Existing practices of graft and corruption, and rent seeking behavior in the bureaucracy local, national can continue to subvert the process of reform in governance. 4. The so-called absorptive capacities of institutions targeted for reform may continue to be a challenge to good governance reforms. The typical problems in this regard include the availability of qualified technical manpower personnel within the institution. 5. Long established auditing rules and procedures could serve as obstacles to reform and change. 6. Identifying and delineating areas of cooperation vertically (national and local governments), horizontally (among local governments, and also between government and civil society) may be difficult considering among other things, the problem of turfing among these different levels of institutions. 7. There is the ever-present challenge of lack, or inadequate financial resources that may be needed to accompany reforms. Governments always lack financial resources, and changes and reform, no matter how well meaning and even grandiose, have to be adequately funded. Thus, augmenting funds, through counter-parting with the private sector may be considered. 8. Finally, developing measurable indicators, standards and benchmarks of good governance, may serve as a challenge considering the accurateness and reliability of existing data in the country.

Source:
Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr., The Challenge of Good Governance. The Kybernam Group, Inc. 1999.

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The Local Government as a Catalyst of Economic Development

t present, local governments face the challenge of going beyond their traditional and primary role of being service providers and to fulfill their alternative function as an economic entity. Many local governments recognize now that they have to take an active role in securing the economic well-being of their constituents and provide an environment that is conducive to growth.
Their economic role is in fact reiterated in the 1991 Local Government Code (LGC). With devolved powers and authority, they are provided with avenues to organize more systematic interventions into the local economy for more enterprising activities in the local areas.

In a larger perspective, local economies are the building blocks of the national economy. While national economic development is principally the task of the central government, local governments play a crucial role in the national economic strategy, as regional and global competition for markets and resources accelerate.

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The local government as an economic unit


Local government is traditionally viewed as an employer and a provider of goods and services. One of its main responsibilities is to provide employment opportunities to its constituents and see to it that every citizen has a decent job. More often than not, the local unit becomes a welfare institution. Recently, however, this traditional role has been de-emphasized. The local government today is viewed more as an enterprise engaged in economic activities aimed at developing and diversifying the local economic structure. As such, it has to perform functions as promoter of inward investment and as an investor in businesses where the private sector fails to come in. Aside from being an investor, the local government is also considered as a big client of business enterprises in the locality. Services like the provision of supervisory and skills training for its employees can be supplied by private organizations, which are engaged in such kind of services.

Issues and concerns


Financial constraints of LGUs

Despite the increased budgetary share of the local government units (LGUs) from the national government, many LGUs, most especially the municipal governments still do not have enough resources to embark on more enterprising activities in their respective localities. This could be partly attributed to increased expenditures because of its devolved functions and services as mandated in the Code. Though loans and credits availed from financial lending institutions can be another source of funds, only a number of local units have availed themselves of such facilities due to the strict requirements imposed by banks and other lending institutions. The lower income class municipality cannot qualify for substantial loans to finance capital improvement projects.
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Even partnership with the private sector remains unpopular among rural-based LGUs. In areas where there is not much economic activity, the private sector appears to be hesitant in constructing facilities in joint venture with the LGU, more so when the economic situation magnifies the non-profitability of such venture.
Inadequate technical capacity of LGUs

Many LGUs do not have the technical capacity to plan and implement development programs and projects. As observed, most LGUs staff are not technically trained to come up with an economic and/or land use plan, which would serve as the framework for promoting the local economy. These LGUs are also found to be lacking in data-banking services and promotional activities that is normally needed for an aggressive, systematic, coordinated and appropriate marketing of investment potential.
Lack of political will or commitment

A number of LGUs have a sound economic plan. Yet, many of the projects, which have been prioritized for implementation, remain on paper because the local chief executives do not want to implement them, for some reason or another. They lack the will to push for the completion of these projects due to political expediency.
Insufficient support systems for economic promotion

National agencies, such as Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which are mandated to promote local economic development in collaboration with LGUs are not able to extend the needed assistance as they lack the manpower in the field. Aside from this, the DTI also does not have sufficient resources at the regional and provincial levels to engage in a more active and sustained effort for economic promotional activities (i.e. preparation of feasibility studies, promotion of products, marginal/entrepreneurial skills development and conduct of seminars on investment opportunities).
The need for shifting mindsets of LGU officials

Current challenges and demands from the environment strongly call for role shifting by LGUs. Unfortunately, many local officials do not view the local government as an economic unit, playing the role of an entrepreneur. Indeed, they have not imbibed the entrepreneurial spirit, which would propel them to take a more proactive role in creating more enterprising activities in the local area.

Existing /emerging innovative strategies


Local governments have the advantage of first-hand knowledge of local conditions, resources and other factors that are significant for local economic development. These include physical infrastructure, facilities, manpower, availability of land and the like. Their access to data and information, combined with a thorough analysis, also gives them ample opportunity to define problems and objectives and to determine the appropriate strategies. Apparently, the strategies resorted to by some local governments were chosen based on the peculiar conditions, needs and objectives of their respective areas. Some of these strategies include:
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Making available sites and premises for enterprises

Backed-up by sufficient and reliable data, the local government would be able to identify a strategically located site with adequate infrastructures and facilities that will attract prospective investors to establish their business.

Sourcing external funds for local public enterprise

Much needed funds could be obtained by tapping other economic sectors in the community who could be attracted to invest in the area and collaborate with them on a project that would serve their mutual interest. Modifications which can be adapted are: the Build-Operate-Transfer (B-O-T) or Build and Transfer scheme, joint and cooperative ventures with private organizations, credit financing, lease and outright sale of economic enterprises.
Organization of teams and economic promotion units

Assigning a unit or forming task forces or groups within the local government organization could also hasten the effective and efficient implementation of the economic plans of the LGU.
Collaborating with private investors, NGOs and other groups

Relevant sectors and actors (i.e. private enterprises, NGOs, POs and other groups in the economic development process) who can contribute resources, ideas and skills must be deliberately involved. Serving their mutual interest, such a strategy can also ensure the attainment of the economic aims of the local unit.
Strengthening internal administration

LGUs must invest efforts and resources to assess and upgrade internal capabilities. This would result in the improved performance of the economic functions of the local unit, in particular, and public services, in general. A sound and financial management, efficient personnel, effective service delivery systems and the presence of municipal land use plan all work towards enabling the LGUs to perform its economic role more efficiently with regards to systems and procedures and lead to better coordination and control of program and projects.

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As early as 1986, Mayor Manuel P. Santiago of the municipality of Guagua, Pampanga had already envisioned the Guagua Integrated Approach Towards Sustainable Development (GIATSD). Within the broad GIATSD framework is the component project of Guagua Integrated Tree Planting Organization (GINTO), particularly the propagation of ilang-ilang and sampaguita seedlings. Promotive of environmental conservation and sustainable development, the project showcased a successful collaboration among the people, the local leaders, the devolved personnel from national government agencies and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The project began in 1989 when DOST experts introduced to the local farmers a new extraction technology for ripened and dried ilang-ilang and sampaguita flowers. While it would take a long time before oil extraction could be done and earn money from, the considerable demands for garlands and ornamentals created a desire for immediate conversion of fresh flowers into cash. Nonetheless the goal was set to plant and propagate the seedlings and eventually pursue commercial oil extraction in the late years. The project beneficiary caretakers, mostly farmers and out of school youths were encouraged by the municipality to propagate seedlings. The beneficiaries signed a contract with the municipal government accepting their obligation to care for the plants. The LGU allocated P50,000 from the municipal budget for the project. The ilang-ilang seedlings were given free while the sampaguita seedlings were given on a loan basis payable within 18 months, with minimal interest. The municipality then purchased the propagated seedlings and distributed them to be grown by qualified and interested constituents. Agricultural technicians from the Department of Agriculture (DA) assigned in the different barangays monitored the program regularly. The project accomplished both economic and environmental gains. Alongside the project on hand-made paper products, the project on the propagation of ilang-ilang and sampaguita seedlings and tree planting benefited more than 2,000 families, resulting in the generation of an additional P50M in income for the municipality.

Adopting sustainable development as a strategy and goal

Initiating development, which would sustain viable livelihood activities for local constituents without jeopardizing the natural environment must be encouraged. In fact, these can be combined with efforts to preserve the natural ecology of the community.
An economic promotion project that is anchored on the philosophy of sustainable development can serve the purposes of economic gains and environmental conservation.

Direct intervention in creating jobs

LGUs could also facilitate the supply of labor and ensure that unnecessary impediments to employment generation are removed. However, there are cases when local governments may have to directly intervene and create employment opportunities for its constituents. This may be realized through the implementation and funding of small-and-medium-scale livelihood projects or cooperative programs that can generate jobs and provide additional income.

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Several years prior to 1992, Naga City experienced a heavy influx of migrants from the surrounding poor areas. In addition to having to provide employment to these migrants, corresponding strains in the delivery of basic services as well as greater social problems in the city were felt. Inevitably, Naga City leaders were faced with the challenge of modifying the citys inward-looking development thrust by placing greater consideration for the less developed areas around it. Using the concept of integrated area development, Naga City officials initiated the move to maximize the urban-rural linkage between the city and its 12 neighboring municipalities to work toward common economic goals. This resulted in the establishment of the Metro Naga Development Council (MNDC) in October 1992. Mayor Jess M. Robredo of Naga City chaired the council. Overall, Naga City led the MNDC to pool the effort and resources of 13 LGUs, including national government agencies and the private sector in the province. The implementation of MNDP projects is not supposed to prevent member LGUs from pursuing other activities in their locality. The overriding aim is to identify each members role to enhance the entire economy of Metro Naga in the most productive and efficient manner. Fortunately, the private sector has been very receptive and has, in fact, offered to work together with the Council in pursuit of various sectoral programs. Other than the investors who have sought to match their investment decisions with the plans and programs of the Council, the Naga City Chamber of Commerce and Industry, a consortium of NGOs along with the Ford Foundation, the Ateneo de Naga Center for community development and the senior citizens of Metro Naga became active supporters and participants of the MNDC projects and activities.

Inter-LGU cooperation

The resources consolidation of contiguous LGUs to undertake a common project that is beneficial to them must be encouraged. Therefore, the assignment of a staff that will work on a full-time basis for the cooperation becomes a priority. This staff can provide the requisite administrative and technical backstopping to ensure the continuity and success of projects implemented by the member-LGUs.
Bond flotation/credit financing

Though not too many local governments have actually utilized this instrument of indebtedness, bond flotation has served the economic purpose of supporting self-liquidating and income-generating projects, which local governments are determined to pursue. The ability of the local government to generate the interest of prospective investors to invest in municipal supported economic activities and capital investment projects is crucial.
Formation of cooperatives

LGUs must also initiate the organization of cooperatives and provide the necessary assistance and inputs at critical points in the life of the cooperatives. Such assistance may involve management training, provision of capital through loans and/or grants, market linkages and production inputs.

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Establishment of special economic zones

Local government must plan, designate and implement special economic zones, as certain businesses require conversion of land or site into an industrial estate, construction or rehabilitation of infrastructures, facilities, factories or workshops. The primary concern is to maximize the economic potential that may be derived from the presence of these special economic zones.

Mandaluyong, one of the recently created cities in the country, is moving fast alongside its more affluent neighboring local government in Metro Manila. The fact is the city government of Mandaluyong has the distinction of becoming the first local government to enter into a B-O-T arrangement with a business consortium, the Macro Founders and Developers (MFD) to construct, to operate and manage its own public market. When the original market burned down in 1990, the government lost a good source of income. Local authorities had to find a way to construct a new one as soon as possible, but the local government of Mandaluyong had no budget for public works, more so for a public market. By resorting to the B-O-T scheme, the city government was able to construct a public market and a commercial complex. The city government admits that the programs success was a product of the support and encouragement of the various sectors in the area. Some P6M was allotted from the city governments General Fund for the operation of the new public market. The commercial complex was expected to operate at a cost of P15M annually, but income was expected to register at around P20M yearly. As projected, while serving some 60% to 75% of Mandaluyong residents, the new market would likewise accommodate around 500 stall holders and a similar number of personnel or more who would be employed by the establishments in the complex or contracted by MFD for the maintenance and security of the market. In addition, the land in which the complex was constructed was estimated to appreciate in value from P10,000 to P20,00 per square meter. This could generate greater potential income for the city government. MNDPs area-based strategies included: 1) the identification of area-specific economic ventures from food to industries and services and support systems from which a labor-intensive processing/manufacturing sector and an integrated and diversified agricultural sector could evolve; and 2) the promotion of tourist attractions for the whole region.

Source:
Legaspi, Perla P. Caobo, Wilhermina L., and Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin. Local Economic Promotion in the Philippines. Q.C.: LGC_PAKSA, U.P. and Public Administration Promotion Center, German Foundation for International Development, 1996.

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Modern Management in Philippine Local Governance

M
!

odern management involves creative and innovative approaches to management problems. These include non-bureaucratic mechanisms that do away with procedures, which slow down processes, experiments with solutions not tried before, or provide greater impetus to previous managerial experiments. For the local government units (LGUs), modern management techniques are meant to: provide greater efficiency in the delivery of area-wide services; ! upgrade and improve human resources capacity in keeping with the resurgence of the democratic spirit; and ! involve people in the processes of decision-making as well as in the implementation of public policies and programs. Many modern innovations are found in the areas of internal management, reforms in organization and management, human resource management and financial administration. These in turn lead to greater efficiency in systems and procedures and lead to better coordination and control of program and projects.

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In the Philippines, the passage of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 provided the needed mandates for the use of modern management approaches to local governments by:
!

giving them the responsibility for the administration of basic services; ! providing them the means to increase their revenues; ! involving people in local policy-making bodies; and ! helping the advocacy door open to them. These innovative approaches have improved the delivery of local services and increased the revenue of LGUs in the Philippines. It is important to note that with the presence of many innovations, there was less reliance on the local coffers. Instead, the LGUs were able to mobilize different sectors for financial support. Evidence had shown that the success of innovative programs lies in the involvement of the people in the different aspects of activities. Cooperation among the private sector, religious groups and non-government organizations (NGOs) was effectively utilized in many areas such as in the provision of safe water supply and the active participation of women in the provision of health care activities.

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There may not be conscious attempts to adopt modern management strategies in their technical forms, but the strategies do utilize aspects of these modern techniques.

Local government units have used the LGC to initiate and implement development activities, which would sustain viable livelihood for its people and to maintain a safe and healthy environment for local constituents. Localized efforts formed integral parts of the national agenda on sustainable human development, which in turn is part of the global agenda on sustainable development

Framework for modern management Careful utilization of human resources and their own powers can successfully bring about mediation of change through organizational development, human resource development and management, financial management and internal control.

Local Government Units Human Resources * Indigenous employees * Devolved employees Devoted Powers * * Traditional Non-traditional

Mediation of Change Management Interventions and Strategies

! organizational development ! human resources development and management

Local Development Outcomes

Financial Resources * * Local sources External sources


! Social Economic Social development

Leadership Peoples Participation Local special bodies Alternative delivery systems democratic accountability joint economic ventures

Economic developmen ! Econimic development Democratic governanc ! Democratic governance

development

SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES

Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Governance. LGC/ DSE. 1996.

On the other hand, these interventions need further boost from the people through: ! participation in local governance through representation in local special bodies; ! assistance in providing alternative delivery system; ! joint economic ventures with LGUs; and ! provision of checks to maintain democratic accountability.

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If efforts from the LGUs and the people are sustained, the intervention will lead to local development outcomes to propel and sustain social and economic development and enhance democratic governance.

Sources:
Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. Philippines: German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center CPA V.P., 1996 pp. 111-114.

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Efficient Delivery Systems and Public Accountability

Delivery systems

or an institution to be widely visible, it must be efficient and effective in manning its delivery system. Delivery systems refer to both the internal organizational network of the institution that delivers a particular service and the clientele that the institution serves.
Strategies that allow a mutually reinforcing set of functional arrangements between institutional delivery systems and its clientele will ultimately lead to institutional effectiveness.

Institutional efficiency may manifest itself in terms of a highly performing internal management and a delivery network responsive to the requirements of the end users. Furthermore, delivery systems, as an area to consider in strategy building in institutional sustainability, are valid and always relevant.

A standard measure of effectiveness is the capacity to create awareness among the clientele that they can do something for themselves without the coercive and primary influence of the state (e.g. when community leaders mobilize local resources for their own good) and the translation of peoples hopes and aspirations into one collective political action in the process of development.

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Public accountability
The concept of public accountability refers to the responsible use of power and the rational execution of duties and functions delegated to those who will administer them. This is a crucial condition for effective decentralization. Those who are to assume delegated functions and powers must not only exercise them for the public interest but must also be vigilant of the ethical and moral implications of their actions. This is the first cardinal rule necessary in the transfer of power.
Types of public accountability

Internal accountability at each level in a hierarchical organization, public officials are accountable to those who supervise and control their work. External accountability being responsible to concerned authorities outside ones department and organization for actions carried out. Public accountability- insulates the bureaucracy from partisan and unnecessary public censure. At the same time, it provides a framework for making and implementing government decisions responsibly.

How can accountability be sustained?


!

Effective use of administrative tools that can measure the performance of public agencies (e.g. measures on how a public agency uses its resources and achieve its institutional goals). ! Making the agency conscious of the need to develop its capacity or to innovate in making adjustments internally within the organization to ascertain its relevance and responsiveness to its constantly changing environment. ! Improve the capacity of a public office to predict how it should carry out its programs in the future to make the public agency predictably accountable (i.e. describing its mission and committing its resources in achieving its vision / goals).

Sources:
Sosmea, Gaudioso Jr. Breaking the Cocoon: Bureaucracy Reborn Local Government Development Foundation and the Konrad Stifftung. Manila, Philippines. 1995. Sosmea, Gaudioso Jr., Decentralization and Empowerment. Local Government Development Foundation. Manila, Philippines. 1991.

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NGO-PO Participation in Local Governance

articipation deals largely with the issue of power, the probability that one actor within a social relationship is in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance and the basis on which this probability rests.

Empowering ones self involves claiming a share of the power held mainly by the powerful. This necessitates the acknowledgment of a stronger and a more powerful entity outside ones self. Furthermore, reforms aspired for will remain ineffectual unless affirmed and consolidated by the current power structures.

Level
Policy Civil society

Measure of success
! Adoption and legislation of the non-government organization/ Peoples

Organization (NGO/PO) development program either in whole or in part by the government


! Strengthening the NGOs and POs that can keep the government accountable

and responsible to community needs Democracy


! Expanding the democratic space in which NGOs and POs function, increasing

their political legitimacy and improving the attitudes and behaviors of government officials and elites toward NGOs and grassroots groups

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Variables to be considered
!

The organizational ability of an NGO/PO to pursue its objectives and programs; ! Opportunities for participation provided by the government; and ! Receptiveness of local government officials to NGO/PO participation in governance

Indicators of effective participation


!

Adaption of NGO/PO program by the LGUs ! A more responsive and accountable government; and ! Increased political legitimacy of NGOs and POs.

Active civil society participation in local governance has led to a redefinition of the notion of governance in the Philippine context, one that goes beyond the formal structures and processes of governments. Over the past six years, various consultations have been initiated and conducted by the NGO community to review the Code, make proposals to amend it and study pending legislations on people participation and electoral reform. One such example is the National Coordinating Council on Local Governance (NCCLG) that operated from 1993 to 1996. It served as an umbrella network for NGOs that developed advocacy strategies to meaningfully implement the codal provisions for NGO participation in local governance.

The 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) recognized the inability of LGUs to perform the increasing responsibilities delegated to them by decentralization because of the:
!

LGUs limited financial and technical resources; ! limited capability of local government systems and officials; and ! need for an intersectoral convergence approach to development. Thus, the LGC mandates that LGUs enlist the support of POs and NGOs in the formulation and implementation of development policies and program. As the Code itself formulates specific mechanisms and guidelines on which to base a potential partnership between LGUs and the NGO-PO community, various venues of participation have been provided:
!
Empowerment is multidimensional-cultural, economic and political. Without political participation, there is no empowerment and without participation in governance, there is no genuine participation. Without participation of NGOs and POs, there is no genuine participation and no effective governance.

representation in local special bodies; ! sectoral representation in local legislative councils; ! mandatory consultations for national projects;

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accountability mechanisms of recall; ! financial assistance from LGUs for socio-economic development undertakings; ! joint ventures and privatization of local government enterprise; and ! local initiative and referendum.
Enabling and disabling factors for participation
Enabling factors
! openness and cordial relations between

Disabling factors
! mutual suspension and mistrust ! traditional politics ! rivalry between the sectors ! non-institutionalization of programs and

sector ! positive cultural environment ! establishment of appropriate structures ! acceptance of NGOs of the need to deal with government

projects

Through the LGC, decentralization, people empowerment and the struggle for power disadvantaged groups become intertwined. Various venues or opportunities for participation hoped to spur the organization and mobilization of the marginalized sectors. Conversely, the more critical, organized and active the local citizens are, the more the structures and processes of decentralization are strengthened. Various sectors working together can achieve self-reliance and ensure public accountability.

Possible fields of LGU-NGO / PO partnerships


! ! ! ! ! ! !

Policy formulation Local service delivery Local structures and systems Representation in local special bodies Joint programs and projects Administrative of justice Environmental management

Difficulties encountered in building strategic partnership with the government


!

Lack of skills of both parties which make them unable to effectively utilize local development councils ! NGOs/POs have yet to constitute an effective consultative and feedback process with their constituents ! The negative attitude of local officials toward the LGCs ! The nature of LDCs as purely recommendatory
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Factors affecting LGU-NGO / PO partnerships


LGU-related

Facilitating Factors ! openness of LGUs to NGO partners ! good historical ties with LGUs
NGO/PO related

Facilitating Factors ! track record ! resources ! capability ! expertise ! networking The role of civil society, NGOs and POs and the private sector in good governance is considered very important. In fact, experiences over the past five years have revealed that these various sectors -civil society in general have begun to play a key role as pressure groups, initiating projects either on their own or in collaboration with the LGUs and in involving themselves in the delivery of basic services to the people, which is at the heart of good governance. Unlike before, local officials are now more open and willing to understand the nature of developmental NGOs and POs. However, to further solidify and sustain this partnership and cooperation between the public and the civil society towards reform, it is necessary that both sectors continue to develop new perspectives about their respective development goals, programs and projects, and their basic needs and requirements.

Sources:
Addaba, Fernando T. An overview of the Research Literature on NGO-PO Participation in Local Governance in Local Government Bulletin. LGC-CPA-V.P. Volume XXXII Nos. 2-4, April December, 1997. Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. The Challenge of Good Governance. The Kyberman Group, Inc. December 1999. Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Decentralization, Devolution and Development in the Philippines. UMP_Asia. Occasional Paper No. 44. June 1999. Peoples Participation in Local Governance. Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs. Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines, 1995. Zialcita, Fernando et. al., Peoples Participation in Local Governance: 4 Case Studies. Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs, Quezon City, 1995.

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CHAPTER

TWO

Public sector reform through increased accountability and improved management

eing the biggest development agency in any country, government is mandated to provide for the efficient delivery of socio-economic services such as health, education, agriculture and livelihood. By the nature of its functions and with the realities of increasing demands for governments services and subsidies, any government must endeavor to improve and expand its administrative structure and machinery and enhance its operational capacities. This is done not only to achieve economy and efficiency in public service but also to undertake the task of nation building. For governments to perform their mandate and functions, they must be able to adapt to the rapid changes and exigencies of the environment both from within and outside the administrative organization. Past Philippine administrative experience was suffused with serious problems and difficulties which put to question the governments organizational and technical capacities to achieve its developmental goals and objectives. These problems, which were complex and pervasive affected the whole governmental system and operations. This often involved over centralization, limited facilities and resources, personnel shortage, rigid budgeting and programming of resources, highly standardized procedures and uniform packaged outputs, among others.

The timely passage of the Local Government Code of 1991 made it possible for the government, particularly the LGUs, to develop, introduce and adopt some modern management strategies and tools. These in effect provided order and stability to the business of government - that of improving the delivery of local services and increasing its revenues to sustain and expand the scope of such services. To date the continuing search and testing for more innovative management interventions remain. Such interventions are expected to pave the wave for the transformation of local bureaucracies into effective catalysts for change, enabling the realization of programs and projects identified with and by the LGUs immediate constituencies: local people. Chapter Two describes and analyzes some modern strategies and techniques which have been used by LGUs in the areas of organizational development, human resource development, financial management, fiscal administration, among others. This chapter also presents the relevant laws and regulations and administrative policies and some of the environmental, institutional and organizational problems that provided the context and the bases as for these management innovations. From the experience, additional insights and suggestions are forwarded for the eventual possible adoption by other LGUs in their respective efforts and functions.

Organizational Development in LGUs

rior to devolution, local governments in the Philippines were already providing services with their own complement of personnel, administrative machinery and local funds in the four basic areas (Health, Agriculture, Social Welfare, and Environment and Natural Resources). The local government units (LGUs) nearly always attempted to supplement national government provisions and oftentimes, field agents of the four national departments were called upon to lend logistical support. Field workers were under the supervision of the local chief executives. However, with their compensations being received from the national government, effective control was in the hands of regional directors as officers of the respective departments. Field agents usually have their official workstations near the provincial capitol or city or municipal government halls. When devolution started, these field offices were converted into technical assistance and monitoring arms of the national government.
LC G provision
Section 3b

Organizational characteristics of the LGU


Accountable, efficient and dynamic structure and operating mechanism Effective and efficient organization Structure and staffing pattern subject to CSC standards and guidelines

Organizational purpose
To meet priority needs and service requirements Responsible for the implementation of development plans, program objectives and priorities Takes into consideration service requirements and financial capability

Beneficiaries/ Objects
Communities

Section 18

LGUs

Section 76

LGUs

Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP. 1996.

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Organizational development and the Local Government Code (LGC) During the first months up to the first year of the implementation of the new LGC, there was little makeover, except that the number of personnel had risen tremendously. In fact, a typical LGU would simply lump the devolved function with all the other processes and activities of the LGU, without pausing to reconsider the new alignment of responsibilities and resources that the LGU now obtained. Before devolution, provinces, cities and municipalities were organized in the following manner.

Typical LGU organizational chart


Local Chief Executive Local Sangguniang Panlalawigan

Administrator* (if there is one)

Office

Office

Office

Office

Office

*An administrators position is mandatory only for cities under the Batas Pambansa 337, the Codes precursor.

Source: Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP. 1996.

The evolution process


The expansion of powers of local government in development planning and development finance eventually revealed the inadequacy of existing organizational set-up and management procedures. The process entails local determination of its own needs, local discovery of appropriate tools to address those needs and the local interpretation of the changes happening around them. As proposed, the internal management processes are separated (but still on an equal footing) from the direct-public services. Those at the bottom are in constant contact with the beneficiaries of the LGU services. Those above cater to the needs of the LGU to plan and map out strategies to keep it effective. Some LGUs have abolished some offices, created new ones, merged with others, and streamlined divisions among them to reflect new responsibilities they must discharge.

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Organizing for economic promotion


Creation of an office for economic enterprise development and management in some LGUs

In the past, this function was lodged within a division in the local treasury, being one of the means for income generation. But with the expanded LGU functions and powers in the Code, many local chief executives of well-off LGUs conceived of having an organizational device for the purpose of economic development (i.e. regulating existing enterprises in the area, developing cooperatives, promoting investment and formulation of related policy recommendations).
Formation of economic development task forces

The local department heads and key leaders from the business sector comprise these task forces.
Creation of organizational mechanisms such as a Cooperative Office and a Federation of Puroks to: ! harness peoples participation in decision-making; ! facilitate credit and financial support to help address the peoples livelihood needs; and ! collaborate with other public and private organizations in the areas of training and extension,

monitoring and evaluation.

Organizing for peoples participation


Representatives of accredited Peoples Organizations (POs), non-government organizations (NGOs) and individuals of good community standing were elected by their peers to sit on the board s (i.e. Development Councils, Art. 182; Pre-qualification Bids and Awards Committees, Art. 183; School Boards, Art. 184; Health Boards, Art. 185; Peace and Order Councils, Art. 186; and Peoples Law Enforcement Boards, Art. 187). These bodies generally act as advisers to the local Chief Executive and perform evaluation functions concerning development programs, educational budget priorities, bids and awards, peace and order, and health programs. Likewise, they serve as checks on the Chief Executives program. Almost all LGUs in the Philippines have constituted local special bodies. The initial months were bogged down by problems as charges of political manipulation, harassment and fraud were hurled by NGOs against local officials, business leaders and political figures. Mistrust between LGUs and NGOs rooted in their perception of opposing ideologies and the notion that NGOs are often unfamiliar with government mechanisms, weak in interpersonal skills in relating with local officials and do not know yet what they can do with the Code to advance the interest of their sectors.

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Conceptual framework for NGO initiatives


Local development outcomes
1. Effective planning and implementation at the local levels 2. Sustained benefits from development activity 3. Local capacity created and on-going so that groups and communities can manage development activities 4. People gain increased voice in decisionmaking

NGOs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type of NGO initiative Location and level of NGO operation Type of local development task Relations with the local government Strategic orientation and capacity
! ! ! !

Orientation and approach Financial strategy Organizational strategy Institutional linkage and policy strategy

LGUs
1. LGU policies, legislation and action 2. LGU administrative capacity to reach people at the grassroots 3. Priorities and content of development strategy and programs 4. Organizational channels favored for implementing development activities 5. Level of funding and resources available for development activities

Donor agencies
1. Level and type of funding 2. Technical and management assistance 3. Policy guidance and advocacy

Macro-environment
1. Level of political stability 2. Status of the economy 3. Degree of foreign donor intervention in economy

Adapted from Riker, J. Contending Perspective for Interpreting Government-NGO Relations in Southeast Asia: Constraints, Challenges and the Search for Common Ground in Rural Development, in Government-NGO Relations in Asia: Prospects and Challenges for People Centered Development. Ed. By N. Heyzer, J. Rikker, and A. Quizon, Kuala Lumpur: Asia Pacific Development Center, 1995:25.

To date, mistrust has been gradually overcome as cases of successful LGU-NGO ventures in community organizing, resource mobilization and project management and implementation proliferated. The current openness between LGUs and NGOs is an indicator of effective decentralization.

Source:
Tapales, Proserpina D. Perfecto L. Padilla, Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin with Eden V. Santiago. Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. LGC-UP College of Public Administration and German Foundation for International Development, Philippines, 1996.

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Human Resources Development and Management in LGUs

HRMO

T
! ! ! ! ! !

The initial expansion in scope of government activity vis--vis its workforce happened at the national level and then eventually radiated to the local level as the local government units started delivering devolved and new programs and services. Considered as the most notable development at the local level is the passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 that effectively devolved substantial powers, functions and responsibilities from the national government to the LGUs. In terms of personnel complement, the number of devolved employees from different agencies reached a total of 70,498 as the transfer were completed in October 1993. Department of Health (DOH) Department of Agriculture (DA) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Department of Budget and Management (DBM) Philippine Gamefowl Commission (PGC) National Meat Inspection Commission (NMIC) TOTAL 46,107 17,667 899 1,650 25 9 70,498

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With the implementation of the Local Government Code (LGC), the mandate of the transfer of personnel to the local governments in support of the devolution of certain functions and services posed problems of salary rates in the case of the transferred personnel. In fact, Philippine local government unit (LGU) personnel complement has greatly increased because of devolution. When the transfers were completed in October 1993, the number of devolved employees from different agencies reached a total of 70,498.

Problems encountered
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

initial mistrust between devolved employees and bureaucrats; low financial absorptive capacity of LGUs; snags in the transfer of salaries during the transition year; misallocation of positions in some departments; questions of loyalty to the local Chief Executive; non-absorption of some personnel with political problems; non-assurance of career advancement and capability-building; and resignation of some in order to avoid having to join local governments.

Among the other major human resource concerns that local governments must immediately address, particularly those in low-income areas, include: ! the clamor by the local employees for salaries comparable to those being received by their counterpart employees from the national government, particularly the health workers; ! ceilings on budget for personal services; ! lack of a Human Resource Management and Development Office (HRMDO) that shall spearhead human resource planning and implementation in the local government; ! lack of adequate career development plans and capability-building programs including management development; ! outdated job designs and performance review systems; and ! need for changes in recruitment and promotion policies and procedures.

Measures and processes adopted to address common human resource concerns


Adoption of systematic human resources planning ! Evaluative analysis of the personnel complements of the organizational units; ! Ascertainment of the reasonable number and appropriate classes of positions needed

by the LGUs; ! Projection of the estimated number of employees who may be retiring, resigning or transferring to other jobs; and ! Termination of personnel services because of organization overhaul.

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Establishment of HRMOs in LGUs

LGUs of small provinces and cities have been further strengthened with the designation of an HRM Officer under the Office of the Governor or Mayor.
Introduction of the career executive service vis--vis top-ranking officials of the LGU

This has provided extended vertical and horizontal mobility for local personnel, which in effect motivated their performance and enhanced their careers.
Conduct of continuing management development and capability-building programs for local officials and employees such as: ! Joint conduct of Local Administrative Development Program (LADP) by the Local Government Center-

UP-NCPAG and Local Government Academy; ! Distance Learning / Education Program designed by the University of the Philippines; and ! Conduct of job-related, hands-on training that involves the examination of real problems in real time by employees most closely identified with the job.

Some other preventive or remedial measures that may guide local officials and functionaries vis-a-vis issues and problems on Human Resource Management
!

On human resource planning

What may be done?


Maintaining an accurate information concerning the composition, capabilities and assigned tasks of the local employees. An organized, accurate and updated information system needs concerted efforts of both the local management and employees. It is not only the responsibility of the OHRM to rationalize the personnel records but the individual themselves should be involved particularly in supplying the required information.

On recruitment and selection

What may be done?


Strengthening of the Personnel Selection Board (PSB) which may push the LGU to strictly comply with the civil service policy of upholding the principles of merit and fitness in the selection of its personnel. This system can significantly upgrade the quality of future local personnel through proper screening of prospective applicants and employees for promotion.

Other actions that LGUs may consider:


! help skilled personnel who may be promoted, to require the needed education requirements ! conduct review classes to help non-eligible acquire civil service eligibility and to enable them to eventually upgrade

their positions.
! attract highly qualified personnel by offering, if they can, additional benefits/compensation to make them

comparable with what the private sector offers.

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On detailing of personnel

What may be done?


Detailing of personnel from one office to the other is supposed to be done based on the needs of the requesting office. This requires a thorough analysis of personnel records to ascertain if the personnel being detailed has the skills necessary to perform the job and that there is really a need on the part of the department for said personnel movement.

On compensation and benefits

What may be done?


Financially burdened LGUs may find ways to fully compensate their respective employees. For instance, benefits like amelioration allowance may be given on a staggered basis. In more affluent ones like in Metro Manila, they may give more financial benefits to their employees as long as they are within the limits prescribed by law.

On performance evaluation
What may be done?
LGUs should re-orient themselves in order to assign a new meaning to performance evaluation. They should review their performance evaluation system and develop it into something that can help the LGUs achieve their goals while improving employee performance. Performance evaluation should be used as a basis in making important human resource decisions.

On human resource development

What may be done?


Contents of capability-building program being offered by various training institutions are beyond the control of LGUs but they can be more selective in sending their employeesThe LGUs may address the idea of providing equitable human resource development opportunities by: 1. Creating policies regarding the availment of capability-building opportunities; and 2. Developing their own programs to meet the needs/priority thrusts/programs of the organization and upgrade the administration and technical capabilities of management and employees as well. The appraisal of the Local Sanggunian is important to be able to implement the HRD program of the LGU through the allocation of financial and logistical resources.

On career development

What may be done?


LGUs should see the importance of developing a career management system for its employees by providing opportunities as well as funding that would support capability-building and other activities designed to upgrade individual performance. A well-designed career development program for LGU personnel is imperative.

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On The creation and strengthening of the office for Human Resource Management

What may be done?


The greater responsibility for the management of human resources calls for the creation of a separate and distinct office for Human Resource Management in every LGU. Much of the personnel-related problems, from disorganized personnel records, non-observance of the principles of merit and fitness in the recruitment and selection process, unutilized results if the performance evaluation system, absence of a human resource development program and career management system, may be given proper attention and greatly facilitated if an adequately staffed OHRM is created.

Sources:
Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla, Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin, with Eden V. Santiago. Modern Management in the Philippine Local Government. LGC-UPCPA and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines. 1996 Sajo, Tomas A., Eden V. Santiago and Ma. Ernita T. Joaquin. Handbook of Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. Center for Local and Regional Governance. National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines. 1998.

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Financial Management Innovations in LGUs

he passage of the Local Government Code (LGC) has lent more importance to sound financial management in Philippine local governments. Not only have transfers in the form of LGUs share in Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) increased (from 30% to 40%), a lot of opportunities for revenue generation [bond flotation, lease/purchase scheme, credit finance, enterprise promotion and build-operate-transfer schemes] are now open to local governments. In managing, developing and controlling financial operations and other economic development functions, local governments can explore many options allowed by the Code. These possibilities may enhance local fiscal position and enable local government units (LGUs) to carry out well-financed programs.

Issues of inter-governmental relations in financial management


National government influence

The national governments role in local financial management extends beyond granting LGUs more money (e.g. IRA). It influences the allocation of resources, personal services and also the internal process of collecting and accounting of finances.
Restrictive policies

Local officials complained that national agencies like the Commission on Audit (COA) have not yet adjusted their regulations. Likewise, they have not provided guidelines supportive of fiscal decentralization despite the fact that new powers were already granted to local government pursuant to the LGC. The Rapid Field Appraisal noted this in the areas of Build-Operate-Transfer (B-O-T) schemes, bond financing, revenue utilization and asset disposal.

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Unfunded mandates

The creation of unfunded mandates continues to burden local governments. These mandates concern the congressionally approved benefits to local health workers, the use of their 20% development funds and even the recent Commission on Elections resolutions on LGUs partially funding the May 1997 barangay elections. In the absence of adjustments from national financial agencies, local governments are thus, constrained in using local finances in the way they see best. Tied to the unfunded mandates issue is the uncertainty that may be faced by local governments once the national government incurs a deficit. The Code provides that when this happens, the President is authorized to make the necessary adjustments in the IRA (Section 284 C) in consultation with the Department of Budget and Management(DBM), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Congress and local government representatives.
Need for modern financial systems

Based on the experience of local governments in the first five years of the implementation of the Code, only a few have taken steps to improve their fiscal situation. Some have adopted new revenue ordinances, but have not imposed new taxing powers. Collection efficiency of local taxes remains low and methods used in revenue estimation remain traditional. They have not exerted extra effort in generating more revenues to match revenue from external sources. LGUs dependence in the IRA is deepened by the bigger amount of allotment and its automatic release. In both revenue generation and budgeting systems, the issue of access and management of information are considered crucial. Other lingering problems include:
!

Borrowing and other non-traditional schemes to fund income-generating projects remain limited. ! Absence of a development plan and/or the weak vertical and horizontal integration of plans (i.e. a lot of LGUs have little discipline or patience to wait for submission from the lower levels nor for review and integration at the higher levels). ! Local governments remain traditional in the kind of development projects funded out of the Countryside Development Fund (CDF) of their District Representatives. Without discounting the benefits that may be generated by these projects (which are mostly infrastructure projects), they do not make up a whole plan for the development of the locality. Thus, such projects are not maintained primarily because the local government has not planned for their upkeep.

F CD

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The composition of expenditures remains focused on general government expenditures. Expenditures for social and economic services have not improved. The budget is practically devoted to the payment of expenses on personal services, maintenance and operating expenses and hardly shows its relationship with the targets or services that the LGU intended to provide for the fiscal year. Again, this reveals gaps in the planning and budgeting and lack of guidance and vision in LGU operations.

Capabilities and attitude of finance employees in revenue generations and administration

Efforts at maximizing revenues fall short when management processes remain unaltered and when the human resource component lack the needed skills. For example, the yield from taxation depends a lot on the coordination between involved officers as well as those of the LGUs. Local governments are way behind with the use of information technology because of its perceived cost and because of attitudes held by many local employees. An example is the fear of using a personal computer for lack of training. It not only results in efficiency loss but also upholds an attitude that old ways are still better than new ones, even if the latters benefits are greater. With respect to local development planning, a lot of LGUs have little discipline or patience to wait for submission neither from the lower levels nor for review and integration at the higher levels. Similarly at the national level, national agencies draw up their plans without tangible participation by local authorities. Caught in the middle of these exercises, local planners need a lot of creativity indeed.

Marikina evolved from a small town famously known for producing export-quality shoes into one of the most progressive and dynamic cities of Manila. It has traditionally prided itself as the Shoe capital of the Philippines where its shoe industry generates resources and provides employment for most of its people. The glorious place it holds, complemented by competent leadership greatly influenced and contributed to whatever transformation Marikina has achieved today. Revenue generation is one aspect of local governance where Marikina had shown an exemplary performance. Marikinas total income (local and external sources) steadily showed an increasing trend over the past five years. Its average annual income for some period (1992 to 1997) amounted to P338.8 million. As of August 1997, the city has already collected 93% of all its tax collectibles. This is a remarkable feat, which is not commonly found in LGUs. (continued next page...)

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Since taxes from real properties are said to be the most stable and productive tax base of LGUs, Marikina has been concentrating its efforts on real property tax collection campaigns aside from other taxes. These major activities consist of the following: General revision of real property assessment Marikina undertook a general revision of real property assessment beginning in 1994, which effectively increased its revenues. This explains the 81% growth rate in real property tax collections. Taxation of idle lands Marikina charged a four percent levy on idle lands and in doing so, the owners of idle lands were encouraged to improve or sell their properties. Improvement of the lands mean additional income for the city because of permit fees that must be secured/paid (e.g. building permit, excavation permit, etc.)

Rigid tax collection campaign To supplement the real property tax collection efforts, the Treasurers Office for the past several years has been sending eight local revenue collection officers to the field everyday. They are given a quota to visit 20 tax payers/houses on a daily basis.

Other revenue generation strategies The city administration is constantly on the move to look for ways and means that could increase the citys coffers. These include:
! designation of additional parking areas and

collection of parking fees (minimum of P5.00 for the first three hours plus P10.00 for every succeeding hour); and ! collection of P2.00 from public utility jeepneys for the use of designated loading and unloading areas. Proposed revenue generation strategies There are many other innovative strategies of generating revenues most of which are notably suggested by the city treasurer. Some are just waiting to be implemented while some are still under deliberation by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan or under study by the Chief Executive.
! Computerization of treasury operations

It is perceived to enhance the delivery of a fast and efficient service to the taxpaying public and to ensure transparency of operations. Marikina received a P3M financial assistance from the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) for its computerization program.
! Imposition of night parking fees

There are streets in the city, which are used as parking spaces of residents particularly during the night. Aside from depriving the public of unhampered use of roadway, illegally parked vehicles also cause accidents from time to time.

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The proposal plans to charge the concerned residents at least P3,000 per year for every car parked overnight on the road.
! Rehabilitation of the Marikina Sports Complex

The city now owns the Marikina Sports Complex building which it acquired from the province at P15M. Situated at a four-hectare lot including the area occupied by the provincial hospital, Marikina plans to have the stalls improved and lease them to private businessmen. At present, the city has rehabilitated the complex and now charges P2.00 for the use of the swimming pool and a minimal entrance fee for those who would like to play.
! Establishment of a mini-hospital Another possible source of income is the establishment of a mini-hospital (with a 20-bed capacity). This includes a plan to call up all medical practitioners residing in the city to render at least one hour a day of public service. Payment for their services will depend on the peoples capacity to pay.

Sources:
Tapales, Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. Philippines. German Foundation for International Development and Local Government CenterCPA-U.P., 1996. pp. 44-59. Santiago, Eden V. Case Study No. 3 Financial Management Innovations in Marikina. pp.100-110.

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Enhancing LGUs Fiscal Administration

oday, as we enter the third millenium, local governments are under the tremendous pressure to meet the challenge to perform and play a significant role in the pursuit of development, considering the currency crisis obtaining in the Asian region. With increasingly shrinking resources, local governments are in the quandary as to ways and means to carry out their two-fold mandate of delivering a wide array of basic services and keeping the wheels of development running. Improving the financial status and operations of local governments to enable them to carry out their mandate is the foremost concern. This concern compels them to give emphasis on the administration of their fiscal and other economic resources. An efficient and effective local fiscal administration becomes imperative for them. The 1991 Local Government Code (LGC) still daunts many local government units (LGUs), especially on using ones devolved powers in dealing with local revenue generation and utilization. Until serious efforts are undertaken to improve the fiscal administration of LGUs, local governments may not be able to face the challenges posed by the 1991 LGC.

Local fiscal administration refers to the natural, effective and efficient conduct of the fiscal functions and operations of local government units which embrace the systems, structures, processes and human resources involved in revenue allocation and utilization. In addition, such conduct of fiscal affairs is governed by laws and is affected by the fiscal policy environment, which defines central-local and inter-LGU fiscal relations. Source: Celestino, Malvar and Zipagan Sr., 1998: 5

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Problems confronting a local governments fiscal administration


!

The Local Treasurys inefficient handling of its two main tasks: revenue collection and accounting and bookkeeping. Some personnel with no specific functions were assigned to undertake various assignments. This practice often results to an overlapping of functions and buck passing. In most cases, nobody takes responsibility of admitting errors or mistakes.

Poor filing system. It usually takes office personnel an average of thirty minutes to an hour just to retrieve a single data on tax collected.

Strategies/activities LGUs should undertake:

accountability, Conduct of training programs focusing on fiscal accountability, technical capability building and effective systems and strategies for revenue generation and resource mobilization Such training could be done back-to-back with orientation on special economic mobilization. enterprises/areas (e.g. slaughterhouse and public management) since a significant amount of the annual income is derived from these establishments. Formulation of program/work systems The use of a flowchart for revenue generation provided systems. each personnel assigned in revenue collection a more detailed task and responsibility. Instilling the value of fiscal accountability among staff and taxpayers. The head of the Revenue Collection Committee/ Municipal Treasury, with the Mayors full support, exerts full effort to instill the value of paying local taxes to their own staff who, in turn, did the same to the taxpayers.
Insight into the experience...
Fiscal administrations cannot be learned nor implemented overnight. It entails a step by step implementation and constant exposure to the said field. With the right attitude and commitment, things learned during capability-building programs can be brought back to make a difference in local government.

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Continuing trends, lingering problems


After almost five years of greater fiscal autonomy, there is evidence that the content and performance of local fiscal administration has undergone some significant changes.
!

Local governments share in economic activity has taken a slight turn upwards, and deviated from the previous trend. Local government revenues and expenditures have registered a growing share in total general government revenues and expenditures in GNP, and per capital terms. This is however attributed mostly to the enlarged internal revenue allotment. The national governments played a major role in the fiscal decentralization process. On the one hand, the vertical fiscal relations were improved in terms of enhanced local taxing powers, improved shares from national internal revenue collections, reduced government intervention in revenue planning, budgeting and spending and in selection of fiscal personnel. But despite said improvements in local fiscal administration, some patterns remain and so are the problems that go with them that have been there even before the enactment of PD 231.

Local governments continue to treat the IRA as a dole out, depend on it as it has become more regular and predictable and have not exerted greater effort in raising revenues through the exercise of their taxing powers. The collection efficiency in real property tax remained low; and the property valuation used in assessment, outdated. Local governments continue to rely on one or two local taxes for revenue. The real property tax and the business tax remain the two major local taxes from which local units generate substantial amount or revenue. This is not suprising considering the absence of tax bases in many LGUs. Even the more prosperous LGUs have not shown extra effort in raising revenue from other taxes, fees and charges. Apart from the fees and charges listed in the code, LGUs have not come up with ways to augment their local income. Use of borrowing and non-traditional schemes to fund income-generating projects remains limited. We can only cite the experience of Cebu Province, the Municipality of Victorias in Negros Occidental, Legaspi City, Claveria, Mizamis Oriental and Naga City in the issuance of local bond to finance a local project. This observation augurs well to the traditional and conservative character of LGUs.

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The absence of a development plan is also a problem that affects not a few LGUs. The importance of having a well-conceived, well-studied development plan need not be stressed. It is very imperative for LGUs to produce such a plan, to map out their vision for the locality, come up with relevant programs and projects, estimate with accuracy the amount of money it needs to raise, how this could be raise. On the expenditure side, local governments remained traditional in the kind of development projects funded out of the 20% Development Fund and those funded through the pork barrel of their District Representative. An examination of the projects listed among those included in the 20% Development Fund would show that these are mostly infrastructure projects with little forward on backward linkages to more pressing needs of the locality. Without discounting the benefits that may be generated by these projects, they however do not make up a whole plan for development of the locality. The 20% Development Fund funds a host of small projects every year without the benefit of a long term plan.

The composition of expenditures remains focused on general government expenditures. Expenditures for social and economic services have not improved. The budget is practically devoted to the payment of expenses on personal services and general government expenditures with little money left for social services and economic services or capital outlay.

Challenges
The Code offers local fiscal authority broad enough for local governments to have a meaningful local autonomy and it is up for them to prove themselves capable of managing their own affairs, achieving the goals of their community and that of the nation. Local governments are therefore expected to maximize their taxing powers; impose new taxes; adopt the maximum rates provided in the Code; raise collection efficiency; religiously collect fees and charges, adopt new tax ordinances; use legal remedies in tax collection; and other resources to improve the fiscal status. The challenge to the national government is to consider suggestions to provide continued assistance to local governments. Improvements are needed with respect to a more equitable distribution of the internal revenue allotment, nationwide tax mapping of real properties, higher allocation in the national budget for interlocal projects prioritized by the Regional Development Councils, equitable distribution of ODA and continuous training and retraining of personnel on local fiscal administration, among others.

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Sources:
Lacuesta, Agnes and Roberto Tordecilla. Fiscal Administration in the Municipality of Alimodian, Iloilo in A Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. ed. by. Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Regional VI and Atone Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 113-121. Cuaresma, Jocelyn C., and Simeon A. Ilago. Local Fiscal Administration. Local Government Center-College of Public Administration. University of the Philippines and German Foundation for International Development. Philippines. 1996. pp. 125-129.

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Tax and Administrative Codification for Efficient Local Governance

odification is the act of systematically compiling and arranging the written collection of valid and existing laws classified by general subjects into one or more volumes. In the case of local governments, this is done in its ordinances, resolutions, executive orders and other regulations that have the force of law over the community in which they have been adopted.

The importance of codification


The codification process serves to eliminate ordinances and other rules that are obsolete, duplicative, invalid, unenforceable or of limited duration. Valid and current rules and regulations are codified to minimize, if not eliminate, wrongful legislation and administration. The process also offers the chance to write new rules to complement, augment or supplement existing ones. It also facilitates the effective exercise of regulatory powers by local authorities.

Process in the formulation of tax and administrative codes

Pre-drafting stage

All general ordinances of the municipality are collected, classified and arranged in chronological order (by date of legislation).

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Updating the ordinances involve:

Discarding all ordinances that have been totally revoked, duplicated, not within the taxing powers of the municipality, are contrary to declared national policy or provide for an administrative or regulatory measure which is discriminatory in nature to the conduct of business or calling.

Integrating ordinances that are amendatory to the basic ordinances that remain after discarding the others. Earlier amendatory ordinances, which have in turn been changed also by later amendments, need not be reflected anymore. These are then classified into major sections like health and sanitation and peace and order, among others.

Revision stage

This stage includes drafting the Code for subsequent review and approval by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, as well as examination of existing ordinances for correction, improvement and inclusion in the Code.

Bottlenecks in tax and administrative codification


1. Limited number of personnel (i.e. from the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) Secretariat or the Municipal Treasurers Office) working on the updating and revision of ordinances. 2. Lack of supplies and equipment that hampers the drafting of the Codes. 3. Unavailability of counsels to answer legal questions that arise during the drafting of the Codes. 4. Necessity to brief or convince newly elected officials who did not appreciate the project.

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Strategies/activities involving tax and administrative codification

Conduct of conference-workshops

Sessions on the relevance of improving the local Revenue Code (of the municipalities and basic concept of administrative codification in the local legislative process) were held. Municipal treasurers, SB secretaries, SB members, and other municipal officials participated in the sessions.

Forming local counterpart committees

Successful municipalities organized Local Counterpart Committees (LCCs), one for tax codification and another for administrative codification. The LCC was formed to coordinate the actual codification of the tax and administrative ordinances. The Municipal Vice-Mayor heads the LCC on tax codification, while the chairperson of either the SB Committee on Ways and Means, Finance or Appropriations acts as the vice-chairperson. For the LCC on Administrative Codification, the chairperson is still the Vice-Mayor while the vice chairperson is the SB Committee Chairperson on Rules.
Survey of Revenue Codes

Subsequent activities (of the consultants) included an initial review of the current revenue codes of the (participating) municipalities, an assessment of the current administrative ordinances to establish a database to improve the regulatory powers of the SB, as well as a hands-on training on the process of codifying administrative ordinances.

Comprehensive work plan (Based on LOGODEF-supported project proposal)


First month: 1. Meeting with municipal officials to explain the nature, purpose and requirements of the project and their respective roles. 2. Designation of coordinators and local counterpart project team. 3. Definition of roles and responsibilities of parties concerned. 4. Identification of sources of materials of the study. 5. Programming the search, retrieval and replication of study materials. (continued next page...)

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Second month: 1. Evaluation of administrative and tax materials to separate the useful from the obsolete. 2. Collation and review of usable materials. 3. Classification of materials by general subjects. Third and fourth months: 1. Writing of first drafts of the codes. 2. Sectoral consultation with external consultants. 3. Series of conferences with counterpart team. 4. Review of initial accomplishments. Fifth month: 1. Presentation to the Mayor, Vice Mayor and Members of the Sangguniang Bayan of the following documents: a) Final draft of the Code of Administrative Ordinances b) Final draft of the Code of Tax Ordinances and Tax Laws c) List of obsolete ordinances for consignment to the municipal archives. d) Legislative guides for predictive ordinances e) Draft of omnibus ordinance for the adoption of the Code of Administrative Ordinances and the Code of Tax Ordinances and Tax Laws. 2. Computer encoding of legislative records.

A model LGU that is Kalibo, Aklan


On November 29, 1995, the Sangguniang Bayan of Kalibo passed Municipal Ordinance No. 95-0024, An Ordinance Enacting the Revised Municipal Revenue Code of the Municipality of Kalibo, Province of Aklan which was eventually signed by the Municipal Mayor. The Municipal Treasurer started collecting taxes, fees and levies based on the provisions of the new ordinance on January 1, 1996. The Revised Municipal Revenue Code of the Municipality of Kalibo consists of seven major chapters: Chapter I. General Provisions includes the title and scope of the Code, definition of terms and rules of construction (i.e. how the provisions should be interpreted) Chapter II. Municipal Taxes contains the types and rates of taxes to be collected on businesses, peddlers, motorized and non-motorized tricycles, etc. Chapter III. Permit and Regulatory Fees taxes and fees to be collected include mayors permit on business, permit fees for cockpit, registration fees on fishing boats, dog license fee, etc. Chapter IV. Secretaries Fees this chapter contains provisions for the collection of secretarys fee, fees on local civil registry, sanitary inspection fee, etc. Chapter V. Municipal Charges this chapter contains market fees, slaughter and corral fees, fishery, charges for parking, etc. Chapter VI. General Administration and Penal Provisions this chapter details the collection and accounting of revenues , civil remedies for collection, and general penal provisions. Chapter VII Final Provisions this chapter contains the applicability and repealing clauses, together with the affectivity of the code. The codification of the administrative code started late in 1994 as the SB Secretariat initially concentrated their efforts on the codification of tax ordinances. Using a similar technique in tax codification, the SB Secretarial drafted the document chapter by chapter allowing the Sangguniang Bayan members to concentrate their efforts on only one particular topic at a time, enabling them to scrutinize the documents more thoroughly.

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Unlike in Tax Codification, the SB Secretariat and members of the Sangguniang Bayan had to undergo follow-through training in Administrative Codification for six days financed by the local government of Kalibo. Three LOGODEF consultants served as trainers and facilitators. The Sangguniang Bayan and the Municipal Mayor eventually approved the administrative code. The Administrative Code of Kalibo contains the following: Vision Statement Chapter 1 Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Chapter VI Chapter VII Chapter IX Chapter X Chapter XI Chapter XII Chapter XIII Chapter XIV General provision Rules of Procedure for the Sangguniang Bayan Municipal Contracts, Personnel Policies and Records Peace and Order Health and Sanitation Comprehensive Town Plan, Land Use and Zoning Public Market and Slaughterhouse Education, Culture and Arts Tourism Development Parks and Monuments House Numbering Assistance to Barangays Sale of Liquor

Unlike the Tax Code, the Administrative Code is still undergoing major revisions. The wide array of topics included in the Administrative Code made the document quite voluminous.

Lessons learned
In order to attain efficient local governance through proper tax and administrative codification, the following must be present:
! ! ! ! ! ! !

Proper planning Effective strategy Hardworking and competent staff Conducive working environment (availability of supplies and equipment) Supportive municipal leadership Dedicated Sangguniang Bayan Support from various institutions and sectors within the locality

Codification is just one of the many crucial steps for local development. Greater challenges still lie ahead, waiting to test the coping ability of local officials.

Source:
Anlocotan, Raul and Roberto B. Tordecilla. Tax and Administrative Codification in the Province of Aklan in A Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. Ed. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDALGSP Regional VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 86-103.

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Property and Supply Procurement in Local Governments

upply and property management covers the recording and inventory, custody of property, utilization and disposal of supplies and property of local government pursuant to existing rules and regulations. Furthermore, the local supply procurement system has been characterized as a lengthy and tedious process.

The process of procurement (as provided under the Commission on Audit (COA) Circular 92-386)

1 2 3 4 5
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The requesting office fills up a request form detailing the materials and supplies they need. Requests are crosschecked with the annual budget of the unit. The Property Division sets a bidding date and invites potential suppliers. Previously prequalified suppliers who want to bid are asked to submit price quotations for each item. The Procurement Officer prepares an abstract of the bid and selects the lowest price for each item as per COA regulation. The abstract is then routed to different signatories in the city hall. If approved, notices are sent to the winners of the bid. Suppliers are given two weeks to deliver and are penalized for any delay. A percentage of their deposit bond is deducted if deliveries are late. Supplies are delivered to the requesting unit in the presence of a Supply and Property Officer. Payment is made two weeks after delivery.

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Problems in supply management


Unresponsive government rules and systems

The units of the city government have quarterly allotments totaling to P10,000/unit without the mandatory 20% savings. However, the allotment is not enough to cover all the supplies needed by a particular unit or division for the year thus, affecting supply acquisition. The departments concerned are not able to take actions or plan their tasks accordingly, due to the absence of a feedback mechanism or progress report about the status of requests made.
Defective bidding system

The predominance of same bidders and suppliers make the bidding process less competitive. New suppliers are discouraged from competing for the contracts because of delayed payments and bond deduction in cases of late deliveries. Palakasan system is still evident during bidding. As such, bidding rules are not strictly enforced, resulting to complaint from other bidders. At the same time, getting quality goods and supplies for governments cannot be assured when the criteria for selection during the bidding is the price and the palakasan system. The General Services Officer (GSO) is also slowed by the lack of infrastructure. A warehouse or stockroom for supplies and equipment is required to store advanced deliveries. With the proximity of related offices, monitoring will be easier and the staff will be maximized.

Innovative strategies and activities undertaken to improve supply management


Conduct of a procurement and supply management training program

A Project Monitoring Committee composed of officers from the COA and the City Planning and Development Office was created to formulate the training design. This was done in consultation with key people from other non-government agencies and other agencies. The training was conducted for the rank and file, and division heads including the procurement personnel under the Property Office. The training provided an orientation about the basics of supply and property management. It included a workshop where participants were asked to suggest ways on improving perceived bottlenecks in property and supply management.

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Strategies formulation and implementation

The participants themselves identified strategies to shorten the processing of documents to eliminate delays and enable efficient delivery:
!

put up a separate procurement office; and ! cut the number of signatories by half and identify new ways of making purchases from more competitive bidders.
Other systems installation and empowerment

In particular, the procurement-processing period was shortened from one month to one to two weeks. A GSO with 27 personnel and headed by a GSO was created and tasked to address demands like property, supplies, material acquisition/ procurement management. It also oversees the management of janitorial services for the maintenance of cleanliness and sanitation and the upkeep of parks and median island along major thoroughfares of the city. Given the new challenges and the increasing demands on the LGUs, a refresher course to update government employees about property and supply management may be necessary.

The GSO of Bacolod City was created upon the recommendations of Bacolod City government participants of the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program, which sponsored a training activity on supply and property management. Prior to the training, only a Property Division under the Treasurers Office existed. Procurement was then a tedious process that needed 16 signatories from different departments. A simple request for a typewriter ribbon took two to four weeks of processing before it was approved. It took another two to four weeks before the requesting department actually got the supplies. The Bacolod City Government decided it was time for their LGU to have a separate Procurement Division under the GSO. The creation and expansion of a Procurement Division under the General Services Department promised some changes in the process:
! ! ! !

systems improved; the number of signatories decreased by half; priorities were set according to urgency; and things were worked out accordingly.

These changes helped ease some of the inefficiencies of the old system. However, problems in the procurement process continue to this day. There is still the urgent need for a warehouse to store old and new supplies and equipment. Some departments get special treatment and do not go through the normal process of procurement. Politics also gets in the way of bidding processes. These emerging problems have to be addressed if greater efficiency within the bureaucracy is aimed for.

Source:
Tumbaga, Letty, Leah Valientes and Nonita Adan. Towards a More Efficient Procurement Process in the City Government of Bacolod in A Breath of Fresh Air Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. ed. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 122 128.

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Successful Municipal Management Innovations

anagement innovation requires more than an ad hoc response to a failing local government performance. To be successful, it should be based on political initiative and should assume the properties of a strategic long-term effort.

A grand design strategy, announced with great political fanfare and outlined in all detail is doomed to fail. Management innovations in local government require flexible response to initial experiences and contributions from various stakeholders in the local governance. The reform drive must come from competent charismatic personalities, able to convince and win support. Politicians support for the new ideas must equally be won for the new ideas. Broad-based advocacy coalitions (i.e. cross-departmental cluster of senior administrators, politicians, business sector, civil society and media) must be forged to minimize conflicts.

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The central government or other higher levels of government must be supportive of the endeavor, at least not oppose it. Networking with other innovators at the national and international level and support by scientific analysis and publication can decisively increase the choices of success. A stand-alone approach would be a fallacy. To be sustainable, initial reform steps must be institutionalized and augmented by reform in other fields of governance.
Management innovations aiming for economic growth must take into consideration recent developments in science and technology and keep abreast of worldwide economic realignments. At the same time, they should safeguard gains made in the areas of sustainable human development. True, these innovations must be met by the private sector and state governments alike. However, governments that are closer to the earths resources and to the people can best meet the manageability and maintenance of these efforts. Thus, management innovations are perhaps best performed at the level of local government. The Philippine experience has shown that indeed, local government units (LGUs) have been responding to the call for managerial innovations, and that, in many ways, they have been relatively successful.

Sources:
Meyer, Wolfgang. Recent Innovations in Municipal Government. Manila, Philippines. Konraddeneur Stiftung and Local Government Development Foundation, 1998. pp. 3-5, 12-13. Tapales,Proserpina D., Perfecto L. Padilla and Ernita T. Joaquin. Modern Management in Philippine Local Government. Philippines. German Foundation for International Development and Local Government Center-CPA, U.P., 1996. p.2.

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Municipal-level Development Planning

he new Code mandated that all local government units (LGUs) formulate their own local development plans. While barangay and municipal governments were doing this prior to the new Code, their efforts were largely for compliance only to orders from the national government. However, given the demands of devolution and people-centered development, LGUs felt pressured to formulate their respective plans based on the situation of their respective localities and the articulated needs of their people. With limited resources, localities had to be guided by the development perspective and priorities had to be set. The process of local development planning at the municipal level, as prescribed by the new Local Government Code (LGC), is no easy undertaking. It can be plagued by bureaucratic hitches and can be hampered by cultural nuances, both from the community and government planners who have become used to doing things the old and easy way. Various approaches to spur local development have been attempted but have been short-lived. The lack of needed financial and human resources to sustain the efforts and the lack of coordination among national government agencies do little to ease this situation. In many cases, the local development councils rarely meet. Most of the local development plans were mere listings and compilations of past projects. Likewise, most of the plans submitted to the Planning Officer(s) were short-term and unresponsive to the needs of the community. For many Local Chief Executives , improving the local development planning process became a priority.

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Problems in municipal development planning


Taking a long and hard look at the composition and competence of the municipal development councils vis--vis planning, the following concerns become very apparent: ! lack of knowledge and expertise in the local planning process; ! lack of community participation in the conceptualization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of program and projects; ! lack of support for operationalization; ! lack of continuing commitment among those involved in the implementation of plans; ! lack of regular contact between members; ! frequent absenteeism; ! lack of measurable objectives and targets; ! lack of funds to support programs and projects; ! confusion in roles and relationships; ! difficulty in coordination due to political differences and unwieldy size of the council; ! failure to submit required plans and documents; ! failure to appreciate the importance of planning and to link plans directly to the budget; and ! failure to prioritize major council objectives and goals. Similarly, the much-desired convergence of participating agencies efforts and services in terms of joint planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of programs/projects were found lacking due to:
!

the absence of common undertaking of convergence and integration in the pursuit of developmental activities by agency implementers and local government units (LGUs); ! existence of competition rather than cooperation work attitude among high level agency administrators; ! difficulties in GO-NGO working relationship; and ! absence of an integrated work program.

One can look at development planning as an iterative process of formulating and implementing incremental development plans (as distinguished from the blueprint planning tradition in the past) to achieve total human development and the social transformation of communities involved in it. In effect, development planning provides a logical tool to make community people actively participate in defining and actualizing their own development priorities and programs.

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Any program on participatory development planning will have to operate within factors in the external and internal environment, which could either facilitate or constrain project activities and the attainment of its objectives, effects or impact in the target areas and population. In the 1990s, more and more development sectors have recognized the imperatives of people-centered and integrated planning:
!

It is the peoples categories and criteria, their analysis and plans, their reality and truth that count. The fact is, the people constitute the solution and not the problem. The beneficiary communities that have shared in planning, and not just implementing projects produced more sustainable results than those who have not. The high motivation among development planners to learn both what to know and how to do (together with the development participants) the build-up of peoples own capacity to realize their potentials as agents of their own change, gradually and eventually without the assistance (or intervention) of outsiders, but fully relying on their own.

Sources:
Garcesto, Sebastian and Letty Tumbaga. Municipal Development Planning in the Municipalities of Tubungan and Binangonan, Iloilo in A Breath of Fresh Air-Expressing the Possibilities of Local Governance Management e.d. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. Pp. 31 43. Provido, Maria Nesza and Letty Tumbaga. Barangay Development Planning in the Province of Antique in A Breath of Fresh Air Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management ed. by Letty C. Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP-Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA). Philippines, 1998. pp. 1130. Mercaida, Enrique G., Introducing Participatory Planning Practices with Local Governments Learnings from Nueva Ecija PRISP-PP Project. Y. C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite, Philippines: International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 1997. Unpublished Materials. Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program, Department of Agriculture (PRISP-DA). Participatory Planning. A Joint Project of the Republic of the Philippines and the Commission of the European Union, Quezon City, Philippines. 1996.

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The Ilog Experience

Basic Strategies and Methods in Municipal Level Development Planning:

evelopment planning at the local level, particularly at the Municipal level, presents a major challenge in enabling goods and services to reach intended beneficiaries effectively. A sound and responsive plan involves active participation of various stakeholders in its formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. With different agencies and organizations engaged in the planning process, the task of putting different perspective into unified and concerted manner becomes a problem without a systematic way. The convergence strategy, as operationalized by the International Institute of Rural reconstruction (IIRR) in Ilog, Negros Occidental, Philippines, offers some insights in enabling participatory planning to happen at the Municipal level.

Planning context
The Area-Based Child Survival Development Program (ABCSDP), a national program assisted by UNICEF, was implemented in several Philippine municipalities including Ilog in the Province of Negros Occidental. The Social development Committee (SDC), comprising government and non-government agencies, managed this program at the municipal level (see organizational structure on p. 61. IIRR assisted SDC in puttingthe convergence concept into action.

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Making convergence work: The IIRR-ABCSDP, Ilog, Negros Occidental experience


Conduct of training for the Social Development Committee as a collective management body.

The focus of capacity building for the SDC was on program/project management cycle (situation analysis, objective setting, strategy formulation, work and financial programming, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation) through the training-sction-reflection-training-action-reflection (TARTAR) approach.
Formulation of an Integrated Municipal Implementation Plan (IMIP)

From separate plans prepared by each of the different implementing agencies, the Social Development Committee (SDC) came up with a unified Area-Based Child and Development Program (ABCSDP) plan for the municipality adapting the following steps:
Situation Analysis

This involved listing of the total number of household heads in each village by a Key Informant Panel (KIP) composed of 7-15 persons from the village itself. The KIP members are the most credible and knowledgeable of the locality and its people. They also represent the different sectors within the community (e.g. farmers, landless workers, fisher folks, women, youth). The KIP used the focused targeting method in classifying the households. This method involves the categorization of households into: A (rich), B (better-off), C (poor) and D (poorest of the poor) using common socio-economic criteria (i.e. ownership/access to land and resources, income level and sources of income, type of shelter, family size and other distinguishing characteristics were applicable). The process ensured that the poorer households with the worst and most number of the malnourished children (with respect to the ABCSDP target beneficiaries) received the highest priority in terms of service delivery.
Objective Setting

The socio-economic stratification of the households and their characteristics served as the baseline data on project objectives. This was done by stating the desired outcome and impact of the intervention in a given time frame.

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Strategy formulation

To achieve the given objectives, the SDC reviewed the previous strategies by analyzing its strengths and weaknesses and consequently identified areas for improvement. The analysis revealed the need to systematize the implementation of strategies and activities, and adopt a common framework for all the implementing agencies in the areas of training, organizing, credit extension, monitoring and evaluation and financial management. To ensure systematization and administrative supervision of the work in these aspects, corresponding sub-committees were created.

Organizational Structure of the Social Development Committee (SDC)


Municipal Development Council (MDC)

Committee (SDC) Council

Social Development

SDC General Assembly

Chairman

Secretariat

Finance Sub -Committee

Vice-Chairman

Training Management Sub-Committee

Credit And Savings Sub-Committee

Sub-Committee On Organizing

Monitoring Coordinator & Evaluation SubCommittee

Source: Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural Development Program. IIRR. March 1994.

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Work and financial programming

The SDC is divided into working groups according to the technical specialization of its members and in line with the four components of ABCSDP: Components Health Livelihood Education Self-government Specialization Maternal and child survival Agri-based projects Strengthening maternal and child survival through formal and nonformal education Integrated support services Each technical working group came up with an annual Work and Financial Plan identifying the activities to be undertaken by whom, in what village, the required resources in terms of funds and time, and the expected outcomes of each activity. The draft of the plan went through a round of discussion in a plenary to ascertain consistency with objectives and strategies, attainability of targets, complementation of efforts, practicality of costs and to level-off information. It was then approved by the SDC assembly and adopted as the common program plan for the program in the municipality known also as the IMIP.
Devolution of the responsibility for resource allocation and management

The IMIP was submitted to the core group of ABCSDP at the provincial level for review and action. Then, the SDC, negotiated for resources with the different implementing agencies. The difference in requirement was requested from the donor institution (i.e. UNICEF) through the provincial government. Subsequently, the financial support granted by the donor was released to the SDC through the Office of the Provincial Governor as a trust fund in lump sum instead of separate releases to individual agencies as done before. The SDC correspondingly finalized its systems and procedures of managing the funds at the municipal level. It also installed mechanisms for control and transparency by updating and reporting the status of each activity during the monthly meetings. In this manner, the responsibility and accountability over the program rested on the SDC at the municipal, rather than on agency heads at the provincial level.
Establishment of Municipal Revolving Loan Fund (MRLF)

The funds intended for income-generating projects, which used to be implemented by three different agencies, were pooled into a single loan fund. The SDC Sub-committee on Credit and Savings administered this combined fund and is guided by a common set

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of policies. The sub-committee used the priority listing of beneficiaries as the basis for granting financial assistance. It standardized the rate of interest and secured completion of the same basic requirements. The same beneficiaries became the focus of organizing work, training (technical, project and organizational aspects) and delivery of basic health services. Aside from the financial support, there was convergence and complementation of and by the other essential services to these priority beneficiaries.
Implementation of Municipal Program Monitoring System (MPMS)

The SDC formulated a monitoring, coordination and evaluation (MCE) system adapted from the conventional MCE system of ABCSDP in the province. While using the same monitoring instruments, the process flow, however, ensured that gathering, processing and utilization of data and information happen meaningfully at the municipal level. Before, the agency implementors at the municipal level merely served as data gatherers whereby the processing and utilization were done at the provincial level. Again, the SDC formed a corresponding sub-committee to oversee the task. As monitoring and project reports were discussed in the SDC meetings, its members were able to use quality data and information to arrive at decisions and necessary actions. Likewise, periodic reports were forwarded to the provincial level for information and coordination.
Dimensions of convergence achieved
Spatial convergence This refers to the concentration of services within the defined geographical areas of the municipality called convergence villages. This was done to prevent the SDC from spreading itself and its resources too thinly. Thus, interventions were focused in these target villages. Notably, focus on certain spots was necessary to effect impact. Convergence in target population This covers the identification and prioritization of intended beneficiaries common to all involved agencies, their services and projects. In this way, the resources and services of the program were brought to beneficiaries who were most in need of assistance. Convergence of institutional mechanisms of service delivery This facet refers to the systems and procedures in the SDC that were installed and formulated for the implementation of the program. As expected, the ABCSDP coordinated multi-agency and multi-level efforts (i.e. presence of vertical and horizontal linkages between delivery units and policy-making bodies at all levels of the local government structure). Convergence of intentions and actions Integrated Municipal Planning This presupposes that objectives, activities and resources of different agencies were complementary and focused on the common priority beneficiaries and their respective barangays. Convergence in program/project management-iterative process This emphasizes a participatory program/project development cycle whereby the SDC was able to manage the ABCSDP and tailor its strategies and activities according to the needs of the people in the community. Apparently, both the beneficiaries and the implementors of the program played active roles in the development process.

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Components of convergence
Shared philosophy, principles and concepts of development

Everyone involved in the implementation of the ABCDSP must have a common understanding of the philosophy and principles of a poverty-focused integrated development program. Likewise, the concepts akin to the program (i.e. peoples participation, self-reliance, sustainable development, appropriate technology, community organizing and social laboratory) are accepted and internalized by both planners and implementors. The efforts of the members must also be recognized and appreciated to prevent conflicts as well as enhance integration.
Decentralized decision making and resource allocation

This pertains to the ability of the SDC, the body tasked to manage the ABCSDP at the municipal level to make decisions and mobilize resources toward the achievement of objectives. Specifically, this role calls for the committee to:
!

plan activities and determine the kind and amount of resources needed to carry out such activities; ! acquire the resources needed to implement such plan; and ! manage the day-to-day affairs of the program. Thus, the program management role as well as the authority and accountability over the use of financial resources were devolved to the municipal level. These tasks were performed earlier by the implementing agencies at the provincial level.
Integrated program management

These are the unified systems and procedures adopted by SDC, which were meant to make convergence happen. The aspired outcome was the development of a unified plan for the municipal ABCSDP, which would serve as the guiding instrument of all the program implementors. Through the Integrated Program/Project Planning, Programming and Budgeting System, the SDC members identified their common target beneficiaries and specified intervention. This was done in an orchestrated fashion to prevent duplication and conflict of efforts as well as occurrence of gaps. Concerted moves were demonstrated in the scheduling of training activities whereby the technical skills of the implementors were deliberately chosen to complement each other. The cycle of trainingaction-reflection was adopted as a standard procedure to internalize the technical inputs.

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The four mutuals of convergence


The four mutuals make up one of the basic elements in the practice of rural reconstruction. It promotes convergence by enhancing teamwork. These mutuals are: 1. Mutual knowledge Knowing each others goals, objectives, programs and services, as well as strengths, weaknesses, resources and limitations, both professionally and personally. This point of commonness permits each one to understand respective standpoints and, thus, tailor expectations. 2. Mutual trust A broader familiarity of each one brings about better anticipation of reactions and dynamics of the interaction. The individuals are able to employ more effective coping mechanisms, thereby, reducing the chances of conflict. Furthermore, the atmosphere of communication is enhanced since there is a greater chance of being understood for certain behavior. 3. Mutual respect To express thought openly while others are willing to listen and understand message eventually command mutual respect. This stance results to a feeling of importance of personal worth and dignity by the persons involved. 4. Mutual help or teamwork With mutual knowledge, mutual trust and mutual respect in place, the individuals of the project team are bound to extend spontaneous support at any hint of need. Assistance is provided in a manner that is mutually beneficial and complimentary to the rest of the members. Hence, work is expected to be more effective and efficient.

Shared Philosophy, Principles and Concepts of Development Four Mutuals Decentralized Decision-making and Resource Allocation Integrated Program/ Project Planning, Programming and Budgeting System Convergence of Program and Services

Operational Framework of Convergence

Source: Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural Development Program. IIRR. March 1994.

Source:
Sabio, Eduardo A. Making Convergence Strategy a Workable Management Tool in Integrated Rural Development Program. Working Paper No. 41. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang Cavite, Philippines. March 1994.

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(The Iloilo Experience)

Basic Strategies and Methods in Municipal Development Planning

he implementation of the Philippines-Canada Local Gevernment Support Program provided a strong foundation to strengthen the capacity of national and regional government authorities in planning, programming and project implementation. LGUs from the provincial to barangay levels have since exercised greater authority in their fiscal and decision-making tasks. More importantly, they have been able to successfully plan, prioritize investment and implement projects and take more effective control over the necessary financial and human resources. Presented below are some lessons on Municipal Level Planning drawn from an experience in Iloilo.

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Formation of a municipal project technical team composed largely of municipal career officials

The teams members include the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator, Budget Officer, Local Civil Registrar, Engineering Assistant, and the Secretary to the Mayor whose main responsibility is to ensure continuity in plan formulation, implementation and evaluation.

Conduct of a series of training programs with the following major components:


!

Training program on development orientation. The aim is to update the participants on the status of present development situation vis--vis the aspirations of the LGC to assist the members of the MDCs in conceptualizing social development programs.

Teambuilding on community leadership and mobilization training. This was designed to clarify leadership roles to strengthen teamwork and bring about effective working relationship among council members.

Sustaining peoples initiatives


while members of the MDC enhanced their skills in data collecting for their communities and now appreciate the importance of a collective vision that can help generate commitment, concerns over the sustainability of the gains are evident especially with the MDC membership changing with each new administrator. The local chief executive has to have the political will to institutionalize the planning process. Without political will, the gains so patiently won can be easily lost. Time and the lack of correct practices are two possible variables that can work against municipal development planning.

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SEP training of trainors. This was designed to promote program sustainability. Regular MDC members and the Municipal Project Technical Team attended the training. Socio-economic profiling and collection training. Participated in by the MDCs, the Project Technical Team and the local chief executives and/or their representatives, this was designed to develop skills in research data collection. SEP data analysis workshop. This is where the Municipal Project Technical Team reduced the data collected into a meaningful whole through classification, tabulation and determination of measures of central tendency. V isioning and strategic planning workshop. Local chief executives, MDCs and the MPTTs Visioning reflected upon the ideal scenarios for their municipality, the mission they jointly defined, and representative programs and projects that gave substance to the vision. Training on resource sourcing and mobilization. This was designed to allow MDCs to locate resources (financial and in kind) that can be tapped to deliver priority programs, projects and services defined under the Medium-term Development Plan of the Municipality.

Plan formulation and integration

The MDCs formulated the long-term and annual socio-economic development plan and policies based on the consolidated needs of the barangays as articulated in their respective Barangay Development Plans. All the barangay captains occupied majority seats in the MDCs. As such, their needs were considered during the municipal plan formulation. Other integral processes or activities undertaken were:
!

Situation/needs analysis. This activity essentially identified gaps in service delivery, the extent to which basic needs are met, service demand and supply gaps, the interrelationship of needs for sectoral planning, development constraints and weaknesses (SWOT analysis), and evaluation of on-going programs and projects. In effect, it provided an overall account or a profile of the economic, social, physical and institutional conditions of the locality or the barangay. Moreover, based on the profile, critical development problems and potentials of the municipality were identified.

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Formulating the development plan framework


1) Summarizing the causal interrelationship of the problems and issues identified in the needs assessment. 2) Goal formulation was based on the question WHERE DO WE WANT TO GO, given the LGUs problems/needs and resource potentials and constraints. 3) Objective setting or concretizing/specifying goals-answering the question WHAT DO WE WANT TO ACHIEVE IN PARTICULAR. 4) Strategy formulation or defining the ways of achieving the targets set, or HOW DO WE GET (using SWOT analysis).

Formulation of the Municipal Medium-term Development Plan. The situational analysis provided the basis for the formulation of the development goals and objectives. Appropriate development policies and strategies were identified to achieve the formulated goals and objectives. The development plan framework at the municipal level took into account the identified vision, goals, objectives and strategic options embodied in the barangay development plans. As it were, the municipal planning activities were based on the consolidated barangay development plans as well as in collaboration with the barangay captains during the MDC planning sessions. Moreover, barangay programs and projects, which could not be funded by the 20% development fund were prioritized and then submitted for integration into the municipal plan and investment program.

Composition of the MDC by Sector


! General Public Services ! Education, Culture and Sports/Manpower

Development Health, Nutrition and Population Control Labor and Employment Housing and Community Development Social Security, Social Services and Welfare\ Economic Services (agriculture, trade, industry, tourism, etc.) ! Other Sectors: # Land use planning # Infrastructure planning
! ! ! ! !

Arrangement for sectoral plan coordination and integration. Integration of sectoral plans developed by the concerned sectoral or functional committees and other offices then became the responsibility of the Municipal Planning Development Coordinator (MPDC). To do this, the MPDC had to analyze and crosscheck sectoral plans for possible inconsistencies, conflicts, duplication or omission before the municipal plan could be finally integrated. The analysis of all identified sectoral projects involved examining projects for common purpose, geographical area or infrastructure requirements. Coordination and integration is achieved by:

Forging a strong LGU-NGO partnership by encouraging the involvement of peoples organizations in the sectors they were most interested in. Sectoral committees were also formed to serve as advisory bodies to the LGU for investment programming and budgeting. Moreover, recommendations on sectoral plans were sought from special bodies on health, the school board, and the peace and order council. ! Holding of sectoral dialogues/meetings. While sectoral planning activities were going on, dialogues among sectors were conducted at the MDC to ensure inter-sectoral issue awareness. The close correlation among factors within and outside the sector justified the need for an integrated approach to planning among these productive sectors.

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For the Municipalities of Bingawan and Tubungan of Iloilo, various approaches to spur local development have been attempted but have been short-lived. The lack of the needed resources to sustain the efforts and the lack of coordination among national government agencies do little to ease this situation. Mayor Zafiro Palabrica of Bingawan decided to use his skills and development orientation to facilitate true changes in his community. Dissatisfied with the manner of local development planning in Bingawan, he initiated consultations and dialogues with the local development council and was backed by a supportive MPDC. He saw that many plans failed to maximize the development interventions offered by national government agencies and NGOs. The local chief executive of Tubunga, Iloilo, Mayor Pedro Tagabi, upon his entry into government, expressed the same sentiment. He was irked by his municipalitys local development planning process, which proved to be quite ineffective. The local development council rarely met. Most of the local development plans were mere listings and compilations of past projects. Most of the plans submitted to the Planning Officer were short-term and unresponsive to the needs of the community. For both local chief executives, improving the local development planning process became a priority. It was timely that the Provincial Government of Iloilo, aware of this prevalent deficiency among its LGUs, designed a capabilitybuilding project to augment the knowledge, skills, and orientation of their local development planners. Training and consultations were conducted from the municipal down to the barangay level. The Municipalities of Bingawan and Tubungan participated actively and benefited from the program, which was supported by the CIDA-Local Government Support Program.

Sources:
Garcesto, Sebastian and Letty Tumbaga. Municipal Development Planning in the Municipalities of Tubungan and Binangonan, Iloilo in A Breath of Fresh Air-Expressing the Possibilities of Local Governance Management e.d. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. Pp. 31 43.

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Development Planning at the Barangay Level

arangay development planning is a basic mechanism that local government units (LGUs) need to adopt for promoting people participation towards local development. It is important for barangays in terms of deciding in advance what should be done to develop the community, improve basic services and upgrade the quality of life of its constituents. It maximizes the use of barangay resources on programs, projects and activities that are priority needs of the people.

A Barangay Development Plan is an official document of the barangay wherein the problems, needs and aspirations of the community are identified, prioritized and pursued on the basis of available resources.

Best planning practices at the barangay level


Activation/orientation of the Barangay Development Council (BDC) and the barangay planning body. The BDC is tasked to mobilize peoples participation in local development functions, prepare barangay plans, and monitor and evaluate the implementation of national and local programs and projects. An assessment of the BDC status was first done to identify the influence of BDC organization and provide assistance in organizing the BDC sectoral committees. Formation and legitimization through a Sangguniang Bayan resolution of a Barangay Planning Team (BPT). The BPT was authorized to undertake planning and budgeting with the agreement that their proposed development plan and budget has to be submitted and approved by the BDC and the barangay council.

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Effects of participatory planning


! Broadening the number of people in the municipalities and barangays with knowledge skills and attitude supportive

of participatory planning. The constituents, in particular, saw the advantage of taking part in planning.
! Promotion and internalization of participatory planning process involving the people themselves and

accomplishment of more tangible outputs (i.e. Strategic Development Plan, Annual Investment and Operational Plans, Project Concepts and/or Proposals).
! Partnership of the government, NGO and other private sectors, which provided for coordinative and collaborative

arrangements between them.


! Flexible and appropriate planning tools and methods that made possible the introduction of necessary changes

mutually agreed upon by program/project managers and the people themselves.


! Provision of technical assistance to local government units/officials functioning as municipal trainors in barangay

development planning.

Conduct of training in the localities with the BDCs clustered into five barangays. The training included topics on various development perspectives and development planning processes (i.e. situational analysis, participatory rural appraisal tools and technologies, adult learning, facilitation techniques, use of appropriate media, problem identification, objective setting, map preparation and interpretation, investment prioritization and preparation of a simple budget proposal).

Working with barangay officials and other sector leaders to schedule the activities and . encourage participation and attendance. The schedule of activities had to be done primarily by the BPT, dividing the work among them and assigning each member to a particular segment or sub-area in the barangay.

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Mapping. Led by the BDC and /or BPT, participants are involved in preparing the physical maps of the barangay (e.g. transect, location map and designate, and interpret map symbols). Situation Analysis. Again led by BDC and/or BPT, the residents were involved in developing and preparing simple instruments for data collection, environmental assessment including agro-socioeconomic conditions affecting the barangay and the presentation of the data gathered during barangay, purok and sitio assemblies. Identification and prioritization of potential growth areas. From the situational analysis, the people, through the facilitation of the BDC and/or BPT identified agro-socio-economic growth areas, analyzed these potential areas of growth and finally compiled all the data pertinent to them. The same data made it possible for the BDC and/or BPT, together with the people to rank problems and needs according to their importance to the community, identify available or potential resources (funds, projects/ programs, technical expertise, community capabilities and natural resources) and develop a barangay profile. Formulation of development vision and strategies. At this particular stage, the community should be in full realization of the barangays situation and potential. Together with the barangay officials, the people then got themselves involved in the development of the vision and goals of their community, identifying the development strategies applicable at the barangay level, and purposively, coming up with a strategic plan (say for the next five years) to be validated and adopted eventually by the whole barangay constituents. As observed, these vision and mission statements often reflect sustainable, equitable and gender responsive perspectives, which in effect were adopted by the people themselves. Many of them envisioned their communities to be self-reliant, industrialized, developed, clean, complete with facilities, God-fearing, and vigilant of natural and human resources. Preparation of plans (development, investment and operational). In formulating their respective plans, barangay officials . reviewed their lessons assisted by competent provincial and municipal trainors (i.e. the Provincial Planning and Development Officer and the Municipal Planning Task Force (MPTF) and constantly referred to their manuals (as provided for/under the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) circulars) for the various concepts and processes. Considerable time was also utilized in conducting either a barangay assembly or sitio and purok meetings to analyze and validate the information to be incorporated in the Barangay Development Plan and Budget. The final Barangay Plan and Budget was submitted for approval through an endorsement by the Sangguniang Barangay.

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Preparation of project concept/proposal for external funding. The municipal trainors led the . barangay officials in the preparation/writing of project proposals to be submitted to prospective donors for funding. Based on the topography of the involved barangays, there was an apparent diversity in the investment priorities especially in resource management. Upland barangays lined-up such projects as sloping agricultural technology, ecological awareness, reforestation/tree planting along lakes, small water impounding, high value crops production, livestock production and nursery establishment. Lowland barangays identified the need for pre-and postharvest facilities, and inland fishery production. Coastal barangays concentrated on coastal rehabilitation (artificial reef and marine sanctuary) and the administration/management of bangus fry production and marketing. Monitoring and evaluation. Integral in the plan was the setting of a monitoring and evaluation framework to gauge the effect and impact of the project on its intended beneficiaries. The assessment was considered essential in providing necessary feedback on the projects operational efficiency and effectiveness. To pursue the same, the data to be gathered and analyzed would include outputs and outcomes of activities (as indicators of performance), problems and solutions or remedies undertaken and impact indicators vis--vis the results of the planning process and the plan itself. The barangay units viewed their little strides towards institutionalizing barangay development planning as a major step in the realization of the bottom-up/grassroots planning approach. Although they faced problems (e. g. administrative timidity in the implementation of ordinances and weak project implementation), they recognized their big gains in terms of attaining people empowerment and countryside development.

Identified project effect and impact indicators


! ! ! ! !

Number of pool trainors developed Participatory planning mechanisms instituted Institutional arrangements for sectoral coordination Member of organized and capable BDCs Number of barangays institutionalizing barangay development planning LGSP-Antique Experience

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Little strides, big gains: Barangay development planning after the interventions
! Barangay officials were able to determine the nature and status of their localitys development,

! !

hence, they felt better equipped to formulate plans that were reflective of and responsive to the needs of their constituents. ! Barangays can now make more realistic plans with very little assistance from the municipal development officers. ! To many barangays, the investments priorities made after the training were much improved compared to past formulations. In the past, barangay plans catered to self-serving politicians. These recent investment lists embodied socialized housing, sanitary toilets and potable water projects, among others. Strong partnership between the government and the private sector (e.g. NGOs giving technical and financial assistance during the plan preparation stage) substantially contributed to the enhancement of barangay planning towards an improved quality of life among the people. BDCs became active as they went through the various stages of organization and re-organization and were heavily involved in the planning process. Most barangay officials noted a change in their view of leadership - from merely administering day-to-day activities to being proactive, foresighted and anticipative - changes that had relevant impact on their locality. They likewise recognized that traditional politics and becoming self-serving leaders would end their political careers as it did their predecessors. Barangay officials were innovative enough to institutionalize certain mechanisms (others called it gimmick) to encourage more people participation in the planning efforts (e.g. a raffle with door prizes, assignment of a teacher or adviser per purok to represent the people during assemblies, passing an ordinance requiring a penalty of P15.00 per household for those who failed to give a valid excuse for not attending the meeting).

Issues and problems of the barangay development planning (based on the DA-PRISP Nueva Ecija experience)
! The planning coincided with the planting season, hence the limited attendance and participation ! ! ! ! !

of some Barangay Planning Team members and residents. Unsupportive barangay officials. Low or minimal support of some local chief executives (LCEs). Limited, if not the absence, of transportation facilities and supplies for use by the MPTFs. The wait and see attitude of barangay residents and high expectations from projects after the planning activities. Apprehension on the part of the MPTFs as to the effects of the local barangay election and other political activities.

Loopholes in project planning and implementation


Funding. Many municipalities have not been able to implement the training due to lack of counterpart funds.

Lack of preparatory materials. As observed, much of the time of resource persons/trainors was spent researching on topics assigned to them so the handouts were submitted only after the training.

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Lack of NGO involvement. Some municipalities do not have NGO representatives because the municipal mayors did not give them office orders to attend the training. Lack of coordination between the Project Management Staff and NGO regarding selection of participants also contributes to this problem

Logistical problems. The delay in the reproduction of the manual due to the breakdown of computer units, much more the inaccessibility of computers from other municipal offices involved, presents problems in the project implementation.

Time factor. The BDP trainees found the ten-day program inadequate to develop the required planning skills. After the training, they still have to review the manual and other materials on hand prior to plan preparations.
Pre-conditions for successful participatory planning
Strong commitment and support of the local chief executives and other municipal officials and staff Close coordination between the Municipal Development Council (MDC), BDC and the MPTF and BPT Strong interest, commitment and support of barangay officials/sector leaders and their constituents Well-synchronized scheduling of MPTF and BPT activities both in terms of time availability of barangay officials and residents and the regular tasks and responsibilities of the MPTFs made their mother agencies/departments ! Further training of MPTFs and BPTs in the areas of resource mobilization or fund sourcing, project feasibility study preparation, linkaging and networking ! Sufficient municipal funding to cover necessary field expenses and logistical requirements of barangay development planning ! Full implementation/completion of barangay projects identified by the people themselves
! ! ! !

Sources:
Provido, Maria Nesza and Letty Tumbaga. Barangay Development Planning in the Province of Antique in A Breath of Fresh Air Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management ed. by Letty C. Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP-Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA). Philippines, 1998. pp. 1130. Mercaida, Enrique G., Introducing Participatory Planning Practices with Local Governments Learnings from Nueva Ecija PRISP-PP Project. Y. C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite, Philippines: International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 1997. Unpublished Materials. Philippine Rural Institutional Strengthening Program, Department of Agriculture (PRISP-DA). Participatory Planning. A Joint Project of the Republic of the Philippines and the Commission of the European Union, Quezon City, Philippines. 1996.

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CHAPTER

THREE

Other exemplary field-derived practices & innovations in governance and participatory development efforts

ttuned to the administrative management changes taking place over the past decade, innovative approaches and methods in program and project administration have been tried, both at the national and local levels. Approaches and methods have arisen from the recognition by government, non-government and private sectors, , of the adverse effects of centralized and standardized systems, operational guidelines and procedures being handled in a top-down fashion. These are usually more informal, inovative and cost-effective approaches, which are based and influenced by community-felt issues. Hence, it is imperative that greater organizational flexibility in programs and operations ensure that programs and services respond to the localized needs of the people. The programs and projects introduced and implemented include: natural resource management, health, education, development planning, etc. All of these have great potential for addressing the goal of alleviating poverty and the achievement of sustainable and equitable development. Some specific capacity-buiding programs intended to strengthen local governance through the provision of assistance to LGUs and civil society organizations in improving local government performance have likewise been undertaken. This chapter highlights the innovative approaches, strategies and techniques adopted in the various development programs and projects implemented in recent years by several donor agencies, local government support organizations, the academe and other development organizations. The results or benefits and the problems are also cited. It is hoped that the readers (i.e. development practitioners and stakeholders) maybe able to draw lessons from the experiences shared.

Decentralizing Natural Resources Management

here are three key events supporting the decentralization and devolution of Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM).

1. The provisions on environment of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 devolved significant functions, powers and responsibilities to local government units (LGUs). In particular, Section 15 of the Code mandated LGUs to ensure the rights of inhabitants to a balanced ecology and to undertake initiatives for community-based forestry efforts as well as to protect the natural ecosystem. 2. Enactment of Presidential Executive Order No. 263 (July 1995) adopted the community-based management as the national strategy to ensure the sustainable development of the countrys forest resources and provide mechanisms for its implementation. This led to the creation of the process and procedures for the Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA) a 25-year production-sharing arrangement entered into by a community and the government to develop, utilize, manage and conserve a specific portion of forestland.

3. Enactment of Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (IPRA, Republic Act 8371) established definitions, principles and rights related to resource management in ancestral domains. The Act and its implementing rules and regulations strengthened the role of indigenous peoples and provided participatory guidelines for the recognition, delineation and award of the Certificate of Ancestral Domain (CADC) or Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title ( CADT).

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Emerging problems in decentralizing natural resources management


Strong Peoples Organizations (POs) are keys to a successful CBFM implementation. However, a number of serious problems are evident in the field. These include:
!

Many POs lack the organizational and technical capacity to properly manage commercial aspects related to CBFMAs. ! Many communities lack working capital and have little or no previous financial management experience. ! POs need to function as business enterprises and most have difficulties in negotiating fair market forces, finding affordable transport, arranging payments, assuring quality and scaling standards for forest products and meeting pre-payment requirements of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for forest charges. ! DENR field offices are usually unable to provide all the assistance needed by forest communities, especially with regard to cooperative business management. To overcome these problems, it is essential to strengthen the capacity of POs and to develop effective partnerships among DENR, LGUs, POs and the private sector to make CBFM productive, profitable and sustainable.

Problem areas in implementing LGUs devolved environmental functions


!

LGUs lack administrative and financial capacity to assume responsibilities in environmental management. The LGUs complain of not having office space and funds to pay for the salaries of devolved national staff. ! There is limited technical expertise to undertake environmental functions. Worse, many LGUs are still unaware of the LGCs provisions on local governments roles and responsibilities in natural resources management. ! Duplication also presents a problem as the Code grants local executives specific functions to enforce environmental regulations similar to that of DENR officers. Confusion over areas of responsibility has, in many times, led to inefficiency. ! While municipalities are generally granted responsibility over program implementation, provincial governments are granted law enforcement functions. Such division of labor may, in one way or another, work to weaken the effectiveness of community-based projects.

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The continued problem of elite dominance in the rural landscape also poses a problem. It is a sad fact that wealth and power remain to be concentrated in the hands of landlords, some of whom maintain control on the local citizenry with their private armies. Given this scenario, the Code may be used by local political clans to strengthen their economic resource base.

Some innovative features/practices in natural resources management


!

Organize a multisectional Natural Resource Management Council (NRMC), which represents a crosssection of community groups, local legislators, and municipal and provincial government line agencies that, by good will, serve as voluntary local planners. ! Make available research-based information and technical assistance from different local, national and international stakeholders and partners. ! Undertake capacity building activities with the NRMC, to level off the council members expectations and roles and to address the information needs and planning skills of the diverse members. ! Adopt the Technology on Participation (ToP) approach developed by the USAID-funded Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project in eliciting information and ideas from the planning participants during workshops on envisioning, strategic directions and action planning. ! Systematically verify and consult with local government officials at the barangay and municipal levels and with local people during public assemblies. The different barangays passed a resolution to manifest their approval and support of the plan. ! Legitimize the plan by the Legislative Council (Sangguniang Bayan), and assuring executive support through the approval of the Municipal Ordinance that set forth the implementing guidelines of the plan.

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Implement the plan using a participatory approach. This approach utilizes the presence and participation of various GO and NGO partners in the area by inviting them to focus their work towards achieving the objectives of the plan. A formal partnership was forged by the LGU and various stakeholders in implementing the plan through a Memorandum of Understanding signed by all concerned parties. ! Contributing financially to the implementation of the plan from the budget allocation for its Human Ecological Society (HES) Program, as mandated in the implementing guidelines of the LGC.

Lessons learned
! Local Natural Resource Management (NRM) planning and implementation may

not necessarily require a large working capital and a highly structured bureaucratic procedure. ! Many local governments in the Philippines have the potential to manage their own natural resources. Therefore, forest management authority, functions and responsibilities can be decentralized, just as municipal agricultural offices have been devolved. ! LGUs can tap the resources of different external programs and coordinate, channel and focus them to help resolve local environmental and resources degradation problems.

Keys to success: Partnerships Collaboration Cost-sharing

In 1996, a unique, local-level NRM planning process began in the Municipality of Lantapan, Bukidnon Province. This process was supported by research-based information and technical assistance from the consortium partners, although such a plan was not conceived as an initial objective by Sustainable Agricultural and Natural Resource Management (SANREM). At that time, the mayor of Lantapan felt that the municipality would benefit from a plan wherein all the scientific and research outputs that had been assembled are incorporated. The SANREM partners made significant contributions to the planning framework and the technical contents of the municipal Natural Resource Managment and Development Plan (NRMDP). The International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) helped to influence the perception of local planners that, indeed, natural resource conservation and management can be profitable. ICRAFs technical contribution to the plan was cased mostly from its research work on soil and biodiversity conservation. The NRMDP was adopted by the Lantapan Sangguniang Bayan (Legislative Council) in March 1998, and is the first of its kind in the Philippines. It is a five-year indicative plan, with the following vision - A stronger community partnership towards a well managed natural resources and ecologically balanced environment for a sustained development in Lantapan by the year 2000. The plan is presently being implemented. ICRAF is maintaining a strong partnership with the local government to help achieve mutual goals and benefits for the farmers of Lantapan. This is achieved through collaboration with the LGU in institutional development and working directly with the farmers on technology development, dissemination and adoption.

Sources:
Lai, Chun K., Delia Catacutan and Agustin R. Mercado. Decentralizing Natural Resources Management: Emerging Lessons from ICRAF Collaboration in Southeast Asia. International Seminar on Decentralization and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific. DENR/FAO/RECOFT, Davao City, Philippines, November 03 December 4, 1998. Molintas, Dani To Wound a Forest and Threaten a Culture for Energy, Rural Reconstruction Forum. Quezon City: Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement. Volume 2, No. 3. pp13-18.

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Landcare as an Innovative Approach in Natural Resources Management at the Local Level

andcare is a method that rapidly and inexpensively diffuses agroforestry practices among upland farmers. This method is based on the premise that farmers have an innate interest and willingness to learn, adapt and share knowledge on new technologies that allow them to earn additional income and to conserve natural resources, at the same time. It is an emerging approach that empowers local governments and communities to effectively and inexpensively disseminate conservation farming and agroforestry practices. This method depends on self-motivated communities responding to community issues not imposed by an external agent. Approaches that are founded on well-grounded theory are more likely to effect a more permanent and positive change. Landcare groups are supported by the government and are networked to ensure that ideas and initiatives are shared and disseminated. Local communities and the government working together to change the way the land is used is an important feature of Landcare.

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Steps involved in Landcare


Select sites with good potential

This is to bring conservation farming technologies to where it is needed most on sloping lands where soils are prone to erosion and degradation. This initial step also involves meeting with key leaders in the LGUs (municipal or provincial), interested farmers and other stakeholders. Their understanding of the issues that need to be addressed, as well as their willingness to support and complement the program, are very crucial to the success or failure of Landcare at a given site.

Expose key farmers to successful technologies and organizational methods

The aim is to develop strong awareness among prospective key actors of the opportunities to effectively address production and resources conservation objectives through the new technologies. The success of these activities can be measured through the development of enthusiasm to adopt the technologies within the community. Exposure activities include:
!

organization of cross visits to the fields of farmers who have already adopted and adapted the technology successfully into their farming systems; ! provision of training activities for farmers in the target communities to learn about the practices; and ! provision of opportunities for farmers to try out the technologies on their lands through unsubsidized trials to convince themselves that it works as expected. If so, these farmers become the core of a conservation team to diffuse the technology in the municipality.

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Organize conservation teams at the local level

Once it is clear that there is a critical threshold of local interest in adopting the technologies and a spirit of self-help to share the knowledge within and among the villages of a municipality, the conditions are then in place to support the implementation of municipal conservation teams. A team is composed of an extensionist either from the Deaprtment of Agriculture (DA) or the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), an articulate farmer experienced in the application of the technology and an outside technical facilitator.

Farmer Expert DA Technician Researcher

Conservation Team Approach

Barangay Consultation

Barangay Consultation

Barangay Consultation

Interested Farmers

Interested Farmers

The team initially assists individual farmers in the implementation of their desired conservation farming practices. Later on, seminars and training at the village level are conducted if the need arises.

Establish contour hedgegrows with the farmers

Barangay Landcare

Barangay Landcare

All Famers

Farmer-to-Farmer

All Famers

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Evolve Landcare farmers organization

If and when the pre-conditions are in place for a Landcare farmers organization, then the facilitator may assist the community in developing a more formal organization. A key ingredient of success is to identify and nurture leadership skills among prospective farmers in vision and organization. This involve arranging for special training in leadership and management for the farmer leaders and exposing them to other successful Landcare organizations. Each barangay (village) may decide to set up its own Landcare Association chapter and barangay conservation team. Some villages may organize Landcare Association sub-chapters in their puroks or sitios (sub-villages). A purok conservation team usually includes a local farmer-technologist, the purok leaders and the district kagawads (councilors). The purok-level teams are the front-liners in conservation efforts, providing direct technical assistance, training and demonstration to farmer households. Conservation teams at the barangay and municipal levels backstop them. At the municipal level, the Landcare Association is a federation of all of the barangay Landcare chapters. The municipal conservation team is part of the support structure, which also includes other organizations that can assist the chapters (e.g. DA, DENR, NGOs). The Landcare Association may opt to be registered as a PO (in the legal form of a cooperative, association or corporation).
Attract local government support

Local government can provide crucial political and sustained financial support to the Landcare Association to meet its objectives. The municipality has its own funds that are earmarked for environmental conservation. These can be realigned to Landcare activities that enhance natural resource conservation. The municipality can be encouraged to develop a formal natural resource management plan such as the one in Lampatan, which can help guide the allocation of funds.

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The barangays can also allocate financial resources from their regular IRA through the Human Ecological Society (HES) program, which represents one-fifth of the total development funds of the barangay. These funds can be used to organize the conservation teams and Landcare Association activities at the barangay and purok levels, and support training and honoraria for resource persons. External donor agencies can best support Landcare development by allocating resources for leadership and human resources development, communications equipment (e.g. handheld radios) and transportation (e.g. motorcycles) to enable Landcare leaders to maximize their time.

Structure of the Claveria Landcare Association (CLCA)

Municipal Level Claveria Landcare Association

Actors President, Claveria Landcare Association Municipal conservation team Presidents of all village Landcare chapters Mayor Chairman, Committee on Agriculture & Environment, Municipal Council Municipal Agricultural Officer MOSCAT College staff ICRAF staff

Village Level Barangay Landcare Chapter 1

Actors Landcare chapter president Village conservation team Agriculture Technician Chr. Agri. & Env. Comm. Barangay captain

Barangay Landcare Chapter 24

Sub-village Level Sub-village (sitio) Landcare Subchapter 1

Actors Sub-chapter Landscape president Sub-village conservation team Households Agric. Technician Chr. Agric. & Env. Comm District councelor Sub-village president

Sub-village (sitio) Landcare Subchapter 8

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Monitor and evaluate

Monitoring is necessary to assess the progress of the activity and use outputs for strategizing activities or planning actions to make the program more dynamic and relevant to the need of the target community. For monitoring purposes, International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) has a record of all those who have attended training or have been assisted with establishing Natural Vegetative Strips (NVS) on their farms, as well as of farmers who requested assistance. Details on farming and conservation practices, training and follow-up needs are recorded on a diagnostic card, which is updated on regular follow-up visits by ICRAF staff. The leaders of the CLCA chapters and sub-chapters support this activity by distributing and collecting the diagnostic/ evaluation cards to and from the sub-villages and new CLCA members.

Conservation farming technologies


The specific activities of the Landcare Association members vary according to their needs and interests, as well as their biophysical and socioeconomic situations. Some of the many activities that have been or are being developed as focal areas for Landcare Association work include:
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Establishing NVS along contours to reduce field or farm-level soil erosion. This was the initial farmergenerated technology that launched the organization of Landcare in Claveria. Planting perennial crops on or just above the NVS to increase farmers income and enhance soil and water conservation. Planting trees to increase family income through production of timber, fuel wood and other tree products in farm forests, boundary plantings, or other arrangements. Planting high-quality fruit trees to provide income and better nutrition for the household while enhancing the environment. Adopting minimum-tillage or ridge-tillage farming systems. Ridge tillage has been successfully adopted with the existing draft-animal cultivation practices and is being further tested on farms.

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The evolution from simple soil conservation practices to a more complex agroforestry system occurs over time as farmers continually experiment, innovate and adapt technologies that are well-suited to their conditions. Generally, farmers start with the establishment of natural vegetative filter strips. Next, they establish communal or individual nurseries and plant perennials on or above the NVS. Farmers can cultivate annual cereal crops up to the fourth year, particularly if the strips are not too close to each other. When tree canopies shade out the crops therefore making it no longer profitable to grow annuals, farmers graze their livestock beneath the trees. The trees (mostly Gmelina arborea) can be harvested 8-12 years after planting. The farmers then resume annual cropping. This system earns more income than the traditional practice of micro-cultural cropping .

In 1996, ICRAF supported Landcare dissemination activities in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines, as a direct response to farmers request for technical assistance in conservation farming. The technical and institutional innovations led to the formation of the Claveria Association, which was then formally registered as a PO with the Philippines Securities and Exchange Commission in September 1997. By December 1998, 59 Landcare groups have been established in 19 barangays in the Municipality of Claveria. Most of these Landcare groups were based in the purok or sitio, where farmers can interact with each other more frequently. These Landcare groups have successfully extended conservation farming based on NVS to about 2,000 farmers and established 205 communal and individual nurseries that produced hundreds of thousands of fruits and timber tree seedlings that are planted on the NVS or along farm boundaries. They were also able to get funding for 75 draft animals for dispersal to Landcare members who had none.

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Decentralization and devolution of natural resource management at the grassroots enable governments to allocate resources and provide policy support to complement farmer-and community-led efforts to conserve resources for sustained production and use. The Landcare approach provides: ! a vehicle for interested farmers to learn, adopt and share knowledge about new technologies that can earn more money and conserve natural resources; ! a forum for the community to respond to issues that they see as important; ! a mechanism for local governments to support; and ! a network to ensure that ideas and initiatives are shared and disseminated.

Sources:
Lai, Chun K., Delia Catacutan and Agustin R. Mercado. Decentralizing Natural Resources Management: Emerging Lessons from ICRAF Collaboration in Southeast Asia. International Seminar on Decentralization and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific. DENR/FAO/RECOFT, Davao City, Philippines, November 03 December 4, 1998. Molintas, Dani To Wound a Forest and Threaten a Culture for Energy, Rural Reconstruction Forum. Quezon City: Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement. Volume 2, No. 3. pp13-18.

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Local Government Innovations in Watershed Management

watershed is the total land area that contributes to the flow of a river, stream or creek. Its boundary can be located on the ground by connecting all the highest points of the area around the river, stream or creek, where water starts to flow when there is rain. It is not man-made and it does not recognize political boundaries. Contrary to common perception, a watershed may not have any vegetation or wildlife. It may or may not even be under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) control. It does not have to be steeply sloping and its river, stream or creek may not necessarily be flowing continuously. The need to save our forests and watersheds is gaining increasing attention. The frequent occurrence of flashfloods, landslides and water shortages in many areas of the country has made more people aware that protecting the watershed means safeguarding life and property and protecting the water supply. Similarly, problems of upland poverty, forest denudation and wood shortages in the upland areas have pointed to the need for innovative ways of providing income to various sectors, especially the poor, and of meeting the demand for wood, while protecting the natural forests.

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The challenge of environmental management is new and local governments are only beginning to discover new possibilities for action. In this regard, local government units (LGUs) have several constraints. These include:
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lack of planning data such as information on forest resources; limited expertise for forest land use planning; ! lack of information on kinds of initiatives allowed under existing policies and programs governing forests and watersheds; and ! perception that local governments have limited powers for apprehending and prosecuting illegal loggers and other violators, and for resolving conflicts over competing uses of forest lands.

Emerging local government practices


Local government innovations in watershed management and forest protection vary depending on local conditions. These innovations focus on achieving the interrelated objectives of maintaining ecological stability, protecting the water supply and improving the lives of resource-poor upland communities. This also includes promoting the use of the watershed as a planning unit and adopting appropriate land use planning techniques.

The provincial government of Sarangani and the municipalities of Claveria in Misamis Oriental and Villaverde in Nueva Vizcaya, among others, have taken this initial step. They have allocated funds for orientation and training programs on forest land use planning as part of a more comprehensive land use plan. The forest land use plan is enforced as part of an overall land use plan and zoning ordinance. The City of Naga also followed this approach in planning the rehabilitation of the Naga River. Siltation and pollution increasingly threatened not only the rivers ecosystem but also its cultural importance. In formulating the Strategic Management Plan for the Naga City River, government planners, citizen leaders and resource persons agreed to focus on the rivers watershed as the planning unit. They delineated the watershed into four zones (high population density, agricultural, timberland, and riverbank/easement).

These approaches allowed local governments to determine better the biophysical and socio-economic features and uses of the forest and watershed and to set priorities for action. Moreover, the stakeholders involved became aware that their actions on the environment are interdependent and that watershed management consequently requires their mutual cooperation.

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Addressing the needs of upland communities


All watersheds in the Philippines are practically occupied by upland communities. Rather than uprooting them, local governments made the resolve to assist poor upland communities and involve them in forest protection and watershed management.

The municipalities of Kiamba, Maitum and Maasim in Sarangani implemented projects under the Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) Program. The local governments protected and managed a portion of the forest recently abandoned by a lumber company whose timber license agreement has expired. Activities were carried out in coordination with a multi-sectoral task force. The municipal governments initial activities included forestland use planning, community mapping and community organizing. The City of Cebu maintained a Hillyland Resource Management Program that supported the farming and marketing needs of upland farmers as leverage for encouraging soil and water conservation practices. The city also collaborated with a large non-government organization (NGO)-led multi-sectoral group advocating for the conservation of the citys watershed, the Mananga. A key collaboration point is the incorporation of strict watershed protection measures in the citys land use plan and zoning ordinance. The local government-led multi-sectoral Municipal Planning and Development Council of Magsaysay in Davao del Sur mobilized an Upland Agricultural Development Program. Its objectives included: assisting upland farmers through appropriate farming technologies, livelihood projects, community organizing and training, reforestation, and watershed protection. The initial results were very encouraging. Soil conservation practices have been applied. Furthermore, small livelihood projects (i.e. poultry and cattle dispersal, mango production and bio-intensive gardening) have led to increased incomes.

Mobilizing citizen involvement


Local governments can implement and sustain projects by mobilizing popular support. Projects can challenge the citizenrys spirit of volunteerism and sense of civic responsibility and further drum up support through festive activities.

Faced with a heavily denuded watershed, a threatened water supply and a seemingly public apathy toward the environment, the city government of Baguio pilot-tested an Eco-Walk Project. Under this project, school children trekked to the Busol watershed as part of their class activity. There, they learned in situ about the forest ecosystem, particularly its link to Baguios water supply. The students also learned how to plant trees properly as each participating class was assigned an area to reforest. The project has become a community activity. Three years since the project started, a total of 15,000 elementary students have participated. Government employees, teachers, youths and civic groups have also joined to reforest areas not accessible to students and to do other support tasks. Now, the once denuded watershed is once again alive and teeming with life. As the trees grow, values of volunteerism, cooperation, partnership and ecological concern also continue to take root within the community.

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For Iloilo, it was the flashfloods that brought the message loud and clear: Save the Maasin Watershed. The provincial government promptly established the Maasin Watershed Task Force. This is a multisectoral group composed of the provincial and city governments, three municipal governments, DENR, media, various NGOs, private corporations and educational institutions. Focusing on the 6,000-hectare watershed, the Task Force initiated the Alay Tanim program which mobilized 5,000 people for mass tree planting. It also implemented the Adopt a Tree Park program, which designated specific areas for particular groups or organizations to reforest and protect. As an added incentive, a stewardship agreement was reached with selected residents in the surrounding areas to help enforce regulations protecting the trees and other forest products. The task force also made sure that farmers who used to depend on the forest had alternative jobs and had access to agroforestry-based livelihood projects.

Directly managing selected forest areas


In coordination with the DENR, local governments can opt to directly manage certain portions of forest for other uses.

The provincial government of Cotabato, for example, designated the 645-hectare Amas Reforestation Project as the Cotabato Provincial Forest and Eco-tourism Park. The Park was used for scientific, educational and recreational purposes. It also served as a seed production area and had a botanical garden. The Park was co-managed by the provincial government, DENR and the Philippine National Police. The joint venture is truly promising in terms of its objectives and management strategy. Both the municipal government of Sta. Fe and the Provincial Government of Nueva Vizcaya undertook a similar project. The local governments have entered into an agreement with DENR to manage and transform a portion of the 11,664 hectares Consuelo Reforestation project into a forest park, principally for nature-based or eco-tourism purposes. The management involved forest protection, along with sustainable income-generating and bio-diversity conservation activities.

Helping resolve conflicts over land use


Local governments can help resolve conflicts over land use, which occasionally impede forest protection efforts.

In Nueva Vizcaya, about 77 percent of the provinces land area is classified as forest reserve. In as much as many communities are either already settled in or economically dependent on these areas, problems on land tenure and resource use abound. To help address these issues, Nueva Vizcayas Provincial Environment and Resource Council created the Tenure and Resource Use Task Force, composed of representatives from government agencies, NGOs and POs in the province.

Source:
Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). Local Government Innovations in Watershed Management, Occasional Paper No. 98-07. Makati City, 1998.

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LGUs and Tree Farms:

Partners in Community Resource Generation and Environmental Protection

or the most part, local governments are mandated to protect forests and watershed within their areas of jurisdiction through direct protection and reforestation efforts. However, this strategy may be too costly in the long run if pursued as the only alternative. To date, the more innovative among these local government units (LGUs) have addressed environmental protection and local resource generation in the promotion and establishment of tree farms.

What is tree farming?


Tree farming is the planting, care and maintenance of trees for profit through the initiative of small farmers, community organizations and private groups. It differs from conventional reforestation in the sense that it is not subsidized by the government and is intended for commercial purposes.

Tree farms provide additional income and employment opportunities not only for families and communities involved but also for local governments. Tree farms also help protect the environment by checking soil erosion, increasing water yield and indirectly reducing the pressure to extract wood from natural growth forests.

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As any other budding enterprise, tree farming oftentimes encounter barriers to realize its full potential. Among these barriers are: ! government regulations resulting in cumbersome procedures or too much red tape; ! the misconception that permits for cutting trees and transporting lumber must still be secured even for trees which farmers themselves planted; and ! the need for clear information materials and quality inputs (i.e. seedlings and adequate technical support services).

Emerging local government practices


Identifying areas and ensuring rights to harvest

Pursuant to the law, local governments must ensure the proper and efficient inventory and registration of plantations, which could help identify and locate idle lands as well as establish legal rights of participants to the land.

In Bohol, the provincial government has been negotiating with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for the creation of an Executive Committee to assist the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) of the Rajah Sikatuna National Park. The committee will operationalize the parks management plan, which designates areas for sustainable use, multiple use and buffer zones. Once these zones are delineated, tree farming may then be undertaken in appropriate areas. In Loboc, Bohol, each barangay was encouraged to establish a one-hectare forest plantation to support the municipalitys thriving furniture industry. In support of this strategy, the local government helped acquire the needed lands either through donations, direct purchase and/or leasehold.

Providing benefits and incentives for stakeholders

Given the varying needs and concerns of different stakeholders (i.e. landowners, claimants and entrepreneurs), local governments should offer a variety of benefits and incentives to all stakeholders concerned.

The Bukidnon Environment Small-Scale Tree Farm Project aims to establish tree plantations inside areas covered by the Integrated Social Forestry Program. The provincial government provides financial support in the amount of P7,500 per hectare, while the tree planter provides labor for three years. Of the total amount, P1,500 is used for project management and supervision, while the remaining P6,000 is given directly to the tree planter in the form of cash and/or farm inputs. The farmer repays the amount with 15 full-grown trees on the 10th year of the farms operation.

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For stakeholders (i.e. landowners and claimants without tenure-related problems), other benefits may be more attractive. In Dumarao, Capiz, a tax holiday was declared exempting lands planted to at least 1,000 seedlings per hectare from being assessed a realty tax for a period of five years. This encouraged the farmers to plant more trees. Landowners were expected to resume paying taxes when they harvest the trees. Landowners with less definite investment plans for their farms may be encouraged to engage in any type of Tree Farm Leasehold. Under this scheme, individuals or groups lease land from a landowner and agree to give the landowner a share of the income from the trees to be harvested after a specified number of years. Sharing arrangements may be 72-25, 70-30 and 60-40 in favor of the developer or 50-50, depending upon factors such as the species planted, the location and productivity of the land. Special incentives and strategies may be designed for specific groups and situations. In the Trees for Tuition Fees Program, the provincial government of Siquijor endorsed and supported agreements wherein the Parents-Teachers Association of a school leases land from a local owner-benefactor, specifically for tree farming purposes. The program has sown hope among parents that at least five trees of Gemini or Acacia Mangium planted by their child in the first grade may be worth P20,000 in 10 years, when that child enters college. The provincial government provides the seedlings and technical assistance for this program. The same strategy has also been implemented in Bohol.

Disseminating information on government policies and regulations

Local governments should work more closely with the proper government agencies, particularly the DENR in disseminating policies and permit regulations and requirements for harvesting and transporting trees.

As a matter of policy, the harvesting of premium species (e.g. narra, molave, kamagong, ipil-ipil, etc.) on private lands is closely regulated and requires a Private Land Timber Permit from the Secretary of the DENR. The extraction of fast growing trees species (e.g. ipil-ipil) on the other hand, has been deregulated. These policies, notwithstanding other government agencies such as the Philippine National POlice (PNP), DENR and other non-government organizations (NGOs) and LGUs, still require special cutting and transport permits. This practice discourages the farmers from planting trees. To avoid these hassles, the farmers must obtain Certificates of Registration and Verification for planted trees. Local governments, therefore, can work closely with the DENR in order to disseminate this policy. In Cotabato, for example, the provincial government organized a dialogue among the Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Officer (PENRO), tree farmers, wood processors, lumber dealers, and furniture makers to discuss problems and solutions related to licensing procedures (e.g. the collection of inspection and inventory fees, documentation flows and checkpoints documentation). A similar effort can be undertaken to focus on policies and permits for harvesting planted trees.

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Sharing the establishment cost

Local governments respond to farmers financial needs by extending assistance in cash or in kind (e.g. seedlings and other planting materials) either for free, as a loan or as part of a sharing of an exchange arrangement. This practice is done to encourage farmers to establish tree farms. Illustrative joint production-sharing schemes
Local government with actual sharing scheme
Cash P6,000 per hectare to farmer for labor and inputs plus technical assistance (Bukidnon Environment Small-Scale Tree Farm or BEST Project) Cash payment of P5 per three year old tree plus technical assistance (Quezon, Bukidnons Greenbelt Program) Small grant of P10,000 to barangay for nurseryrelated costs (Alamada, Cotabato) Cost of seedlings (Cotabatos Plant Now Pay Later Plan) Kind Seedlings (Zamboanga del Nortes Plant Now Pay Later Plan) Seedlings plus technical assistance (Palawans Tree Resources for Economic and Environmental Security) Repay in cash from sale of harvested trees) Provide land and labor Repay with 15 standing trees after 10 years Establish three-year-old tree farms

Tree planters equity

Barangay to produce seedlings Repay in cash after 18 months from earnings

The lack of trainers should not be a deterrent either. Bohol and Palawan have prioritized training of local officials and potential leaders who can become future trainers or subject-matter specialists. In Bohol, specialists from various sectors teamed up to train community development practitioners on tree enterprise, agroforestry and silviculture, among others. The trainees constitute a provincial training crop, which will eventually manage the training of other farmers. Local governments can take other initiatives to enhance learning and exchange among tree farmers. Just like in Palawan, they can establish a model farm to demonstrate ways to make trees grow. Or they can protect alternative modes of cooperation, such as

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the alayon or work group followed in Basak Larena, Siquijor. Every Sunday, members of the Basak Upland Resource Management Association pool their labor to plant trees in the farm of one of their members. They do this in each farm until each member establishes a small plantation. In some cases, local governments can play an essential role in bringing about a more coordinated and integrated support services program. In Makilala, Cotabato, the provincial government went beyond helping farmers own the estate sold to them by the Makilala Rubber Development Corporation or Makrubber under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program. The local government launched the KABALIKAT Rubber Development Project, which helped organize 60-farmer beneficiaries into a cooperative. Since then, the project assisted the cooperative to:
! ! ! ! ! !

obtain credit and farm inputs; negotiate the sale of their produce to Makrubber; establish nurseries; purchase equipment; conduct training programs; and seek additional income opportunities.

Extending support services

Local governments may provide technical support in terms of training and extension services to tree farmers for them to better manage their farms and achieve optimum lumber yield. In addition, local governments can play a key role in bringing about a more coordinated and integrated support services program.

Where resources are available, local governments can sponsor seminars, particularly on nursery development and silviculture. They can also help send farmers to visit and learn from other successful farms. Even with limited resources, local governments need not be less effective. They can encourage farmers to share in shouldering some of the training costs. In Bohol, tree farmers agreed to pay a small registration fee to help provide for the honoraria of resource speakers. In Cuartero and Maayon, Capiz, farmerparticipants brought their own lunch during a seminar, thus reducing the training costs on the part of the local government.

Source:
Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). Growing Trees to Save the Forests: LGUs and the Promotion of Tree Farms, Occasional Paper No. 98-05. Makati City, 1998.

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LGUs Role in Protected Areas Management under the NIPAS Law

and coverage. NIPAS refers to the classification and administration of all designated protected areas in order to maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems, preserve genetic diversity and ensure sustainable use of resources found therein. A protected area refers to identified portions of land and water set for protection, preservation and management against human exploitation because of their unique physical and biological significance and diversity.

ith environmental protection becoming a global concern, the Philippine Congress enacted Republic Act Number 7586 on June 1, 1992, which provides for the establishment and management of the Natural Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) and defines its scope

Established categories of protected areas


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Strict nature reserve Natural park Natural movement Wildlife sanctuary Protected landscapes and seascapes Resources reserve Natural biotic areas Other categories established by law, conventions or international agreements wherein the Philippine government is a signatory.

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For each protected area, peripheral buffer zones have to be established, if necessary, to protect the designated area from activities that are directly and indirectly harmful. A general management planning strategy serves as a guide in formulating plans for each protected area. The management planning strategy should, at the minimum, promote the adoption and implementation of innovative management techniques including:
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

zoning; buffer zone management for multiple use and protection; habitat conservation and rehabilitation; diversity management; community organizing; socio-economic and scientific researches; site-specific policy development; pest management; and fire control.

The management planning strategy provides guidelines for the protection of the indigenous cultural minorities, other tenured migrant communities who have close coordination with local agencies of the government, non-government organizations (NGOs) and the private sector.

Problems affecting the protected areas


!

Farming systems that generally involve clearing and burning secondary forests or fallowed lands near the end of the dry season, which causes degradation of large areas adjacent to or within the park. Unregulated collection of forest resources (primarily fuel wood, vines, bamboo, timber for construction and fruits), which occurs evenly throughout the year, especially in areas of easy access. Illegal logging especially in the evergreen and semideciduous forests aggravated further by weak enforcement of laws (e.g. permits or collection limits).

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Conflicting land claims that lead to ambiguity over ownership and a situation of open access leading to the degradation of a protected area.

Bad experiences of some residents with some organizations that have come and gone. This results in suspicion and indifference by the locals on efforts that new faces and organizations undertake. In some instances, religious affiliations also result in inaction or non-participation. Likewise, beneficiaries also complain that agencies and the projects they undertake are fleeting and have no tangible impacts. Some projects are launched and are just abandoned later.

Lack of support from the local government officials, such that direct contact between the intended beneficiary/residents and the local leaders is seldom made. Some protected areas do not provide adequate livelihood. Consequently, many residents have to migrate to work.

Strategies/solutions undertaken
Creation of a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) as the policy-making body of the NIPAS law.

The PAMB is composed of the Regional Executive Director, one representative each from the autonomous regional government, the municipal government, the barangays within the jurisdiction of the protected area and the tribal communities; three representatives from local NGOs; and one representative from the national government agency involved in protected area management, usually the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

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The PAMB, by a majority vote, decides on the budget allocations, approve proposals for funding, and decides on matters related to planning, peripheral protection and general administration of the area in accordance with the general management strategy.
Capability-building

This includes training/orientation on balanced natural resource use and its relationship with effective and accountable governance; development planning administration and legislation particularly in relation to the Integrated Protected Areas System (IPAS); and collective implementation and monitoring system. Usually, the local chief executives, the planning officers, the NGOs and community through their Peoples Organizations (POs) or Community-based Organizations (CBOs) are involved.
Enlisting/enhancing the involvement of NGOs and other groups or sectors in the development of their areas particularly in the implementation of the IPAS.

These NGOs could take the role of lead implementor and coordinator of the project and be mainly responsible for its day-to-day operations. They are to report directly to the Local Chief Executive (i.e. Provincial Governor). For effective implementation, a project manager and staff (of prescribed number) could be assigned to the project.
Adoption of a community-based data information and monitoring system as approved/supported by the community residents. Formulation of policies and programs duly approved by the PAMB en banc and their implementation.

Examples are the Comprehensive Land Use Plans, conduct of Regenerative Agriculture training and their application, promotion of indigenous livestock, raising and provision of seeds and other technical assistance.

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Mount Kanlaon, the highest peak in the Visayas, was proclaimed a National Park on August 8, 1934 by virtue of Proclamation Number 721-34. The law defined the park area coverage at approximately 25,000 ha of lush tropical forest and stipulated that the park be considered a distinct resource, protected for purposes of maintaining rich biodiversity. Mans harmful activities, however, adversely affected the conditions of Mt. Kanlaon. Once a delightful forest, it has become almost denuded. The original area of the park has been reduced and transformed. A recent survey of the towns and cities surrounding the park disclosed that San Carlos City and Kanlaon City has only 11,457 ha of forestland. La Castellana, Canlaon and Murcia on the other hand, have 1,500 ha of cogonal area, 537 ha of contract reforestation project area, 475 ha of impact reforestation area, 279 ha of Kabisig reforestation and 328 ha titled properties. The condition of the Mount Kanlaon National Park has alarmed a great number of people, resulting to efforts on all fronts to rehabilitate, protect and preserve the park. To protect Mt. Kanlaon, the Developing Sustainable Communities in Protected Areas Act, a capability-building system under the NIPAS law, was passed in 1992. In partnership with Paghiliusa sa Pagdidaet-Negros, the local governments in Mt. Kanlaon and the Local Government Support Program CIDA, the system aimed to develop the capability of the Province as well as the affected constituent LGUs on the conservation, development and management of Mt. Kanlaons rich and diversenatural resources. At the same time, tangible environmental programs have been incorporated into the LGUs respective local development plans and environmental laws. The relevant councils tasked to manage the projects under NIPAS have been set up and core groups have been formed in the surrounding communities to assist in protecting the Park.

The challenge ahead


Like any other environmental project, the challenge lies in sustaining the efforts initiated especially at the community level. This can be attained by making sure that structures in place continue to function and active people participation is continuously nurtured. The bottom line is how efforts can contribute to the proper management of a natural resource that is fast diminishing.

Sources:
Saban, Maria Fe and Letty Tumbaga, Developing Sustainable Communities in Protected Areas under the NIPAS Law, in A Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Effective Local Government Management . ed. by Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Policy and Public Affairs 1998 pp. 74-84. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR). Mt. Palaypalay ICDP Proposal to BCN-BSP. Silang, Cavite, Philippines. May 1995.

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Local Governments in Coastal Resource Management

coastal zone is comprised of various systems, including natural systems (i.e. estuaries, watershed and coastal seas) and socio-economic systems (i.e. agricultural production system and urban settlements).

Its geographic extent may include areas within a landward limit of one kilometer from the shoreline, which includes mangrove swamps, blackish water food, nipa swamps, estuarine rivers, sandy beaches, and other areas reached by tides. Likewise, it includes a seaward limit of 200 in isobaths which include coral reefs, algae flats, sea grass beds and soft, bottom travelable areas.

Factors contributing to the deterioration of coastal ecosystems


! ! ! ! ! ! !

Construction and reclamation activities for industrial, urban and airport development Conversion to fish/salt ponds and rice fields Pollution and water disposal Fishing with explosives/cyanide Proliferation of stationary fishing gears Pesticide from agricultural run off Conversion to tourist spots

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The policy to boost the export of primary products in order to improve the countrys foreign exchange position opened the door to uncontrolled extraction of coastal and marine resources. State policy is not only biased to world export, it also favors elite commercial fishing at the expense of small artisan fishers. The elite gained the most from export trade and is mainly responsible for over-fishing and destruction of the marine and coastal ecosystems.

Organizing principles in restoring and enhancing natural capacities


Community stakeholdership

Local communities who have the most to gain or lose from the use of resources should have primacy in managing it.
Systems perspective

CRM must be viewed and carried out within the framework of the coastal ecosystem and relevant systems. To treat any program (e.g. Fisheries Sector Program) and its components from a sectoral perspective will be incompatible with the principle.

Local Government Cooperation for Coastal Resource Management (LGC-CRM) An effective way to solve environmental concerns of coastal areas is to organize collaboration of affected communities led by their respective local governments. Whatever initiatives undertaken by local governments could serve as an initial step in a long-term process towards a community-based CRM program. Moreover, the same initiatives can facilitate partnerships between the local government units (LGUs), governmental agencies and local non-governmental and Peoples Organizations (POs) in promoting sustainable growth and development in their communities.
Approaches
!

Generate awareness among LGUs, government agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs) and POs or representatives from the fisher folk communities about environmental issues/ problems affecting the coastal area and the communities around it. Organize and mobilize an Intermunicipal Coastal Resource Management Council (ICRMC) to serve as a coordinating body and sustaining mechanism for all collaborating

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! ! !

partners (government organizations (GOs), NGOs, POs) to plan, implement, evaluate and promote policy advocacy about the issues involved. Likewise, a Project Management Committee can be organized to specifically oversee project implementation. Conduct planning and other capability-building workshops on environment, gender and participatory development perspectives and processes relevant to CRM. Formulate a comprehensive CRM plan including a zoning plan, action plans or watershed and mangrove reforestation, organic farming, community education and organizing, womens empowerment and feasibility studies in microenterprise and alternative livelihood projects. Conduct follow-up on training, refinement of strategies designed during previous trainings, expansion of the inter-municipal ICRMC at the municipal and barangay levels (particularly the coastal barangays) and the formation of community organizers and facilitators to train the fisherfolk of the coastal barangays. Document and popularize development issues and lessons gained.

Issues and problems in CRM implementation


! ! !

! !

Differences between the project implementors cause several delays in the implementation of some project activities. Conflicts between LGUs involved and the existing policies on fund disbursement result to constant delays in the release of funds and eventually hampers the sustainability of the CRM efforts. Lack of municipal funds for the implementation of project activities in their respective areas is aggravated by the lack of technical know-how on the part of LGUs and officials of government agencies to prepare project proposals for external sourcing of required funds. NGO participation and coordination is lacking because some local government officials continue to perceive local NGOs as their rivals. The momentum in undertaking activities is derailed due to constant changes in political leadership and officials priorities.

! ! !

Recommendations ! Promote and undertake alternative income-generating activities utilizing existing resources and capacities in the area. Fully implement ICRM plan to stare off economic dislocation resulting from the implementation of the zoning plan and fisheries ordinance. Mobilize existing POs to explore middle grounds for cooperation with the local government and other agencies, including NGOs. Thus, there is a need for organized and skilled POs at the grassroots level. Promote and undertake gender-friendly schemes and activities to guarantee the recognition of womenrelated issues.

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Batan Bay, Tinagong Dagat is a threatened ecosystem. While it remains a very productive fishing resource, it is deteriorating. At present, there is an alarming rate of siltation due to denuded watersheds, mangrove deforestation, harmful farming and fishery practices in the area as well as the unregulated proliferation of stationary fishing gears, which also pose hazards to navigation. The need for alternative livelihood activities has also become apparent. In a joint resolution among the Aklan provincial government, FSDP-UP, and the municipal governments of Batan, Altavas and New Washington, the Local Government Cooperation for the Coastal Resource Management of Altavas, Batan and New Washington was launched. It became the Philippines-Canada LGSP first project in Region VI. The two-year capability building project was envisioned to safeguard, sustain and enhance the environment of Batan Bay and its tributaries. The project encountered serious problems including management problems, inter-governmental conflict, lack of local funds to finance CRM project implementation, opposition from fisher folk groups and absence of NGOs during the implementation stage, which delayed its implementation. Despite these difficulties, the project boasts of several accomplishments:
! The level of awareness regarding the

! ! !

environmental issues affecting the bay and the need to protect it was heightened. The three municipalities to govern fisheries and water activities in the Bay drafted a fishery law. The law was integrated into the local development plan and was observed. The integration of the law into the provincial development plan is being planned. Ten thousand pesos form the municipalitys Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) was allocated by the LGU of New Washington to protect the Bay from illegal fishing. The government of Batan declared some areas of the Bay as a fish sanctuaries. Mangrove areas of the Bay were reforested. Some fish gears (e.g. fishnets with small eyes, tahungan) were declared illegal.

Lessons learned
! Advocacy is very important in raising the level of consciousness of people about

environmental issues. The struggle for social change always starts with changes in the perception of people. Environmental issues affecting major sources of livelihood are the best starting points in organizing communities towards more vigilant actions.
! CRM is a venue that encourages the productive cooperation of LGUs, POs, NGOs and the academe.

Institutions that usually have diverse perspectives and interests can work together given a common issue. A stronger sense of commitment towards environmental issues and community empowerment has increased especially among LGU people. This is necessary for the significant implementation of project objectives and for LGUs to go beyond petty politics. This also gives the academe the best chance to make scientific studies/

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researches significant to the needs of the community. On the other hand, POs and NGOs should consider this collaborative project as an opportunity for them to participate and assert their interests in the design, implementation and management of developing projects.
! Participatory management is necessary to encourage involvement of various sectors in the

implementation of social development projects like CRM. Policies, both in the management and field levels, should be threshed out among affected sectors. Their active and substantial participation ensure a smoother flow of operations in the management level where policies are agreed upon with the different interests considered.
! Community development should mean development of people in the lowest rung of the social

ladder. CRM as a social development project should address the issue of the lack of access and control of resources by marginalized sectors. Cooperatives should be seen as a venue where structural changes can be made. Thus, there is a need for membership and participation of people from the low-income groups.
! Serious consideration on gender issues should be made if substantial project impacts on women

are desired. A projects sensitivity to gender issues takes more than just segregating the number of women participants vis--vis that of the men in training, as well as in community organizations. Analysis should be done about the womens level of participation in decision-making, planning, implementation and management processes in both family and community activities. These crucial tasks are usually the domain of the men, as in the case of ICRMC where womens participation is hardly visible.

Sources:
Espano, Agenes, Local Government Cooperation for Coastal Resource Management (LGC-CRM) in Batan Bay, Local Governance Journal. LGSP Regional Project Management Office, Jaro, Iloilo City. Vol. I. No. 1, January March, 1998. Pp. 25-34. Legaspi, Nora and Gerry de Asis, Aklan Baywatch: Coastal Resource Management in Batan Bay, in A Breath of Fresh Air-Exploring the Possibilities of Effective Local Government Management. Ed. By Letty Tumbaga CIDA_LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Policy and Public Affairs, 1998. P.67-73. Serrano, Isagani R. The Role of NGOs in Coastal Resources Management, in Rural Reconstruction Forum. Quezon City: Philippines Rural Reconstruction Movement, April June, 1993. Pp. 26-28 Training Manual on Integrated Coastal Management: Philippines. Handout 1: The Coastal Ecosystem and other Resources in the Coastal Zone. DA-BFAR, DENR-CEP, DOST-PICAMPD, HARIBON, ICLARM and IIRR, Silang, Cavite, Philippines, 1998.

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LGUs in Marine Reserve Preservation and Management

verfishing, destruction of marine habitats and the resulting decline in fish catches affects small-scale fishermen throughout the Philippines. The establishment of marine protected areas is a recognized and proven strategy for resource conservation and management. The protection and management of marine areas can result in marked increases in fish growth and yields. Marine reserves protect breeding populations of corals, mollusks, fishes, shrimps, mangroves and seagrass from which neighboring depleted areas can be recolonized. Local government units (LGUs) play a critical role in establishing and managing marine reserves and protected areas.

What is a marine reserve? A marine reserve is an area within the coastal zone where resource extraction is either banned or highly regulated. It may be a part of a single or a combination of any of the major coastal ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves, seagrasses, soft-bottom communities). Resource utilization in these areas is strictly managed, hence, resources are protected.
Also, marine reserves conserve biodiversity to support local fisheries and are venues for education, research, and habitat restoration. These areas also provide an environment for low- impact aquaculture managed and organized by coastal communities.

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Zoning system of a marine reserve

Buffer zone

Resources in marine reserves may be viewed as common property for the exclusive use by a community. Various sectors of the community therefore own or have an interest in the use, management, and protection of marine reserves.
Seagrass bed High coral cover Gradual slope Steep slope

Core zone

Fisherfolk ! Direct users


MAR RES INE ERV E

NGOs ! Advocacy ! Collective action

Researchers ! Resource monitoring

Stakeholders

LGUs ! Enabling legislation ! Law enforcement

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Legislative and legal support The protection and allocation of marine and inland aquatic resources is enshrined in the laws of different states. In the Philippines, this is amply stated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution which gives preference to subsistence fisherfolk.
Being direct-users, fisherfolk are day-to-day managers in the use of these marine resources. This requires collaboration with LGU, which provide the enabling legislation that makes protective management actions binding to all stakeholders. Key legislations in recent years have empowered and given both the LGUs and fisherfolk greater control over their resources in municipal waters.

Stakeholders
Fisherfolk who depend on the sea for their livelihood and from the improved fishery as a consequence of establishing a marine reserve. Researchers who conduct studies to monitor the status of resources in marine reserves as an input to management decisions. Non-government organizations (NGOs) are the ones that guide collective action and advocacy among resourceusers. Local government units (LGUs) provide the institutional framework and legal basis for any individual or collective management actions.

Co-management of marine reserves Enabling national legislation allowed the evolution of comanagement schemes involving the participation of all stakeholders in the decision-making process, which is a requirement to sustain management intervention strategies such as marine reserves.
Administered by the LGU, the Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Council (FARMC) is a multi-sectoral body of fishers organizations, NGOs, the LGU and government agencies that regulates resource use by all stakeholders. FARMCs provide a legitimate forum to raise fishery-related issues and problems. The LGU and the fishers organization, often with the assistance of an NGO, national agencies and a federation of fishers organizations, conduct a series of general assemblies, and

Fishery laws and policies

LGU
" FARMCs

Fishers associations

External institutional support " National agencies - Department of Agriculture (DA) - Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) " NGOs " Academic institutions " Federation of Fishers Association

Caution!
Marine reserves have proliferated in many coastal municipalities in the Philippines and elsewhere as a result, in part, of the global conservation movement in recent years. Indeed, this has been a welcome and innovative move, especially in coastal communities where resource overfishing has been rampant. However, in the rush to adopt a novel strategy, the basic norms of establishing and managing marine reserves, have been overlooked, resulting in the non-sustainability of management measures. Physico-biological factors and, most importantly, sociopolitical considerations are oftentimes ignored. Marine reserves can be an effective resource management tool when concerns of all stakeholders have been and will be considered. Sadly, many marine reserves in the country are paper reserves, with no credible conservation measures being applied.

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Related Philippine Laws


" The Local Government Code of

1991 (Republic Act 7160) provides LGUs greater and exclusive access to their coastal resources. Without prior approval from the national government, LGUs are authorized to issue licences for and collect fees from several fishery activities in municipal waters. Municipal waters extend 15 km from the shoreline. The Code does not explicitly stipulate the establishment nor governance of marine protected areas in municipal waters.
" The Fisheries Code of 1998

consensus-building activities aimed at arriving at solutions suitable to the community. The LGU enacts fishery-related laws and policies recommended by the FARMC, thus, minimizing conflicts in resource use. Compliance with these regulations is monitored and enforced by the municipal and barangay (villages) councils, and deputized fisher-wardens.

LGU support of marine reserves: Two examples


Malalison Island, Culasi, Antique

(Republic Act 8550) allows LGUs and municipal Fishery and Aquatic Resource Management Councils (FARMCs) to recommend to the national government the declaration of closed seasons for the fishery and the establishment of at least 15% of the total coastal area in municipalities as fishery reserves and sanctuaries. Local representation is emphasized in municipal FARMCs. Together with barangay (village) FARMCs created in 1995 by Executive Order 240, municipal FARMCs may recommend the enactment of relevant fishery legislations to the municipal council.
" The National Integrated

The island community of more than 100 households consists of subsistence fishers, having monthly incomes below the national poverty level. Before 1990, the islands reef fishery was typically open-access, with island and other fishers from neighboring coastal barangays engaged in illegal and destructive fishing. Contradicting national fishery laws encouraged the encroachment of commercial fisheries in municipal waters (including the island) becoming a source of conflict. Coastal resource conservation among island fishers was practically non-existent. This scenario changed in 1990. An exclusive fishery-use zone of one square kilometer was initially enacted by a Culasi municipal ordinance in 1990, followed by another ordinance in 1991, permitting the deployment of artificial concrete habitats in the protected zone. Organized island fisherfolk succeeded in getting the Culasi municipal council to declare the entire waters of Malalison Island for the island fishers exclusive use. The banning of commercial fishing and destructive gears was implemented. In 1995, acting again on the petition of the organized fisherfolk and the barangay FARMC, the Culasi municipal council declared one of the islands reef fishing ground a marine sanctuary closed to any form of fishing. No serious violation of the sanctuary has yet occurred. To date, resource monitoring of the islands marine resources by the organized fisherfolk together with SEAFDEC researchers provides advice to management decisions. Since co-management arrangements have been in place, performance indicators (equity, efficiency and sustainability) have improved, particularly in their perceived control over fishery resources, fair allocation of access rights, and participation and influence in fishery management.

Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act of 1992 (Republic Act 7586) provides the legal mechanism for the establishment and management of protected areas that will each be directly managed by a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB). With assistance from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), protected areas are enacted by presidential decrees and then by national legislation. Like the FARMC, local representation is strong in the PAMB. The PAMB implements a general management strategy or plan, which is formulated in consultation with both national and local stakeholders.

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Sablayan, Mindoro Occidental

Exploited by local municipal fishers and by commercial fishers from elsewhere, the reefs of Sablayan have become sources of conflicts among contending users, including sports diving enthusiasts who have frequented Apo reef. In 1980, the national tourism agency declared Apo reef a marine park and, through a municipal ordinance, a tourist zone and marine reserve in 1983. Over the years, however, enforcement of protective management has failed to the detriment of reef resources, since local stakeholders were not fully consulted. Local fishers resisted this plan to protect Apo reef and other neighboring reefs in the municipality. Clearly, the approach of establishing a marine reserve in the area had to change. Therefore, with the assistance of university researchers, an NGO, and LGU extension workers, public consultations and dialogue were initiated with local fishers until, in 1995, Apo reef was declared a natural park under the NIPAS Act and nearby reefs as municipal marine reserves. Municipal fishers were organized into a cooperative. Other livelihood options were extended to members of the cooperative to mitigate the impact of regulating fishing in their reefs. The LGU deputized fisher-wardens or Bantay Dagat to patrol Apo and neighboring reefs to ward off poachers in the area. Fishery co-management of the marine reserves has continued to date, particularly in educating all stakeholders the value of conservation of their coastal resources. There is good rapport between fishers and the LGU. Fishers have reported an improvement of their daily catch from outside of the marine reserves. In addition several fish, sea turtles, and migratory birds have returned to the area.

Lessons learned " Consultations and dialogue among all stakeholders is essential in ensuring the sustainability of marine reserve management. " Empowered and enlightened fisherfolk can effectively share in the management and use of marine reserves. " Research-based information is important in arriving at decisions and in formulating policies. " Management of marine reserves can be sustained by instituting an acceptable cost-sharing scheme which confer on the local fishing community some equity rights. This serves as motivation for them to continuously support the project. Sources:
Agbayani, R.F., D. B. Baticados and S. V. Siar. 2000. Community fishery resources management on Malalison Island, Philippines: R & D framework, interventions and policy implications. Coastal management, 28: 1927 Baticados, D. B. and R. F. Agbayani. 2000. Co-management in marine fisheries in Malalison Island, central Philippines. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 7: 1-13 Roberts, C. M. and N. V. C. Polunin. 1991. Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries? Reviews in fish biology and fisheries, 1: 65-91. Siar, S. V. R. F. Agbayani and J. B. Valera. 1992. Acceptability of territorial-use rights in fisheries: towards community-based management of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines. Fisheries research, 14: 295-304.

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The San Carlos City experience

Homelots for the Poor:

rban areas in the Philippines share certain characteristics. More often than not, the impressive infrastructures in the metropolis are deceiving facades of its ugly side. The cities' fast growth brought both blessings and curses. Ironically, any economic boon had corresponding social costs. The swelling urban population for example consistently bred social ill - squatter colonies which multiplied faster than they could be monitored, and threatened to negate whatever gains a particular city had achieved. Insecurity of land tenure hounded the squatters who were conscious that there was a temporary residency that could be revoked anytime. While many city governments attempted to address the squatting problem, only a few succeeded. There were other concerns that muddled the whole issue. For example, there were the "professional squatters" who were either individuals or groups who occupied land without the express consent of the landowner. These professional squatters actually had sufficient income for legitimate housing. Or they could be those who had already availed of government housing or a homelot project, which they then sold, leased or transferred to another party and then settled illegally in the same or another site. There were also the "squatting syndicates" that consisted of groups of persons engaged in the business of squatting for profit.

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Indeed, the problem of squatting and squatters had complex socio-political and economic components that needed to be addressed by the city governments.

The Legal Basis The granting of corporate power to a local government unit, particularly by Sec. 22 (4) of R.A. 7160, empowered it to acquire land for a housing program. Before the enactment of the Code, approval by the national government had been required for any major undertaking of local government units.
The devolution of some powers of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) to the Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Council) accelerated the local implementation of housing or homelot projects. Sec. 458 (2) (x) empowered the Sangguniang Panlungsod to process and approve subdivision plans. Sections 34, 35 and 36 of the Code encouraged the LGUs to cultivate productive relationships with peoples' organizations (POs) and the nongovernment organizations (NGOs). It allowed the LGUs to enter into cooperative arrangements with the POs and the NGOs to ensure better delivery of certain basic services, capability-building and livelihood projects which were important components of any local housing or homelot projects. A year after the approval of the Local Government Code, Republic Act No. 7279, otherwise known as the Urban Development and Housing Act (UDHA) of 1992, was passed to address the issues of homelessness and squatting. The Act sought to provide socialized housing and homelots to the underprivileged and the homeless in the urban areas. LGUs were required to identify and register all beneficiaries within their territories to ensure that only bona-fide beneficiaries can avail of the low cost housing projects. They were likewise directed to identify, in coordination with the National Housing Authority (NHA), the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), the Land Management Bureau (LMB), and the National Mapping Resource Information Authority (NMRIA), those lands for socialized housing and resettlement areas of the squatters. The Act specified that in the identification of the areas for socialized housing, the availability of basic services and facilities, accessibility and proximity to job sites and other sources of livelihood should all be considered by the LGUs.

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Lote Para sa Mahirap San Carlos City in the province of Negros Occidental is a classic example. It had 3,233 squatting households composed mostly of pedicab drivers, fish and vegetable vendors, construction builders, and dockworkers among others. In February 1992, a big fire broke out that rendered hundreds of squatter families homeless. The situation posed a daunting challenge to the incoming administration of Mayor Rogelio Debulgado.
Assuming office in July 1992, Mayor Debulgado immediately initiated the "Lote para sa Mahirap" resettlement program, with fire victims and squatters on government lots as priority clients. The first phase of the program relocated 588 squatters into their own lots without any downpayment. The lots were to be paid in easy installment terms Php5.00 a day, five days a week, for five years. Phase II of the program was turned over on the second week of March 1998 to 69 beneficiaries who were among the lowest paid local government employees. Without the program, it would have been impossible for them to acquire their own lots. With the entry of Alger Foundation, 35 more housing units were built for qualified city government employees. A unit cost Php150,000.00 payable through salary deductions. Phase III was completed with 187 households as beneficiaries.
PHASE I LAND AREA 1. Total area 2. Saleable area 3. Lot size 4. Number of lots 4.6989 hectares 3.3152 hectares 54 sq. meters 598 COST 1. Acquisition 2. Development 3. Others TOTAL P2,135,655.00 7,767,185.80 344,943.75 P10,247,784.55 P1,331,250.00 1,558,731.25 0.00 P2,889,981.25 PAYMENT 1. Value 2. Recovery 3. Subsidy 4. Mode P100.00/sq. meter P3,315,200.00 P11,592.95/lot P5.00/day Mon-Fri P155.00/sq. meter P1,708,875.00 P9,525.05/lot Package P125.00/sq. meter P1,911,750.00 P19,115.46/lot P5.00/day Mon-Fri P1,765,075.00 4,505,000.00 0.00 6,270,075.00 1.7750 hectares 1.1025 hectares 90 sq. meters 124 2.7155 hectares 1.5294 hectares 54 sq. meters 228 PHASE II PHASE III

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Project Activities 1. Acquisition of low cost lands for residential sites. The Appraisal Committee passed resolutions detailing the manner of acquisition of lands for the program. The Committee prescribed that the buying scheme be on a cash basis to make it more attractive to the landowners . The areas covered by this program were previously sugarcane fields. In the 1980's, when sugar prices plummeted, a number of sugarcane planters abandoned their plantations due to heavy operational losses. The lands were neglected for a long period of time. These lots were acquired by the San Carlos City government through direct purchase.
2. Subdividing into economical sublots. The topographic surveys were done by the City Planning and Development Office. 3. Installation of infrastructures. Road networks, drainage system, water system, power lines, school buildings, and sports and sanitation facilities were constructed.

4. Identification and Orientation of beneficiaries. The city government required that all target beneficiaries secure a certification from the Office of the City Assessor attesting to the fact that they did not own any land in the city. The process was meant to identify the legitimate squatters. In compliance with the UDHA Act, the city government sought to disqualify professional squatters and members of the squatting syndicates.

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5. Sale of sublots in cash or by installment. Two buying options were available to the beneficiaries: one-time full payment or installment payments. The total cost of the 54 sq. meter lot was Php5,400.00 at Php100.00 per square meter. The beneficiaries can decide to pay the full amount of Php5,400.00 on install the lot at Php5.00 per day, for 5 days a week (Php25.00/week) or P100.00 per month for a period of five years.

6. Transfer of houses to the project site. The LGU provided flat bed truck, while the community assisted in the physical transfer of new and recycled materials for the houses.

7. The Transfer of Certificates of Titles for fully paid sublots. The transfer of certificates was normally done within one to two weeks after full payment was made.

8. Training. Training in community organization, skills for livelihood activities and mother-child care were conducted. Aside from the City Social Welfare and Development Office, the ALGER Foundation also conducted training sessions on value formation, leadership, simple bookkeeping, and candle making. Preferred clientele for the said seminars were the members of the cooperative, motherbeneficiaries, and wives and married daughters of beneficiaries, particularly for the motherchild care training sessions.
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9. Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E). The Monitoring and Evaluation were undertaken upon the suggestion of all sectors involved in the program. These were done during the monthly meetings, where everybody, especially the beneficiaries, felt free to express their concerns and problems. Possible solutions were advanced, and in cases where problems could not be resolved, these were elevated to the concerned agency of the LGU. The city mayor and the concerned agencies visited the resettlement site once every three months to listen to comments and feedback of the beneficiaries on the program. These were then consolidated and analyzed by the concerned officials to identify areas for improvement and undertake the needed intervention.

Problems Encountered and Hurdled


1. Opposition by the squatters to the relocation. The families were hesitant to leave, not because the resettlement area was unacceptable to them, but because of the feeling of dislocation from their old community. This opposition was neutralized when federation officers discussed the benefits of relocation and when families where resettled in clusters or groups. Initially, the relocated residents were complaining about the lack of transportation to and from the relocation site.

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2. Some beneficiaries were delinquent in repayments. It was observed that the added expense of Php6.00 to remit the Php5.00 daily payment discouraged some beneficiaries to regularly pay their dues. The project had only one full-time staff to manage all the payments which were not closely monitored nor immediately recorded. In response , the city government hired a regular collector, who doubled as monitoring officer at the site, plus a record officer to document all information relative to the project. These resulted to improvements in collection and a decrease in the number of delinquent payors. 3. Lack of classroom facilities. The sudden influx of schoolchildren created a classroom shortage. Responding to the problem, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) through the Local School Board built additional classrooms using local funds, released by the city administration.

Benefits of the Program Land Ownership. The program addressed the core issue of the squatting problem - residential lot ownership.
!

community. A well-planned, organized community. The program resulted in the creation of compact, wellplanned, and organized community. Improved delivery of services. With the creation of a compact community, the delivery of basic services became more equitable, efficient and inexpensive. Health, livelihood, and educational needs were addressed directly. Financial assistance was granted to the local electric cooperative so that power could be provided the resettlement area. Improved housing structures. Assured that they would eventually own their residential lots, beneficiaries gradually improved their dwellings. The provision of potable water. Deepwells for potable water were drilled in every block. water. Self-management. The program empowered the beneficiaries to manage their own affairs, to the organization of the Fatima Village Association.

! !

Source:
Extracted from an original case written by Prof. Edel C. Guiza and Daniel B. del Rosario, Jr. for the Pook Foundation and Asian Institute of Management. 1998.

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Primary Health Care:


Issues from the field

tudies on Primary Health Care and PCHD performance were very remarkable during the devolution period. Regions varied in their contributions in the conduct of these assessments. Prominent regions were the National Capital Region and Region XI. NCR contributed in conducting interregional assessments and pursuing explanatory type of studies, whether qualitative or quantitative to demonstrate the impact of PHC. Contributions of other areas could still be improved by enhancing their capacities to go beyond the descriptive type of studies. On the whole, impact studies demonstrated the significant effect of the participatory approach in improving the health situation of the communities where this emerged. This pattern was further confirmed by other approaches applying the participatory approach, thus strengthening the value of PHC approach.

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Many Issues have been raised regarding the implementation of Primary Health Care (PHC). A summary of these issues are raised as follows: 1. Preparation of the Local Chief Executives (LCEs) for PHC LCEs have a critical role to play towards the implementation of PHC under the new Local Government Code. The issue that can be raised is the LCEs level of commitment to the paradigm of PHC. Since it took some time for PHC to shift from a community-oriented to a community-based perspective at a time it was being mobilized directly by the DOH, it may as well be difficult to expect LCEs to appreciate the perspective if there is no conscious effort to propagate its essence. As area-based manager, LCEs are in a position to orchestrate the efforts of various sectors not earlier provided. Under devolution, they have a direct role to play in local development activities. Whether or not the LCEs are able to mobilize the appropriate persons to propagate PHC may spell the difference in its successful implementation. 2. Preparation of the DOH Representative to the Local Health Board The key persons who could mobilize for legislative action and financial support for health activities and strategies are the DOH representatives to the Local Health Board. Another provision that empowers the DOH Representative is the Barangay Health Workers Incentives Act since he/she has a direct role to play in accrediting the Barangay Health Workers (BHW), the volunteer workers in the community. 3. Distinguishing PHC as a Strategy from Primary Care Care should be made in utilizing the term PHC when what is referred to is the delivery of primary care services. PHC is a philosophy and implies propagation of strategies to implement different phases of the management cycle. On the other hand, primary care connotes a level of health care which could be packaged and delivered to a group of people. Policy statements and advocacy materials should be able to distinguish between primary care and PHC as a strategy. 4. BHW as CO Workers or Service Delivery Workers or Both Past efforts in PHC demonstrated the major contribution of BHWs in the delivery of primary care services and in serving as a link between the community and the public health delivery system. The contribution of most BHWs in the community organizing process had been mainly in the propagation of activities directed or promoted by the local health unit or the BHW himself/herself, instead of performing the role of facilitator. The issue therefore consistently raised in the past had been: should the BHW perform the role of a multipurpose worker responsible for both community organizing and health service delivery, or should his/her main task be focused on one function only? The difficulty with serving the role of a multipurpose worker is the numerous tasks absorbed by the BHW, especially for health services alone. On the other hand, performing one particular task (as CO worker or health worker) could enable him to specialize on one role. However, focusing on health function alone should not excuse the BHW from upholding the participatory methodology. Should the emphasis be on the health service function? The responsibility of community organizing can be fulfilled by other workers in the community such as those connected with NGOs, POs and the LGUs. This therefore requires active networking with the other service delivery workers who could perform the CO function effectively.

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Thus, options could be offered to the LGUs regarding the possible roles which could be undertaken by the BHWs. ! Perform a multipurpose role if the BHWs have the capability to perform community organizing role and health service delivery; ! Perform the technical function in health if there are existing support structures which could assume the function of community organizing; or ! Determine who among the BHWs can assume the function of a community organizer with the rest performing the task of health service delivery. 5. Monetary vs. Non-monetary Benefits One issue regarding the passage of the Barangay Health Workers Incentive Act is the mandatory provision for LGUs to provide monetary incentives in the form of hazard allowances and meal allowances to BHWs. The difficulty in making LGUs responsible in sustaining the provision of these incentives is the tendency to associate volunteer workers with the requirements and visions of the government and not of the people. Monetary incentives could be tantamount to considering BHWs as appendages of the LGUs and could be a political leverage of the local executive. Non-monetary incentives can be associated less with political manipulation since the basis for obtaining the benefits (i.e. credits to Step Ladder Education) is anchored on standards which are not subject to the discretion of the awarding authority. In this light, more mobilization efforts can be undertaken in order to formulate community-based financing schemes as possible sources of monetary incentives of BHWs instead of drawing the incentives from the government. 6. Continue Positioning PHC in the MBN Approach The Minimum Basic Needs (MBN) approach under the Social Reform Agenda started by the Ramos Administration, provides other methodologies which can enrich the perspective of PHC. One is the propagation of MBN strategy itself which focuses on the prioritization of primary requirements for survival, security and enabling needs before focusing on secondary requirements. These requirements have already been propagated and validated in various regions and can serve as the framework for intersectoral collaboration and convergence. At the national level, DOH can continue to position itself for MBN advocacy since the basic commitments for PHC can be attained through this approach. In fact, most of the indicators for PHC are in the area of health. This could mean being an active participant in advocacy by highlighting the significance of the community-based approach, setting up a community-based information system, and focused targeting, apart from providing the rationale behind the inclusion and monitoring of basic health indicators. Within the DOH, this means advocacy and propagation of MBN as a means to propel PHC. This could be continuously be advocated to local executive through its Field Office representatives, through the developed health personnel.
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Monitoring the success of PHC through the involvement of the BHWs and the community in MBN can be included in its indicator system. 7. Propagation of Partnership for Community Health Development to Demonstrate Convergence The processe applied in Partnership for Community Health Development (PCHD) where non-government organizations served as the conduit of the Department of Health in advocating PHC, can be advocated to demonstrate the significance if convergence and the participatory methodology. This can be included as examples in the capability-building programs for DOH personnel and the LGUs. It can also be a showcase for the capability-building programs in MBN to demonstrate the lessons which can be learned in the partnership effort. 8. Process Documentation as a Methodology Process documentation, an activity which had not been given much attention in previous efforts for PHC, is an important activity to undertake in order to capture the dynamics involved in community mobilization. Most of these indicators formulated focused on activities undertaken by BHWs, the number of training programs undertaken, and the net effect of participation in the reduction morbidity and mortality. However, information on the manner of and the persons involved in planning, implementing and assessing these activities had not been given much attention. This can be assigned to devolved health personnel and the technology should be passed on to BHWs. 9. Need for Training in the conduct of impact evaluation in the different regions The unevenness of studies on the impact of PHC necessitates that capacities be built for the different academic research institutions on the methodological requirements for this type of study. This will ensure immediate feedback of results and empowerment of regional academic-research institutions to have a role to play in introducing policies and preparing advocacy materials that are attuned to their local sociocultural situation. Initial efforts of such organizations as the Health Research Network composed of academic-research institutions, had substantial impact in improving the capabilities of the regions in conducting assessment studies. Many reseraches had been reaped as a result of its efforts.

Source:
Bautista, Victoria A. A State-of-the Art Review of Primary Health Care: Two Decades of Government Initiative. Quezon City: University of the Philippines-National College of Public Administration and Governence, 1999.

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Primary Health Care as a Devolved Responsibility

rimary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy of enhancing What is Primary Health Care? health and related development requirements of an It is a phrase that is often misunderstood, but individual, the family and the community to ensure that is significant to local government units (LGUs). they achieve a decent level of living. It is not a program nor a This is because this responsibility has been service. PHC should not be equated with delivering primary care service. transferred from the Department of Health (DOH) to local Chief Executives (LCEs) when services like immunization, maintenance of environmental the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 sanitation and improving the nutritional condition of the was passed. Based on Chapter II, Section 17 of households. To implement PHC means that community members the LGC, it is the responsibility of local Chief Executives, especially of Mayors and Barangay are mobilized to get organized, to enable them to actively Captains, to implement PHC. participate in community development activities to respond to their basic needs, like health. They must be organized to make sure that a leader is elected or identified to represent the views and preferences of the members in a local development organization (such as the local development council, the planning body of the LGU).

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Importance of involving Peoples Organizations (PO) in local development planning


The involvement of Peoples Organization (PO) involvement is important in local development planning because an organized group in the community is a more effective venue for sharing problems, views, visions and preferences of the members. We cannot rely on an individual who does not originate from an organized group to represent the views of the community. There is no venue by which this person is able to draw ideas that will be conveyed to a local development body, like the local development council. At best, this person will only convey his/her own personal view. Likewise, an organized peoples group can identify a person who they think can represent their needs and views. This would avoid selection of representatives by local officials since they are allies and partners in a political party. Furthermore, operating through an organized group, community activities (i.e. maintaining clean surrounding area) can be done with ease than doing the activity alone.

When was PHC launched?


PHC is a commitment of the Philippines, together with other countries, at the Alma Ata Conference in Russia in 1978. It was launched in the country in 1979 and was piloted in selected provinces in each region, until it was formally implemented nationwide in 1981. The initial years of PHC entailed changing the outlook of health workers to make community members less dependent on them for health care needs. The health workers were taught how to motivate community volunteers for health (Barangay Health Workers) to assist the national health office to mobilize their respective communities in health activities. When devolution was passed in 1991, the responsibility of community mobilization has been delegated to the LGUs.

Importance of PHC implementation


It is important to make people feel that they have the capacity to take care of some of their basic needs. They will have more confidence in themselves if they are trusted that there are activities that they can do on their own (i.e. maintaining the cleanliness in their surrounding area, keeping the immunization record of ones children and cooking nutritious food for the family).
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As community residents begin to assume responsibility for their basic health and related needs, the government can give more attention to more complicated problems requiring technical expertise. For instance, when community members agree to keep their front yards clean, they are in effect saving on hiring the services of a street sweeper. The barangay can devote its resources to other expenses. Also, in some areas where malnutrition is a problem, instead of local health workers imparting micronutrients, mothers assume the responsibility of cooking nutritious foods for their children. Mobilizing POs to participate in local decision-making will enable local development workers to appreciate indigenous resources or technologies. For instance, the effects of sambong to cure uric acid or lagundi for kidney problems, would not have been made possible if citizens had not been given an opportunity to share these resources. However, the technical expertise of DOH is essential in validating the dosage and packaging these herbal medicines into tablets or tea. Enabling the citizens to assume responsibility for managing their health needs gives them a sense of self-respect and self-reliance. There are many activities that can be done as a community which could make the citizens feel important if they are able to share their time and resources. In fact, it is difficult to sustain these activities if they dont have a role in conceptualizing and implementing them. These activities could even die with the end of the term of a political leader who just initiated projects without due consultation of the citizens.

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Community members in community development activities


Involving community members in the development process entails opening opportunities for them to interface in situation analysis, planning, implementation and monitoring/evaluation. These processes are the common activities undertaken in the management of programs and projects.
Situation analysis involves gathering of information to determine the condition in a locality. The data gathered serve as the bases for sound decisions in the planning process. Planning is the stage when projects are identified in order to meet the localitys needs and how existing resources are able to match these activities. The local development council in the barangay conducts this activity. Implementation is the stage when the LCEs oversee the execution of the plans. Monitoring/ evaluation entails an assessment if the projects are implemented according to schedule and if the projects improve the condition of the community.

To involve the community in the different phases of management, the citizenry must be empowered. This can be done in the following ways:
!

In the conduct of situation analysis: community members can participate in gathering information, processing and analysis of the data as a team to ensure that consensus is developed on problems which can be given priority attention. They can use the minimum basic needs (MBN) information system as a starting point as this utilizes indicators of the basic requirements to attain quality of life. This system is being implemented with the support of the Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services, under the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). However, there are provinces whose governors have initiated a 100 % coverage of their barangays with MBN, such as Davao del Norte. In the planning process: it is important for community residents to get involved in the identification of projects which they can undertake and those requiring the support of government, in response to their priority needs. Participation in local government planning can be effectively undertaken if:
#

Community residents can elect leaders of their community organization who can represent them in local development councils, the planning body in the locality. There is direct consultation by POs and /or the local government with the community, through an assembly, to validate the projects identified to resolve priority problems. Some barangays have organized puroks (sub-villages) as a venue for more effective participation.

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In implementation:Community members can serve as partners of government in the execution of development projects by providing services or material resources and not merely as recipient of services. In the Primary Health Hospital in Negros Oriental, volunteers took care of driving the ambulance. Relatives also took care of cooking the food of the patient. In monitoring and evaluation: Community residents can gather information about their condition or help in collecting data on fellow residents on the status of the implementation of development projects. Community residents can likewise serve as partners of government in summarizing and analyzing information on the general condition of the community. The information they gather can be the basis for the determination of more appropriate projects and what improvements can be made in managing the projects. The MBN information system can be applied as a tool in determining the quality of life of the community. Additional information/instructions on MBN can be obtained from the National Anti-Poverty Commission and the DSWD.

Responsibilities of LCEs in the implementation of PHC


Local Chief Executives have the responsibility of organizing the community, especially at the barangay level, in order for the residents to get involved in community projects concerning health and related projects. This can start with the identification of frontline workers from government and non-government organizations (NGOs) who have the knowledge and expertise in community organizing.

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Are there known examples which have implemented PHC? One good example is the PHC Federated Womens Club of Surigao city. This was launched in 1986 through the effort of a midwife. This started with 300 members in 1986 and by 1998, it boasted of 7,200 members. The federation has won two times from the Health and Management Information System Award of the DOH. It also became a finalist of for the Galing Pook award. Why did this organization merit these awards? This is because the federation has initiated community projectsthrough its own initiative. The projects are not only in the area of health like maintaining deep well, environmental sanitation, feeding centers, and herbal gardens. It has also initiated income- generating projects like packaging herbal medicines and setting up a health insurance system. The federation has also motivated the men and the children to set up their own respective groups. From the award money from HAMIS, the federation constructed a PHC Training Center which the women maintain. They even cook in this Center when there are training programs. This has served as the source of their livelihood. Health status improved in the community as a result of the active participation of the women. To show the womens commitment to assess the improvement in the quality of life in the area, they regularly conduct program reviews where they invite the local officials and technical people to see how they fare.

Source:
Victoria A. Bautista and Angelito Mnalili, Gabay sa Primary Health Care. Quezon City: Community Health Service of the Department of Health and UP College of Public Administration: 1998.

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Establishment of Community Primary Hospitals in the Hinterlands

CPH

he Community Primary Hospital (CPH) is a modification, if not an embodiment, of the concept of Primary Health Care (PHC). It is a partnership approach among the community, the government and the private sector or non-government organizations (NGOs). It underscores the importance of community leadership and initiative in the identification of health related problems and in seeking their solutions in the context of total socio-economic development efforts. Health education, proper nutrition, environmental sanitation, immunization, prevention and control of locally endemic diseases and the promotion of natural and herbal medicines are the elements of PHC.

Reasons for innovation


The distance, difficult terrain and poor road conditions, especially during the rainy months, make it next to impossible for the people to avail of hospital services in the poblacion. Likewise, the shortage of hospital beds, the concentration of a greater proportion of the population in the mountain areas and the isolation of these areas from the cities made it difficult for them to avail of medical services.

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Thus, CPHs in the mountains serve not only as centers offering primary hospital services in far-flung and isolated areas but also for comprehensive preventive health care. There are times, though when CPHs render secondary hospital services, depending on the ability of the doctors.

Strategies/Activities undertaken

Access to the 20% development fund for the construction of the community primary . hospital. In Negros Oriental, the governor provided P350,000 for the said undertaking. Likewise, the Barangay Council of Kalumboyan donated two hectares of land for the proposed facility. Deployment of community organizers to the pilot barangay. This is undertaken to lay the groundwork for the community primary hospital to conduct social investigation, baseline surveys and analysis and to ensure community support for the project.

Promotion of the spirit of volunteerism, or Bayanihan, among community residents. In Bayawan, residents rendered their share for the construction of the CPH. Instead of paying them the minimum wage, they were paid half the amount. Likewise, income generating projects were set up, through the initiative of Silliman University.

The Kalumboyan CPH


The hospital building has two five-bed wards, a doctors office and quarters, an emergency treatment room, an operating/delivery room, two comfort rooms for male and female and a separate toilet and bathroom for the staffs. Except for the divider, which separates the doctors and nurses quarters, all walls are made from wood and nipa. Outside the building is the ambulance garage, a communal kitchen and comfort room. Three small nipa huts which serve as sleeping quarters for the relatives of patients and a herbal and vegetable garden in the backyard. Electricity is provided through a solar panel at the rooftop of the building. The CPHs modest structure also houses a pharmacy where the inventory of essential drugs like antibiotics, drugs for deworming, tuberculosis drugs and IV fluids are enough to last until the next procurement.

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The Pilot Site and Catchment Area


Barangay Kalumboyan is 23 km away from the town proper where the Bayawan District Hospital is located. It is situated in a valley with a road that is passable only during the dry months and hardly accessible during the rainy season. Because of the poor road conditions, few vehicles ply this route. The CPH has a catchment area of about 324 square km covering 12 barangays with a total population of 37, 546. In 1998, the average per capita income of the area was P816 per annum. The leading causes of mortality are diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, intestinal paratism, wounds and bronchitis, among others. The leading causes of mortality are broncho-pneumonia, stab and gunshot wounds, bleeding peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

Managing the CPH


The CPH is managed by a development board. The barangay captain of the barangay where the CPH is located chairs the board, while the Chief of the CPH (one of the doctors) serves as the vice-chairman. All the other barangay captains in the catchment area automatically serve as board members, together with the Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) representative, the Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman and a representative from the religious organization. The board designates a treasurer to take care of the funds for the CPH and an auditor to monitor disbursements. The Board prepares and approves an annual report, on which an annual procurement plan is based. During the monthly meetings of the Boards, matters related to hospital operations and maintenance like the purchase of drugs and medicines, fund drive, the repair of ambulance, or a new roofing for the hospital are discussed and decided upon. The agenda for the meeting is sent to the members in advance, together with the minutes of the previous meeting. The Chief recommends what drugs and medicines will be purchased and in what quantities. His recommendations are then sent to the Board for approval.

Impacts on health ! The general health condition of the people has improved since the establishment of the CPHs. ! There are more out-patients and less in-patients in both Kalumboyan and Amio. This may be an indication that the CPH is doing well in terms of preventive and promotive health drives. ! Drawn from the success of the CPH, the provincial government has adapted a similar management mechanism for its provincial hospital and five district hospitals.

Source:
Community Participation in Health Services Delivery in Devolution Matters A Documentation of PostDevolution Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Manila: DOH and Local Government Assistance and Monitoring Service. pp. 43-52.

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Experience

Establishment of a Province-wide, Community-based Health Program: The AlayKa Palawan

he concept of establishing community-based health programs (CBHPs) in the county draws its inspiration form the twin goals set by the Department of Health: Health for ALL by the Year 2000 and Health in the Hands of the People by 2020. Devolution paved the way for LGUs to pursue health programs, which are community-based. CBHPs are unique innovations of non-government organizations (NGOs). While the strategy of community organizing is borrowed from the NGOs, a CBHP like the Alay sa Kalusugan ng Palawan or Alay Ka Palawan is instituted and sustained by the Provincial governments of Palawan. It is a (government organization) GO working as an NGO. What makes Alay Ka Palawan unique is that its scope is province-wide, while other CBHPs have limited target areas. Being the first province-wide CBHP in the Philippines, the AlayKa Palawan is a magnified version of previous efforts of NGOs to empower the people through health. This is done by arming them with relevant knowledge about health and medicine and with organizing and analytical skills that ensure collective strength and voice. Its aim is to create a people-centered health program at the grassroots level where the people themselves, in coordination with health workers, address health and not medical concerns.

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Alay Ka Palawan does not set up CBHPs, the people do. It merely presents the concept of CBHP to the people. The people then become aware of the circumstances surrounding their health problems. Alay Ka Palawan steps in to facilitate the organization process that the people may continue to organize and train them. Their end goal is to draw up solutions to their own communitys health problems and to make them self-reliant. The community decides its own priorities and sets up its own health programs. As a facilitator, Alay Ka Palawan helps provide resources from government agencies or NGOs to fund the implementation of these community health projects.

General strategies / activities undertaken


Identification and endorsement of a community (province) health program

Community health leaders and health-oriented NGOs may start discussions on the prospect and possibility of launching a CBHP. A CBHP may be finalized by an executive order (from the office of the Governor) and consequently endorsed by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Board) through an appropriate resolution. Depending on the needs and circumstances, such resolution/ legislation may define the legal structure of the Program.
Formal launching of the province-wide CBHP attended by key leaders, NGOs and POs in the province

With respect to Alay Ka Palawan, one significant output of the launching exercise was the signing of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) among the provincial government, the NGOs and POs to support the program.

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Information dissemination

Seminars are conducted, brochures and newsletters on AlayKa Palawan are distributed and radio broadcasts are aired as information dissemination tools.

Community organizing

Community organizers from Alay Ka Palawan go to communities willing to adopt the program to help facilitate community organizing. This strategy is based on a simple yet effective concept: the multiplication process. Starting with a small core of committed workers, barangays are organized into health communities. Each barangay then adopts another barangay where re-echo seminars on CBHP are conducted. Ideally, each community must have a Community Organizer (CO) counterpart with whom Alay Ka Palawans own CO can readily transfer its skills and knowledge. This encourages the early development of selfreliance.

Training

Training of CO counterparts is required to equip them with the proper skills, attitudes and know-how in implementing CBHP in the communities.

Networking

Alay Ka Palawan has developed an effective network among agencies, which it can tap to help resolve issues and concerns related to its work. These agencies provide assistance in the form of financial support for food and travel expenses of COs, provision of training paraphernalia and equipment and manpower in the form of trainers and resource speakers. Alay Ka Palawan does not propose to provide surefire solution to the peoples problems. It only hopes to ease their burden by utilizing its skills in networking, to bring the peoples problems to the attention of concerned agencies or institutions.

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Specific strategies / activities undertaken


!

Establishment of the TANGAY Foundation, which started as Friends of Palawans Provincial Hospital. This is an NGO, which seeks support for improving the facilities of Palawans provincial and peripheral hospital. Establishment of BAHATALA, which provides rehabilitation services and domiciliary care for the patients of the Palawan Hospital. This is the pillar of the PHOs CBHP. Establishment of Palawan Herbal Medicine and Production Program, which helped in improving peoples perceptions of and trust in community-based health approaches. It hopes to put up a large-scale herbal processing plant to be managed by PKP so it can subsidize cooperative medical care in the province. Undertaking of the health personnel development program to improve the quality and quantity of medical and health professionals and workers in the province.

Source:
AlayKa: Leading Palawan to People-Powered Health in Devolution Matters A Documentation of Post-Devolution Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Department of Health Local Government Assistance and Monitoring Service. Manila. pp 67-73.

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Empowering People and LGUs through Health Insurance

ocal health insurance operates through the pooling of funds (called premiums) among a group of persons. In a health insurance scheme, these premiums are to be used to cover the members medical expenses in the event of an illness. On the other hand, the government is relieved of fiscal strains because there is a ready source of funds available to assure the effective delivery of health services to the people.

The problem situation and impetus for local health insurance


The present national social health insurance covers only the employed Social Security System (SSS) for private workers and Government Service Insurance system (GSIS) for public sector workers- under Program I (PI) of Medicare. Sectors not covered by any form of social insurance are the unemployed, the indigents and the self-employed who are most vulnerable to health problems. The present practice is for indigents and low-income workers to enter public hospitals as charity patients. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and public hospitals shoulder the direct costs of their expenses. These people are usually not given adequate health services, if they are accommodated at all.

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The Philippine Health Insurance (PHIC) recognizes this inadequacy and has taken steps to expand the Medicare PI by instituting Progam II. The PII is an insurance program designed to cover those who are not formally employed. The Medicare PII operates with local government units (LGUs) as partners of the PHIC. The PHIC provides the technology and initial assistance and the LGUs act as the administrator. The program is implemented in certain LGUs via a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) signed by the PHIC and the Municipality.

The Sampaloc, Quezon local health insurance experience


The social health insurance adopted in Sampaloc, Quezon is the Medicare PII, which is very appropriate for municipalities where a good percentage of its population belongs to the non-formally-employed sector.
Strategies/activities undertaken
!

Conduct of exploratory, consultative meetings/dialogues between local chief . executives, barangay captains and purok leaders and representatives of the PMCC. During these meetings, the PMCC Team elaborated on the dynamics of the program, the rules and responsibilities that local officials have to assume to make the program work. As it turned out, the local officials appreciated the benefits of the program. Endorsement by the Sangguniang Bayan through a Board Resolution requesting PMCC to implement the program in Sampaloc. Briefing of the townspeople about the program. The meeting presided by the personnel of the PMCC was attended by local officials, Department of Health (DOH) consultants, barangay health workers and senior citizens. Among the topics presented to the body was the possible benefit package for the program.

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Signing of the MOA between the PMCC and Sampaloc town officials. Under the MOA, PMCC was tasked to supervise the program and provide technical assistance. On the other hand, the local government was assigned membership recruitment, collection and remittance of contribution, and information dissemination.
!

The life and sustainability of any social insurance program depends on the number of members enrolled. All things being equal, the more members, the better.

. Implementation of recruitment and renewal policies. For the Sampaloc Program, the PMCC set a minimum membership base of 700 members for it to become sustainable. To meet the requirement, the following activities were done and are continued to be undertaken: a. Both the Senior Citizens Group and the Quezon Womens League took active part in program promotion and active recruitment. The Womens League even set-up a fund that lends money to its members for premium payment.

b.

The Farmers Association of Sampaloc has adopted the turnuhan scheme to help them pay their premiums. The turnuhan involves an arrangement where a group of people regularly pool its money and gives a certain percentage of it to a certain person at a chosen time. The purok leaders were also constantly prodded to increase recruitment for the program in their areas. Purok tally boards monitor the recruitment campaign. The number of those enrolled in the purok are indicated on the boards. The Mayor gives barangay and municipal officials a monthly quota for new recruits (i.e. a counselor is required to enroll at least five new members every month).

c.

d.

Effects and initial impact


!

The municipality is now relieved from shouldering the direct costs of medical services for indigent patients. These costs are now borne by the insurance fund. The municipal government is now in a better position to allocate more resources for public health concerns and innovative preventive measures that will implement the clinical and direct approach of the insurance program. In the light of devolution and the fiscal constraints of the municipalities, the local health insurance aids the LGU to overcome health costs. Hospitals were relieved from charity cases as the indigents can now pay for their services through the health insurance.

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Lessons learned
! A more intensive information drive may be necessary to help the people of Sampaloc to

appreciate the value of a social health insurance program. Many residents, including those who have signed up as members, have not yet fully understand the mechanics of the program. Its rules and regulations still need to be further explained.
! Sampaloc, so far, has been the only municipality that is able to continuously expand its membership, largely due to

creative recruitment approaches. Moreover, it shows the value of community participation and a determined leadership in the establishment of an effective local health insurance system.
! Sampaloc is not a pioneer in health insurance, but its experiences represent a treasure chest of lessons from

which other LGUs and local officials can learn from.

Source:
Empowering the People and the LGUs through Health Insurance in Devolution Matters A Documentation of Post-Devolution Experiences in the Delivery of Health Services. Department of Health-Local Government Assistance and Monitoring Service. Manila. pp. 53-59.

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Governance Mainstreaming in Local Governance

Transforming the Mainstream:

articipatory local governance is a major principle enshrined in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. The 1991 Local Government Code follows on the full implementation of such mandate. Among the key principles and strategies cited in the Code is the participation of people's organizations and non-governmental organizations in local governance. Women are among the key stakeholders in local governance because they ! are almost 50 % global and local community population; ! are half the producers of economic goods and services. ! are in the money economy: in wage employment, trading and the informal sector. ! are in the non-money economy: in child bearing, child rearing, caring for & nurturing the weaker members of the household and the community, in domestic labor and subsistence agriculture. ! are citizens, voters and community leaders.

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Gender Issues in Local Governance

Global and Philippine statistics bear the fact that men dominate leadership, power and decisionmaking positions and processes in various levels of society - at home, in the community, in the economy, in politics and governance (UNDPHuman Development Report, 1995; Philippine Plan for Gender Responsive Development, 19952025). While women have increasingly taken on active public role in society, their participation in politics and governance continues to be limited. In 1995, there were 9 women governors out of 75, or 12 %. In 1998, this improved slightly to 12 women out of 77 governors or about 17 %. In 1995, there were only 3 women out of 67 city mayors, or a measly 5 %. In the 1998 elections, there were now 8 women out of 83 mayors, or 10 % only. Among municipal mayors, there were 125 women out of 1,536 or 8 %. in 1995. This improved to 21 % with 233 women winning the 1998 election. There are more women elective officials at the barangay level but still a fraction compared to men. Even as more women voted in 1995 elections, with voter turn-out rate of 71 %., they remain largely unable to influence policy and decision-making as legislators, chief executives and top administrators at both the national and local levels. Even as few women occupied high posts in government, their agenda did not consistently champion improvements in women's status.

The 'social relations of gender' or 'gender' for short, refers to the socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men. This includes expectations held about characteristics, aptitudes and likely behavior of both women and men, i.e, femininity and masculinity. This historically evolved into a dominant worldview that women are the 'weaker sex' while men are the `stronger' sex. Society now came to stereotype women's primarily role in homebased and unpaid reproductive tasks (e.g. child bearing, child rearing, housekeeping and other nurturing activities) while men's primarily roles are as breadwinners, leaders and decision makers in the public domain. This belief system brought about a situation where women do not share the same power and prestige, status and social position as men's. Such reality limits women's participation in decisionmaking and the assumption of leadership positions.

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While there is constitutional provision for women's sectoral representation in local development councils, this has yet to be fully implemented. It was only in the 1998 elections that a women's sectoral party, Abanse! Pinay, won a seat under the party list system at the National Congress. Women's limited political representation consequently render local development plans blind to gender issues. Majority of local officials and LGU personnel were not aware of gender issues and had no inputs by way of a gender orientation. They therefore did appreciate addressing gender concerns alongside other local governance issues. The major gender and development issues that local governance must monitor and respond to are:
!

Women and Poverty - There is high rural female unemployment and male underemployment causing out migration, especially among women. There is the predominance of women and child labor in subcontracting production systems that are measly paid and are vulnerable to exploitation. There are no safety nets for the negative effects of trade liberalization that increase women's burden.

Women & Health - There is inadequate support for reproductive health concerns, including their right to contraception and safe pregnancy and motherhood. The delivery of social services on women and health are to be implemented at the LGU level.

Violence Against Women - Rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, trafficking of women and other forms of violence against women were long considered as private issues that are now considered as human rights violation. LGUs can play an important support role in public education, monitoring, and provision of social services to prevent incidents and support victims and survivors.

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Women and the Environment - Women share culpability in unsustainable farming practices. They also contribute to environmental conservation.

Policy Mandates for Mainstreaming Gender in Local Governance

Women have organized their rank and became active participants in the social movement that persistently lobbied at local, national and international fora for policy and community-based responses to gender issues. Gains slowly yet steadily came about since the 1975 International Women's Year Conference in Nairobi until the 1995 International Women's Conference in Beijing. Filipino women from both government and civil society organizations have been key players in advocating for a genderresponsive government. Official Development Assistance (ODA) programs between countries signatory to these international agreements should uphold and promote these covenants.

For its part, the Philippine government embarked in multi-sectoral consultations with women's groups and produced the following key policy and development planning documents:
! Phil. Development Plan for Women

(PDPW) of 1989-92 ;
! Republic Act 7192 or the Women in

Development and Nation-Building Act of 1992 ! Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development (PPGD) of 1995- 2025; and the ! The Gender and Development (GAD) Budget as provided for in the annual General Appropriations Act (GAA) since 1998. ! Joint DBM-NCRFW-NEDA circular for LGUs to submit a GAD Plan in their Local Development Plans as basis for allocating a LGU GAD Budget that should be at least 5 % of the total.

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Women's Agenda: Gender Equality and Gender Equity.

Gender Equity refers to the allocation of power and resources in ways responsive to the needs and interest of women and men. Given that power and resources are in the hands of men in society, gender equity strategies should be directed toward a distribution of these factors to women. Gender and Development (GAD) framework . GAD espouses a recognition of the unequal gender relations between women and men in all aspects / sectors of development. It proceeds from the premise that culturally defined roles have reinforced the unequal gender relations, resulting in the marginalisation of both sexes in varying circumstances and magnitude, with mostly women at the more disadvantaged end. The GAD approach seeks not only to fully integrate women into the development process but works to transform social and gender relations into creative opportunities that would equally benefit both women and men. GRDP or what is also known as gender-responsive planning is simply the operationalization and integration of the GAD framework into the entire development planning cycle. It rests on the premise that introducing gender considerations makes development planning / programming more 'people-oriented or people-focused'. Gender is one factor of heterogeneity along with ethnicity , class and other sociodemographic variables, all of which determine to a large extent the manner by which development plans and programs impact on different groups of peoples. The LGSP project teams underwent gender sensitivity training and gender responsive planning. Part-time WID/GE advisors were specially hired since September 1995 to spearhead the advocacy of the same to LGUs and other partners. Since 1994, LGSP supported both gender-specific and gender-mainstreamed strategies with various LGU capability building programs. Gender and development (GAD) focal teams were trained and organized in provinces and municipalities. GAD actions plans were generated from them. However, there has been uneven response and commitment to follow through action plans required of those initially trained. LGSP itself initially had been less systematic and consistent in monitoring ensuring the integration of gender in capability building programs. There is also cultural resistance from some LGU leaders and personnel who have not yet undergone gender training and who continue to trivialize gender issues. There is also limited knowledge on appropriate gender tools in gender responsive planning, monitoring and evaluation.
Case Study and Gender Analysis in Qualitative Monitoring

It is important to analyze and document the processes of project implementation, identify strengths and

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gaps specially with regards to project impact on men and women, to social classes, to the ways they perceive and relate to each other . Monitoring and progress reports have dwelt mainly on the quantitative or physical indicators. While quantitative data are also important, these do not tell much about the process, the impact, the problems and issues in project implementation. A balanced presentation of both output , process and lessons will be achieved through the case study approach. This will be most useful for program management and development, for evaluation and for learning purposes. Gender Analysis will be a major tool in the case study approach. Gender analysis requires a good grasp of gender issues and of the tools for analyses. A basic step is recording sex-disaggregated data, i.e. noting down how many men and women of what sectors ( socio-economic or job position) participated in every step of the project development cycle problem definition, statement of objectives, planning, implementing structures, strategies and evaluation. A second step is analyzing the quality of participation , what roles / contributions did men and women have , what assumptions about men and women's roles account for the types of roles and activities they performed, and what effects on men and women did the project/s have,

Source:
Rodriguez, Luz L., Local Government Support Program (LGSP). July 2000

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LGUs in Disaster Management

D
!

isaster management pushes local government units (LGUs) into action. Lives could be lost and damage to property will be immense if LGUs fail to respond efficiently and effectively to local emergencies. The key, however, to effective disaster management is to tap the spirit of volunteerism in the community and to encourage the involvement and commitment of its constituents towards disaster mitigation.

A comprehensive disaster management can strengthen the skills, awareness, strategies and systems of LGUs for community disaster preparedness and mitigation. It must include: an analysis of municipal profiles in relation to disaster management; ! a briefing about the creation and/or strengthening of their barangay and municipal disaster management coordinating councils; ! the installation of warning systems for mobilizing people during disasters; and ! an overview on managing the municipal calamity fund. The disaster management cycle has three phases: (1) pre-disaster, (2) during disaster and (3) post-disaster. In the Philippines, disaster management is at its weakest in the pre-disaster stage. This weakness spills over to the other subsequent stages of the disaster preparedeness process.

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Natural disasters and other calamities that usually affect the Philippines
! ! ! ! ! !

Typhoons and storms Massive flooding and landslides Eruption of dormant volcanoes Earthquakes Flashfloods Fire hazards aggravated by the lack of access roads

Issues and problems in disaster management ! Lack of enforcement of ordinances ! Lack of modular preparedness ! Weakness (organizational, financial and technical) in the disaster management process ! Lack of disaster equipment and facilities ! Politics in disaster management

Strategies / activities undertaken (based on the Victorias and Manapla experiences)


!

Reorganization of Municipal Disaster Coordinating Councils (MDCCs) to assess the present resources of the municipality for disaster management and evaluate the efficiency and effectivity of the set-up. The municipal administration office served as the . operation center. The municipal administrator was part of the Resource Management Committee responsible for the disbursement of funds and the procurement of goods before, during and after the disaster. Conduct of a 5-day disaster management training for key people (of Victorias and Manapla) who came from various municipal line agencies and non-government organizations (NGOs). It was on the last day of the training that Task Forces were formally organized. Both fell under the umbrella organization of the MDCC with the Mayor as honorary chairperson. These became a formal NGO and served as the Disaster Emergency Response Team (Victorias - DISERT-V).
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LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 173

Rescue teams went through several training programs: 1) Disaster Rescue and Emergency Medical Responses; 2) Basic First Aid; 3) Basic Recon and Intel Operation; 4) Radio Land/ Mobile Operators Seminar; and 5) Refresher Course on Disaster Rescue, Emergency Medical Response and Firefighting.

municipality. Resources for operation/management were provided by the municipality. When the rescue team was first organized, the municipality (Victorias) provided them with raincoats, boots, flashlights, batteries and lifesavers. During disaster operations, they were also provided with supplies (food, rope and fuel). As part of its disaster operations, the resource management committee of the Victorias MDCC makes prior arrangements with storeowners for possible emergency purchase. Pre-disaster expenses are sourced out from different sources: Social Welfare Program under 20% Development Fund, Human Resource Development Fund, Bantay Dagat Fund and grants-in-aid through the office of the Mayor.
!

Rehabilitation measures. All barangays were equipped with a radio communication set. The Mayor stressed that the chairperson of the Signal and Warning Committee should stay in the radio room at all times to receive communication from the provincial government and disseminate this to all barangay captains. The barangay captains were likewise advised to install their radio communication sets in the barangay hall and assign one barangay tanod to man the radio.

The resource committee was in charge of providing relief goods. In Manapla, for example, the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer (MSWDO) head, which actually received assistance from the provincial government and prepared the goods for distribution, was made co-chairperson. On the other hand, the relief committee was headed by the Parish Priest. Assistance from NGOs were channeled through the MSWDO. Local residents, like other private organizations gave their own contributions directly to the victims.

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Cash assistance was provided to families whose houses were totally damaged. Aside from that, the evacuees were also provided with food and clothing good for at least one month. During summer, the rescue teams stay alert for any possible outbreak of fire. Some measures done include: # Inspection of buildings for any violation of the building code and giving the appropriate penalty for any violations; and # Installation of fire hydrants especially in congested urban poor areas in the poblacion.
!

Clearing of waterways. In Manapla and Victorias, heavy siltation, obstruction of exit points of natural waterways by prawn farms and fishponds, and the illegal structures along the riverbanks contribute to the overflow of rivers and creeks. To address these problems, both municipalities undertook dredging and clearing of waterways with the assistance of the Provincial Government. Other rehabilitation works included relocation of houses, reconnection to the shore and the construction of breakwater.
!

Tree planting and reforestation. In Manapla, government employees were required to participate in treeplanting projects. On the other hand, the SB Committee on environment planned to implement the Adopt a Reforestation Area scheme with NGOs. Past tree planting projects had reportedly come to naught because there was no follow-up.

Source:
Nacionales, Grace and Letty Tumbaga. Disaster Management in Two Negros Towns in A Breath of Fresh Air: Exploring the Possibilities of Local Government Management. ed. by. Letty Tumbaga. CIDA-LGSP Region VI and Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA) Philippines, 1998. pp. 46-65.

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LGUs in Integrated Solid Waste Management

everal local governments stood out as models in the arena of managing municipal wastes. Now, more local governments are leading the way towards the efficient implementation and maintenance of integrated solid waste management (ISWM) programs. Citizens have a crucial role to play in this arena. In fact, their participation is a pre-condition to the effective implementation of such programs. As an entity entrusted with the task of managing wastes, local governments need to look beyond the traditional collect-and-dispose method. They should seek approaches that would treat wastes as resources and the solid waste problem as an integrated system itself.
A look at our waste profile nationwide produces an interesting picture: 30% of total waste generated is recyclable and around 45% is readily compostable. If these tasks are accomplished, only 25% will remain for local governments to worry about.

A local government adopting the management approach will realize not only efficiency in terms of time, money and disposal space but also other benefits such as: ! a sense of community responsibility for managing waste; ! the value of waste as a resource; and ! an entrepreneurial attitude in waste management.

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Process Flow for Developing a City/Municipal ISWM Program


1 WASTE APPRAISAL WASTE APPRAISAL
Local Government and volunteers conduct surveys and appraisals to determine the waste profile and existing solid waste management operations (1-2 days)

4 IMPLEMENTING THE DOABLES*


The Local Government and citizens implement designated roles to promote: # segregation in markets and volunteer neighborhoods; # better housekeeping in collection and dumpsite management; # enact ordinance for integrated approach; and # study long-term measures (e.g. landfill). 6-12 months

LOCAL GOVERNMENTCITIZENS CONSENSUS BUILDING


With the help of a workshop facilitator, local leaders and citizens agree on vision, strategies and first steps to address the problem. (2-3 days)

MULTISECTORAL PLANNING AND ORGANIZING


A multisectoral Task Force of leaders and volunteers further reviews technical options, and develop action plans and budgets for Doable actions. The Local Government also designates an officer in charge. (3-6 weeks)

*Broken arrow between steps 4 and 1 connotes that the cycle may end up with Step 4 or may be repeated.

Existing local government practice


Designing a waste appraisal system

The local government can mobilize citizen volunteers to determine the kind and quantity of wastes generated and the existing solid waste management operations in a locality. This is done through surveys.
Local Government citizens consensus building

The local government calls on various sectors of the community to discuss the waste problem and identify practical solutions involving the community. Workshops involving different stakeholders, usually utilizing Technology on Participation (ToP) methods, generate consensus on the communitys common vision, objectives and priority doables actions related to solid waste management.

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Multisectoral planning and organizing

The local government engages the stakeholders in action planning workshop focusing on immediate doable actions and the corresponding budgetary requirements. These include:
!

better housekeeping in the dumpsite; ! improvement of garbage collection routing systems; ! assessment of public information/communication needs; and ! launching promotion campaign for waste segregation in the market and interested neighborhoods. The local government organizes a multi-sectoral task force to further review technical options and oversee planning, budgeting and mobilization work. The task force consists of leaders from different sectors (government, business, church and NGOs/Pos) and is led by an officer-in-charge, designated by the local government.

Implementing the doables


Based on the action plan, the local government proceeds to put together instruments required for plan implementation. These instruments include ordinances, required budgetary support and the deployment of support personnel. Corollary efforts to galvanize public support and networking with other stakeholders, counterparts and partners, both locally and at the provincial and national levels are likewise undertaken.

Utilizing financing schemes for the program


Local governments have the option to undertake financing schemes to meet the required investments for long-term improvement of existing solid waste management systems. Some of these are:
! ! ! ! !

income generated from imposing garbage collection/disposal fees; joint ventures with the private sector; build-Operate-Transfer, Build-Operate-Own schemes and other variants; credit financing instruments, such as credit lines, term loans, bonds or long-term securities, lease financing and foreign-funded loans; and privatization.

Key factors for an effective ISWM Program


! ! ! !

Presence of a prime mover Citizen cooperation Appropriate office or department for coordination and implementation Action on doables

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5 Es of an ISWM Program
Environmental organization building. It involves the formation of a multi-sectoral group tasked to plan, implement and monitor programs of a municipal ISWM. Education. It involves awareness raising, information dissemination and promotion of proper ISWM practices. Enforcement. It covers the formulation, promulgation, monitoring and review of support ordinances by the Sanggunian. Engineering. This refers to the provision of facilities and equipment to support the effective and efficient implementation of the program. Equity investment. It covers resource making between private and public sectors in the various aspects of ISWM program implementation. Solid waste management must be income generating to make it sustainable.

Case studies on exemplary practices of LGUs in solid waste management


In Lipa City, the Sipaglakas Program evolved from mere street sweeping and maintaining the cleanliness of the public market to household-level waste segregation, barangay-level waste collection, and improving dumpsite management. The city established an inter-agency Working Committee on Sanitation and Environmental Protection System to be responsible for program management. Surprise visits to participating barangays and monthly meetings by the Recycling Management Groups ensured compliance with the program. The program increased collection efficiency of both waste and collection charges. Waste collection fees and fines from littering doubled. Revenue from garbage fee collection in 1998 from business establishments alone stood at P2.5 million. In Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, the Oplan Linis Program was set up to promote among its citizens a sense of urgency, concern and responsibility for the cleanliness of the community. The program involved volunteers in its various components and all its citizens in program monitoring and evaluation. Anti-littering ordinances were enacted imposing sanctions to violators. Enforcement efforts are truly serious (e.g. a Mayor was fined P200 for throwing a cigarette pack into the street). The city has repeatedly been adjudged the Cleanest and Greenest Component City in the Philippines.

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In the mid-1980s the Metro Manila Council of Women Balikatan Movement, Inc. launched an educational campaign on waste segregation at the household level. Subdivisions and commercial establishments were informed of the schedule of waste collection as well as the location and contact numbers of participating junk shops. The movement also organized existing junk shop dealers and disseminated information on waste materials that can be recycled. It organized junk collectors into groups and were assigned to specific aspects of the operations and helped facilitate business loans for recycles or users of waste materials. In 1992, the municipal government of Marilao, Bulacan closed its temporary dumpsite used by neighboring towns. Faced with this situation, the municipal government of Sta. Maria joined forces with the Sta. Maria Economic Foundation, the Associated Waste Administration and Recycling Enterprise, Inc., and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) to devise a workable scheme to address the management of its municipal wastes. Two years later, the resulting Sta. Maria Waste Processing and Recycling Plant started operations. The plant processed biodegradable materials separated from public market wastes and produced organic fertilizers that they sell to farmers organizations. The plant is self-financing. Proceeds from the sale of organic fertilizer and recyclable wastes provided funds for plant operations. Production went as high as three to four tons daily. The greatest value of this initiative lay in shifting peoples attitudes towards viewing waste as resource that can generate profit. The case of Sta. Maria provided inspiration to other local governments to replicate its composting effort.

Sources:
Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD). Waste Matters: Towards Local Government Excellence in Solid Waste Management. Technical Notes No. 98-01 Makati City, 1998. Governance and Local Democracy Project (GOLD) Local Governments and Citizens in Integrated Solid Waste Management. Occasional Paper No. 98-06. Makati City, 1998.

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The Leagues of LGUs as Active Shareholders in Governance

ne major development in the field of governance is the emergence of the various leagues of local government units (LGUs) (i.e. Leagues of Provinces, Leagues of Cities, Leagues of Municipalities and Liga ng mga Barangay as provided for in the Code), which have played a key role in advocating the cause of local autonomy.
Since its inception in 1997, the leadership of the 1.2 million-member Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines (ULAP) have been at the forefront of various raging issues affecting LGUs nationwide. Perennially faced with issues ranging from the apparent inequities plaguing the Internal Revenue Allotments (IRAs) and other funds shared to several unfunded mandates of LGUs - ULAP has stood its ground, guided primarily by its battle cry: to pursue, protect and enhance the privilege of local autonomy as envisioned in the 1987 Philippine Constitution and its 1991 Local Government Code.

Local officials at various levels have likewise organized themselves into their own leagues. Among these are the League of the Vice-Governors, Vice Mayors League, Philippine Councilors League and National Movement of Young Legislators. Presently, they have combined forces into the League of Leagues (LOL).

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The Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines


Vision...

ULAP envisions a just, equitable and progressive society enhanced on participatory democracy and propoor framework of effective governance vital to national development and progress.

Mission...

Unite all its members leagues and enhance its partnership with all shareholders to ensure a genuine local autonomy for all LGUs, thereby ensuring the smooth and efficient delivery of basic services to the people throughout the country.

Strategies...

1. Formulate and promote agreed strategies for the future development of the leagues and LGUs. 2. Actively participate in local, national and international forums, meetings, congressional hearings and other activities affecting LGUs. 3. Initiate and conduct regular forums, dialogues and prior consultation with leagues and LGUs to reach general policy agreements to help guide national policies and laws. 4. Provide advance and information on the operation and development of leagues and LGUs to all interested shareholders and funding institutions. 5. Develop a learning organization working environment.

CLOUD 9 The proposed priority amendments to the 1991 Local Government Code
1. Rationalize the IRA share of LGUs to make it more equitable (i.e. automatic appropriation). 2. Rationalize the share of LGUs in the National Taxes and National Wealth, ensure transparency in its collection and equitable distribution scheme to all levels of LGUs. 3. Broaden the devolved powers of LGUs and redefine devolution. 4. Enhance local autonomy to include the right and duty of LGUs to set and define its own organizational structure, standards and limiting the mandatory positions imposed on LGUs.
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5. Give more powers to LGUs over local police forces while adhering to the one civilian national police policy. 6. Clarify the issue on control and supervision based on existing jurisprudence and NO to unfunded mandates. 7. Simplify real property taxation and fiscal administration to ensure fiscal autonomy for LGUs. 8. Enhance and simplify the structures and systems to enable LGUs to meet the demands of local governance and devolution of basic services to the people. 9. Ensure popular participation of non-government and peoples organizations for transparency.

Major accomplishments of the league


!

Amendments to the Local Government Code (LGC), including widening of the resource base of local governments and reforming IRA allocation to address the inequitable distribution and allocation of financial resources. Resistance to unfunded mandates that tend to distant development efforts, including local planning and budgeting processes. Strategic alliances with like-minded sectors of society, including the NGO/PO community.

It must be noted, though, that as early as the late eighties, even before the enactment of the LGC, the LGUs have begun to organize themselves into a strong advocacy group actively pushing for the enactment of a code as mandated in the 1987 Constitution. The league have indeed gone a long way since then, with some of them able to support and sustain secretariats that provide professional support and assistance to the league members.

Sources:
Brilliantes, Alex B. Jr. Decentralization, Devolution and Development in the Philippines. VMP - Asia Occasional Paper No. 44. June 1999. Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines. 1st Year Anniversary Report. 1998 -1999.

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Foreign-funded Programs/ Projects Related to Local Development and Municipal Development Fund Projects

evelopment efforts in the Philippines have benefited from the Support of many international institutions. Support may come in many forms: loans, technical assistance or grants. These external international institutions have played roles in their initiating or supporting general governance programs and specific local governance programs. The challenge is of course to sustain the programs once donors have puuled out.

Jr. Alex B. Brillantes, Jr. 1998

MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT FUND PROJECTS


Name of Project Municipal Development Project (MDP 3) Agrarian Reform Communities Development Project (ARCDP) Metro Cebu Development Project - Phase III 19th, 20th, 21st & 22nd (MCDP 3) Bukidnon Integrated Area Development Project (BIADPI) Funding Institution World Bank Loan Amount $68 M Project Duration 1993-2000 Lead/ Implementing Agency DPWH, LGU Beneficiaries Description Designed to extend direct access to LGUs long-term loans to finance urban-municipal infrastructure and services Grant to LGUs to develop rural infrastructure and provision of community support and technical support

World Bank

$50 M

1996-2003

DAR

OECF

Y30.597 B

1991-2004

Cebu Province

ACR provinces --Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Quezon, Albay, Leyte, S. Leyte, Misamis Or., Davao Or., Davao N, Surigao Cebu Province

Construction/improvement of arterial roads, bridges in Cebu City, Cebu South Coastal Expressway & Engineering Services Address the needs of the beneficiaries and equip government agencies with the skills and resources to sustain economic development during and after project implementation

ADB

US$20 M or SDR13.835 M

1997-2004

Provincial government of Bukidnon

Bukidnon Province

Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP)

World Bank

US$113.4 M School Bldg. Program $46.500 M

1996-2004

DECS

Philippine Regional Development Project (PRMDP)

ADB

US$30 M sub-loan comp. $15.250 M

1997-2003

DILG (lead), DPWH, LGUs (implementing)

26 STA provinces - Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Mt. Province, KalingaApayao, Batanes, Aurora, Masbate, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, Negros Or., Leyte, S., Leyte, E., Samar, Biliran, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga Sur, Agusan Sur, Surigao del Sur, Cotabato & Maguindanao Gen. Santos, Iligan City, Puerto Princesa & Tagbiliran City

Improvement of elementary education in poor provinces through strengthening of DECS to deliver public elementary education.

Urban Health & Nutrition Program (UHNP)

IDA/World Bank

SDR50.5 M

1994-2000

DOH (lead) DOF, DILG & DBM

NCR, Cebu & Cagayan de Oro City

Encourages self-reliance among local governments through institutional strengthening; stimulate economic development of selected regional growth centers; address the persistent and pernicious problems of poverty & service To support the borrower's priorities to centralize, expand & improve the delivery of public & primary health care services

Community Based Resource Management Project (CBRMP)

World Bank

US$50 M

1998-2003

DOF (lead) DENR, DA, LGUs

Region 5, 6, 7, 8 & 13

Subic Bay Area Municipal Development Project (SBMA DP) Early Childhood Development Project (ECDP)

US$17.620M

2002

DILG (lead)

1 city & 6 municipalities of Zambales and Bataan Capiz, Iloilo, Antique, Guimaras, Negros Occ., Aklan, Cebu, Bohol, Negros Or., Siquijor, Lanao del Norte, Cotabato & Sultan Kudarat Lanao del Norte

within specified areas of priority. Aims to help alleviate & improve the living conditions of rural communities by increasing farm productivity & creating non-farm income sources & help halt decline in natural resources facility by installing systems of utilization to enhance & sustain them. To improve urban infrastructure such as roads & bridges, drainage, public markets & solid waste management To develop, provide & promote an integrated set of ECD service delivery packages to address health, nutrition, cognitive & psychological development needs of children under 6 at various stages of growth & development. Involves the establishment of offsite infrastructure facilities critical to the operationalization of the MIRAIC in Linamon, Lanao del Norte

World Bank/ADB

US$19M (WB) SDR6.487 (ADB)

1998-2004

DSWD (lead) DOH, DECS, & LGUs

Metro Iligan Regional Infrastructure Development Project

OECF

Y5771.5 M

1998-2005

Province of Lanao del Norte

(MIRAIC) Local Government Financing Development (LOGOFIND)

World Bank

US$100 M

2006

DOF

LGUs nationwide

Clark Area Municipal Development Project (CAMP)

ADB

US$24.30

2006

DILG

Pampanga and Tarlac

To assist participating LGUs in expanding & upgrading their basic infrastructure, services & facilities & in strengthening their capacities on municipal governance, investment planning, revenue generation and project development and implementation. Geared towards the improvement of basic urban infrastructure in the 9 municipalities & 1 city surrounding Clark Special Economic Zone.

FOREIGN - FUNDED PROGRAMS/PROJECTS RELATED TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT


FUND SOURCE AusAID PROJECT TITLE DENR/ Human Resource Dev't. Program Technical Assistance to Physical Planning Project (TAPP) OBJECTIVES / DESCRIPTIONS It aims to improve the capacity of DENR to develop its human resource, particularly in the regional offices. The project is not meant to directly deliver HRD services, but to strengthen service delivery from responsible sections, particularly the human resource development services. This project is an institutional strengthening and CB project with six inter-related components aimed at improving economic and social development of the country through improved physical planning in order to enhance consistency of investments, projection, settlement, resource use and environmental decisions. Target Areas (for Phase I and II): all provinces The proposed plan consists of two parts: Part I will comprise the national and regional components to be managed directly by DOH and Part II will comprise the provincial components to be managed by LGUs in coordination with DOH. Part I, strengthening DOH provincial support program will consist of four components: 1) Human resource dev't.; 2) Support for LGU health program; 3) Community and NGO mobilization; 4) Project management and institutional strengthening. Part II will consist of four components: 1) institutional strengthening; 2) strengthening referral system; 3) community and NGO mobilization; 4) support for priority health program INTERVENTIONS Technical assistance and advisory EXECUTING AGENCY DENR

AusAID

Technical Assistance

NEDA

ADB

Integrated Community Health Services

Technical Assistance and Advisory

DOH

UNDP

Civil Service

CIDA

Local Gov't. Support Program (LGSP)

USAID

GOLD

WB

Municipal Training Program (MTP III)

To develop a supervisory training program by pilot testing several training methodologies and approaches with participation of pilot groups constituted by supervisors of different government agencies and with view for its eventual institutionalization and application, government-wide after project-completion. Beneficiaries : division chiefs in national and local governments and public enterprises The goal of LGSP is to assist in the effective decentralization of the government of the Philippines in Region VI, XI and ARMM. The purpose of the program is to enhance the capability of LGs in selected regions to carry out planning, programming and project implementation. The project will catalyze and reinforce the democratic decentralization process through the strengthening of pluralistic community participation in local governance and more effective government performance in local dev't., supporting Leagues of LGs and institutionalizing a communication and feedback system which infuses and support local governance. The meeting is the training component of the Third Municipal Development Program. This is a part of the WB Group-assisted project under the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development loan assistance. It is designed to extend direct access to LGUs for long-term loans to finance urban-municipal infrastructure and services. This is done through the Program for Essential Municipal Infrastructure, Utilities, Maintenance and Engineering Development (PREMIUMED) under the DPWH.

Training and Technical Assistance

CSC

Training Technical Assistance

LGUs

Training and Technical Assistance

HUCs, independent component cities (ICCs)

Training

DILG-LGA

ILO

UNDP

IRAP is funded by Royal Dutch Government to bring local planning closer to reality while developing the planning capacity of LGUs. Its consists of the following elements: assessment of the access problems in the area concerned, identification of the interventions either in transport system or sitting of services, selection and prioritization of locations for the needed interventions. Areas of coverage: Region VI, X, XI and special concerns. Trainees are mostly PPDCs, MPDCs, draftsmen, engineers, PLGOOs, LGOOs and NGOs. CB for Sustainable To establish a growing, capable and committed base Dev't. in the within the legislative system and local government context of executives on issues involving population management by Decentralization increasing their awareness, knowledge and understanding (Support to on the interrelationships of population, child survival, PLCPD) role and status of women and protection of the environment. Integrated In support of the national development goal of Population and maintaining population growth at a level conducive to Dev't. Planning national welfare, the project aims to promote the conscious consideration of the two-way relationships between population and development in the formulation of plans, policies and programs. Ascertaining the To establish a DB of local authorities with existing Capability of Local population offices identify population and family Population Offices planning issues and problems and determine viable for the Revitalized models for partnership network. Phil. FP Program FP/Safe The project aims to improve the health of mothers and Motherhood and children in urban poor families by providing family Women planning and maternal and child health services,

Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP)

Training Technical Assistance

DILG-LGA

Local executives and legislators

Training and Research

LGU planners

Operations Research

LGUs

Training

LGUs

Swedish Government

Enhancement in Selected Urban Poor Areas Increasing the Quality and Coverage of FP Service Delivery through the DOH Technical Assistance to the Employment Creating Special Public Works Programme DIET-M

adolescent counseling and livelihood opportunities to FP acceptors in the pilot areas. The project aims to strengthen the institutional capabilities of the DOH in FP service delivery in the four Advanced Implementation Regions (AIRs), namely, Regions 3,7,10 and 11 The project intends to strengthen the institutional mechanism, based on the decentralized structure, for the implementation of identified, Food-for-Work (FFW) subprojects/activities in the four major development sectors of agriculture, infrastructure, reforestation and microenterprise development. This is a Technical Cooperation Project for the Implementation of Decentralization Implementors Enhancement Training and Modeling (DIET-M). It involves the following phases: Country specific Training on Local self-governance; modeling of LGUs and enhancement of LGA capability. Phase I of the project has been completed already. The UP-LGC-DSE bilateral and technical cooperation and assistance programme mainly addresses and responds to the problem, issues, developments and other concerns relevant to the promotion and development of local administration. IALDM is a capability-building component of the Fourth Country Program for Children. Its objective is to equip the LCEs and implementors with appropriate management skills to achieve the goals of the PPAC and its MDGs with the LCEs assuming the role of area Training DOH/LGUs

Advisory and Training

LGUs involved in appraisal and monitoring of FFW project DILG-LGA

Training

DSE

Project with UPLGC

Training observational tours

UP-LGC

UNICEF

Integrated Approach to Local Development Management (IALDM)

Training

DILG-LGA

CapabilityBuilding EEC Phil. Rural Institutional Strengthening Programme (PRISP) Local Development Assistance Program (LDAP) 1991-1993

development managers of their respective localities. It covers 45 provinces, 7 cities and 10 municipalities in MM as well as 10 selected cities in the regions. The programme intends to increase the capabilities of both the national and local government agencies to improve the delivery of basic services. The LDAP is designed to establish a foundation for sustained economic and social development by encouraging policy reforms that will lead to increased autonomy of LGUs. Essentially, LDAP plays a supporting role for the whole decentralization movement by performing monitoring, policy and operational research and other actions in coordination with GOP. Strategy areas include: support improved levels of discretionary resources for LGUs; support greater administrative authority for LGUs; support increased capacity-building for LGUs and support increased private sector role in local development.

Training Technical Assistance

DA

USAID

Policy Study Publications

PBSP/ARD/ EDF/ NEDA/ DOF

Steering Committee
Dr. ROGELIO SERRANO Dr. PROSERPINA D. TAPALES

SANREM - CRSP / Southeast Asia Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Los Baos 4030, Laguna

Dr. ALEX B. BRILLIANTES, JR.

Director Center for Local and Regional Governance (former Local Government Center) National College of Public Administration and Governance University of the Philippines P.O. Box 198, UP Campus Diliman 1101, Quezon City

Professor College of Public Administration and Governance University of the Philippines P.O. Box 198, UP Campus Diliman 1101, Quezon City

Dr. JULIAN F. GONSALVES

Vice President for Program International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Dr. LUZ LOPEZ RODRIGUEZ

National Social Development & Gender Equity Advisor Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program National Program Management Office Unit 402 Manila Luxury Condominium, Pearl Drive Ortigas Center, Pasig City

Mr. ENRIQUE G. MERCAIDA

Associate Senior Specialist International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Ms. JOY R. RIVACA - CAMINADE Atty. EVELYN CAMPOSANO JIZ

Regional Project Manager VI Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program No. 2-A Washinton Street, Jaro Iloilo City

Head Publications and Communication Program International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

ENHANCING PARTICIPATION

EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

IN

LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 195

Publication Development

Documentation and Editing Enrique G. Mercaida Julian F. Gonsalves

Coordination Joy Rivaca-Caminade Celso Amutan

Editing and Desktop Publishing Ma. Stella Salvador-Oliver Hannah K. Castaeda

Artwork Ariel E. Lucerna

Cover Design Celso C. Amutan

196 ENHANCING PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE:


EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

The Publication Production Staff

Mr. ENRIQUE G. MERCAIDA

Ms. MA. STELLA SALVADOR - OLIVER

Project Technical Coordinator Associate Senior Specialist International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Editor &Desktop Publisher 9597 Diamond Street, Umali Subd., Los Baos, Laguna

Mr. ARIEL E. LUCERNA Dr. JULIAN F. GONSALVES

Vice President for Program & Production Advisor International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Artist #259 2nd St., Salinas Bacoor, Cavite

Ms. LILIBETH T. SULIT Ms. JOY RIVACA - CAMINADE

Head Publications and Communication Program Production Coordinator International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite
Mr. CELSO C. AMUTAN

Administrative Assistant International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

Publication Development Associate Publications and Communication Program International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang, Cavite

ENHANCING PARTICIPATION

EXPERIENCES FROM THE PHILIPPINES

IN

LOCAL GOVERNANCE: 197