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EMBROIDERY may be looked it of view than to define our standpoint its : we look at the art from not. less it the attention of students o'f embroidery. at from more points would be possible in a book like this to take up seriously.PREFACE. when written. It is more a handicraft than that. and the book. It maybe as well. would not be worth to take it it . : rather seriously but if one esteemed would hardly be worth writing about. since woman learnt to time with the needle. it is 2039789 . The custom has kill been. to think of embroidery too much as an idle accomplishment. for the practical use of embroidery is to side. and what by samplers of stitches. It is illustrated done. of course. It sets forth to show what decorative stitching it is. neglecting the practical artistic. At the very least it is This contention may be at the best it is an art. be beautiful. how can do. needleworkers. Merely to hover round the subject and glance casually at it would serve no useful purpose. and designers of needlework to whom it is addressed. therefore.

Samplers and other examples of needle- work are uniformly on a scale large enough to show the stitch quite plainly. design is affected by the circumstance that to be embroidered. . . should be read needle and thread in hand or skipped. A feature in the book is the series of samplers designed to show not only what are the available stitches. perhaps. The examples of old work illustrate always. as well as the use to which they may be put and the back of the sampler : is the reader has only to turn the given too which to see the other side of the stitching page : to a needlewoman should not is often the more the helpful. in the first place. by diagrams. reference to stitch and stuff. but the groups into which they naturally gather themselves. point of In it . Lest are that be enough. to show the artistic application of the stitches. stitches described in the text. other respects Art is Art in harness.vi ART IN NEEDLEWORK. some workmanship still they are chosen with some view to their artistic interest. not overlooked but Design is discussed with is . and a marginal note shows This at a glance where the description is given. to explain the way stitches are done and by examples of old and modern work. it is The joint authorship of the work needs. and stitch and It stuff with reference to their use has been endeavoured also to show the effect needlework has had upon pattern. and the ways in which in ornament.

PREFACE. Shrewsbury. rendering of her description. and been always at hand to keep me from technical error. DAY. Walter Crane. Our classification of the stitches is the result of many of the is a conference between us. Mrs. thanks are due to the authorities at South Kensington for allowing us to handle the treasures My of the national collection. Buxton Morrish. and so forth. Morris and Co. I must also acknowledge the part my daughter has had in the production of this book without her constant help it could never have been written. F.. . This is not just a man's book on a woman's subject. With reference to design and art I speak for myself. and to photograph them for illustration to Mrs.E. Miss Mabel . She has primed me with technical information. for the loan of work belonging to them and to Miss Chart for working the cross-stitch sampler. supplemented The way by practical demonstration with the needle. and I have written it. to Miss Argles. R. . P. for permission to reproduce their handiwork . Keighley. : LEWIS January ist. and Miss C. The scheme of it is mine. Colonel Green. but with the co-operation throughout of Miss Mary Buckle.. vii a word of explanation. and Messrs. my description the stitches are worked. 1900.




M. colour. 7.) Illus- CROSS-STITCH tration 45. Cretan. (Mrs. tent-stitch . outlined with white. 6. its and ribbed with blue . L. plait-stitch D. E. yellow. From Upper Egypt. & A. stroke-stitch called also Holbein-stitch cross stitches combined.) 8.) to illustrate Akhmin in 2. TAPESTRY work on a warp not on a web. the foliated diaper Oriental. Italian. CANVAS-STITCH in coloured silk upon linen.) 3. outlined with yellow. half-cross- C. so called. 4. 1. embroidered with gold and Oriental. CANVAS-STITCH stitch. CROSS-STITCH SAMPLER.A and B. CANVAS-STITCH its Design comparatively but showing in outline the influence of the rectangular lines of the weaving. C. A. L. Moorish-stitch. Day. DRAWN-WORK ON FINE LINEN. DARNING AND SATIN-STITCH on square mesh leaf. . cushion-stitch. B. F. F. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum.) free. stroke and . couching on canvas. Ancient Coptic. Lewis F. Hungarian. . (Mrs. D. (V. solid. D. iyth century. UPON LINEN. line work. The darning green. follows the lines of the stuff. (From the collection of Mrs. D. and white. veined with pink foliation pink. F. and white stem. E. The band Italian. Compare 5. SAMPLER .DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Indian. TWO VARIETIES OF CANVAS-STITCH.xii ART CUSHION AND built IN NEEDLEWORK. outline-stitch. church chain. B G in combination. J. Day. G. Compare Illustration 2. Compare Illustration 71. 16. and brown wools upon white cotton. A and C. linen. the pattern in the bare A. crewel-stitch CREWEL-STITCH SAMPLER and D. L. blue. Old (Coll. which crewel-stitch hardly occurs. and H. outlined . SATIN-STITCHES stitches follow the lines of the stuff. the background worked B. L. of Miss Argles. Modern. The scroll in green upon a brownish-purple ground the smaller leafage upon the scroll in brighter green the flowers and butterflies in blue and pink. 15. Mountmellic BACK OF CHAIN-STITCH SAMPLER. CREWEL-WORK. stitches drawn the threads of the linen apart. M. spots. D. M. E. Vandyke chain cable 18.) 11. giving very of drawn-work. cable chain. CHAIN-STITCH AND KNOTS as Illustration 24. 13. Mountmellic chain so called. the ornament tightly together so as to pull much the effect (Mrs. in coloured wools upon white Esq. magic stitch. chain-stitch solid and in line C.) cotton. . Old English. . upon them. . . . stem-stitch. F. 12.) . CREWEL-WORK the stem only worked in crewel-stitch. F. & A. UPON CANVAS The Satinand form a diaper 9. (Mrs. plait-stitch. Knapp. CREWEL-STITCH IN TWISTED SILK. all F. of J. E. (Coll. Embroidered in green. Embroidered English.) 17. CHAIN-STITCH SAMPLER B. Part of the same piece of work (V. F. A. 10. BACK OF CREWEL-STITCH SAMPLER.) in 14. D. back-stitch. crewel and outline-stitches .

a combination of A and C E. C. SAMPLER . but done in the dyeing of the satin. to it. not properly a form of Oriental-stitch. i4th century. BACK OF BUTTONHOLE SAMPLER. 20. ORIENTAL-STITCH SAMPLER varieties . AND KNOT STITCHES chiefly in white floss silk on dark purple satin. two rows of buttonhole worked .) FEATHER-STITCH SAMPLER A to G. A to E. ladder (called also Cretan) stitch . B. BACK OF HERRINGBONE SAMPLER. Part of the same piece of work as 16. ordinary feather-stitch and its variations G G. . greyish white German. . F. . slanting one into the other E. BACK OF FEATHER-STITCH SAMPLER. ordinary buttonhole and variations upon it D. some resemblance 28. . The rings on the outer ground are not worked. H. Oriental-stitch and its F. (V. 22. B. A. herringbone buttonhole 23. .DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. M. (V. rope-stitch D. J. 27. & A. crossed buttonhole tailor's buttonhole G. what is called German knot-stitch rope-stitch open German knot-stitch E. Oriental-stitch worked into buttonhole G. 19. BUTTONHOLE SAMPLER A. & A. French knots. D. lectern cover in white thread linen stuff. 25. though bearing . so called. so called G. C. varieties of herringF.) HERRINGBONE bone . B. C. . . feather chain. 24. F. only occasionally worked into the stuff. Modern Indian from Surat. bullion-stitch . . tapestry stitch. CHAIN. BACK OF ORIENTAL-STITCH SAMPLER. BUTTONHOLE. Old English knot-stitch. buttonhole diaper. . 26. with touches of crimson at the points from which the stitches radiate. open ROPE AND KNOT-STITCH SAMPLER A. fishbone close variety of A G. 21. 29. M. xiii CHAIN AND SURFACE STITCHES the latter a kind of buttonPart of a holing. . a . upon a thin. . .

xiv ART IN NEEDLEWORK. surface buttonhole ing E. . (V. . .) 32. B. an interlaced version laced Oriental-stitch . the stitch in various directions. INTERLACING-STITCH SAMPLER . SATIN-STITCH IN COARSE TWISTED SILK. stitch and coloured silks upon a very dark blue ground. surface darnB. Interlaced crewel-stitch . A. interlaced back-stitch C. Indian. D. to give different effects. interlaced feather-stitch. A TOUR-DE-FORCE IN KNOTS Worked entirely in the drawing lines expressed by voiding. Incidentally it shows various ways of breaking up a surface in satinstitch. SATIN-STITCH SAMPLER Worked in floss. Modern. . Compare with Illustration 38. French. D. inter- K. the one In white Chinese. D. In straw-coloured floss upon pale blue silk. surface buttonhole J. various surface and C. F. J. F. Part of a dress. . G. LACE OR SURFACE-STITCH AND SATIN-STITCH. interlaced chain-stitch. as it is called F. M. SATIN-STITCH IN TWISTED SILK Outlines voided. 33. much of it worn away. 39. interlaced herringbone G. net passing K. F. surface buttonhole over bars . back-stitch twice interlaced D. . BACK OF ROPE AND KNOT-STITCH SAMPLER. Late i8th century. (Mrs. H.) . H over slanting stitches. E.) 36. 30. of C in Illustration 20 . 34. BACK OF INTERLACING SAMPLER. 31. SURFACE-STITCH stitches . L. Worked in white and occasional red and yellow upon black satin. 35. SAMPLER -A. which shows the effect of the stitch in twisted silk. 38. interlaced darning. herringbone twice interlaced : . (Mrs. 37- BACK OF SATIN-STITCH SAMPLER. Japanese darning. L. & A.

following the lines of a square mesh. L. the two are sewn down at a single stitch. horizontal. Chinese. M. . The outlines voided. how far it may. or may MORRIS. DARNING SAMPLER Except in the background the stitches follow the lines of the drawing. a bright fresh straight lines . D. crosses the flower forms in and in the eye of the flower where the threads cross. Old German. showing various ways (split-stitch and couching) in which the sewing down may be done. FLAT DARNING Solid and open.) 41. (V. green stitched with olive. Japanese. . (Gewerbs . D. A. on the birds' bodies. F. LAID-WORK The couching . LAID-WORK SAMPLER. split-stitch . The customary outlining 6f the pattern is here omitted. & A. Morris 45. plumage-stitch. Flower in blue. and incidentally illustrating various ways of shading.) 46. and stepping in tune with it the outline voided all in white thread. and the voiding occasionally worked across with stitches wide enough apart to show the ground between. . be DARNING DESIGNED BY WILLIAM delicate colours upon a sea-green ground.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 42. and it may take vertical. 43. SAMPLER Showing offshoots from satin and crewel stitches. the property white. . to show needful. & Co. PLUMAGE-STITCH The ends of the stalks worked in French knots the veins of the leaves in fine white cords laid on to the satin stitch. 40. crewel-stitch B. BACK OF SAMPLER 41. xv SATIN-STITCH AND. 44. outlined with black and Part of the border of a table-cloth. regardless of the weaving of the stuff. In white and bright-coloured silk floss upon a black satin ground. sewn with blue and outlined with gold leaves.) . or crossing them. the various directions 47. Munich. plumage-stitch. (Mrs. following the ornamental forms. of Messrs. worked in the hand C. Museum. worked in the frame. In not. The spiral stems a sort of laid cord.

LAID-WORK AND SOME SURFACE-STITCH. 48. COUCHING IN LOOPED THREADS The effect is not unlike that of chain-stitch or fine knotting.) 52. (V. and show the effect of sewing it more or less tightly down. B. done upon a ladder of Italian. the white and other colours couched with red. & A. Indo-Portuguese. M. Rather over actual size. D. The sewing down of the leaves crosses them in curved lines which suggest roundness. Worked upon a cedarcoloured ground chiefly in dark blue and white. BULLION AND COUCHED CORD A.. The made by the stitching upon it thereby emphasised. LAID-WORK. stitching might equally well The zigzag pattern of the lines. D. Oriental. The stitches sewing down the cord are not apparent. The solid discs of spiral cord are unusual.) 50. BACK of OF REVERSE COUCHING Showing the parallel lines couched linen thread which sew down the silk upon the surface (Illustration 54). F.) sign of 55. 51. and gives drawing. LAID-WORK SAMPLER pattern straight lines of laid floss varied in The stalk padded. The somewhat loose design of the border in bullion shows rather plainly the way it is done. (V. Chinese. L. The stem in gold basket pattern. (After the Showing on the face of it no manner of the Syon Cope. sews down the &c. (Mrs. of colour. Part of a coverlet. lyth century. and the colour to suggest shading. L. The surface work in the stems stitches across. REVERSE COUCHING couching. SAMPLER OF COUCHED SILK The broad central band and the narrow beaded lines are in floss. The two intermediate bands are in cord couched with threads in the direction of its twist. M.xvi ART IN NEEDLEWORK. the blue couched with white. Early iyth century. is floss The stitching which takes the direction of the scroll. (Mrs. Part of a chalice veil.) 49. but most characteristic of the method of couching. F. & A. not very easily distinguishable unless by contrast 53. Worked in bright colours upon a pale green crepe ground.) 54. have taken other .

B. (V.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. M. Part of a stole.) b D. The border is in gold. illustrating a property of the artist. thread on a greyish-green velvet. of deep crimson velvet upon white satin. Chinese. M. 61. GOLD COUCHING IN OPEN THREADS A.) . J. i6th century. outlined with two threads of gold couching. B. part A. (V." Silver on pale pink silk. century. The open lines of gold look somehow richer than if the metal had been worked solid upon the crimson ground. only an occasional detail worked suggests damascening. are wide enough apart to let the red ground grin through. T. Yellow and crimson velvet. The lines of gold which form a scale pattern on the dragon's body.) IN PART of Mrs. outlined with paler red cord The outlines. A. the Part filling in silver. D. floss The embroidery. Old Venetian. is in surface-satinstitch. . & A. line within line until they are occupied. xvii COUCHED GOLD SAMPLER F. E. part raised raised over cords. Spanish. . flat. in white and colours. 58. INLAY OR APPLIQUE. APPLIQUE PANEL Keighley. form a stem of double cord. 1 6th century & A. C.) 62. (Mrs. meeting Italian. F. Buxton Morrish. APPLIQUE Satin upon velvet. Designed and executed by Miss Mabel poem by William Morris. B. basket and other patterns . D. The outline.) APPLIQUE. COUCHED OUTLINE WORK solid . OUTLINED WITH " PLATE. L. which is in gold. 59. G. M. Elsewhere the couching. falls chiefly upon the yellow.E. contrary to mediaeval practice. (Coll. so as not to disturb the exact balance of light and dark. & A. of an Italian housing or saddlecloth. (V. which it is essential to preserve in counter-change. together. follows the shapes. flat work H.) 60. (The satin COUNTER-CHANGE PATTERN. 56. 57- COUCHING IN VARIOUS DIAPER PATTERNS.

Yellow silk linen. . The Spanish. 67. & A. Old English. i5th century. . German.) 71. M. & A. L. (Mrs. first of cotton cord and then of cotton thread F. RAISED GOLD BASKET PATTERNS. (Mrs. INLAY IN COLOURED CLOTHS. (Mrs. 65. of string H.) CUT-WORK A fret of this kind was often outlined IN LINEN with coloured silk. outItalian. upon white stalk in flat wire.) is in flax sewn down The work thread. A characteristic example of the kind of work done at Retsht. Old Persian. The pattern is in satin of various colours. lined with yellow silk sewn down with yellow. satin. of cord G. (V. of cotton wool E. &c. (V. with couched outline. The dots in the centre of the grapes are French knots.) : 66. which has upon white RAISED QUILTING. of cloth B. iyth century. of twisted cords C. Drake. 68.) 70.. The Compare with Illustration 9. . F. . in black silk upon pale sea-green satin. M. QUILT. white. Something between leafage is in tent(V. .xviii ART IN NEEDLEWORK. WORKED IN CHAIN-STITCH from the back precisely the effect of back-stitch. D. the ground with gold spangles.) stitch. DIAPER OF SATIN-STITCH IN THE MAKING canvas-stitch stitch. showing underlay of linen. Part of the border of a prayer cushion. of sewing. in Persia. and the way it is and upon a blue linen ground. & A. showing underlays A. APPLIQUE. 64. . . (Coll. and stitching upon the applique band or ribbon. 63. upon a figured green silk damask. The stem is dotted with white beads. L. F. D. . yellow. L. F. red. & A. of Mrs.) and satin-stitch. of parchment D. M. and the detail within the fretted outline further embroidered in coloured silk. Part of an altar frontal. D.) 69. RAISED WORK. (V. M. SAMPLER OF RAISED WORK. outlined with chain Magic stitch also occurs.

(Mrs. Walter Crane. ladder. and herringbone stitches. which is in its kind perfect. M. and the part Shows can be made the direction of the form. birds are in silvery greys. R. (V. Chinese. L. is used for the wreath and in the leaves of the flower sprigs. L. Worked in 75.E. it to play in expressing coloured silks upon linen by Mrs.) . worked in dark blue silk upon unbleached linen. buttonhole. xix STITCHES IN COMBINATION Among them Oriental.) 77. the on a white satin ground. mostly in fine cross-stitch. The shading very designer. whose property the work is. in needlework.) . Full size.) FINE NEEDLEWORK UPON CAMBRIC the substance of which is apparent upon the upper edge of the work. showing in the figures of the little men what a draughtsman can express in a few stitches. i6th century. Old Cretan. SHADING IN SHORT STITCHES picturesque to the point of a touch of white in the glistening yellow of the dove's eye. crewel. In the groundwork of the pattern generally the threads are drawn together to form an open net. deliberately In natural colours upon white. CHAIN-STITCH. satin. F. (V. cross. cunningly adapted execution stitch. The stitches occurring in the collar of which this is part are. Seize. 73. chain. M. Nothing could exceed the delicacy of the workmanship.) to PART OF A DESIGN BY WALTER CRANE. SHADING IN LONG-AND-SHORT AND SPLIT STITCHES.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. chain. Green. of Col. SHADING IN CHAIN-STITCH in silk ground. (V. F. 72. M. so called. Louis Seize. (Coll. all These are in colours. & A. with more regard to expression of form than to neatness of execution. 76. D. (Mrs. D. and back stitches. Old English. satin. French. The outline is herringbone. German.) 78. in chain-stitch. Louis & A. & A. buttonhole. 74. and chenille upon a satin schemed by the French. Chenille.

(Mrs.) 83. Spanish. white. (V. Compare the stem with Illustration 66. Italian. From an altar-cloth. the rest chiefly in blue white silk ground. partly flat. Canvas ground . WORK in straight the drapery laid and couched. The outline steps with the weaving. xyth century. CHINESE FIGURES in chain-stitch . the lighter parts. D. & A. M. SATIN-STITCH.) its 82. upright stitches. German.&A. Florentine. To compare with 85. i6th century. F. (V. Japanese.xx ART FIGURE IN The NEEDLEWORK. SATIN AND PLUMAGE STITCHES chiefly. M. M. (V. & A. English. . short-stitch drapery coloured silks over gold. the clouds about him in knotted braid. scarlet crest. The pattern is all in one shade of yellow-brown floss upon white linen. L. which only gleams through in Architecture closely couched gold.) . The direction of the stitch is most artfully chosen. The satin ground the crane. Part of an orphrey. and white upon a figured About actual size. and the precision of the work is faultless. (Mrs. partly in relief. flesh 79. M. (V. Satin and herringMEANINGLESS DIRECTION OF STITCH bone stitches. CONSUMMATE FIGURE EMBROIDERY covered. (V. D. i8th century. & A. B. 86. MORE EXPRESSIVE LINES OF STITCHING Illustration 83. with black tail is of brilliant orange-red feathers. L. with touches of pink and crimson silk to give emphasis.) 81. the bird's crest in French knots.) RENAISSANCE CHURCH WORK IN GOLD AND SILVER. showing the influence of direction upon the tone of colour. black and white and blue. and so shows connection between satin and canvas stitches. The flesh in short satin-stitches. i5th century. the clouds. M. upon pale blue satin. & A. F. entirely Flesh in coloured silks.) 80.) 84. jyth century. and yellow beak and legs.

the broader bands in a canvas stitch in yellow. of Jesse. . 87. a green and a blue the All rest of the leaves worked in one shade of stout floss.) go. and the tendrils added. &c.) in long-and-short stitch. The stitching well within . (Mrs. (V. The foreshortened face The in the picture (V. the satin-stitch (in colours) of brilliant enamel. Part of a an. & A. are outlined with fine white cord. (The property of the artist. It is upon a white satin ground. Veins padded with embroidery cotton and worked over with two threads of filo-floss. & A. F.) in yellow satin upon crimson velvet next the red. i6th century. Ca.DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. in purplish silk cord upon linen. D. M. M. Shrewsbury. Spanish. M. C. (V.. 92. 1700. Part of an altar-cloth. sentation of the Tree (V.) 94. in split-stitch. of which only the tips are shown. SATIN-STITCH except that the heart-shaped features at the base and the lily-shaped flowers. raised outline (couched) has somewhat the effect of cloisons. getting yellower as it nears the crimson Part of a cope embroidered with a represilk ground. D. LEATHER APPLIQUE UPON VELVET the edge of the leather. xxi the GOTHIC CHURCH WORK The flesh. Designed and executed by Miss . 89. the finer lines in back-stitch in pale grey silk. F. next the yellow. i6th century. (The property of the worker.) SIMPLE STITCHING ON LINEN. is painted upon satin. SIMPLE COUCHED OUTLINE WORK. 88. RENAISSANCE ORNAMENT Most gracefully designed arabesque. Italian. sewn with pale blue APPLIQUE DESIGN. MODERN CHURCH WORK ON LINEN.) 93. L.) 91. 1340. M. P. vine-leaves green. white. & A. Midrib of the leaf couched silver. Ca. from a design by L. English. Italian. worked by Miss Buckle. & A. Double outline . Italian. gold. this applied to velvet with a couching of brown filoselle.


to G (Stem-Stitch) described on page Stitch). Diagram belongs 32. For "lower" read "upper." .ERRATA. not C (Thick Crewel- Page 125. 2nd line. Page 30.


which is needlework pure and simple. on the other. B . The term is used in common parlance to express kind of superficial or superfluous ornamenany A poet is said to embroider the truth. and. tapestry. lace. or whatever it may have been) came into use so soon as ever savages had the wit to sew skins and things together to keep themselves warm modesty. Embroidery begins with the needle. was an afterthought and if the stitches made any sort of pattern. and some with That is which the needle has nothing to do. that was embroidery. construction "in the air " as the Italian name has it. fish-bone. kinds of ornamental misleading.ART IN NEEDLEWORK EMBROIDERY AND STITCHING. D. we may take it.E. tation. and the needle (thorn. as coarse stitching naturally would. The term is often vaguely used to denote all needlework. on the one side. though it is true that embroidery does touch. which may be described as a kind of embroidery with the shuttle.

netted. which shows a fragment of ancient tapestry found in a Coptic tomb in Upper Egypt. that is to say. of embroidery common in all countries. This is. strictly speaking. But such metaphorical use of the word hints at the real nature of the work embellishment. That will be clearly seen by reference to Illustration I. In embroidery it is got by threads worked on a or. and the needlework is executed upon the warp threads thus revealed. might be. all be something it is added to the material. In weaving (even tapestry weaving) the pattern is In got by the inter-threading of warp and weft. it was explained. take a form lapping of the crafts. Eastern. There is inevitably a certain amount of overFor instance. as in much the course of fifteen hundred years or so of this red wool has perished. lace. As a matter of fact. in which certain of the weft threads of the linen are drawn out. Hungarian. If added. added. In the lower portion of it the pattern appears light on dark. only the white threads were of linen. leaving the . it is got out of the threads which make the stuff. on which the needlework is done. in was wrought it warp and . but. too. it white and red upon a linen happened. the red were woollen. it fabric first of all woven on the loom. just as. there must first of enrichment. tapestry itself may be described as a sort of embroidery with the shuttle. like the warp.2 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. a sort of tapestry with the needle. or nearer home.


warp that all tapestry. an example of which is here given. again. that the a one is done on warp before that has not been woven upon. worked on a therefore. as in Illustration 3. The ence only differ- between true tapestry and drawn work. the threads of laid bare in the upper part of the illustration. The distinction. to lace. is. it have been between that. DRAWN WORK. properly so called. independent of any groundwork or foundation With . which are It is white pattern intact on the warp. regard. That is itself a web. warp. for the on just such upright lines of name of work upon (usually " to describe needletapestry stitch the warp threads only of a material " linen) from which some of the weft threads have been withdrawn. tapestry and embroidery is.ART IN NEEDLEWORK. embroidery. and the other 2. on a warp from which the weft threads drawn. as in Illustration i. worked on a mesh. is tapestry it is . is worked whether with the shuttle or with the needle makes no matter and there is good reason. therefore.


needlework in thread (it may be wool. It is thus the consistent way of ornamenting stuff most consistent of all when one kind of thread is employed throughout. so that. A fragment of last century silk is given in Illustration 35 shows meant. silk. But it is possible to a silken or other surface and there .6 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. silk upon silk. no matter what. in wool cotton. and you had still a sumptuous pattern on a less attractive background why not ? But then it would be because you wanted that less . perhaps. very little of the more beautiful texture was sacrificed. work is it to support it. in a material nobler than the stuff enriched. in have been open to question. does not seem to but fact. rightly be. Embroidery is enrichment by means of the needle. To embroider is to work on something a groundwork is presupposed. satisfactorily done It . and oftenest is. gold. The enrichment may. The advisability upon of working upon a precious stuff in thread less precious is if it were only the background that was worked. And we usually understand by embroidery. it is the decoration of a material woven thread by means still of thread. cotton. plainly : what in In short. and the pattern were so schemed as almost to cover it. linen. over a kind of embroidery which only floats on the surface of the material without penetrating it. in silk upon linen. in gold upon velvet. however. as in the case of linen upon linen. no matter what) upon a textile material.

naturally. of course. the is to cover it entirely with stitching. and thing needful alike to the worker in it and the designer for it is. unpresentable. from the stitches used for quite practical and prosaic purposes . not. a thorough acquaintance with the stitches . with every modification of a modification of a stitch which individual ingenuity may have devised it would need the space of an encyclopaedia to chronicle them all but with the broadly marked varieties of stitch which have been employed to best purpose in ornament. Embroidery the first is merely an affair of stitching .EMBROIDERY AND STITCHING. a coarse canvas ground to work on but it more often happens that one chooses canvas because one means to cover it. In the case of a material in itself unsightly. one course the East. : . Much of the work so done. competes in effect with tapestry or other weaving and its purpose was similar it is a sort of amateur way of working your own stuff. They first are derived. allover work that is to say. 7 The excuse of economy would scarcely hold good. than that one works all over a ground because it is . For all-over embroidery one chooses. as did the Persian and other untireable people of But not they only. precious texture there. But in character it is no more nearly related to the work of the loom than other needlework it is still work on stuff. naturally. The famous Syon cope is so covered.

or for each slightest variation upon an old stitch. names which to different people stand often for quite different stitches. and so we have any it.of thread-strokes. according to the Spanish.8 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and so on. or calls Oriental. amidst all this parade of science. in the study of the discover concur in using certain though they may high-sounding Latin terms. good a worn surface. button-hole stitch. are commonly named. When this confusion is invention of a new name for complicated by the every conceivable combination. until one begins to wonder where. to keep the edges of the stuff from fraying herring-bone. to right instead of from right or for a stitch worked rather longer than left usual. One reads about opus this and opus that. But you have not authorities to go that. and even for a stitch worked from to left. Nor do the quasi-learned descriptions of old stitches help us much. . they are not of the same mind as to their meaning. individual discovery. Mexican. to strengthen and disguise a seam darning. or what not. perhaps. for example. the task of reducing them to order seems almost hopeless. . to make . The difficulty of discussing them is greatly increased by the haphazard way in which they A stitch is called Greek. art comes far to in. country whence came the work in which some one Each names it after his or her first found it. vaguely of number names for the same stitch.

if we reduce them they fall to their native simplicity. here to adopt. Why not and call stitches by the plainest and It mistakable names ? will be seen. and this is the plan it is proposed . drop least titles. 9 as English. and so on. work contained stitches not used The stitches probably all come from the East. themselves probably not acquainted with the technique of stitching. . or families. is a snare.EMBROIDERY AND STITCHING. to talk of Opus Anglicanum than to say precisely what it was. can be discussed each in under all its own of Stitches arbitrary may be grouped to manner provenance. further than that it described work done in England and for that we have the simple word English. or what they do. This. mediaeval English elsewhere. It is easier. Nomenclature. foreign writers as well and that is. ways according according to their effect. then. is no arbitrary classification. as to the difficulty of idento by ancient writers. There is nothing to show that tifying the stitch referred . but according to what they are. which head. The most natural way of grouping their them not with is according to their structure regard to whence they came. and as likely as not to call it by a wrong name. that into fairly-marked groups. the way they are worked. In one thing they all agree. at all events. according to their use. for example.

Certain stitches answer certain purposes. This is not the moment to urge upon the needle- who woman the study of design. . and The designer must know strictly only those. either to the design or to the execution of needlework. thinks design a thing apart from her is only a worker. or he will in the first place waste the labour of the embroidress. must have sympathy enough with a design to choose the stitch or stitches which will best render it. One not in Any one must understand the ways in which work can be done in order to determine the way it shall in any particular case be done. the stitch to the design In order to do the one the artist must be quite at home among the stitches in order to do the other the embroidress . but to urge upon the designer the study of stitches.io ART The use IN NEEDLEWORK. Nothing is more impractical than to make a design without realising the labour involved in its execution. which stitch answers which purpose. A How else suit the design to the ? stitch. An artist who thinks the working out of his sketch none of his business the worker is no practical designer. sympathy with stitching may a beautiful piece of needlework. survey of the stitches is the necessary preliminary. possibly design but no one will get all that is to be got out of the needle without knowing all about it. classification of such hardly needs pointing out.

depends upon the stitch. And the simple straightforward stitches of this kind are not so many as one might suppose. as will be seen in the following chapters. A stitch may be defined as the thread left on the surface of the cloth or what not. and by rights also the character of second miss his effect. may . They be reduced indeed to a comparatively few types.EMBROIDERY AND STITCHING. own pains too. When it is remembered that the character of needlework. and his in the n which is to waste worker (designer or embroiderer) is the one who works with judgment and you cannot judge unless you know. there will be no occasion to insist further upon the necessity of a comprehensive survey of the stitches. The effective its design. after each ply of the needle.

some relation to the material on which it is worked . in modern Cretan work. by means art in the rendering of form of angular outlines. indeed suggests designs of equally rigid construcThat is so in embroidery no matter where. but canvas or very coarse linen almost compels a stitch based upon the cross lines of its woof. too lightly to be dismissed. net. as used. come mesh A stitch bears always. or should bear. art in the choice of is There . or open web upon which the work is done. the class of stitches which it is the most familiar of following. the of a coarse canvas. and tion. we find artistic character. because of persistently into angular lines that very angularity. and in peasant embroidery all the world over. the plain outcome of a way of working.CANVAS STITCHES. The simplest. pattern work on coarse linen has run in which. Artistic design is always expressive of Work of this kind its is mode not of workmanship. as it is only natural to do. In ancient Byzantine or Coptic work. stitch-group CANVAS stitch of is most likely the earliest what might best be called which cross-stitch is perhaps type.

but that there art in some of the very simplest and most modest peasant work built up on those lines no artist will deny. the demand : it makes upon the manship it is much easier. to draw a stag than to render the creature satisfactorily within jagged lines determined by a linen mesh. The art in is it is usually in proportion to futile its Nothing more than to put it to modesty. of course. 4. The piquancy about There is a pronounced and early limit to art of is this rather nai've kind. no affectation of quaintness on the part of the worker. for designer's draughtexample. not uncharitable to surmise that one reason 13 It is why such work (once so universal and now quite out of fashion) is not popular with needlewomen may be. natural or other forms thus reduced to angularity argues. forms which can be expressed by such lines.CANVAS STITCHES. CROSS-STITCH. but was the unavoidable outcome of her way of work. anything .

for us by the iyth century. crossing one stitch i -. The wonderfully wrought example. It ! i'i U is simply. whereas the ground On the face of generally is in horizontal. The common use of cross-stitch and the somewhat geometric kind of pattern to which it lends itself are shown in the sampler. Illustration 5. reminding one of the tesserae employed in mosaic. The seek : do the origin of the term cross-stitch is not far to the stitches worked upon the square mesh cross. as its name implies. or the mere fact that the stitches at the back of the work do not run in the same way . To explain the process of working cross-stitch would be teaching one's grandmother indeed. the work the stitches cross all in the same way.14 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. they must be worked in the same direction. are painful object lessons in what not to do. will disturb the evenness of the surface. following always the lines of the canvas. more than that. bequeathed to like pictorial purpose. But the important thing about it is that the stitches must cross always in the same way and. pictures in tent-stitch. falling naturally into the lines of mesh which governs them. What looks like a seam on the sampler opposite is the result of filling up a gap in the ground with stitches necessarily worked in vertical. worked solid (A) or left in the plain canvas upon a groundwork of . they present not so much TO WORK CROSS STITCH. The broad and simple leafage. lines. by another. the appearance of crosses as of squares. But.


solid vertical stitching (B). . As a device for. as it were. addition of such stroke-stitches to solid is cross-stitch (E) It strikes not at best a very happy device. Timid workers are always afraid of the stepped outline which a coarse mesh is gives. The mere work is line or " stroke-stitch. One should employ canvas no objection to a . a perfectly fair way of getting a delicate effect but the design has a way of working out rather less The happily than it promised." not crossed (D). only where there tive which keeps step with the canvas then there is a posicharm (for frank people at least) in the frank way the work is done. perhaps to the personality of the worker. one always as a confession of dissatison the part of the worker with the simple faction means of her choice. the floral devices on . correcting the stepped outline it is at its worst. In that they stitch line are wrong.16 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. show the most straightforward ways of using it. and the fretted diaper on and horizontal lines (C). The animal forms at the top of Illustration 6 are uncompromisingly square. The criss-cross of alternating cross-stitches and open canvas framed by the key pattern (C) shows a means of getting something like a tint halfway between solid work and plain ground. accordconfession of the ing perhaps to the coarseness of the canvas ground. There are many degrees in the frankness with which this convention has been accepted.


given in Illustration TENTSTITCH 8. tine. k There is literally no end to Y the variety of as stitches. and the if it design. FlorenParisian. . into square lines. are less rigidly formal. the same page. 7. also gains thereby in character. belonging to this group. Gobelin.i8 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. fall. rather for stitch arrangements A small selection of them is than for stitches. are only a few of them stand. CANVAS-STITCH. they are called. that covers only one thread of the . Milabut they nese. though they as it were inevit- ably. loses in something grace. and are their names a babel of confu- sion. Hungarian. as a rule. Cashmere. but the influence of the mesh betrays itself . Spanish. What opposite) liarity is is known a" it is as tent-stitch (A in the sampler its pecusort of half cross-stitch . Moorish. freely drawn. The inevitableness of the square line is apparent in It was evidently meant to be the sprig below (7).


and cushionstitch must. but is discredited by the monstrous abuse of it referred to already. as cross-stitch may. the frame on which the embroidress distended her canvas. It cannot come anywhere near to able enough in . but we 9. It derives its name from the old word tenture. the tesserae will pronounce themit. to stretch). be. or tenter (tender-e.20 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The word has gone out of use. and is therefore on a more minute scale than stitches which are two or three threads wide. The stitch is serviceits way. and spoil This kind of half cross-stitch worked on the larger scale of ordinary cross-stitch would look . CUSHION AND SATIN STITCHES. still speak of tenter-hooks. canvas at a stroke. pictorial effect selves. A picture in tent-stitch is even more foolish than a picture in mosaic.

this may not completely cover the canvas. is tightly drawn in in which the threads of the linen are not drawn out but drawn together. in which case the diagonal stitches must further be crossed as shown on If the Illustration 89.CANVAS STITCHES. the mesh is pulled apart. 21 therefore (B). Tn Cushion six - stitch consists of in upright measuring threads of the canvas. g and over these the stitch is worked. The way of working the stitch at E is described CANVAS- ITCH page 51." ?J Worked on canvas it has somewhat the effect of " plait-stitch. stitches. under the name of "fish-bone. diagonal lines of CUSHIONTn the sampler (C) ^ so that after each stitch the needle may be brought out just three it threads lower than where in was put in. linen is loosely woven and the thread the working. and completed by diagonal stitches joining them. giving the effect of an open lattice of the kind shown at B. stitch) is Unless the silk employed is full and soft. but the stitch is in any case the instead same. By of diagonal lines. and goes by the name of on .CROSS- zontal lines of the thread laid across the canvas. slightly apart. a zigzag working familiar pattern is produced. more often described " " as Florentine . on Illustration 10. by hori. The stitch at D (sometimes called Moorish CANVAS- ITCH begun by working a row of short vertical sj stitches." plaiting. meagre. It is filled out.

is it Turkish or Italian. Diagonal lines of thread are first laid from edge to edge of the ground space. stitch not that is it known it is appears to be necessary. This also by the name of Spanish in It is allied to herring-bone-stitch. working an outline separately. was usual When proportionately feeble.22 ART is IN NEEDLEWORK. to any way peculiar to Spain. It left CANVASF. Admirable canvas-stitch work has been done upon linen in silk of one colour red. worked in horizontal rows alternately from to right and from right to left. and these are sewn down by short overcasting stitches in the cross direction. and in the case of a stitch which falls into the effect is horizontal lines. prevailed in countries lying far apart. plait-stitch. In fact. green. though probably not without inter-communication. or blue and it was a common practice to work the background leaving the pattern It in the bare stuff. There is beautiful i6th century Italian work (in . Illustration 10) justifies itself. In Italian work. which a special chapter is devoted. at to get over the angularity of silhouette inherent in canvas stitches by that is thin. the influence of Oriental work upon European has been so great that even experts hesitate sometimes to say whether a particular piece of work least. Darning is also employed as a canvas stitch. The broader outline (shown at A. The s titch at is a sort of couching (see F page 124).


9 (page 20) is The satin-stitch diapered ground in Illustration upon coarse linen. Satin and other stitches were worked by the old Italians (Illustration 3) on square-meshed canvas. which look so much like the tesserae of mosaic that it seems as if they must have been worked in deliberate imitation of it. in the I5th century satin-stitch was worked on fine linen with strict regard to the lines of its web and the Persians. . embroider white satin-stitch. ancient and in which there is stepped outline .24 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. linen was darned in little square tufts of wool upstanding on its surface. The fine filling-in and dainty purpose effect all patterns used to such delicate in the marvellous work on cambric (Illustration 73) which competes in with lace. also in preserving piously the rectangular and diagonal lines given by the material. which is most effective. silk upon linen. and are worked thread by thread according to its woof: they afford again instances of perfect adaptation of stitch to material and of design to stitch. for the filling in of ornamental details. coloured silks on dark net of the very open square mesh of the period). and no pretence of disguising the and in the very early days of Christian art in Egypt and Byzantium. They have their reward in producing most characteristic needlework. frankly on the square lines given by it. Again. follow in their design the lines of the fabric. modern. though it is strictly embroidery. though the .

the surface of freely-drawn leaves.CANVAS STITCHES. A cunning use of the square mesh of canvas has sometimes been made to guide the worker upon other fabrics. The design may even be traced upon the net. That is a device which may serve on occasion. This was the design was then worked. instead say. on to and into the velvet. of being worked solid. and the threads of the canvas were then drawn out. &c. 25 That is to outline might be much less formal. first faced with net over that.. such as velvet. was diapered over with open pattern work constructed on the lines of the weaving. more or less : .

CREWEL-STITCH is the easiest and most whence it comes that people useful of stitches call all embroidery crewel sometimes work perhaps. vaguely work . : sampler opposite. .from which it STITCH SAMPLER." the thread double of twisted wool THE WORKING OF A ON CREWEL. where j t j s wor k e d as follows it is used for line work. though. the hand. CREWEL-STITCH proper TO WORK is shown at A on the Having made a start in the usual way.CREWEL-STITCH. . even when was done "crewel. of stitch as a matter fact. the properly so called very was never commonly the work in employed. on For in the whole. keep your thread downwards under your left thumb and below your needle that is.



say of an inch of the stuff. 29 then take up with the needle. is The muddled effect of much crewel work due to the is confusion of this stitch with crewel-stitch proper. in higher relief. This gives the first half If you proceed be in the stitch will manship is full length.CREWEL-STITCH. that is to the is left. described on page 30. taking care not to pierce the thread. little wider than only ordinary crewel-stitch. that at the back same way your next The test of good workshould look like back- it stitch (Illustration 12). OUTLINE-STITCH (B on sampler) crewel-stitch only in that the thread is differs from T0 WORK B. to the right . stitch. and bring it out through Jth the hole made in starting the stitch. but gives a heavier line. for outlining useful for single lines solid work. In so doing the thread apt to untwist itself. but it is more simply THICK CREWEL . stitch is The and THE WORKING OF B ON CREWELSTITCH SAMPLER. T0 C. always kept upwards above the needle. you take up th of . In effect it resembles rope-stitch. and wants re- constantly twisting. You begin first but after the half-stitch as in ordinary crewel-stitch.STITCH a (C on sampler) worked.

You proceed. putting your needle back. out |th of an inch behind. bring your needle out through the same hole as before. and so on. as in ordinary outline-stitch (B). Then. always put- ting your th needle in front of. instead of first bringing the needle out at the point where the embroidery is to begin. RK THICK OUTLINE-STJTCH like thick crewel-stitch (D on sampler) is with the exception that. . so as to have always ^th of an inch of the stuff on your needle. taking To work the SPOTS (F) on sampler having into the hole back-stitch. and bring out your needle at the point where the first half-stitch began. you bring it out |th of an inch in it. take up this |th together with another ^th in you advance. the last stitch. of an inch in and it bringing THE WORKING OF C ON CREWEL-STITCH SAMPLER. so that you have. For the next stitch you put your needle advance of made by the last stitch. an inch of the material in advance of the last stitch. and make another backstitch made a above it. to be one stitch. TO WORK E. you keep your thread always above the needle to the left. care not to split the last thread in so doing. in what appears two thicknesses of thread then .ART IN NEEDLEWORK. In BACK-STITCH (E).


already here apparent. is of not confusing them. You next put the needle in |-th of an inch in advance of the last stitch. but precisely above it. which gives the measure of those following. bring it out again in a slanting direction a thread or two At the back of the work (Illustration 12) higher. and. The slanting stitches at the back (Illustration 12) are only two-thirds of the length of those on the face. and put it in again ^th of an inch in advance of the last stitch. bring your needle out precisely in a line above and with them. After the two stitches. CREWEL AND OUTLINE STITCHES worked side (J) by side give somewhat the effect of a braid. To work first H - wider STEM-STITCH (H). instead of proceeding as in crewel-stitch (A) you slant your needle so as to bring it out a thread or two higher up than the half-stitch. half-stitch. as before. producing a longer stroke. On the left side the rows of stitching follow the outline of . holding the thread downwards. The distance between the stitches desire to produce. and proceed as before. CREWEL-STITCH is worked SOLID in the heartin the centre of the shape sampler. The importance referred to. too tight.32 ART IN NEEDLEWORK bring your needle out some distance in advance of the last stitch. determined by the effect you The thread should not be drawn is TO WORK G - (G) with the usual Then. You begin STEM-STITCH the stitches TO WORK lie in a slanting direction.


in effect. There is no difficulty then in working round that shape. and then . Old examples of . This is the better method. It does not seem that Englishwomen of the iyth century were ever very faithful to the stitch we know by the name of crewel. stuff the outline of the space to be covered by each to work from the darkest shadows shade of thread. k es * explained by an instance. If on arriving at the point of your leaf. Illustration 41). instead of going round the edge. You begin by outlining it if it is a wide leaf. which in the other case only occurs in the centre of the shape where the files of stitches meet. In solid crewel the stitches should quite cover the ground without pressing too closely one against the other. to which it is admirably suited (A. a combination of crewel and outline stitches. there results a streakiness of texture. as above explained. the TO WORK The way to work solid crewel-stitch will k CREWEL* STITCH. as at J. apparent in the stem on Illustration 13.34 ART heart . work row within row of stitches until the space is filled. it is well to the highest And it is expedient to map out on the lights. merely conforming a little to the shape to be filled. Suppose a leaf to be worked. What you get is. you further work a centre line where the main rib would be. To represent shading in crewel-stitch. IN NEEDLEWORR. on the right they are more upright. you work back by the side of the first row of stitching.


in came handiest. and in some ing . because it contained more of it than any other equal portion of a handsome and typical English hangbut it is only in the main stem. The filling in of the leafage. work done entirely in crewel-stitch. No doubt they perhaps) . as distinguished from what is called crewel work. adopts in every case a method. berry. And that appears to have been the prevailing practice to use crewel-stitch for stems and outlines. It departs looks as if our ancestors had set to work without system or guiding principle at all. seems to have sugwhich it must be confessed was but a good workwoman (and the embroidress is a needlewoman first and an artist afterwards. Of course the artist always chooses her stitch. and the smaller and more elaborate details generally were done fruit. and she is free to alter it as occasion may demand . sometimes only a sort of scramble to get an effect. how very little of the woolwork on them is in crewelThe detail on Illustration 13 was chosen stitch. that the stitch is used.36 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. or gested the stitch. of the outlines. are seldom if ever to be met with. In long-and-short-stitch. and for little else but the very simplest forms. flower. the diapering within the leaf shapes. but it is astonishing. when one comes to examine the quilts and curtains of a couple of hundred years or so ago. what not. the thing to be represented. and from it only for very good reason. The stitch occurs in most of the old English embroidery in wool . or whatever fact.

embroidress will do it not without remorse in the case of beautiful work. a keen threads. work shows What the stitches are it is not plainly enough. as it happens. was doing anything Another instance of crewelit.CREWEL-STITCH. in silk aware that in so working she out of the could find for illustration (15) is nor was the worker . Quite in the traditional manner is Illustration 14. easy to be unravelled only by literally picking out the which one is not always at liberty to do. Theirs is art of the rather artless sort which is just now so popular. that conscious aim which goes to make art. but relentlessly all the same. 37 got a bold and striking effect in their bed-hangings and the like but there is in their work a lack of . although. The mystery of many a stitch is to say. common. The only piece of embroidery entirely in crewelstitch which I worked. let us call of the personage in Illustration 72. and the stitch is used for in Illustration 94. stitch is given in the divided skirt. sewing down the applique . in the ardour of research. which for the time being seems to have gone completely out of fashion. One would there work was matter of is little which answers to the as an examination of the back of the name. fancy at first sight that the As a almost entirely in crewel-stitch. work on Beautiful back-stitching occurs in the Italian Illustration 89. fact. Happily it was kept in the way it should go by a strict adherence to traditional pattern.

done in the hand with an ordinary needle. Illus- tration 17) bring the needle out. One takes it rather for granted that work which was presumably done in the stitch. hold the thread . and tambour-stitch in a frame with a hook sharper at the turning point than an ordinary crochet hook. but not advisable of course. Chain-stitch stitch (see is not to be confounded with split- TO WORK To page 105). to work chain-stitch in a frame. though it is possible. for example) is chainand that what seems to have been done in a frame is tambour work. work chain-stitch (A on the sampler.CHAIN-STITCH. CHAIN-STITCH AND KNOTS. hand (a large quilt. which somewhat resembles it. and present the same rather granular surface. The differis is ence between them that chain . CHAIN effect and TAMare in BOUR STITCH practically the same.stitch l6.



proves to have been worked from the back in chain-stitch. 41 down with at the hole up through that gives you the first link of the chain. 17) used often in church work. Illustration 64. the dark one. well out of the way. draw both threads through this makes a dark link the light thread disappears. and Italian it Renaissance work. take of an inch of stuff. in the quilted coverlet. Illustration 17) is effected by the use of two threads of different colour." as It is has been called. which you might take for back- stitching. Illustration 69 in much similar work of the period). and bring them out at the point at which your work begins. Hold the dark thread under your thumb. The back of the work (18) looks like back-stitch. A playful variation upon chain-stitch (B on the TO WORK sampler. put the needle in again through which you brought it out. The same thing occurs in the case of the Persian quilt in Illustration 70. This " magic stitch. more solid in appearance. : thumb. and draw the thread the left (as In fact. keeping the light one to the right. Indian. to be found in Persian. is no new invention. the links not being so open. Take in your needle a dark and a light thread. and. ready to be held under the thumb while you make a light link. the outline pattern.CHAIN-STITCH. . An instance of it occurs in A Illustration variety of chain-stitch (C on the sampler. and comes out again to the left of . say the dark one to the left. .

putting your needle into . A that. of a rather fancy description. this time from and so to and fro to the end. bring your needle out at a point which is to be the left edge of your work. pointing downwards. To make it. Begin a little in advance of the starting point of your work. Bring your needle out at a point which is to be the lower edge of your work. a little below the starting point. hold the thread under your thumb. Illustration 17). RK F. TO WORK rather differently done. draw up the thread. zigzag chain. Illustration 17) keep your thread to the right. put the needle in is again at the starting point slightly to the left. slanting stitch. goes by the name of Vandyke chain (E on the sampler. put in your needle. right to left The braid-stitch shown at F on the sampler (Illustration 17) is make another worked as follows. and you have the is first TO WORK To work what known link of your chain. horizontally from right to left. and make a slanting chain-stitch from left to right then. hold your thread towards the left under your thumb. in . from right to left. put your needle through the stitch now in process of making from right to left. TO WORK E. and bring it out about |th of an inch below where you put it then put it through the little stitch just formed. as cable-chain (D on D. and the first two links of your chain are made. the sampler. bring your needle out about ^th of an inch below where it first went in but precisely on the same line.42 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. .

bringing it out on that edge of the work. work or tambour) the usual plan In covering a surface with chain-stitch (needleis to follow the . on the sampler. slant it to the right. 43 throw your thread round to the left. Illustration 17) is worked vertically. put it in at a point which is to be the left edge of your work. at the upper edge of your work.CHAIN-STITCH. and. Then. and your first stitch is done. put in the needle slide and the thread towards the right. braid-stitches look best worked in stout thread of close texture. bring the needle out ex- actly where it below you put carry your thread under the needle towards the left. put your needle under the thread and twist it once round to the right. in. and finish your stitch as in the case of F. keeping it all the time loosely under your thumb. These. A yet more fanciful variety of braid-stitch (G G. and. as before. Having. downwards. put your needle under the thread and twisted it once round. THE WORKING OF F ON CHAIN-STITCH SAMPLER. instead of bringing it out immediately below that point. draw the thread tight.

We you have the 1 i trick of i it.C. and that it misfortune is that the is most sewing . even to perfectly spiral. it owe the tambour frame. THE WORKING OF G ON CHAIN. following always the lines of the warp and weft of the stuff. m England. contour of the design. but it has been effectively used in that way. the needle. The reason for the more usual practice of following The the outline of the design is obvious. they but it has been China and abused indeed. stitch lends itself to sweeping. Even in that case the successive should be all in one direction not running backor it will wards and forwards lines of stitching result in a sort of pattern of braided lines. largely used. The a heavy stuff.44 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. lines such as occur in Greek wave patterns it was. when say. working chain within chain until the leaf or whatever it may be is rilled in. Tambour work. is very quickly done in about onesixth of the time it would take to do it with serves T has the further advantage that equally well for embroidery on a It light or on lasting. This stitch is rarely worked in lines across the forms.once STITCH SAMPLER. in fact. made use of in that : way by the Greeks some four or five centuries B. to .


46 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. where everything except the faces of and again for In Illustration 19 figure it occurs in association with a curious surface the little is men in chain-stitch . as to discredit genuine hand-work. and 72 . it is used to outline and otherwise supplement inlay. that is not all the fault of the stitch the worker is to blame. Artistic use of chain stitch is made in in many of our illustrations : for outlines Illustrations 24 lion. for surface covering in Mr. in Illustration 64 it. Indian embroiderers depart sometimes so far from mechanical precision as to like : shock the admirers of monotonously even work. The old Italians artists did not disdain to use fact. In it. whether tambour work or chain-stitch. wherever is have employed they show that there nothing inherently inartistic about the stitch. to represent landscape in Illustration 78. neither is to be deIf they have often a mechanical appearance spised. work in Illustration 81. machine has learnt to do something at once so it and so mechanically even. For all that. Crane's Illustration 74 . stitch . .

the generic term. . Ordinary herring-bone that the such a familiar stitch it necessity of describing is rather a matter of literary consistency than of practical importance. such as are shown at is E on sampler. One would have thought it more convenient to use fish for the specific. and a particular fish for However. Illustration 20. them as " fish-bone . but it appears most suited to the working of broadish bands and other more or less even-sided or. it saves confusion to use names It will as far as possible in their accepted sense. " but that term has been appropriated to describe a particular variety of it. be seen from the sampler. may be worked open or tolerably it but in the latter case loses something of distinctive character. Fine lines may be worked in it. tapering forms. it may be. more feathery in effect than fish-bone-like. that this stitch close its .HERRING-BONE-STITCH. HERRING-BONE to is the name by which it is distinguish a variety of stitches customary somewhat resembling the spine of a fish such It would be simpler to describe as the herring.

(it simpler forms of herring-bone is always worked from left to right. TO WORK c> and. is called "Indian Herring-bone" (B) is TO WORK B. To work C. bring your needle out as for A. bring your needle out about the centre of the line to be worked. and. above the needle. of course. turning it stuff. and begun with a half-stitch) marked A and C on the sampler are strikingly different in appearance. merely stitch A worked in longer and more slanting stitches. the thread still to the right. TO WORK A - To work A.48 ART The two IN NEEDLEWORK. . whilst your thread to the right. to the right. and are worked in different ways as will be seen at once by reference to the back of the sampler (Illustration 21). properly interlaced. thread to the right. with the thread below it. put it into the lower edge of the line about ^th of an inch take up this much of the stuff. the two went What colours being. draw it through. backwards. take up ever so small a piece of the stuff. Then. so that there is room between them for a second row in another colour. slightly in advance of the last stitch.lie further on . put your needle into the upper edge of the line -th of an inch further on. Then. putting it in at the upper edge of the line to be worked and pointing lies it downwards. where the stitches take in the one case a horizontal and in the other a vertical direction. take up again ^th of an inch of bringing it out immediately above where it in on the lower edge. and. keeping't.


.*&* x ."'? . ' r '- 2 f J 21. I. HERRING-BONE SAMPLER (BACK).

What is . your needle 51 now pointing upwards. rather in again E 2 . take another similar stitch from the lower edge. The variety at is merely a combination of D A T0 WORK D. bringing it out immediately below that on the lower edge of the work. It is characteristic of this stitch that it has a sort of spine up the centre where the threads cross. instead of being wide . Put it in on the upper edge of the spine. as may be seen by reference to the back of the sampler (opposite) though the short horizontal stitches there seen meet. needle out on the under edge of the spine about be -4-th of an inch from the starting point of the work. Bring your E. and C.HERRING-BONE-STITCH. stitch to Suppose the T0 W ORK worked horizontally. apart as in the case of A. and put it in on the upper edge of the work at the starting point. THE WORKING OF E ON HERRING-BONE SAMPLER.known as " fish-bone " is illustrated in the three feathery shapes on the sampler (E). two of which are worked rather open.

edge and put it in at the lower edge th of an inch from the beginning. In close herring-bone (F on the sampler. advance of where it came out on the lower edge it before. If you wish to cover a surface with herring-bonestitch. Put the needle in again on the upper edge |th of an inch in front of the last stitch on that edge. bring the needle out at the beginning of the line to be worked. Having made a half F stitch. so that each it in ^th of . at the lower edge. on the same edge as the hole where the last stitch went in. crossed by a shorter stitch which goes from right to left.52 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. close. and bring it out on the lower edge of this spine immediately below where it entered. and bring it out again. Illustration 20) you have always a long stitch from left to right. you work it. bringing it out on the same edge th of an inch from the beginning. an inch from the beginning of the upper Bring it out again at the beginning of this edge. of course. and put of THE WORKING OF F ON HERRING-BONE SAMPLER. without splitting the thread.

It is (21) clearly . It will stuff foregoer at the point (F on the sampler. THE WORKING OF G ON HERRING-BONE SAMPLER. in quite a different way. as the back of the sampler shows. straight across a wide leaf. Having stitch. as in the lower half of sampler. be seen that at the back double row of back-stitching. it is naturally very loose. is sometimes misleadingly described as tapestry worked. having the of higher relief than ordinary close herring-bone (F). successive stitch touches its 53 where the needle enters the Illustration 20). You TO WORK get there parallel rows of double stitches. There is here just the suggestion of a mid-rib between the two rows. which are worked in two halves. beginning at the base of a leaf on one side and working down to it on the other. A better (21) this looks like a Worked method of working is shown in the side leaves.HERRING-BONE-STITCH. effect The stitch at G on sampler.

bring this out on the lower edge. Thence take a long slanting stitch upwards from left to right. made a half-stitch entering the material at th p upper edge of the work. cross it by a rather shorter stitch from right to left.54 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. going back. put it in at the beginning of the upper edge. and a closer variety of it in the pink. or whatever the flower may be. bring the needle out on the lower edge immediately opposite. . bring the needle out on the lower edge of it immediately opposite. Then. and bring it out at the beginning of the lower one. entering the stuff at the point where the first halfstitch ended. opposite. in the hand of the little figure on Illustration 72. and the stitch is done. The artistic use of herring-bone-stitch is shown in the leaves of the tulip (84).

and marking the edge of the leaves by a clear-cut line. where the diaper pattern produced by its means explains itself the better worked in two shades of colour. BUTTONHOLE utilitarian is more be. shown in the two horn shapes on the sampler. a very name to as common use would lead one to suppose. pre-eminently a one-edged stitch. By the use of two rows back to back. however. leaving a serrated edge to the leaves.BUTTONHOLE-STITCH. leaf forms may be fairly expressed. for being The simpler forms of the stitch are the more . as in the pot shape (J) on the sampler. Illustration 22. There is. a two . the edge of the stitch is used to emphasise the mid rib. useful in ornament than such its one might expect a stitch It with is. In the leaves on the sampler. The character of the stitch would have been better preserved by working the other way about. as in the case of the solid leaves in Illustration 73. a stitch with which to mark emphatically the outside edge of a form.edged variety known as ladder-stitch. The stitch may be used for covering a ground or other broad surface.

useful. The border at known as " TAILOR'S BUTTON- F. Needlewomen have wilful ways of making what should be upright right. as you work ordinary is . as in the rosettes at the side of the vase snaps (A). is difference between versions such as on the sampler. and bring it out immediately below. One need hardly describe BUTTONHOLE STITCH. whilst you put the needle in again at a higher point slightly to the right." The only B and C hole. instead of towards you. HOLE. A The simple form of it (A) is worked by (when you have brought your needle out) keeping the thread under your thumb to the right. close to where it came out before. and simple button- that the stitches vary in length according at to the worker's fancy. TO WORK . stitches slant awkwardly in all manner of ways." worked with the firm edge from you. This and other one-edged stitches of the kind are some- times called "blanket-stitch. with the result that they look as if they had been pulled out of the straight. The border marked D in sampler consists merely of two rows of slanting buttonhole-stitch worked one into the other.56 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The CROSSED BUTTONHOLE STITCH TO WORK worked by ' E is first making a stitch sloping to the this and then a smaller buttonhole-stitch across from the left. the ornamental use of the stitch is obvious. Worked in the form of a wheel.



edge that side. With the point of your needle. form a square . immediately below. This makes a triangle. In order to make your ladder(G) square at the end.BUTTONHOLE-STITCH. and bring on the lower one. put your needle into the it same edge. before drawing the thread quite through. you put your needle in again still on the out. a second triangle pointing the other way. you make five . slanting it towards the right. is that. bring it out on a level with the other end of the bar somewhat to the right. having completed your first triangle. you begin by making a bar of the width the stitch is to be. stitch TO WORK G. buttonhole. and letting it lie on F. You loop from behind. pull the slanting thread out at the top. by buttonholing a stitch. like band at H. . you make. 59 Bringing the thread out at the upper T0 WORK of the work to the left. The difference between the working of the lattice. then. . which completes a rectangular shape. insert the needle it to the right draw it again out as before. to THE WO'RKING OF H ON BUTTONHOLE SAMPLER. and you have slant your second triangle. In the solid work shown at J. and tighten it upwards. and ladder-stitch G.TO WORK H. Then. holding the thread under your thumb to the right. you put the needle in at the top of the bar and.


then another five. goes sometimes by the name of Cretan-stitch on that account. 61 them to a point the process. where it is outlined with chain stitch. Cut work. and you have is made of buttonhole stitch in the piece of Indian work in Illustration 24. the cusped shapes 72. which goes most perfectly with it. in fact. gathering at the base.BUTTONHOLE-STITCH. Characteristic and most beautiful use and so on. in Oriental work. . Repeat time point upwards. this the first band of the pot shape. and. such as that on Illustration it 65. buttonhole-stitches. is strengthened by outlining Ladder-stitch occurs in in buttonhole-stitch. It is framing certain broidered infrequent all flowers in Illustration emnot in blue silk on linen.

to the more or less feathery effect resulting from its rather opsn Like buttonhole. owes its name. The jagged outline which it gives makes it useful in embroidering plumage. The feathery stem (A) on sampler is simply a buttonholing worked alternately from right to left and left to right. keeping the needle strokes in the centre closer together or farther apart according to the first effect to It be produced. of course. to the left. but a version of satin-stitch. line at B requires rather more Presume it to be worked vertically. forms on the sampler. solid. but andj^etal it is better suited to cover narrow than broad surfaces. it may be worked character." which is not featherstitch at all.FEATHER AND ORIENTAL STITCHES. . as in the leaf Illustration 25. . keeping your thread under the needle to the right The border . explanation. Bring your needle out at the left edge of the band put it in at the right edge immediately opposite. but it is not to be confounded with what is called "plumage-stitch. FEATHER-STITCH is simply buttonholing in a to the right side and then slanting direction.



slanting it upwards. and. requiring no further explanation than the back view riations Bands D. a chain-stitch slanting downwards from line i Put your needle into line 3 about th of an inch lower down. E.FEATHER AND ORIENTAL STITCHES. G. Make D. from left TO WORK G G< to right. and bring it out again on the same edge a little lower down. These always four in number. 4. 3. are vaof ordinary featherstitch. and then. working is G G. of the work (26) affords. indicating at once. opposite to where you last brought it out. with three slanting stitches on each edge instead of a single one in the direction of the band. On the face of the sampler it will be noticed that lines have been drawn for the guidance of the are worker. 6<i bring it out again still on the right edge a little lower down.E. . F. to line 2. In and the points at which it put in and out of the stuff. that the stitch is made with four strokes of the needle. keeping your thread to the left. Bringyour needle out at the top of line i. The border at C is merely an elaboration of the above. THE WORKING OF G G ON FEATHER-STITCH suppose four guiding lines to have been SAMPLER drawn as above numbered. 2. i. put the needle in on the left edge.

though shown upright on the sampler. C. Feather-stitch is not adapted to covering broad surfaces solidly. faintly visible on the sampler. but may be used for narrow ones. - STITCH is the close kind of feather-stitch name given to a much used in Eastern The difference at once apparent to the eye between the two is that. Lastly. bringing it out into line 3 on the same level. just it on the other i side of the thread. downwards and. it is worked on four guiding lines. usually worked horizontally. 2. put your needle into line 2. B. i. bring this time from right to left. and bring out on line ready to begin the next . Oriental stitch. Stitches A. Like feather-stitch (see diagram). and C are worked in precisely TO WORK A. may be. slanting it upwards." stitch is is - sometimes It called "Antique- a stitch in three strokes. and bring your needle out on line 3. Illustration 27. the of line Then put it in again at line stitch. bring it out on line i. - ORIENTAL work. in Oriental-stitch (27) you have a straight line longer or shorter as the case stitch. Bring your needle out at the top Keep the thread under your thumb to the right and put' your needle in at the top of line 4. out on line 4 level with the point where you Make a chain-stitch slanting last brought it out. just as featheris a stitch in four. |th of an inch below the last stitch. whereas for the mid-rib of a band or leaf of feather-stitching (25) you have cross lines.66 ART it IN NEEDLEWORK. sarn e way. B.



THE WORKING OF A. left worked f from right to Stitch left instead of from to right. The sloping stitch at D is worked in the same TO WORK D way as A. is a combination of buttonhole and TO WORK Oriental stitches. : : /V2. C. most plainly seen (28). C ON ORIENTAL-STITCH SAMPLER. Between two rows of button- .FEATHER AND ORIENTAL STITCHES. B. as is B. on is the back of the sampler The difference only a difference of proportion. as it was called above) makes the whole difference between the three varieties of stitch. It will 69 be seen that the length of the central part (or mid-rib. In A is B the mid-rib in the three parts are equal narrow in C it is broad. except that instead of straight strokes with the needle you make slanting ones. - Stitch E F differs from D in that the side strokes TO It is WORK slant both in the same direction.

is one of the stitches used in . holing (dark on sampler) a single row of Orientalstitch is worked. employed for the central stalk.7o ART IN NEEDLEWORK. G. except that it has something the appearance of a continuous stitch The Oriental-stitch. has really no business on this sampler. Oriental-stitch Illustration 72.

Having brought needle L^ ^C 5 ^ <^S ^^^^ B. more nearly look. under the part thumb. of silk or correspondingly right to and is easier to work curved lines than in straight. A single sampler is devoted KNOTTED STITCHES. Illustration 29. 1 work. less rent in the central stalk is which usual a form of the same stitch. TO WORK A. j . worked wider apart.1 1 at the right i end THE WORKING OF A. ROPE STITCH - is so called because of its appearance. It wool rich. represent the ordinary appearance of the stitch its construc. for rope-stitch is to ROPE and all akin than they but knotted as it is worked. ON ROPE-STITCH SAMPLER. worked from in takes a large but the effect amount is left. out your oi the r . hold of the thread towards the left. to It is work it.ROPE AND KNOT STITCHES. tion is more appaB. TT . Lines A on the sampler. . B. . the rest of it falling to the right put your .

rather like a distorted chain stitch (B).ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and just below the thread held under your thumb. draw it through. and you have the first of your knots the rest follow at : TO WORK .. keeping your thread in same position. Draw the thread and there results a stitch which looks through. A (C is knotted line in the sampler. produced by is what known as "GERMAN KNOT- TO WORK STITCH. Then put your needle into the stuff just above the thread stretched under your thumb. this overlapping which gives the stitch the raised and rope . and bring it out again a little in advance of where it came out before. slant it towards you. it needle in above where came out. the the lastly." effective only in thick soft silk or wool. The next step is to make another similar stitch so close to the foregoing one that it overlaps is it It partly. intervals determined by your wants. 29) Illustration THE WORKING OF C ON ROPESTITCH SAMPLER. keep needle above the loose end of the thread. tightening the thread upwards. The more open stitch at D is practically the same . D.like appearance seen at A. and bring it out just below and in a line with where it went in. Begin as in rope stitch.



begin TO WORK the thread very firmly bring your by attaching needle out at the base of the petal. draw the thread not too tight. Then. keeping it as before under the thumb. BULLION form or ROLL-STITCH is shown in its simplest petal. and. eye first. F on such . to the this slanting stitch time through the upper half only of the stitch. and draw out your thread. put it in at the in the petals of the flowers To work one Illustration 29. eye first. making a kind of buttonhole- round the last. call them what you will. round the projecting point of the needle from left to right. thumb left. put your needle in to the left. and draw the thread through. put your needle. through the slanting stitch just made.ROPE AND KNOT STITCHES. and take up vertically a piece of the stuff the width of the line to be worked at its widest. downwards. the sampler. say seven times. keeping it under the stitch. Then. 75 thing. are rather ragged and fussy not much more than fancy stitches of no great importance. known by the name of " OLD ENGLISH KNOT-STITCH " (E) is a much more complicated What is Keeping your thread well out of the way TO WORK to the right. . tip. only With your right hand drawing partly through. wind the thread. and bring it it out once more at the base. put your needle. except that in crossing the running thread you take up more of the stuff on each side of it. These knotted rope stitches. KNOTS used separately are of much more artistic account.

put the needle through at the tip of the petal. and the stitch is and ready to be fastened off.76 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. your thread to the right. complete The leaves of these flowers consist stitches. until quite firm. tightening it gently THE WORKING OF F ON KNOT-STITCH SAMPLER. dropping the needle. holding the coils under your left thumb. draw your needle and thread through and. and catching the thread round your little finger. Lastly. two bullion The bullion simply of knots at the side of the central stalk are curled in the first instance only the by taking up piece of smallest the stuff. thread with your thumb and first finger and draw the coiled stitch to the right. . take hold of the .

That done. and bring it out where the next knot is to be. but the result of twisting three or four times is never THE WORKING OF hannv tion 24. G ON KNOT-STITCH SAMPLER. or scattered over the ground. to which. sight when close some likeness. lacking firmness. they are quite pearly in appearance. Turn the needle so as to twist the thread once round it. they have at A single line of knots first may almost be mistaken for chain-stitch.ROPE AND KNOT STITCHES. and. whether in rows between the border lines. together. put your needle under the stretched part of it. put the needle in again about where it came out draw it through from the back. hold the thread under your thumb. The use of knots is shown to perfection in IllustraWorked there in white silk floss upon a dark purple ground. 77 To work FRENCH KNOTS (G). For large knots use two or more threads of silk. and go admirably with chain-stitching. giving it mass. and do not twist them more than once. G. having brought out T0 WORK your needle at the point where the knot is to be. They are most useful in holding the design together. A happier use of them is to fringe an . letting it lie to the right. With a single thread you may twist twice. but of themselves they do not make a good outline.

or it results in a rather rococo effect. or to pattern the ornament (instead of the ground) all Differencing of this kind may be an afterthought and a happy one affording as it does over. knot by knot. Good use is sometimes made of knots to pearl the inner edge of a pattern worked in outline. He has a way of producing a knotted line by first knotting his thread (it may be done with a netting needle). outline. but then. however. as on the sampler . which gives a it . Worked close together. and then stitching it down on to the surface of the material. the eyes they give. The effect of knotting in the mass Illustration 31. even the voided ones. or pattern. again. as for . with the marvellous precision of a Chinaman. contradicting. they represent admirably of composite flowers. or part of either. which may not have worked out quite to the embroiderer's liking. it is not many of us who work. example in the peacock's tail on but this kind of thing must be used with page 38 reticence. The lines.78 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. what was said above about its unfitness for outline work. always what seems. His knotted texture is not. The obvious fitness of knots to represent is the stamens of flowers exemplified in Illustration 93. it might seem. is shown in embroidered entirely in knots. are here as sharp as could be. valuable variety of texture to the crest of the stork in Illustration 85. a ready means of qualifying the colour or texture of ground.


8o ART IN NEEDLEWORK. pearled or beaded line not readily distinguishable from knot stitch. employed very often a crinkled braid. The only true knotting there the top-knot of the bird. This is shown in the cloud work in is in Illustration 85. . instead of knotting his own thread. The Japanese embroiderer.



. as shown on the sampler. G. to invent them. the is (33). H and herring-bone-stitch J with Oriental-stitch K with feather-stitch. AND DIAPERS. You will see. generally in use.INTERLACINGS. deserving to be so called. The interlacing on the . for one purpose or another. E with with varieties of F. : There LACINGS. G 2 . By combining two or more . The samplers so far discussed bring us. In this way stitches are also sometimes worked upon back of into it stitches. stitches endless complications may be made and there may be occasions when. on referring to the Illustration 32. B and C with back-stitching. Satin-stitch. that end to such possible INTERThose on the sampler do not need no . with the exception of Darning. D darning or running with chain-stitching. as well as amusing. that only the white silk is worked stuff the dark is surface work only. much explanation but it may be as well to say A starts with crewel-stitching. practically to the end of the stitches. and some stitches presently to be mentioned. SURFACE STITCHES. it may be necessary. and .

again only piercing it at the edges. The last row must.84 ART is IN NEEDLEWORK. be worked into the stuff again. Illustration 34. . in surface of these shown darker silk. is avoided by passing the needle eye-first lacing through them. more thread connecting the stitch groups but do not stitch into the stuff except at the ends of the rows. there only piercing the stuff. C and in G undergo a second course of interlacing.Called LACE-STITCH. STITCH SAMPLER. in a really no limit Some are better worked There frame. not quite close together. . working from right three buttonhole stitches into the . The danger of splitting the first stitches working the interones. An oblique version of this is given at C (34). to patterns of this kind. H TO WORK ' The Lace Buttonholing follows : at B (34) is worked as stuff 34 ' Buttonhole three stitches into the to right. from to left and further on three left. and then darned across by other stitches. of course. THE WORKING OF F ON INTERLACING. Other surface sometimes work. make then. but that is very much (34) a matter of TO WORK H '34- personal practice. In the Surface Darning at fi rs t long threads are carried from edge to edge of the square. j s illustrated in is the sampler.


and not is L into the stuff. TO WORK K. starting at the angle. Most delicate surface stitching occurs in Illus- . The square at G is worked by first of short upright stitches worked into then threading loose stitches through them. but. scarcely a TO WORK A. 34- The square shown . which are TO WORK G. begun by making horizontal of crewel-stitch and one of worked on to the bars. It not very differently much more open. and then zigzag lines in is E worked between them. much as G . as at F (34). and the first row of horizontal stitches is crossed by two opposite rows of oblique stitches.86 ART IN NEEDLEWORK.worked from A or B. at D is worked on the open the solid parts are produced by interlacing stitches from side to side. making rows the stuff. this surface stitch.34- . horizontal lines at top and bottom of the square at A are back-stitching. makes the central chain. F. they are laced together by lines looped at round them. is is TO WORK Net Passing. as they penetrate the material. The band at J is buttonhole stitching wide apart. and lattice TO WORK D. the intermediate ones simply long threads carried from one side to The the other TO WORK L.34.34- merely surface buttonholing over a series of slanting stitches. In the square at zontal lines are are first (Japanese Darning) horidarned. The band bar stitches.34- the bars filled in with surface crewel-stitch. 34- made to interlace. TO WORK at is The band K J. 34. A row outline-stitch.


be the limit of human Every ingenious of her own more or workwoman less. but it is also delicate and It is dainty to a degree. neither than stitch patterns. being. whether worked upon the surface or into the stuff. is futile. worked only from fills. a strong All attempt to give separate names to diapers of this kind. argument against it. though it has to be said that lacestitches are employed in it. and possibly did wear it. is for the most part neither more nor less than a floating gossamer of lacework. in fact. One cannot deny that that is embroidery. worked through the stuff.88 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. if the word is not out of keeping with is The to frailty of this kind of thing too obvious is need mention. which once covered the whole of the background. and not elsewhich accounts for most tration 35. where entering the stuff The flower or scroll-work of it being worn away. A French marquise of the Regency might have worn it. suited only to dress. will find out patterns They are very useful for . and that of the most exquisite kind. Of course it is frivolous. and that. The delicate network of fine stitching. They ought not even to be called stitches. to which there limit. unless it more nor is less no possible invention. with entire propriety the period. Stern embroiderers would like to deny it. the fine net being edge to edge of the spaces it . of course. and in a sense flimsy. is bond fide embroidery.

" left to patterns of this kind is the needlewoman. though the pattern may be. of course. as well as its The extent. not continuous. as was practically inevitable working on such a ground. The as those patterns need not." or "intermediate" diaper is to be used. The utmost altogether to impulse. as a rule. there is room for the exercise of considerable taste in the choice of simpler or more elaborate patterns. 89 surfaces (pattern or background) which it be inexpedient to work more solidly. following. Moreover. stuff. filling in &c. diaper design is not. They take more often the form of or sprig patterns. And the alternation of lighter and heavier diapers should be planned. which diaper the design nor are they usually so full. freer or more geometric. drawn on the but points of guidance may be indicated through a kind of fine stencil plate. may The greater part of such patterns are geometric (Illustrations 35 and 73).INTERLACINGS. SURFACE STITCHES. Many a time the shape of the space to be filled. the mesh of the material. used for background diapering be intrinsically so interesting itself. in which the spot . and not left invariably a designer need do that a "full. The relation is of stitch to stuff here obvious. On Illustration 3 you see very plainly how the rectangular diaperings are built up geometrically on the square lines of the mesh. that is to say. will suggest the appropriate ornament. and making no secret of it. The choice of stitch is to indicate on his drawing "open.

go ART IN NEEDLEWORK. . in stitches not too regular. For a background. is often the best solution of the difficulty. simple darning more or with work and the worker texture. geometric construction necessary. that less open. stitching is is not so obvious. instead of tint. The effect of the ground grinning through is delightful. is aimed at. nor even In either case the prime object of the not so much to make ornamental patterns entirely as to give a tint it to . the stuff without hiding chooses a lighter or heavier diaper according to If the work is all in white it is the tint required.

straight itself. In fact. so that. par excellence the stitch for fine silkwork. and never was. but often followed the lines of its mesh. if very carefully done. strokes of the needle. of course. stepping. leave off her stroke as the penman does. showing no mesh. it was not only worked upon fine linen. the work sides. confined to work upon silk or satin. just as a pen draughtsman lays side by side the strokes of his pen but. as she . In it the embroidress works with short. need not be. she has perforce to bring back the thread on the under side of the stuff. to the tune of the stuff. however. I do not know if the name of " satin-stitch " comes from its being so largely is SATIN-STITCH employed upon satin. as in Illustration 9.SATIN-STITCH AND ITS OFFSHOOTS. satin-stitch seems the most natural and obvious way of working upon it. or from the effect of the work which would certainly justify the title. This may be described as satin -stitch in the making at any . so smooth and satin-like is its surface. is the same on both Satin-stitch. Given a material of which the texture is quite smooth and even. cannot.

The most easiest. dovetailed. ' ' To cover a space with horizontal satin stitches (B on sampler). . the elementary form of its relation to canvas-stitch being apparent on the face of it. Still. proceed as before. The longer stretches there are not. beautiful and most accomplished work has been done in it alike by Mediaeval. as it is not easy to find the point you want from the back. most satisfactory. rate. . and work from left to right. it. crossed at one stitch they take several stitches. D. In working a second row of stitches. the of proceeding is to begin in the centre of the space and work from in left to right. E). begin again from right to left. begin at the top. of course. only planting your needle between the Fasten off with a few tiny stitches already done. TO WORK To cover a space with regular vertical satin ' 3 ' stitches (A best way on the sampler. half done. so as not to give lines. the centre and That work In order to make sure of a crisp and even edge to your forms. always let the needle enter the stuff there.92 is ART it IN NEEDLEWORK. Illustration 36). and generally working from the effective way of working flat satin stitch is in oblique or radiating lines (C. Renaissance. in those instances. and Oriental needleworkers. TO WORK surface stitches and cut off the silk on the right 3 side of the stuff: it will be worked over. as in the case of A. as it were.



narrow leaflets. 95 and then from right Stems. SATIN-STITCH IN COARSE Marvellously TWISTED SILK. when worked Coarse silk in or twisted looks coarse in this stitch. skilful as are the needle-workers of India (Illustra- tion 39). An Oriental will get sweeping lines as clean and firm as if . Illustration 36.SATIN-STITCH AND ITS OFFSHOOTS. are best which run diagonally In the case of stems or other lines curved and worked obliquely. in stitches and the like. worked always and not straight across the form. 38. The precision of line a skilled worker can get in floss is wonderful. as may be seen by com- paring the petal D in the sampler. they get rather broken lines when they work in thick twisted silk. first from left to right to left. in case the inside end of which the half-stitch must be quite covered by the stitch next following. the stitches must be very much closer on the inner side of the curve than on the outside : occasionally a half-stitch may be necessary to keep the direction of the lines right. Satin-stitch is seen at its best floss. centre.with the petal in twisted silk here given (38).

as on Illustrations not only the frankest way : of denning form. but in voided lines of which each 39. and it is often a serious consideration with the designer how to break up the surfaces to be covered so that only shortish stitches need be used. It takes a draughtsman properly to express form stitch distribution. but seems peculiarly proper to satin-stitch. and work from vein to vein. and so we arrive at a convention appropriate to embroidery of this kind. more in keeping to void the veins of the lotus leaves than to plant them on in cord. It is the rule of the very evenly. The voided is by the way. The voiding in the it wings of the birds in Illustration 40 is perfect. the . Treatment accordingly necessary. by cross stitching in threads comparatively wide apart. at the start of the wing in one case and the tail in the other. and this not merely in the case of an outline. Worked in floss. by The Chinese convention game to lay satin-stitch mere surface of in the lotus flowers (Illustration 40) is admirable. and the softening of the voided line. Satin-stitch must not be too long. You might follow the veining of a leaf. for example. and it is a test of skill in workmanship is so easy to disguise uneven stitching by an outline in some other stitch. But all leaves are not naturally veined in the is most accommodating manner. is It would have been quite the right thing to do. 40. side has to be outline.96 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. they had been drawn with a pen. drawn with the needle.


The satin- on Illustration 58 is all surface work. as in Illustration 40 but the subtlest as well as the most deliberate gradation of tint in satin-stitch. unless it is kept stretched on the frame. may be most perfectly rendered SURFACE SATIN .98 ART is IN NEEDLEWORK. satin-stitch beautiful. carried back on the upper instead of the under Considerable economy of silk side of the stuff.STITCH (not the same on TO WORK SURFACE both like sides)." a term properly descriptive not of a stitch. Very effective Indian work is done of this kindloose and flimsy. the work is effected is not so lasting as when it is solid. is worked in another way. of course. that is to say. perfectly flat tints of colour. ordinary satin-stitch. what scene painting is to mural decoration. but of its dimensions. after each brought immediately up again. stitch silk is The needle. on which. " Embroidery is often described as being in longand-short-stitch. though it looks very much SATINSTITCH. It looks loose. but the effect is apt to possible be proportionately poorer. which it is always apt to do. Whether you use stitches of equal or of unequal length is a . Moreover. and the is by thus keeping the thread as much as on the surface. but serving a distinct artistic stitch It is to embroidery of more serious kind purpose. itself A to further charm lies in the way it lends Beautiful results may gradation be obtained by the use of . of colour. satin-stitch is for the most part worked.


The way is The called plumage-stitch. . distinction between the stitches so far ." or. at what it. which is more mislead" ing. almost before he is aware of it." then. they are worked one into the others or between them. and splits Illustrations 79 A little further of working this stitch is more fully on page 105." in which the needle is brought up through the foregoing stitch. removed from satin-stitch is what " is known as split-stitch. as a matter of course.ioo AKl IN NEEDLEWORK. bodies of the birds in Illustrations 40 and 85 are in follow This adaptation of other forms gives the effect of fine feathering perfectly. by way of satin-stitch. the length of the stitch to the work to be done. directing it also according to the form to be expressed. say. But why apply the " term "satin-stitch exclusively to parallel lines of plumage-stitch so to called.short ." or by calling them "plumage -stitch." when they radiate so as to The the form. long and short. its question merely of the adaptation of the stitch to use in any given instance there is nothing . is a sort of only. of a bird's breast. and so arrives. feather-stitch. instead of the stitches being all of equal length. as in the faces in satin-stitch and 80. gained by calling an arrangement of alternating " stitches. given The worker adapts.stitch. stitch bird or stitches all of a length ? " Long -and .



is worked in the hand. it is makes a difference. seems to describe it better. modifying the to stitch according the produce describe results work it is put which it would be to do. working their own way.SATIN-STITCH AND ITS OFFSHOOTS. between . are both worked in what is commonly called " plumage. THE WORKING OF B ON SAMPLER 41. whether in the worked in : a frame or in the hand more stitch. and to difficult and pedantic to find fault with. however. though the term "dovetail. too. however. of such individual treatment. one case you see likeness to one in the other to flower at another. broidress learns to work in and an all-round emthem but workers end . for example. Even short. Instance B. The leaf at B." or "embroidery" stitch. and D in a frame from which very fact it follows that the worker is naturally disposed to regard B as akin to crewel-stitch and D to satin-stitch." sometimes used. the mere adaptation of the stitch to the lines of the it design removes It from the normal. and the D. described is 103 plain enough. Illustration 41. on the sampler.

and taking up a small You have finally only to draw the piece of it. The working of the scroll at It will in be seen that there is a slight difference between the two. . no detailed explanation. You then make a short stitch by putting your needle down- wards through the material. and bring it out through the long stitch (as shown in the diagram). Anyone who is acquainted with the way satin-stitch is worked (it has already been sufficiently exand has read the above account of plained). will understand at once how that is worked in the frame. and quite short. shorter stitches. shorter.104 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. > - method first The step edge the shape with satin-stitches in threes. needs D on the sampler. of course. This successively long. 41. As the concentric rings of stitching become smaller. and you need no longer pierce the thread of the long stitch. TO WORK D. you put your needle in on the upper or right side of the first short stitch. and it is in position to make another long stitch. Illustration 41. needle through. is to done. starting at the base again. The petals at B are worked in TO WORK B 4 1 illustrated in the diagram overleaf. the working of B. arising from the fact that work done in the hand is necessarily more loosely and not quite so evenly done as that on effect a frame. you make. dovetail " which two stitches " may be the regarded as the connecting link.

according as SPL1T STITCH r T 11-111 - c. Whichever way done. resembles T0 WORK either crewel-stitch or satin-stitch. in Further reference to its use is made It may be interestthe chapter on shading. 105 in the hand or on a frame. shading.SATIN-STITCH AND ITS OFFSHOOTS. 4I< stitch in order needle always up through the last-made satinto start the next. you take a rather shorter stitch back than in crewel-stitch. split-stitch is often difficult to distinguish without minute examination from it is chain-stitch. with crewel-stitch (A on the also which is a favourite stitch for . you bring your stitch. again. piercing with the needle the thread which is to form the next In working on a frame. In it is worked working in the hand. it ing to compare sampler). Split-stitch (C on the sampler).

but it is useful more than mending. for in the single darning are made of effect no character darning Darning has a homely sound. It is the peculiarity of DARNING and RUNNING that you make several stitches at one passing of the needle. sometimes made that in running the stitches may be the same length on the face as on the reverse of the stuff. . It results from the way of working that you get in darning an interrupted line characteristic of distinction is the stitch. In embroidery you no longer use it to replace threads worn away." by which the breaks good. . Darning and running amount practically to the same thing. Darning might be described as conthe The difference is. What in is called " double darning.DARNING. a matter of multiplication but the main. whereas in darning the thread is mainly on the surface. but build up upon the scaffolding of a merely serviceable material what may be a gorgeous design in silk. in secutive lines of running. has whatever. only dipping for the space of a single thread or so below it.


. Illustration 43. but to leave space for a second course of darning afterwards between the open rows. expressing to some extent its form. outline of a petal is first worked. is designed to show how far one can dispense with it. The background It is darned diaper gives. Much depends The texture of the length of the stitches. it The sampler is not easy to fashion. rest. for the voiding is employed. background irregularly darned should be irregular enough never to run into lines not contemplated by the worker. of course. it is as well not to run the returning row next to the one just done. and on the stuff showing through. deliberately diagonal lines. veined. but void in darning. In the case of large leaves. and covering a space of almost a quarter The of an inch before taking up the next thread. the veining A . upon the direction of the stitch. very simple. fairly The darning of the sampler. work depends upon the the amount of Darning is usually supplemented by outlining. in rows backwards and forwards but if the stitches are long and in the direction of the weft. that is to say. Darning is worked. taking up one thread of the material.io8 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The flower stalk is defined by darning the first row in a darker colour. The flower is darned in stitches is of equal length. and successive rows of darning follow the lines of the flower.


Mention has already been made of darning a propos of canvas-stitch and there is a sort of natural correspondence between the mecanique of darning in its simplest form and the network . and very subtle tints may be got by thus. in darning is shown border by William Morris in Illustration 44. It is worked solid. like the German work in Illustration 45. the radiating More accomplished work in the stitches of the leaves accommodating themselves and petals. where it appears. much flatter than in the coloured silk. but it is. character which more than compensates for its angularity in outline.no ART IN NEEDLEWORK. with silk . to the forms in fact. You may darning it qualify the colour of a stuff by lightly of another shade. The darning is there quite even in workmanship. of different degrees of strength lighter for the surface of the pattern. as will be seen. heavier for the outline. veiling a coloured ground with silks of various hues. light or They are defined by outline -stitching dark as occasion seemed to require. them radiating outwards to the edge of the leaf. the stitches between should be worked first. are designed with a view to their execution in this way. of open threads which gives to rectangular darning. however. which. as it were.


In laidway work. and the solution of arrive thus almost It it is " laid-work. was said in reference to it that is satin-stitches should not be too long. The " LAID ." at which we by necessity.LAID-WORK. but is only another of using stitches already described. within the scope of practical work.WORK necessity for something like what is called " is best shown by reference to It satin-stitch. in which way coloured floss in stitches an inch or more long lies as flimsy. any interruption of Embroidery of stitches this kind. There a great deal of Eastern work in which surface satinstitch. stitch. floats so loosely upon the face of the stuff that it can only be described Nothing could be more beautiful in its than certain Soudanese embroidery. however. glistening on the stuff without threads to fasten it down. or its equivalent. hardly comes Long. long tresses of silk. The problem is to make the work strong enough want sewing down. its without seriously disturbing lustrous surface. loose has to be Some compromise made between art and beauty. as William Morris called involves no new .


Elsewhere " in place by couching. sampler. of the to gradation of the limits. floss by preference. These silken tresses are then caught down and kept. The which forms the veining. In the leaf the floss is sewn down with laying. it. and back again. but by no other means is the silky beauty of coloured floss so Laid-work perfectly set forth. wants little or no It illustrates the various ways of explanation.n4 them. I will not say close to the ground. are thrown backwards and forwards across the face of the stuff. The sewing down must take lines and may form to cross them. Illustration 46. The last row of laid work in the grounding is purposely pulled split-stitch. at the best. splitstitch and couching are employed. patterns. only just piercing it at the edges of the forms. For the outlines. by lines of stitching in the is not. is it kept . lends itself colour within certain limits to say. that is the silk is laid : straight parallel lines in which the direction of these is deter- mined often by the lines of sewing which are In any case the direction of the threads is here more than ever important. It is hardly worth doing in also anything but Laid-work floss. a very strong or kind of embroidery (it needs to be carefully lasting covered up even as it is worked). ART IN NEEDLEWORK. but in their place upon cross direction." a process presently to be described.


however. Laid-work will not give anything like modelling. Laid floss may be employed to glorify the entire surface of a linen material. so as to give variety of colour. laid-work : there couched single threads of white purse silk are down with dark. Illustration 46. as in Illustrations 47. The lines of laid floss. that they should .n6 ART IN NEEDLEWORK out of the straight by the couching in order to The diaper which represents give a waved edge. where the stitching does not pretend to express more than a flat surface. is. It is effective when quite naively and simply used in cross lines which do not appear to take any account of the figure forms crossedas. as in the sampler or for the pattern only upon a ground worth showing. The floss. 48. 49. stitching. or a thread may be laid across and sewn down couched. either split-stitch may be For the transverse is best to use used. is there carefully laid at a different angle of inclination in each petal. in Illustration 47. the seeding of the flower is not. and it is not best suited to figure design except where it is quite flatly treated. properly speaking. but the less lustrous the effect. for example. sewing vary according to the lines of the but do not cross them at right angles. The closer the cross lines the stronger the work. for which also it floss. An instance of its use in work occurs on Illustration 79. The important thing of course. as it is called as in the flower. as in the leaf in the sampler.


and more. On same sampler does so very deliberately in the case of the broad stalk. in One may be : the tints bold work. in A more Illustration finished 49. The rather sudden variation of the colour shown there in the leaves is harmless enough suited. catch the laid "tresses" at intervals not too far apart. expressing about as much modelling as can be expressed this way. In the case of the leaves in the same piece of work. perhaps. the floss is laid in the direction in which the leaf grows. than it is advisable often to attempt. The it stitching less down makes usually this a pattern more or conspicuous. the underlying floss must which they will cross. is be laid in lines slightly curved so as to suggest roundness in them. as in the case of the bird's wings in Illustration 48. piece of work is shown where the laid floss crosses the forms. and the stitching across. and of ribs in the scroll. If the lines which sew down the floss have also to express drawing. when it is in a colour contrasting with the laid floss. and the sewing down takes very much the place of veining in the flower. to which the process is best too careful in gradating in this respect prevails too much timidity : among modern needlewomen an should not want her work to look artist in like a floss gradated .n8 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. as it does in the leaves in the smaller sampler overleaf. of course. which sews it down. The sewing down asserts itself most.


When laid floss is themselves sewn down kept in place by threads across it. LAID SAMPLER." and the work itself may be Hence arises some confusion between the two methods of work laying and couching. such threads are 5O.120 ART colour. It saves confusion to make a sharp distinction between the two described as laid and couched. called "couched. using the term "laid" only for stitches (floss) first loosely laid upon the surface of the stuff and then sewn down by cross lines of stitching of . IN NEEDLEWORK Italians of the i6th wash of The and lyth centuries (see Illustration 49) were not afraid of rather abrupt transition in the shades of colour they used for laid-work.

couched silk in single or double threads and . &c. which even for surface covering is always couched. accordingly laid answers best for surface covering. .LAID-WORK. and "couched" for 121 the sewing down of cords. except in the case of gold. whatever kind. or in pairs. couched for outlining. (silk or gold). thread by thread Laid floss is sewn down en masse.

are best worked from right to left or. the line even. Naturally the cord to be sewn down should be held fairly tightly in place to keep . the sewing down stitches make a pattern all the plainer there. in outlining. When . or. as the seeding of the flower in the sampler. and a waxed thread is often used for the purpose. in the case of gold. from outside the forms inwards. in the direction of Couching be done stitch. two threads at a time. but it may the hand by means of buttonhole- in a surface is covered with couching. which should be sewn down with stitches the twist. COUCHING another is the sewing down of one thread by as in the outline of the flower on the laid sampler. Illustration 46. in is best done in a frame . The stitches with which it is sewn down. It is usual in couching to sew down the silk or cord with stitches crossing it at right angles.COUCHING. except in the case of a twisted cord. Illustration 46. because the stitching It is quite is in a contrasting shade of colour. thread by thread.


with the longer ones between the The broad band is rows of double filoselle. sewn down with single filoselle. disguise by your sewing through the cord is not a workmanlike practice. Conjuring tricks are highly amusing. a design perfectly adapted to couching. of various In the shades. which is not desirable. Where it is softish silk which is stitched down. however much desired. in worked . in which the stitching is lost. narrower bands twisted silk is sewn down with broad and narrow bands. A worker should frankly accept a method it To of work and get character out of it. Contrast the short puffy lines nearest the corners in the sampler. It shows a cord with no visible means of attachment to the ground. Personally. after stitching through it that is to say. but one does not think very highly of conjurers. if it permissible to call attention to the stitching suits artistic purpose. Illustration 52.124 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The device is rather too clever. There is no advantage in attaching cords to the surface of silk so that they look as if they had been glued on to it. I would much rather have seen more plainly the way the cord is sewn down in the graceful cross in Illustration 51. Embroidresses have a clever way of untwisting a cord before each stitch and twisting it again between the strands. and yet unlike the usual thing. or the contrary. it makes a great difference whether it is loosely held and tightly sewn.

Characteristic use is made of rather puffy couching in the ornament of the lady's dress in Miss Keighley's panel. looks like rather coarse stitching in the direction . stitches in the direction of its twist. Illustration 61. was a common practice Germany in the i6th century to work in solid couching upon cloth.COUCHING. COUCHING SAMPLER. 125 This is more plainly seen in the lower of the two bands. where the sloping stitches are lighter in colour than the cord sewn down. seed very It much the richness of embroidery in in pearls. where it has 52. so that at first It sight one does not recognise it as couching. employing a twisted thread and sewing it with stitches in the direction of the twist.

and so get relief and texture but no modelling. of the forms. lines.126 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. as may be seen in the Hildesheim Cope at South Kensington. example of upon white linen is in which the lines The rare practice arabesque are perfectly of such work as . and is quite peculiarly suited to give a firm line. and one or the other is a necessity sometimes. and for the purpose. up to a certain point. was a German practice. : rags Couching. The cloth ground accounts. to couch upon white linen. The effect of age is. This. A silk beautiful outline work in coloured pictured in Illustration of delicate Renaissance preserved. The entire surface of a linen ground was sometimes covered with couched threads of silk or some of it in vertical and horizontal some of it in the direction of the pattern. but more satisfactory when done than remounting. however (except with gold). pleasing are not. again. more lasting than laid-work It is laborious to do. for the choice of method : the material is not otherwise a pleasant one to embroider upon. perhaps. fine wool to All-over couching may be used with advantage renew the ground of embroidery so worn as to is be unsightly. though the drawing was helped by varying the direction of A rather earlier German method was in parallel lines of white the parallel lines. and expresses shading very well. was more commonly used for outlining. 90.


suffiperhaps accounted ciently for by its It is true. in the other (B). defines the clear-cut counterchange pattern . This is a portion of an altogether admirable frame to an altogether foolish picture in needlework. it modesty. and there is no possible fudging with it.128 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. being of a tint intermediate between the ground and the ornament. wants well-considered and definitely drawn design. couched cord as an REVERSE COUCHING. this. coming . in is shown in Illustra- which the singularly well-schemed and well-drawn lines of the ornament are given with faultless precision. of which a fragment only is shown. outline to stitching (satin-stitch in this instance) tion 91. An interesting technical point in the design of this last is the way the cord outlining the leaves makes a sufficiently thick stalk. it softens the contrast between them. notwithstandits ing is distinction. The appropriateness examples which form (A) it of couched cord to the outis lining of inlay or of applique seen in the two In the one Illustration 62. The value of a 54.

COUCHING. where the double threads which form the stalks. lace. A surface filled in after this manner. A double D. fine A easily be used to frivolous regularly looped line at once suggests may A perplexing Chinese practice is to couch cord in little loops so close together that they touch. together. though separately stitched down.E course of couching forms the outline in K . forming the made of the looping The Spanish embroiderers made most ornamental use of a wee loop at the points of the leaves where the cord must turn . might pass at first it is really sight for French knots or chain-stitch another method of all-over couching. Fantastic use has often been of couched cord. but the device of looping purpose. where The cords joins inevitably occur. for example. This occurs again in Illustration 63. central stalk are in one case looped. as in : the butterflies on Illustration 53. are couched 55- REVERSE COUCHING (BACK). again at intervals by bands crossing the two ing of the stalks at the spring- and tendrils. as it 129 natu- rally does. double at the ends of the leaves.

mention must be made of a of working used in the famous Syon Cope by of background. one of . That is to say. and figured overleaf (Illustra- tion 54). The stitch . A way way propos of couching. It is a kind of work on which two persons might be employed. which are of silver thread. It is flat without being mechanical. very obvious in the illustration. On the face it gives an admirable surface diaper.i 3o ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and one of cord. filoselle Illustration 92. but the tendrils. one on either side of the stuff. and it is which lies nearly all upon the surface. are sewn down both threads at a time with double stitches. it pattern there penetrates the stuff. The reverse of the work (Illustration 55) for shows a surface of flax threads couched with silk. runs from point to point of the zigzag stuff is linen. is carried round a thread of flax laid at theback of the material. . with easily worked with a blunt needle a sharp one there would be a danger of splitting the stitch. the silken thread only dips through the linen at the points in the pattern. and is there caught down by a thread of flax on the under-surface of the linen. and is brought to the surface again through the hole made by the needle in passing down. which reason the method may be described as reverse couching. Over the couched silver threads separately sewn which form the main is rib of the leaf a pattern stitched in silk. twofold. . The ground worked in silk.

it has a more satisfactory . but they may equally well be carried backwards and forwards K 2 . B. as it mostly is. method was probably first it was natural to wish to keep the precious metal on the surface. are couched in double threads. In olden days silk does not appear to have been couched in the East. of the stuff.COUCHED GOLD. cover a surface. except in the case of thick cords or strips of gold. Panels A. . A distinguishing common consent it feature about gold is that by effect in why it is not easy to say. D in single cords. the sampler. it is usual to sew the threads firmly down at the edges of the forms Gold couching and cut them very sharply off. is there used. which. is not quite the thing to stitch with. On the other hand. it was the custom to couch gold thread in Europe at least as early as the twelfth century so that the used for gold. and not waste it at the be ck Besides. to In doing that. is used double and sewn down two threads at a time. C. Illustration 56. This is not merely an economy of work but. except in the form of thin wire or extraordinarily fine thread.

of course. The pattern may. In fact the ornamentist. in vertical. If you use a large needle (to clear the way for the thread). that is to say. to and deliberately to make them into pattern work them. Gold threads often want stroking into position. In solid couching inevitably into the . diagonal. be helped by the colour of the stitching. the gold thread must not be too thick. NEEDLEWORK. that the pattern at D it has more its quite clearly seen . to pattern his metallic surfaces with diaper.. or cross lines as at A. proper value. stuff. will answer the purpose. Sharply pointed scissors This . to start with the assumption that they will. in zigzags as at B. the turning of the gold may take place on the back instead of on the face of the material. and there is some art in making the necessary stitches into appropriate pattern. where the stitching is purposely in pronounced colour. and . pattern therefore. stitches run almost and it is customary. being an ornamentist. .i 32 ART IN. naturally takes advantage of the necessity of stitching. that the effect may be of it may be better appreciated. across the face of the The slight swelling of the gold thread where it turns gives emphasis to the outline but the turning wants carefully doing. but only in the case of very fine thread. are indispensable. or in some more complicated diaper pattern as at C. " may be done with what is called a pierce" but a good stiletto. or even a very large needle.


are emphasised by the relief underlying cords. as these may be called (basket stitches they are not). where the attempt to force the effect (for purposes of explanation) has not proved very successful. show the the round surface by it. which gives at once varied texture and fanciful interest to the surface. The flat strips of metal emphasising the backs of the curves are sometimes twisted as they are sewn. An infinity of basket patterns. G. The other diapers on the sampler. These underlying cords must be firmly sewn on to the linen ground. 56. is x There an epitome of little diapers in that fragquite ment of needlework and one can hardly doubt that the embroiderer found it great fun to contrive them. and the number of cords they The central panel a combination of outline of the heart cross at a time. using often. shows The it corded . first with crewel wool and then with gold-coloured floss across that (it is difficult to prevent white stuffing from showing through . as in the scroll in Illustration 57. flat is of the sampler (E) and raised gold. the cords should be laid farther in the sampler. the centre of is raised by stitching. By apart than is not so likely to be roughened rights. H. and if the stitching follows the direction of the twist in them. F. . purposely left given to them by bare in parts to structure. J. may be devised by varying the intervals at which the gold threads are sewn down. a diversity of patterns.134 ART IN NEEDLEWORK.


too. has much the effect of gilt gesso. in this more open couching the direction of the lines of couching goes for more than in solid work. in the This gives only a hint of what of raised ornament upon a flat gold ground. that must linen. a certain amount of the ground tell economy is of gold a small allowed to show between . however. Illustration 58. where. the lines of double gold thread not enough to as ground. for example. a solid and that was largely done in surface of gold . when very leafage. as in the dragon's face. or what not. the threads. Further. It will be seen. as in the working of his body. reason. and are worked ring within ring until the space is filled. heavy work of silk or satin. the surface is all worked over with gold. forming. instead of being couched in straight lines. A single cord may be sewn down to make a pattern in way relief. may be done gold). in the working . how. this kind is to be first for any done on be backed with strong In mediaeval and church work generally the double threads are usually laid close together. scrollwork. which. The pattern made by the gold thread is here not only orna- mental but suggestive of the scaly body of the creature. follow the outlines of the design. Oriental embroidery too in Chinese. There is here. If.136 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. but enough to give a tint of the ground colour to the metal. as in the diapers on sampler. and was done in mediaeval work. A.


more solidly. of the legs. by which means anything like harshness of silhouette is avoided. That this less solid is the far East manner was not confined to shown by the Venetian valance. The next step is where the cords of gold enclose little touches of embroidery in coloured floss. of course. . to which it is in some respects equivalent only. The art in work of that kind is. as Gold thread work in Illustration 91. the relatively compact gold threads are kept well within the outline. this is outline work. instead of gold and silver wire beaten into black iron or steel. many jewels as outline work in simple gold thread rejust of sembles damascening or filagree. we have gold and silver thread sewn on to dark velvet. which reminds one both in effect and in design of damascening. none the less that an occasional detail is worked . B. largely in the design. on the lower part of the page. in which the tooled ornament was The resemblance is precisely of this character. which has very much the appearance of gold lace. part of an Italian housing. but. in the main.138 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and a beautiful example of it. The design recalls also the French bookbindings of the period of Henri II. A good example of outline (single thread) in gold is given in Illustration 59. In fact. so this outlining little spaces of coloured silk suggests enamel. in spiral forms has very much the effect of filagree in gold wire. These have the value of so or bits of bright enamel..


example of this. the surfaces of shining floss to the films of vitreous enamel. Applique embroidery is constantly edged with gold or silver thread. is get anything like a sharp point. of necessity. and take it up again on your way back. only gently rounded forms. they give a flush of colour to the gold. An effective. answers to The cord the embroiderer the cloisons of the enameller. and blue makes it greener. applies of course still more forcibly to three. yellow modifies it least. of White course. the deeper the tint. Advantage is taken of this both in mediaeval and commonly The Oriental work to with red. If the stitches are close enough together to make solid work. as may be seen a great deal of . green cools it. you must stop short with the inner thread before reaching the extreme turning point. colour with which gold thread is sewn is a question of considerable importance. warm the tint by sewing it down The Chinese will even work with a deeper and a paler red to get two coppery shades. stitching pales the gold. the thread here again double. if rather rude. What applies to two threads. In couching more than one thread at a time there a difficulty in turning the angles. The closer the stitches.140 ART of IN NEEDLEWORK. is given in Illustration 60. You can of the to get thus various shades of gold out in same thread. and even gradation from one another. The threads To give.


that may convention. and gives much more subtle effects. a stuff shot with gold. Except itself in the high lights it did not pronounce unlike school. In tural .i 42 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. or be the origin of the primitive painters' It is more as if the embroiderer wanted to represent a precious tissue. Italians of the early Renais- The Flemings and sance went further. often use may be made of vari-coloured . and to bronzy green on the other. and let the gold gleam through. Only in proportion as they wanted to the colour of the draperies in their piclighten torial farther embroideries did they space the stitches and farther apart. what is where the high The effect is not positively. seen in paintings of the primitive lights of the red and blue The practice draperies are hatched with gold. They had a way of laying threads of gold and sewing them so closely over with coloured silk that in many parts it quite hid the gold. relieved against a more golden architec- background rendered by the very same double threads of gold which run through the figures. of the embroiderer may be reminiscent of that. in which the quite delicately shaded from yellowish gold to ruddy copper on the one hand. this Illustration 80 gives part of a figure worked in way. silks in couching white or other cord but gold reflects the colour much better than silk. Similar gold ornament is Spanish work of the i6th century.

. if pictorial. the architecture. beautiful. but it resulted in a corded look. as usual. The two degrees of obscuring or clouding gold by oversewing are here shown in most instructive contrast. The cords. That was the convenient way of working. stitches 143 however. . results. are laid in horizontal courses. which has very much the appearance of tapestry and there is no doubt that resemblance to tapestry was in the end conThat the method here employed sciously sought. was laborious needs no saying but it gave most . they are couched in which are never so near as to take away from the effect of the gold.COUCHED GOLD.

but where certain details were filled in with stitching. Yet another practice. it but the stitching-on thread. only an or they : that thing. not just needle stitches.APPLIQUE. APPLIQUE (Illustration 63) . the adjunct to couching may be thought of as massive work eked out with line the applique. is much of it on the surface of the stuff. And cord. Couched cord or filoselle is useful covering . the couching only supplementary (Illustration 92). the main applique play parts of equal importance in the in scheme of design (Illustration 60). Embroidery. solid and one more strictly with the onlaying of cord. also. An intermediate kind is where outline and mass couching and is to say. applying. that is colour also in the form of pieces of silk cut to shape. the surface in was to of this kind may be conceived as work developing into leafy terminations. gold instances have been given where the design of such work was not merely in outline. has been shown. or whatever of something it may be. Patterns line keeping onlay the to say.

It is almost as much a man's work as a woman's. is best worked in a frame. be worked throughout in the hand. two frames T0 WORK_ one on which to mount the material to be embroidered. the raw edge of the onlay. in. of course. and. When rag until it adheres. work with any pretensions to finish is invariably begun and finished in the frame. (chain-stitch is not so is appropriate) but when a couched outline employed it must be done in a frame. 145 much masking and Applique must be carefully and exactly done. the outlines of the complete design are traced upon the one. silks of two or three colours upon one backing for this. (You may paste. as in the case of tailoring.) D. to it and stroked with a is left soft and to dry gently. Embroidery is proper properly woman's work the is . The backing in each case should be of smooth holland. dry. indeed. This is stretched on to the frame.APPLIQUE. not so the joints as making them sightly. and another on which to mount the material to be applied. and then pasted with stiff starch or what not the silk or velvet is laid on . coarse work may possibly hand. The L . To work applique you want. not the kind finishing may sometimes be done in the and very bold. man comes The getting ready for applique of thing a woman can do best. and outlined The with buttonhole-stitch . and those of the details to be applied upon the other.E. in fact. but here.

a knife (in either case sharp). and couched cord fulfils it most perfectly. must be taken that the paste is not moist enough to penetrate the stuff. the outer one next the crimson velvet ground is of white sewn with pale blue. in silk. stuff to be applied is then loosened from its frame. and transferred to their place in the design on the other frame. and are rather insignificant.146 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. . by one which goes into the ground. The mid-rib there is of silver couching the minor veinings are stitched . B). Very subtle use may be made of a double outline or of a corded line upon couched floss. and then tacked firmly down. the details are cleanly cut out with scissors. Much depends upon a tasteful and tactful choice of colour for it. better still. You fatten your pattern by outlining it with a colour which thin it goes with it (Illustration 62. or whatever is to be your outline. A firm outline is a condition of applique. There is a double outline to the ornament in Illustration 92 the inner one next : You to the yellow satin applique is of gold. or. This gives emphasis to the bold forms of the leafage. but an experienced worker has no fear of that. peculiar care In the case of silk or other delicate material. There they are kept steel pins in position by short into the stuff until you planted upright are sure they fit. chain stitch. with care that the stitches are such as will be quite covered by the final couching.

L 2 .

which is not so much stitching as stitched down. Applique is especially appropriate to bold church work.148 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. gives to silk and velvet their true worth. way and The pattern may be readable as far off as you can distinguish colour. fulfilling perfectly that condition of legibility so desirable in work necessarily seen oftenest from afar. it had best be with couching. Illustration 61. The less there is of extra stitching It the better as a rule. on applique breadth. itself another form of applied . is its but. on the other hand. What an artist may do depends upon the artist. disturbs the which is so valuable a characteristic of onlay. Applique of itself is not. of course. It is not a lower but another kind of needlework. not carried to it the craft of the needleworker limit . but that in association with judicious stitching and couching it may be used to admir- able decorative purpose in figure design is shown by Miss Mabel Keighley's panel. in which more is made of the stuff than of the In stitching. which it is not. Miss Keighley's panel indicates the use that may be made of texture in the stuff onlaid. work. adapted to pictorial work. Broadly designed. . Applique work is thought by some to be an inferior kind of embroidery. it may be as fine in its it as a piece of mediaeval stained glass. In no case is much mixing of methods to be desired but if applique is to be supplemented.


coarse it may be Effective it must be vulgar mere trivial it can hardly be it should not be . therefore. as in Illustration 94. joining them at the veins. and less pronounced in pattern accordingly. and needs. It calls peremptorily for treatment by which test the decorative artist stands or falls. The grape bunches are onlaid. . applied in ribbon. damask) is shown in Illustration 63. You cannot begin by just throwing about sprays of natural flowers. prettiness scope beyond to dignity of design and nobility of treatment. and of design adapted to it. . designed to be seen from a nearer point of view. It would have been possible to use two or three. it is not popular. The French knots in the centre of the grapes add The leaves greatly to the richness of the surface. . each in one piece of silk. Velvet on satin (B. The strap work. the forms of Silk upon silk (figured the separate grapes expressed by couching. no sewing over at the edge. though there is a danger that it may look like weaving. . is broken by cross stitches in couples. The application of leather to velvet. fray. . are in one piece. which may be done.150 it ART IN NEEDLEWORK. but only sewing down. . which take away from the severity of the lines. Illustration 62) is comparatively rare but it may be very beautiful. makes great demands upon design. allows modification in the way of execuLeather does not tion. A usual form of applique is in satin upon velvet. is its but it lends itself Of course.


Another ingenious Chinese notion is to sew of Pavia. which points to leather work as the possible origin of this method. well edge of the material. Something of the kind was obviously done also in Morocco. but in precisely the same manner. Chinese do small work in linen. making similar use of the stitching within the outline. taken at the battle it not do to leave raw. On now in the Armoury at Madrid Arab work. but turning the cut edge of the stuff under it would . a bolder scale. and down little the edges) with rive-petalled flowers (turned under at long stamen stitches radiating from a central eye of knots. The giving the effect of a double outline. .152 ART in IN NEEDLEWORK.. within the as this case. is embroidered the wonderful tent of Frangois ler.

such fray. precisely analo- gous to that inlay of brass and tortoiseshell which goes by the name of its inventor. a piece of strong linen already in a frame the vacant spaces in it are filled up by pieces of the and all is tacked down in place. both being perhaps backed by a common material. . The work is difficult. where one material is not laid on to the other. CUT-WORK. The suited only to close-textured stuffs. That work is taken out of the frame. The coherent piece of material is (the ground. as in TO WORK the case of applique. The backing can then. done. of the pattern) then laid upon . The cloth to be inlaid is INLAY The placed upon the other. say.INLAY. but into it. and in Oriental work it other stuff. so that the parts cannot but fit. but thorough. step beyond the process of onlaying is INLAY. if necessary. Boule. - as cloth. and both are cut through with one action of the knife. A The process is. in fact. MOSAIC. the generally was. be removed. and the edges sewn together. which do not materials are not pasted on to linen. It does not recommend itself to those is process who want to get effect cheaply.

Illustration 62. CHANGE Inlay lends itself most invitingly to COUNTERin design. and more especially by the Spaniards of the Renaissance. are there identical. but tough. not only minuteness of detail. is ground . fitted into effect It : was the process does not lend itself to triviality.154 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. firmly pasted then. and vice versa. By this ingenious means You get. Light and dark. and with a very sharp knife (kept sharp by an oilstone at hand) cut out the pattern. almost invariably a broad and dignified moreover. as seen in the stole at A. In India they still inlay in cloth most marvelcounterchanging the pattern. tern. And from the mere you gather that it is iik e }y t o fray. of course. used by the Italians. there is absolutely no waste of stuff. What was cut out of one material has only to be the other. having tacked the two together. counterchanging Prior to inlaying in you first and not onlaid. and pinned them with drawing-pins on to a board. They mask the joins with . from the Arabs. you slip between it and the stuff a sheet of glass. materials which are at all back them with paper. thin . thus inlaying combining great simplicity of effect with wonderful lously. who borrowed the idea. and sewn together as before. ground and patYou cannot say either each forms the ground to the other. and you have two pieces of inlaid work what is the ground in one forming the pattern in the other. fact of the inlaid. but the inlays with smaller patternwork.


sewn together. it chain-stitch. It is part of . and give us a perfect piece of FRETWORK in linen. up the parts cut out 65 with coloured stuff. Admirable heraldic work was done in Germany by this method and it is still employed for flag . Fill and you have cut-work. they often patch together pieces joins. of this kind of inlay. as on Illustration 64. The relation of CUT. turned in at the edge. You Inlay itself is a sort of PATCHWORK. they form a veritable reminding one. and oversewn on the wrong side. patchwork of loosely-textured material each separate piece of stuff may be cut large. in coloured stuffs. the colour of artfully chosen with it regard to the two colours of the cloth divides or Further. the cloisons being of chain-stitch. You have only in Illustration to stop short of the actual inlaying.WORK to inlay is clear in fact. what the mediaeval glaziers did in coloured glass. Where there is no one ground stuff to be patched. but a stuff are number of vari-coloured pieces of MOSAIC. and patch it with pieces of another colour. cut pieces out of your cloth. and it would be inlay. The needlewoman has preferred to sew over the raw edges of the stuff. covering the joins perhaps. with chain stitch. of making. which gives it some resemblance to cloisonne enamel. the one is the first step towards the other. possible The of stuffs used should be as nearly as In one substance.i 56 ART IN NEEDLEWORK.


The sewing-over (as in may be in chain-stitch. are not necessary. To worry the surface of applied. had recourse to painting to help him out. no such enrichment. It may is sometimes be advisable to supplement this outlining by further stitching to express veining. cut-work to make the fret coherent. cally to confess either the inadequacy of the design or the fidgetiness of the worker. is practiinlaid. so in the case of cut-work sewing-over is necessary to keep the edges from fraying. an embroidered outline usually necessary to cover the join. It should need. in the case of applique. inlay.158 ART game in in IN NEEDLEWORK. the method of work to be employed. or cut stuff with finnikin stitchery. when he could not get detail small enough by means of glazing. and to keep within its limits. provided the designer knows how Their introduction brings to plan a fret pattern. . satin-stitch Illustration 65). or give other minute details just as the glassworker. the work nearer to lace than embroidery. or in buttonhole-stitch last is strongest. itself. the whole tale. But there is danger in calling in It is best to design with a view to auxiliaries. as a rule. or what not. which As. and mosaic. The design should tell its own " Ties " of buttonhole-stitch.

TO WORK '' * darker in colour than would be advisable except for the purpose of showing what it is : it is as well in the ordinary way to choose a cloth or less of the colour the embroidery is to be. The abuse of this kind of thing need not blind us to the advantages it offers. and pasted on to the linen. it is worked over is with thick corded silk couched The raised line at B reveals the in the ordinary way. unevenness of surface and texture thus produced and the aim has consequently often been to make the difference of level between ground-stuff and embroidery more appreciable by UNDERLAY or padding of some kind. way the stern in T o WORK Illustration 86 was worked.EMBROIDERY IN RELIEF. more The cloth cut with sharp scissors carefully to shape. Embroidery being work upon a stuff. In sprig A the underlay is of closely. Two cords of smooth B> . When perfectly dry. but a little within the outline. There are various ways of raising embroidery. sampler overleaf.woven cloth. it is inevitably raised. the principal of which are illustrated on the . above But there is a charm in the the surface of it. however imperceptibly.

and returned again. which. example) this string (macrame. where they are sewn down with strong thread of the same colour close to the underlay. close satin-stitch. and then stalks The not - work over padding) it with flatter in slanting satin-stitch. Over floss and worked in TO WORK C- the underlay is of parchment. forms an excellent ground for working over in floss silk.160 ART IN for NEEDLEWORK. padded with cotton wool. upon this (in slightly twisted silk) is in satinstitched in place. stitch. are twisted is tacked in place. so that the stitches may not show. In working a stalk like that at E. thick cotton. lightly The use of a double underlay The embroidery in parts gives additional relief. silk are cotton (made expressly for Three threads of smooth round then attached to one side of the padding and carried diagonally across to the other side. The and it crossing threads make a sort of patis a point of good workmanship that . tern. They are then worked over with are floss in satin-stitch. and so backwards and forwards to the end. but first worked with crewel wool. cut out as nearly as possible to the shape required. They are then brought back to the side from which they started. In sprig C TO WORK D- The leaf shapes at D are padded with cotton wool. and tacked down with fine cotton. you first lay TO WORK E down a double layer of soft. being soft and elastic. sewn down.


It is worked over with purse silk. the broad stem is twice underlaid with crewel. That is a conwhich the embroidress must not leave . excellent for this soft sort of padding. TO WORK G. Raised work in white upon white for is often used purposes which make it inevitable that sooner or later the sideration work will be washed. In the smaller sampler of laid-work. which used also for the stalk. sewn down with stitches always in the direction It is worked over with floss in of the twist. jn S p r ig H stitching in such a direction that the surface work crosses it at right angles. Illustration 50. TO WORK F. be equally well used this way may. j n S p r ig Q the underlay or stuffing is of string. This is a method of work often employed when gold thread is used. TO WORK H. and sewn down at the margin with finer silk. j n S p r ig p the underlay is of cardboard. the underwork consists of stitching in soft cotton. without padding underneath. The small leaf is worked over with is fine purse silk in satin-stitch. pasted on to the linen. only one layer of understitching. satin-stitch. Such pattern is more obvious when threads of three different shades Threads of twisted silk of colour are employed. they should cross regularly.162 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. of course. on The leaves have there account of its elasticity. to and fro across the forms. over which thick silk is embroidered The rule is to work the first in bullion-stitch.


some ap- . though the sewing down of the veins upon them. The veins of the leaves in Illustration 88 are padded with embroidery cotton and worked over with filo-floss. The leaves themselves are not padded. not at the margins as in the case of 1 5th is The in flax the parchment on the sampler (Illustration 66). and the underlay (laid bare in the topmost flower) is of stiff linen. work over stitchery durable than over loose padding such as cotton wool.1 64 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. is more In any case. but by a row of stitching up the centre of each petal. tion 67 century work reproduced in Illustrathread on linen. out of account. sewn down. gives pearance of relief. as well as the fact that they are applied on to the velvet ground.

more often used to raise work in Underlaying gold. Its use is illustrated at A in Illustration 5 1 where the stems of triple gold cord are tied down . at intervals by clasps of bullion. except that working in gold one would not at H (66) use bullion-stitch. When this withdrawn.RAISED GOLD. It is made by winding fine wire tightly and closely round central a core of stouter is wire. and sews on to the silk as she would along bead core of wire or bugle. to which in most respects it is best suited. but bullion. again. first covering the underlay of stitching with smoothly-laid yellow floss. BULLION consists of closely coiled wire. This long the embroidress cuts into short lengths as required. are filled in with the same. The methods shown in the sampler would answer is Our sampler almost equally well for gold. you have a hollow tube of spirally twisted wire. It was the mediaeval fashion to encrust the robes of precious kings and pontiffs stones mounted in with pearls gold : and Byzantine form of crown was early a velvet practically the . of raised work is done in silk. and the leaves.

but the consideration of its . preciousness of gold and silver. in which the idea a most mistaken one. its design was often only a translation into needlework of the forms proper cap. value to the metal relief gives. were. You may see in iyth century church work the height to which relief can be course carried. When to such work embroidery was added. the greatest respect. richness at all cost sinners in The Spaniards this . of seems to have been to imitate beaten metal. but it must be confessed that. which make one loth to of the cathedral at and dogmatise. silver. to their use for church vest- The ments and the like. no doubt. As a matter of fact. it was not unnatural that it should vie with the gold setting.166 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and the depth to which ecclesiastical taste can sink. and a yet more beaugold. as they did. on to to the goldsmith. tiful mantle of the Virgin in silver and pearls upon a gold ground. points. in the i6th century results : at least. in the nature of things. This led inevitably to excessively high relief in gold embroidery. seeking. is most gorgeous there in they produced the treasury Toledo an altar frontal in coral. which were sewn plaques of gorgeous enamel and mounted stones. and high . Yet more openly in rivalry with goldsmiths' work was some of the embroidery of the Renaissance. perhaps.


and again plate. in its meshes. where the basket pattern is more pronounced. Illustration 66. teristically blunt forms got by that means repeat themselves when you work with the needle.168 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The first of these shows relief it is safe to relief that is readily both flat and raised work the : latter illustrates not only various degrees of relief. made (page 159) to the way the stalk is worked over twisted cords. but several ways of It scarcely needs pointing out that underlaying. value of gold is not so much that it looks gorgeous as that it glorifies the colour caught. the got by laying on gesso with a not carving or modelling it. so to speak. The artistic intrinsic value leads quickly to display. the flatter serrated leaves are worked over parch- ment or paper. Admitting that there is reason for relief in gold embroidery it catches the light as flat gold does not one feels that the very slightest modelling is Reference was made (page 136) usually enough. and the puffy parts of the flowers Allusion has already been over softer padding. to the effect of gilt gesso obtained in raised gold thread that really is about the degree of : adopt in gold embroidery. and the characbrush. broken surface towards the top of the . The patterns in which the gold is worked do not quite so plainly here as on Illustration 68. There is ample relief in the gold embroidery on Illustrations 68 and 86. In tell the stalk there in the flat gold wire is used. as on the sampler.

They and most elaborately embossed pictures have been worked in this way. pierced in the centre^ and sewn down usually with two or three radiating stitches (A. can easily be made to overlap like fish scales. perhaps. by the way. not the thing to do. Illustration 51. The discs are flat. The may be attached by a single thread. best distinguished as disc-like and ring-like. work and in Oriental. who. figures look stuffy round images is to make them to That are be found in mediaeval church work only too true. of a rather tinselly look but that has been often most skilfully avoided both . embroider in mediaeval with gold wire. but it is perilously near the laughable. SPANGLES 169 effect. perhaps. There is a vestment in the cathedral at Granada which is a marvel to see but rings . by the Parsees in particular. in figure work so easily that one may say safety is to be found only in the most delicate relief. In Gothic art one finds this quaint. surely. The point of the ridiculous is plainly is overpassed in English work of the iyth century. Relief is easily overdone. Gold foil may be cut to any shape and sewn on to embroidery. but spangles take mainly one of two shapes. To make look stuffed. and Illustration 67).RAISED GOLD. In India great and very cunning use is made of spangles. which degenerates at last into the dolls duly stuffed mere doll work and dressed in most childish . at of gold may be used with admirable the risk.

except as an object-lesson in the frivolity of the Stuarts and their on -hangers.i 7o ART IN NEEDLEWORK. . their drapery. Some upon really admirable this kind of thing. in actual folds. projecting. value. needlework was wasted which has absolutely no fashion.

A most legitimate use of padding is in the form of QUILTING. the stuff rise : such as that on Illustration between the stitches has a tendency to the two layers of stuff do not lie close except where they are held together by the stitching. Another way is to pad the pattern only. now. If. and a very pleasantly uneven surface results. A cunning way of padding is first to stitch the . Our word " "counterpane" is derived from contre-poinct. you get in relief. 69. where it serves a useful as well as an ornamental purpose." a corruption of the French word for back-stitch. two thicknesses of stuff together in a pattern. according to the pattern substance of your padding. where the padding is of soft cord. more or less. as it you merely stitch was called.QUILTING. or " quilting If " stitch. This effect is is enhanced if between the two stuffs there a layer of something soft. you keep down the groundwork of your design by coma paratively frequent stitches diapering it. To quilt is to stitch one cloth upon another with something soft between (or without anything between). as in Illustration 70.


When you stitch down the ground with coloured silk you give it. much temptation to The Persians do most elaborate quilting on fine . of course. colour as well as flatness. . grins through the white and to distinguish it from the creamy white ground made warmer by the yellow stitching. having pushed in the cord. But there is no reason why a variety of colours should not be used in a counterpane. on white linen (as in the case of Illustration 69) was a favourite combination. the colour of which sufficiently to cool just it.QUILTING. or in one colour upon white. and. efface as far as possible the piercing : You the stuffing has then not escape from its confinement. cotton. insert the stuffing. and is always a delicate one. which they sew with yellow silk but the pattern is stuffed with cords of blue cotton. or what not. 173 and then from the back first to pierce the stuff with a stiletto. outline of the design. white linen. Quilting is most often done in white upon Yellow silk colour.


Anyone. for example. There are all sorts of ways in which stitches according to the order of time might be grouped in which historically they came into use. They might purposes more conveniently be classed some other way. : . Designer and worker alike will go straighter to the point if once they get clearly into their minds the stitches and their use. that for other In the Samplers they are grouped according to seeming to us the most practical for purposes of description. can group them for herself. . to to mention. what it cannot do at all. a classification according to which the imagine satin-stitch in Illustration 71 would figure as a canvas stitch. their construction.STITCH GROUPS. having mastered the stitches and grasped their scope. At all events. . what it can best do. it is helpful to group them. according as they are worked through and through the stuff or lie mostly on its surface according as they are conveniently worked in the hand or necessitate the use of a frame and in other ways too many It is not difficult. and the range of each what it can do. what it can ill do.

By way of resume. it may be added that for line stitches pose. . . . say. (3) to shading. others And. others for curved. others for narrow These she for . and know too what each can do. others a patterned one flat surfaces. into stitches suited (i) to line work. That is all right. chain. example. others for unequal for veining. Our Samplers show the use to which the stitches on them may be put. some are best suited for straight lines. and so on. ing so long as they do not forget that there are other which might on occasion serve their purAnyway. (2) to allover work.176 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. further. surface. stitches. some for outlining. they should begin by knowing what stitches there are. Of line might again subdivide. are adapted to various as crewel. naturally Some the most in use. they are hardly in a position to determine which of them will best do what they want. some for broad some for even lines. of all-over stitches . some answer only to With regard various shading stitches. there are chapter on shading) of giving gradation of colour and of indicating relief or ways (see the modelling. some give a plain some do best for some look best for small spaces. lines. others for modelled in big patches. Workers generally end in adoptcertain stitches as their own. of course. stitches. and satin stitches uses. Until they know.


and basket work make good bands. crewel. . more than are logically required. and Oriental stitches lines. small surfaces only. chain. less fine. . and they are still. but ways of using a stitch. herring-bone. it has already been . Satin and chain stitches. of course. of classification is possible until the of stitches has been reduced to the necesall sary few. back and and couched cord are most suitable crewel for long lines especially. answer better ladder-stitch has the advantage of a firm edge on both sides of it. . too. Some of them. and rope stitch for both curved and straight lines for a boundary buttonhole is most emphatic for broader line. what are called and plumage stitches) serve admirlong-and-short and for ably. and fancy stitches struck out of the should also be made into the title Enquiry of each stitch to the name by which it is known . crewel. couching and laying. and the names themselves should be brought down to a minimum. . For covering broad surfaces. The stitches most useful for purposes of shading are mentioned later on. if not too many. more or rope stitches. No sort number list. couching. and satin stitches (including. work. The term long-and-short. as does also darning and laid -work French knots do best for gold thread. adapted to that purpose. chain. Reduce them to the fewest any needlewoman will allow.i 7S ART IN NEEDLEWORK. describe not stitches. but are not peculiarly . feather.

but of what best suits you. has less to do with a particular stitch than its proportion. something to set the embroidress way thinking for herself.STITCH GROUPS. The most suitable stitch suit every one. own ways may not Individual preference and indiIt is not vidual aptitude count for something. The the stitches for herself according to her and wants. and taking several of them at one passing of the needle and darning is but rows of running The term split-stitch describes no side by side. It is its And so with other oblique direction only which distinguishes stem-stitch from other short stitches of the kind. foregoing summaries of stitches are only by of suggestion. 179 explained (page 100). than to the stitch stitches. but a particular treatment to which a . and the term plumagestitch refers more to the direction of the stitch itself. I think. new stitch. Running. She must choose her own method but it would help her. a question of what is demonstrably best. crewel or a satin stitch is submitted. again. to schedule . amounts to no more than proportioning stitches to the mesh of the stuff. N 2 .

that is to say. to do what the stitch or stitches mainly relied It upon cannot do. that it is but one may safely say. to keep in the main to one or but not to be afraid of using a third. it is difficult at a glance to distinguish one from another. It is as well not A to use too many. You should determine. in the first place. fourth. . or a variety of stitches. that safety in simplicity stitches should be chosen to go together. When the various stitches are well chosen.ONE STITCH. if not bewildering. at the outset. as well not to introduce without good cause there is and in the second. is great variety of stitches in one piece of work worrying. tends also towards simplicity of effect if you use your stitches with some system. or a two. not haphazard. . OR MANY? The first thing to be settled with regard to the choice of stitch is whether to employ one stitch throughout. Much will depend upon the effect desired. in order variety stitch that the work may look all of a piece. Good work has been done of in either way . and in subordination one to the other there must be no quarrelling among them for superiority.


which stitch shall be . you should know why. illustrated have been worked out for herself. Illustration Again. chain. again in Illustration each for its specific purpose. which for leaves. admirably with couched gold in Illustrations 47. but on occasion reserved to serves emphasise a detail. The harmony between applique* . 72. . and make up your mind to employ your second for emphasis of form. in Illustration herring-bone. 24 other stitches in . Or. which for outline or which for stalks. or for some other quite definite purpose. for example. Couched gold and together surface satin-stitch are used 58. and which for flowers. 48. your third for contrast of texture.182 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. than the combination of knot. some few Nothing could be more harmonious. and satin-stitch with couchis ing in Illustration 91. 49. supposing you adopt one general stitch throughout. It is not possible here to point out in detail the system on which the various examples. and or of ladder. Laid floss the knotting of the bird's crest. where the gold mainly for outline. in Illustration in contrast between satin-stitch 85 the the bird and couched cord as is for the clouding is most judicious. and introduce others. But one may the reader must worry that just point out in passing in how well the various stitches go together instances. and buttonhole stitches Oriental. again. employed for filling. contrasts.

x.S- JJi - . ..' .^ W : . J!a.

results chiefly from the extraordinary delicacy with which it is done.1 84 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The lace-like appearance of the needlework upon fine linen in Illustration 73. in which lurks that other danger of losing simplicity and breadth. A danger textile. because they suggest the loom. That may be a reason for some complexity of stitch. but it owes something also to the variety of stitch and of stitch-pattern employed in it. . as to be kept in view when working in one stitch only is. work and couching or chain-stitch outline has been alluded to already. lest it should look like a woven it might if very evenly worked. Some kinds of embroidery seem hardly worth doing nowadays.

The Spaniards. for which . outline gold and silver upon a dark green ground in red. of the i6th century were given to in black outlines. and would.OUTLINE. The denning a pattern. for example. It is difficult to overrate the importance of this question of colour in the case of outline. but there are no rules to be outline is laid down. . too obtrusive pattern. and you may see in indulging their work how it hardened the effect. realised the value of colour. on the other hand. a propos of applique. pattern and its as. with admirable effect. except that a coloured nearly always preferable to a black one. where there is only a faint difference in depth of tint between the necessary to delightful background in applique work it is mask the joins and it is by itself a means of diapering a surface with not . whereas a The Germans coloured outline may define without harshness. for example. A double outline. as well as to the colour of outlining. Allusion to the stitches suitable to outline has been made already (see stitch-groups). use of outline in embroidery hardly needs It is often the obvious way of pointing out.





there is often opportunity in bold work, may be turned to good account. Among the successful combinations which come to mind is an applique

pattern in yellow and white upon dark green, outfirst with gold cord, and then, next the green, with a paler and brighter green. Another is a

upon purple, outlined first with yellow couched with gold, and next the ground with silver. In the case of couched cord
pattern chiefly in yellow
or gold, the colour of the stitching counts also. Stitches from the edge of a leaf or what not,

inwards, alternately long and short, though they form an edge to the leaf, are not properly outThis is rather a stopping short of solid lining.
\vork than outlining, though

often goes by that




should be, as

condition of a good outline stitch is it were, supple, so as to follow

the flow of the form.

be firm.

Fancy stitches look fussy worse than none at all.

At the same time it should and a spikey

There is absolutely no substantial ground for the theory that outlines should be worked in a stitch not used elsewhere in the work. On the
contrary, it is a good rule not to introduce extra stitches into the work unless they give something which the stitches already employed will not give.

The simplest way is always safest. An outline affords a ready means

of clearing




should not be looked upon merely

as a device for the disguise of slovenliness.



the colour scheme should necessitate an outline, an embroidress, sure of her skill, will often prefer

not to outline her work, and to get even the drawing lines within the pattern, by VOIDING.


stuff clear

groundbetween the petals of her flowers, or what not which line, by the way, should be narrower than it is meant to appear, as it looks

will leave, that is to say, a line of

always broader than it is. It is more difficult, it must be owned, thus to work along two sides of a line of ground-stuff than to work a single line of stitching, but it is within the compass of any skilled worker and skilled workers have delighted in voiding even when their work was on a small


necessitating trations 39 and 40).


lines of voiding


is no difficulty and it would be remarkable that it is so seldom used, were it not that the uncertain worker likes to have a chance of clearing up ragged edges, and that voiding implies a broader and more

In work on a bold scale there


dignified treatment of design than to affect.

it is

the fashion



arrives inevitably at gradation of colour the question is how best to get ;

But, before mentioning the ways in which it may be got, it seems necessary to protest that shading is not a matter of course. Perfectly

work may be done, and ought more

often to be done, in merely flat needlework; the gloss of the silk and its varying colour as it catches the light according to the direction of
stitching, are quite enough to prevent a monotonously flat effect. Still, embroidery affords such scope for gradation of colour, not, practically, to be got by any pro-


cess of weaving, that a colourist
in the delights of colour


well revel


silks of various

dyes allow. And so long as colour is the end in view there is not much danger that a colourist will

go wrong.
use of shading in embroidery is rather to As get gradation of colour than relief of form. to the stitch to be employed, that is partly a
personal matter, partly a question of what is to be done. The stitch must be adapted to the kind







of shading, or the shading must be designed to suit the stitch. It makes all the difference in

the world, whether your shading is deliberately done, or whether one shade is meant to merge
into another.

In the best work



always done,

nothing vague or casual, for example, about the shading of Mr. Crane's animals on Illustration 74. Everywhere the shading is drawn, either in lines or as a sharply Given a drawing in which the denned mass.

with decision.


like that,

shadows are properly planned and crisply drawn and you may use what stitch you please. The more natural way of shading is to let the stitches follow the lines of the drawing, and so
to express form, as with the strokes of the pen or pencil upon paper. Thus, in mediaeval figurework prior to the I5th century,


use of


the faces were usually done in split-stitch, worked concentrically from the middle of the cheek out-

ward, and so suggesting the roundness of the face But just as there is a system (Illustration 87).
of shading according to which the draughtsman makes all his strokes in one direction (slanting

so the embroidress may,


she prefer,

and in the i5th and i6th centuries the fashion was to work flesh
take her stitches

one way


in short-satin stitches

tion (Illustration 79). The " stitch is frequently used

always in the vertical directerm " long-and-short-

the stitch.


does not, as

by way of describing I have said, help




in the drapery of King Abias. but so that there is no line of demarcation And this. another term describing not so the use of a stitch. in row and another. are in us The stitches the first place only satin-stitches worked not in even rows. as in Illustration 87. the task of the is embroidress shading. they necessarily alternate If the form to be worked necessitates radiation in the stitching. there results a texture something like the feathering of a bird's breast (Illustration 85). makes the between one The words long-and-short apply softer. In flattish decorative work. and the vine leaves are merely worked Even with yellower green towards the edges. that is all. where there is strong shading. the designer may do that for you. whence the name plumage-stitch. True. where the drawing . IN NEEDLEWORK. much a stitch as No draw matter what the in stitch.iQ2 ART much. You begin. with alternately long and short stitches. one must be able to : difficult order to express form it is rather more to draw with a needle than with a pen. stitches of equal length. is in firm lines. as in Illustration 40. for relatively easy there is not much example. and make such a workmanlike drawing that there is no mistaking it but it takes a skilled draughtsman to do it. If you work after that with shading strictly or dovetail. only to the outer row of stitches. the case of gradated colour. a draughtsman . that is to say.


You can embroider. who one with a leaning towards severity of design too much relief is sought but the way he has got it shows the master workman he has laid in flat washes of colour. A yet more pictorial effect is produced in much the same. A design like that. who would have acknowledged by her stitches the feathering of the birds' necks as well as their roundness. of course. each deliberately with its precise outline. may make shading easy who knows by drawing tration 75 is his business his shadows with firm outlines. given the working drawing. without knowing much about drawing but you cannot go far in the . which the worker had only to follow faithfully with flat tambour work. asks little of the worker beyond patient care of : the designer it asks considerable knowledge. .194 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. drawn for you. or only without the appreciation of form vaguely drawn) which comes only of knowing and understanding.way. . this time in satin stitch. in IllustraThe artist has for the most part drawn tion 76. which the worker had no difficulty in following but there is some rounding of the birds' bodies which a merely mechanical worker could not have got. In fact. There is evidence of such knowledge and underdirection of shading (not . The taste of the artist designed the roses in Illustoo pictorial to win the heart of any . his . there are indications that this is the work more of a painter than of an embroidress. shadows with crisp brush strokes.


very delicately which renders that stitch so valuable in the rendering of flesh tints. and only a draughtsman or draughtswoman could have worked it. but the gradaThis may be tion of colour which it gives. for the most part." was designed it. Embroidery ought. employed something. At all events it is the work of some one who could draw. The embroiderer of that lion was an artist. But the blending of colour into colour which is universally admired is not shading is should mean One may quite so admirable as people think. all.ig6 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. The point to insist upon at it is that. and not be mere fumbling after form. An artist shades employed. getting only prefers to see few unmeaning softness. and those chosen with judgment and placed with deliberate . perhaps the artist who regularity so dear to the not said wholly in praise of shading. but it 77. too many shades of colour. is satin a triumph of drawing with the needle. and subtly got by split-stitch. The short and split stitches are not placed with the " It might be a man's work. easily easily employ merge them too imperceptibly one into the other. standing in the working of the lion in Illustration That is not a triumph of even stitching. the verdict of an embroidress. human machine. The charm of shading in embroidery is not the roundness of form which you get. to do very is This well without if it. but they express the design perfectly.

there is no be seen where they meet broad masses give breadth vagueness generally means harm in letting : : ignorance. If they it 197 mean something. perhaps. why one dislikes it. That so is.SHADING. intention. and why it is common. .

short of the pictorial . To an accomplished needlewoman embroidery offers every scope for art. when got. preciousness of design and of put the value into the material is mere vulgarity. with the needle effects more or less pictorial most . It seems to an artist almost to go without saying. no doubt. You can get. by that pictorial use.FIGURE EMBROIDERY. often less . the more strictly he I do not mean is bound to make artistic use of it. if you are to better it (and if not why work upon it at all ?). they are usually at the . Costly material is worth precious work and there should . and the artist is not only justified in lavishing work upon it. must be beautifully worked. To it. more especially when it comes to working with materials in themselves rich and costly. What we really prize is the hand work and the brain work of the artist and the more precious the stuff he employs. but. that the labour on work claiming to be art should be in excess of the value of the stuff which goes to make it. but often bound to do so. be by rights a preciousness about the needlework employed upon execution. A beautiful material.

that does not go to prove It is the needle a likely tool to paint with. figure work is necessary. her with the implement. a promise. The fulfilment should be something more. the more surely as it aims at picture. The truth is that only by rare exception does embroidered figure work rise to the rank of art the rule is that it is : degraded. for its purpose. illdesigned. or perhaps both. but in any case less than what might be achieved in painting then why choose the needle ? Admitting that a painter who by choice or skill : chance takes to the needle satisfactorily may paint with it enough. can be trusted to render flesh with the needle her success is in proportion to . for example. say by the Italians . as some do who should know better. There was never a greater anything but that. Work done design for should be better always than the it. A design of which the promise is not likely to be the working-out is. Only a competent figure painter. for all that has been done in the way of wonderful picture work. And that is why. that. which was a project only. To say that you would rather have the drawing from which it was done (and that is what you feel about " needle pictures ") is most fulfilled in severely to condemn either the designer or the worker. mistake than to suppose.FIGURE EMBROIDERY. to raise embroidery to the rank of art. 199 best rather inferior to the picture of which they are a copy.

for instance.200 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. therefore the noblest form of embroidery must include it. of . Animals. then. and that the desire to introduce it arises. Needlework. it is absurd to argue that. lend themselves do birds into readily to it. Leaves and flowers accommodate more . not the model. demands treatment in the design. and so and feathers are obviously translatable stitches. but out of an ambition which does not pay much regard to the conditions proper to . and the human figure submits less humbly to the necessary modification than other forms of life. and of design most likely to do credit to the needle. on account of the greater difficulty in treating it. fur when themselves perhaps better still but each is best it is only the motive. If only. like any other decorative craft. outside the scope of needle and thread . The embroidress entirely in sympathy with her materials will not want telling that the needle lends itself better to forms less fixed in their pro- portions than the human figure the decorator will feel that there is about fine ornament a nobility of . the pictorial is not the form of design best suited to embroidery. need of no pictorial support the unbiassed critic will admit that figure design of any but the most severely decorative kind is really its own which stands in . figure work being the noblest form of design. not out of crafts- manlikeness. the figure is not the form design. and the Flemings of the Early Renaissance.

The more frankly all such work acknowledges shift its character the better. She should be content to work the way futile to of the needle. The pains of flesh-painting with the needle (if not the impossibility of it for practical purposes) is confessed by the habit which arose of actually painting the flesh in water colour upon satin. least Common sense asks that much at of loyalty to the art she has chosen to adopt. Paint on satin. needlework. There may be occasions when there is no time to stitch. It is attempt what could be better done with a brush. Anyway. The not say it was a wise thing result may to attempt be astonishing and yet not worth the pains. produce the desired effect. if you like. mean to them. . not to be endured and it is does not even do that. the mixture is of painting and a poorembroidery spirited embroidress who will thus confess her weakness and call on painting to help her out. ? What though now She is painting she be a painter with a needle. temporary and makeScene painting is art. it until you are asked to take for landscape painting. Wonderful and almost incredibly pictorial effects have been obtained with the needle but that does . and it is necessary for some ceremonial and more or less theatric purpose to paint what had better have been worked. too 201 Those conditions should be a law to the needlewoman. It it fails absolutely to The painting quarrels .FIGURE EMBROIDERY.

CHINESE CHAIN-STITCHING. after all no semblance of that unity which the very essence of picture. of what may be done in the way of expressing action in the fewest and simplest chain stitches (if only you know the form you want to represent perfectly. ornament ? An example. to the picture. and there is is with stitching. An instance of painted flesh occurs upon IllusCan any one. doubt that the worker had much better have kept to what she could do. in view of the bordering tration 91. In speaking of the necessary treatment of the human figure (as of other natural form) in needlework. and do 78.202 ART the IN NEEDLEWORK. it is not meant to contend that there is one . and can manage your needle) figures in the is given in the wee landscape above (78). on the other hand.








of treating

consistently, or that there

more than two or three ways. There are various ways, some no doubt yet to be devised, but they must be the ways of the needle. The of course, is the main difficulty. A Gothic flesh, practice, and not the least happy one, was to show the flesh in the naked linen of the ground,
are no

only just working the outlines of the features in black or brown. Another way was to work the
in split stitch, as already explained, and over that the markings of the features, the fine lines in short satin-stitches, the broader in split-





in the figure of

King Abias


Illustration 87.

The general treatment of the figure there is of course in the manner of the i/j-th century, better
from its severe simplicity, for rendering in needlework than later and more pictorial forms of composition. That needlework can, however, in capable hands, go farther than that is shown in Illustration 79, a rather threadbare specimen of
1 5th century work, in which the character of the man's face is admirably expressed. It is first worked in short, straight stitches, all of white, and over that the drawing lines are worked in brown.


artist gets

her effect in the simplest possible

way, and apparently with the greatest ease. More like painting is the head in Illustration 80, worked in short stitches of various shades, which give something of the colour as well as the







modelling of flesh. This is a triumph in its way. It goes about as far as the needle can go, and



ought to go.



under rare conditions, it may do that and yet be
in their

Equally wonderful
the faces of the




people on Illustration 81,

about the


of your finger




in solid satin-stitch,

and the two layers of

(back and front) give a substance fairly thick but at the same time yielding, so that when the

stitches for the

mouth and eyes
in, and, as






they sink

between and give


were, push up the The nose is worked

and the slight end of the stitch gives lines of depression at the drawing. This trenches upon modelling, but, on such a minute scale, does not amount to very pronounced departure from the flat. The method
in extra satin-stitch over the other,

employed does not lend itself to larger work. The last word on the question as to what one may do with the needle is, that you may do what
you can; but it is best to seek by means of it what it can best do, and always to make much of the texture of silk, and of the quality of pure and lustrous colour which it gives in short, to work
with your materials.





effect of

any stitch


vastly varied, according

to the use



was shown
have any


in twisted silk, ceases to

appearance of satin ; and it makes all the difference whether the stitches are long or short, close More important than all together or wide apart.

the direction of the stitch.
artist in


that alone you

can recognise the


sideration from



deserves conthat of colour
It is

two points of view

and that of form.

First as to colour.


that every alteration in the direction of the stitch means variety of tone, if not

of tint.

Take a

feather in your hand,

and turn


about, so that now one side of the quill now the or notice the alternate other catches the light of brighter and greyer green on a freshstripes trimmed lawn, where the roller has bent the

blades of




grass first this way and then with the colour of silken stitches.





embroidered itself it has

(82) looks as if it had been two shades of silk in the work but more that appearance still


while the pattern radiates naturally from the neck. and stalks. the effect might have been reversed. they would have given a third tint and. if there had been others from left to right. not. that.210 is ART all IN NEEDLEWORK. The embroiderer afraid of the I3th it. to say. : one shade of brownish gold the which you see is merely the effect of The horizontal stitches. century was not of that (aimed at . there would be a very difference in tone between leaves. If there had been diagonal stitches from right to left. Had the light come from a different point. Suppose a pattern in which the leaves were worked horizontally. diffi- This. In the famous Syon stitching is Cope the direction of the frankly independent of the design. and the stalks in the direction of their growth. the difference would be yet more striking. . though rather a brutal solution of the culty. given a fourth. catch the light the vertical ones do happens. In gold. . saves all afterthought as to what direction the stitches shall take . all in one stitch and in one colour. the stitches do not follow is but go all one way the way of the stuff. but it has very much the effect of weaving. not so much for the sake of pattern as to get variety of broken tint. as it light upon it. the flowers vertically. And that is one reason why gold backgrounds are worked in diapers appreciable flowers. they would have it in difference . That suit.

That is the second point to be considered. to work her stitches in a direction which does not express quite seriously done. accommodating themselves to it. The direction taken by the stitch always helps to explain the drawing. . might almost have been designed to show how not to do it but it is a piece of old work. for example.THE DIRECTION OF THE STITCH. and was. or. 211 perhaps ?). only without knowing. A less management of the stitch it would be hard intelligent 83. not only variety of colour. is The embroidress free. afraid of letting go the leading strings of warp and weft. in to find. When stitches follow the direction of the form embroidered. MEANINGLESS DIRECTION OF STITCH. all manner of subtle change of tone results. if the needle- woman cannot draw. of course. The far needle- from helping the very slightest degree to explain the folding over of the petals. apparently. The flower directly contradict the drawing. to show that she cannot as. strokes. but more than a suggestion of form. in the tulip herewith (83). P 2 . You get.

I (that must persist in calling the same stitch satin-stitch and the variety of it called . By a discreet use helps in the bird in Illustration 85. A more clever fulfilment of the naturalistic inten- tion in is to be seen 76. as I way rather of painting than of embroidery. Illustration The drawing doves loose is in of the the rather manner of the of . every stitch to explain the feathering. very clearly expressed. The rendering below (84) shows the direction the stitches should have taken. fair to depart. such as you find There. so as to give a flat tint. in which no hint of modelling but the intention is here quite obviously naturalistic. of what is.212 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. giving as it does the roundness of the birds' bodies but no hint of actual feathering. stitch is clever in its the way. but that is the fault of the drawing (very much on a par with the workman- from which it would not have been ship). form at all. period Marie but the Antoinette treatment of the MORE EXPRESSIVE LINES OF STITCHING. The turn-over of the petals is even there not is . have said.


There that it is no law as to the direction of stitch. in some stitches than in but in most cases the direction of the others stitch suggests form. whilst the stitched in the direction of five its growth. you may cross them. where the fibre may be indicated. that the drawing of the neck is so perfectly direction of the stitch in the is rendered. plumage-stitch) the embroiderer has rendered with equal perfection the sweep of the broad wing feathers It is too. It scarcely needs further pointing out how the direction of the stitch may help to explain the construction of the form. The varied to purpose hair is head in Illustration 80. whatever you do. of course. It matters more. you lay your stitches in the most may deliberately arbitrary manner but. The (Illustration petals on the satin-stitch sampler to descend from the masterly to 36) the elementary it show something of the difference what direction the stitch is worked. You may follow the direction of the forms. except should be considered. makes considered. as in the case of leaves. . and the fluffy feathering of the breast. and needs accordingly to be in . where the veining may be suggested or of stalks. example. An artist or a workwoman can tell at once whether your stitch was .214 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. by means of the direction of the stitch. for . some where the flesh is all in straight upright stitches. you must do it with intelligent purpose.

The way the veins are laid in cord over the lotus leaves in Illustration 40 all satin-stitch in the is the one fault to be found with an but perfect piece of work. 215 you meant it or because you it is Having laid your stitches deliberately. in such a case. It may be said. Stitching is sometimes done not merely over upon the surface of them. STITCH. Unless. stitching over the laid silver mid-rib in Illustration 92 is better judged. stitching over stitches should be indulged in only with moderation. but as to want no strengthening. and the work would be incomplete without it. that except where. it amounts almost to a sin against practicality not to take advantage of the second stitching to make it firmer. to . . as in the case of laid-work. trating the first stitching is of such compact character stitches. the first stitching was done in anticipation of a second.THE DIRECTION OF THE laid just so because knew no better. The generally speaking. best work over them with other stitching. and not best. not penethe ground-stuff. Stitching over stitching was resorted to whenever elaboration was the fashion but the simpler and more direct method is the to leave them.

and to the breadth of architectural decoration . work have been church purposes. or ecclesiastical as it is called. church. It is customary to draw a distinction between . involve methods of work which. and other embroidery but it is a distinction without much difference. work precisely like that employed on vestments and the like (Illustration 86) was used accordingly. by constant to be classed is use for church purposes. common sense dictates that the loving labour spent upon it should not be And these and other such considerations lost. and even lavishly given . Certain kinds of work are doubtless best suited to the dignity of church ceremonial. and are taken as a adopted matter of course too much as a matter of course. The fact is. alike of ceremonial and make it imperative that church work should be effective: religious sentiment insists that it should be of the best and richest. have as ecclesiastical embroidery. come But there no . certain processes of for also for the caparison of horses and other equally profane purposes.CHURCH WORK. decoration. unsparingly. Practical considerations.


218 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. embroidery. The test of fitness for religious service is religious feeling . Embroidery for the church must naturally take count of the church. the gate of European not art. covering a vast amount of soulless work. but only of " " Ecclesiastical art is just a trade- term. Christianity produced new ways of work. Phrygia (sometimes credited with the invention of embroidery) passed it on to Greece. there is no such thing as church . For embroidery is a primitive art clothes were stitched before ever churches were furnished. but that is hardly more likely to be found in the output of the church furnisher (trade patterns overladen with stock symbols). neither of art nor of the church. which found its way westwards at a very early date. consecrated stitch. no stitch exclusively belonging to the church. none probably invented by it. and Greece to Italy. the nunneries of the new forms of design. There is in the nature of things no reason why art should be reserved for secular purposes. and only manufacture be encouraged by the clergy. but The methods adopted in West were those which had already been perfected in the harems of the East. and the branding of one very dull kind of thing with that name is in the interest business. than in . both as a building and as a but. as apart from all other place of worship needlework. and European methods of embroidery are all derived from Oriental work.

we might expect to find ship. is not only the most frigid and rigid in design. if the linen is at all loose. information on that point will be Many of the examples found in the descriptive index of illustrations at but they are here the beginning of the book discussed from the point of view of workmanship. of old work given on these are from church vestments. in whose service of old the best work was done. Church embroidery. and. and either pasted straight on to the ground-stuff. The pattern thus worked is cut out. as usually practised in these days. its devotional spirit. but separately on linen. altar furniture. silk It is not embroidered straight upon the or velvet which forms the groundwork of the design. would be but the more perfect expression of the art which in its degree ennobled things of and domestic use. in the second. with as little : other use that reference as possible to religious or is a question apart from art. pages and the like .CHURCH WORK. or. but the hardest and most mechanical in execution which last arises in great part from the way it is same civic done. first mounted on thin paper and then cut out and . . its consummate workmanIn it. 219 the stitching of the devout needlewoman. work beyond the rivalry of trade controlled by Even then it conditions of time and money. working for the glory of God. features The distinguishing of church work should be. in the first place. indeed.

In the latter half of the i8th century was a regular trade in embroidery ready to sew on. though early used on occasion. stands to embroidery very much clap ostensible it means of getting an in the relation of hedge-carpentering. where it is kept under In either case the edges pressure until it is dry.220 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. to joinery. If needle stitches are the effect upon a stuff. of avoiding that look is to add judicious after-stitching on the stuff itself. them on to it. had been the invariable mediaeval practice to work sprays or what not upon canvas and apply them bodily to the velvet. as in the case of Miss C. does not seem to have been common until a period when manufacture generally usurped the place of art. The work in Illustration 87 was done directly on to the silk. pasted on to the velvet. Nor is it usually happy in result. Shrewsbury's vine-leaf pattern (Illustration it 88). Occasionally. that would not make it the more workmanlike or straightif it Even forward way of working. have eventually to be worked over. A way . seems only right they should be stitched upon To work the details apart and then that stuff. P. and this must not be confined to the often More looks stuck-on. it disarms criticism. by which means purveyors could turn out in a day or two what would have taken months to there embroider. This habit of working on linen or canvas and applying the embroidery ready worked on to the richer stuff.


But the trailing spirals of split-stitch which play about the applied spots in many a mediaeval altar cloth hold their own enough to show that on to the velvet. rare. And there is no reason why it the best.222 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. to get the best by working on the It may be argued relief. that must. some of the needlework being obviously done on the velvet. is at best the art of prevarication. of course. stuff is not ing has a way as it were. upon the canvas and worked over. and lead you to infer that. drowned in very sympathetic. sewing on or outlining merely. modelling. straight quite well silk can be worked That gold may be equally well worked straight may be seen in any Indian saddle cloth. as in the Spanish . at but the occasions for high If you want actual work referred to in a previous chapter. question is. and the answer how is. and the stitchof sinking into the pile. point. all of it is. it. so as to draw your eye away from the margin of the applied patch. that in this way you cannot get very high relief are. built up. results stuff. even if you succeed in doing it. and being. as it were. be worked separately. The . But to disguise in this way the line of demarcation. but allowed to wander playfully over the field. No The doubt it is difficult to work upon velvet. Heavy work of this kind may be rather man's work than woman's but that is not the on to velvet .


if it is material thus enriched tion meant to hang . Heavy applique of any kind affects. of course. not only the thickness but the flexibility of the an important considerain folds. it chased and beaten metal.224 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. effect of In fact. [i appear to be aims deliberately at the should not. for in no case does stitching.

and especially of flat ornaleast beautiful. The ment. is a danger of its suggesting Q . is our rigid of working it which robs geometric way its charm. As for geometric pattern. nevertheless.A PLEA FOR SIMPLICITY. The Orientals. The needleworker has less than ever occasion to be afraid of geometric pat- woman ornament of tern for . there D. however freely it may be rendered. its own very important place in decoration.E. that is quite beneath consideration it is so mechanical as ! another. it is peculiarly difficult to get in it that appearance of rule-and-compass-work which makes ornament so dull. often that more the fault of the needle- than of the mechanism she employs. simplest patterns are by no means the It is too much the fashion to underrate the artistic value of the less pretentious froms of needlework. The one real objection to geometric pattern is that it is nowadays so cheaply and so mechanically got by weaving that. were the least mechanical of workers. which has. is Mechanical is a word as easily spoken but if needlework is mechanical. who indulged so freely in geometric It device.

the productions of the power-loom which they would do if they had the artistic instincts with which we credit them. the Germans of Cologne. and of peasant work everywhere. Her preference for handwork is not that it has artistic possibilities. wove what they could. Again. mechanical production. embroidery emThere is a similar stitches. as chain-stitch and back-stitch. an to the needle. if she could get it at the do not find that Orientals reject price. for example. cally produced fabric. in fact. but that it costs her less. for their church vest- ments and the like. for example. which suggest the sewing-machine. which phatically ought not to do. same We . Where money it is scarce and answers a woman's purto do for herself with her needle what might pose in some respects be even better done on the loom. She would in many cases prefer the more mechanitime is of no account. it adjunct to weaving. is .226 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. by the early Christians to supplement tapestry. It was used. is merely the result of circumstances. that they had recourse Needlework was. a great deal of Oriental embroidery. Embroidery does not to-day take quite the place it once did. and enriched their woven figures with embroidery. in mediaeval times. objection nowadays to some such. what they could not weave they stitched was only to get more delicate detail than their tapestry loom would allow. That Coptic to say. Later.

v-r * ^i'^s^rA^k < * i '^. ** ' f _3*' r -~^-Jr . I.^V *Cr ^-*^T^i^ fe^^^^^ x. . k^vv y ^^*- iti- \ 89.1ig ^ i *i >O- x^ ^fc5^ ^ jX^^i". ..3 \^- * . SIMPLE STITCHING ON LINEN.

in There is this always for them. and what formerly could be done only by the needle. and which really is not so much embroidering on a textile as converting it into one of another kind. if they are not in fact related to carpet-weaving. and in those beautiful bits of Persian stitching which remind one of carpet-work in miniature. Possibly also there is scope for amateurs and home-artists in that combination of embroidery and handweaving with which the power-loom. which yet are not worth our doing. To-day we get machine As machinery is perfected. learns to do fall out of work. that the monotony of machinehope made things produces in the end a reaction in favour of handwork provided always it gives us something which manufacture cannot. which does not amount to more than simple diaper. for example. is. for . from our conditions of to-day that there are some kinds of needlework we admire. It is not so much for geometric ornament as for simple pattern that I here Their chance advance of the machine. as the all-over work. hand-workers get pushed aside and embroidery. Glorified instances of this kind of work occur in the shawl work of Cashmere. though it has superseded it. Embroidery was at one time the readiest. does not enter into competition.228 It ART results IN NEEDLEWORK. in keeping make my plea. and practically the only. means of getting enrichment of certain kinds. such.


because. one misses in the work of the present day that reticent and unpretending stitchery. which. naivete of the sampler seems always to linger. the relative value of the two shades of colour is lost in the process. in yellow silk upon white linen or the modest diaper. In the original the broader yellow bands are much more in tone with the ground. it should. being grey and yellow on white linen. which makes no loud claim to be art. or what looks like it. and do Such as it is. is really a work of art. or This in again. that reticent work of time done in this country for example. not assert themselves so much. it.230 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. work in white on need illustration. an artist could have designed that borderonly work. but is content to be beautiful Is that to be a thing altogether of the past now that we have Art Needlework ? Art It has helped put an end to the needlework delicate Think again of the too familiar to ! ! patience of the modern worker. if you like. which so much was at one mere back-stitching. but inevitably characteristic. thinking to be no more than a labour of loving patience. archaic. and any neat-handed woman could have embroidered white. in which the . the admirably simple work in Illustration 89. better deserving is What . last does not show so delicately in the photo- graphic reproduction as . and to inspire her too often with ambitions quite beyond her powers of fulfilment.

A PLEA FOR SIMPLICITY. the title 231 than a flaunting floral quilt which goes of "art needlework" designed to worry the eye by day and to give apparently bad dreams by night to whoever may have the misfortune to sleep under it. Is anyone nowadays modest enough to do work such as the Yet what couching in outline in Illustration 90 ? distinction there is about it by the name ! .

but one only very occasionally fulfilled. but afore-thought. notwithstanding the division of labour it implies. Enthusiasm has a habit of outrunning reason. The distinction here made between designer not casual. and embroiderer is some branches of industry subdivision of labour has been carried to absurd excess. but feels designer knows with him. it is the fashion to demand in all branches of it the Because in autograph work of one person. when quite what the worker can do with her materials. That designer and worker should be one and the same person is an ideal. And it is the test of a practical designer that he not only knows the conditions under which his design is to be carried out. When that happens (Illustrations 61 . and when the worker not only understands what the designer meant. but is ready to submit to them. which absurd.EMBROIDERY DESIGN. Perfect art results only in when designer and the worker are entirely sympathy. is To try for and link together faculties no less which is Nature has futile. the most part put asunder.

she will want no telling to exercise it. hers.EMBROIDERY DESIGN. unless she is inwardly . be equal to the ever-recurring occasion design has to be modified or thus manipulating design not adapted. The design at of all. not so much that she may design what she works. That is a theory as false as it is couraged by it. but that she may know in the first place what good design is. as one has any right to expect of a skilled needleworker. as is well. is in artistic duty bound to design whatever she puts hand to do. and. in whatever art or handicraft. were it not for the prevalence at the present moment of the idea that a worker. she should discover a faculty of invention. no encouragement to design There would be no occasion to insist upon this. you can only make out all the world by reducing design to what all the And that is not much. The study of design forms part of the education an embroidress. A a If. or good workmanship is spent on poor design. to be designers world can do. unkind let no embroidress be disLet her. perhaps. There is a point of view from which it does not amount to fact is. and 88) it 233 But the attempt to realise it commonly works out in one of two ways: either a good design is spoilt in the working for want of executive skill on the part of the designer. good. when in designer wants she designs. . in the second.

but determined to do his trying best. ever be. remain content to an artist is to in the That is her art. or was not to be original. is Originality a gift beyond But it is not a thing which even the designer should struggle after. then. the lines of the border treated the leafage in in Illustration 92. if it is there. ? And what. then. in the thought that its contortions tell what pain it cost to do. There is a revengeful consolation for the pain we suffer from design about us writh- ing to be up-to-date. To assume. Her business as make beautiful things. Artists and workers of individuality and Illustration character are themselves. invent. competent to design what she embroiders. without being so much as aware that originality has gone out of them. 91. which few workwomen can or will devote to it ? Any cultivated woman may for herself invent (if it is to be called invention) is something better worth bought ready to work. do good impelled to needlework. working than to be for And it that may do r*> many purposes. that every needlewoman is.234 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. Co-operation making of them is no crime. It comes. so long as does not claim be . about originality price. The birth of beauty seek is is a less agonising travail and the thing to Whoever planned beauty. or can ously and yet think it is to be mastered without years of patient study. . not novelty. is to make very small account of How is it possible to take design seridesign.


But the " best " above referred to does not The best necessarily mean the most masterly. then her case is her. The scant consideration little commonly given is to it shows how the worker in earnest. that is it is worth if And in all now so readily accessible she finds nothing which appeals to which inspires her. she finds only hopeless. lets its spirit sink into her. no great harm is done sooner or later you have got to come to a modest opinion of yourself. with the common run of work .236 ART it is . so much as one style of work sympathetic to nothing to admire. her. old work by preference no one's while to praise that unduly. IN NEEDLEWORK. to look . to be executed at considerable cost not only of material. then she is on the Measure yourself with the best. studies that. more than but in the case of really impor- tant work. of a simple kind is not calculated to discourage . and if that should put you out of conceit with your own work. good work. nothing If. or the ironed-off pattern she has bought. is all that art could be ? It would be rude to tell her she was wasting silk ? ! How should she at know The only way of knowing is to study. Or has she thought ? And is she persuaded that her artless spray of flowers. you are to do even moderate things. surely it is worth giving serious thought to its design. on the other hand. if ever . but of patient labour. not right road. tries to do something worthy of it.


the colour harmonious if it is adapted . as it seems to me. it is rather design which has been translated into needlework.238 ART rather. for clearly made for execution with the really appropriate and practical design embroidery should be schemed not merely A with a view to its execution with the needle. if only it is right if the lines may are true. My reference to old work must not be taken to embroidress. than and some very . to its use and purpose. To imply that design should be in imitation of what has been done. . or that it should follow on those lines. if it anyone do that must be easy to and in trying to do it you learn how much goes to the doing it. to execution not only with the needle but in the particular kind of needlework to be employed. There has of late years been something of a revival of needlework design in schools of art. It be of any great importance or pretensions. . one must be sure of the needlewoman who is to execute it. Design was once upon a time traditional but the chain of tradition has snapped. but with a view to its execution in a particular and possibly by a particular stitch or stitches be safe in designing work so minute as that on Illustration 93. to its place. design needle. IN NEEDLEWORK. and now . and even most promising accomplished work has been done but in many instances. Good design need not it looks as . be quite simple. conscious design must be eclectic that is to say.


flower The limitations of embroidery are not so rigidly marked as the boundaries of many another craft. for example. For my part. not only what is worth doing. be constantly inspired by flower forms. this much is certain (and you have go to a museum to prove it). to use the happy phrase of William Morris. That. to pictures in silk. the embroidress will not forget. unless their draws them that way. There is little technical difficulty in representing too naturally flowers. but what is not. it seems me the Any way. It is at least as has quite away been done as to tether yourself to it. done. though the pattern be a veritable flower garden. Embroiderer or embroidery designer will. And in what has been done you will see. very naturally for'any dignified decorative purpose. aim at what stuff and threads will give her. that she gardening with silks and gold threads. or even stitching. as a matter of fact. is Let the needleworker study the work of the needle in preference to that of the brush let her .240 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. and one's one must study old work to see what has been how it has been done. and then do own to in one's own way. that instinct no need for needleworkers. each foolish break from what must judge for herself. to only to there is thing best worth doing is ornament. and silk gives the pure colour of their petals as nearly as may be. But. to take to needle to painting. and .

give 341 more readily than would something else. and the surest way. to Art in Needlework. : . Let her work according to the needle take that for her guide. D. and be content with that. . not be misled by what some other do what the needle can do tool can do better That is the way best.E.EMBROIDERY DESIGN.

therefore. If you are going to spend the time you must spend to do good work. it is worth while using The stuff. your purpose will determine. and must be done. need not be costly. . or silk. that . for big. ground- good stuff . that enough of it should be left bare of ornament that STUFFS. and in material worth the work done on it. Embroidery is not among the things which have to be done. and for delicate work. of a superfluity beautiful. its being embroidered all over. foolish to use anything else. one of finer texture whether it be linen. woollen cloth. bold stitching a proportionately coarse ground-stuff should be used. It : the excuse for not worth it is that it it is is is doing unless done well. but it should be the and it should be chosen with best of its kind reference to the work to be done on it. may goes without that be appreciated. and vice versa. .EMBROIDERY MATERIALS. It is in the nature as best one can do them. it should not be hidden altogether from view a really beautiful one. It its quality saying. if it does not necessitate. work as well as pattern . A mean ground-stuff suggests. a worthier one.

as you may see in many a piece of old work that has gone ragged. worth embroidering. which may be worked on with flax thread. may serve for curtains and the like. but there an odour of pretence . Of woollen stuffs. if not too loose. is STUFFS. crewel. beautifully broken in colour. the satin gets quickly worn away. Silk damask makes an admirable ground . 243 Linen is a worthy ground-stuff. Satin should be stretched upon the frame the way of the stuff. or silk. Felt is beneath contempt. "Roman satin" and what is called "satin de " luxe (perhaps because it is not so luxurious as it pretends to be) to are effective is ground-stuffs easy work upon . If it is : backed. Serge. R 2 . the linen should be fine and smooth on a coarse backing. " . A corded silk is not good to embroider the work on it looks hard but a close twill answers very well. the should be of the best. good plain cloth silk. but Cotton is hardly they should not be mixed.EMBROIDERY MATERIALS. Generally speaking. about satin-faced cotton. if only it is simple and broad enough in pattern. an excellent ground it for work in wool or not pleasant to the touch in working. The nobler that " it the material. and it should not be forgotten that it has a right and a wrong way up. more it essential is it is Poor satin not good enough to work on looks poorer than ever when it is embroidered. but it is not so well is but worth working upon.

THREAD. make out its details.244 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. so much the better. thick and twisted. you can hardly choose a design too big and flat but something depends upon the work to be done on it. and be laid double (24 threads). the finer sort is easy to work in The in worked thinner and looser quality needs a frame. silks. and if you can't ." is it better . a very fine twisted silk does Purse silk. That is a fair way of further enriching a rich stuff . floss. the pattern of the damask ought not to assert itself. The crewel to be preferred is that not too tightly : Filoselle is well adapted to couching. or what is called " church twisted. the slight twist in floss filo-floss is against very thick may be used for French knots. French floss is may smooth. gold. of damask and brocade patterns. Brocade asserts itself too much to form a good background. or certain details only. to be silk of only supplementary to weaving. . but it is embroidery merely in the sense that it is literally embroidered : the needlework is Tussah the hand. and does well for laid work for fine work bobbin floss. In any case. and with smooth silk not tightly twisted. There is a practice of embroidering the outlines. Working in coloured one should take advantage of the quality . . For couching well. lends itself perfectly to basket work. With regard to the thread to work with The coarser kinds of flax are best waxed before using.

" A not very promising substance to embroider CHENILLE. ever quite to belong to the smooth satin ground on which it is worked. The palette of the embroiderer in silk is superlatively rich. that texture not sympathetic to the touch. It is worked there needle the : chain-stitch with the tambour . " finer thread. or over The material is used it. may also be worked in satin-stitch but more obvious way of using it is to couch it." Flat gold wire is known by the name of " plate. again in the wreath in on Illustration 76. still in fashion The use of it 75. Chenille seems to have been used instead of smooth silk. is tion of*red silk. called tambour. Japanese gold does not tarnish " so readily as passing. with is chenille. and that there is a Nor does it seem stuffy look about it always." and various twisted threads by the name of " purl. and was in the time of Marie Antoinette. . The purest gold is generally made on a founda- GOLD.EMBROIDERY MATERIALS. to deepen the shadows. in shown Illustration much as in certain old-fashioned water-colour paintings gum was used with the paint. there is a superior to it." which is in some respects For stitching through. where the darker touches of the roses are worked in it. its There is is against chenille. It came into use in the latter half of the iyth century. 245 of pure transparent colour which silk takes in the dyeing. with fine this silk thread. it cord by cord.

It was very much the fashion for court dresses under Louis Seize " Broderie de faveur. but of a harder kind. There is less objection to embroidery in ribbon. by the way. for example. These.246 RIBBON. may be used to artistic purpose. The twist of the ribbon where it turns gives interest to the surface of the is embroidery. The effect of ribbon work is happiest when it is not sewn through the stuff after the manner of satin stitch. having been . Shaded silk. in the treasury of Seville Cathedral a piece of work on velvet. which also had its day in the i8th century. RIBBON. sometimes shaded. They turn out to be roughly worked in short stitches of parti-coloured silk thread. it is said. I3th century. and is only just caught down at the ends of the loops which go to make leaves and petals. There is. in which SHADED first the forms of certain nondescript animals are at sight puzzlingly prismatic in colour. ART IN NEEDLEWORK. An effect of ribbon work. but it is extremely suggestive. was produced by onlaying narrow strips of card or parchment upon a silken ground. Some beautiful work of its kind was done in ribbon. and of limited use therefore." as it was " " called. which stuff. whence our lady's favour favetir being a narrow ribbon. always more or less in relief upon the easy to crush. but lies on the surface of the satin ground. rather Persian in character. The result is not altogether beautiful. twisted about after the fashion of ribbon.


It would be difficult to set any limit to the directions in which . and spangles. in which we have possibly Bead embroidery is at least the origin of knots. there is embroidery in gold and silver wire. for example. sewn round with silk. allied to the art of the goldsmith. and everywhere savage tribes porcupine quills use seeds. Jewels also were lavished upon the embroidery of bishops' mitres. of animals. feathers. In the Mauritius they use fish-scales. Gold pearls. as old as ancient Egypt. and in default of real stones. allied to the art of the saddler. To return to more civilised work. in North America. But neither it nor ribbon embroidery is of any very serious account. and the teeth and claws . and on leather (Illustration 94). have been used to really beautiful effect (barbaric though it may be) The question almost occurs in Indian work. as well as to vulgar purpose. Passing reference has wire. and eventually beads (or pearls) of glass. stitched in place. imitations in glass. The work has the merit of looking just like what it is. coral and which have been used with admirable discretion. : with what can one not embroider ? In Madras they produce most brilliant embroidery upon muslin with the cases of beetles' wings. Even atoms of lookingglass. been made to other materials to embroider with than thread. shells. gloves and other significant apparel.248 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. were worked over in satin-stitch.

EMBROIDERY MATERIALS. A skilled worker adapts herself to new conditions. impossible to describe them all. out. embroidery 249 may branch Happily. . it is not necessary. and the conditions themselves dictate the necessary modification of the familiar wav.

a "rug needle. For scissors. be sure and have a strong. not the fancy article. and for tacks. Nail scissors would not be amiss but for the roughness of the file on the the blades. will not A good workwoman with too encumber herself but she will not shirk the expense of necessary implements. should be roundish for flat silk." For a thimble. many tools . For their pins. use always steel ones . get the best you can a cheap . those which have been tinned or they will leave afford mark behind them. choose an old one that has been worn quite smooth. for carrying cord or gold thread through . and the best that are made. sharp and pointed pair the surgical instrument. short. and they make way for the thread to pass smoothly through For working in twisted silk. the eye the stuff. the simplest by preference. . stuff. silk for surface " " stitching or interlacing. long . Embroidery needles should have large eyes the is not rubbed in threading them. PINS. .A WORD TO THE WORKER. . For a frame. a blunt tapestry needle is best .

Another way. though you have no intention of doing tambour work. as the work should never extend to the full width of the webbing. down with a point over transfer it may be pricked upon paper and pounced the stuff in chalk or charcoal. A It no economy tambour frame is also useful. is to trace the outline in ink upon fine . to prevent the work is it from giving when drawn to tight. or it (still the outline only) may be stencilled. then to put the laths or screws into the bars. and into the two sides of this border which are to be laced up a stout string should be tacked. might seem necessary. embroidery material (thus FRAMING. TRANSFERordinary ways of transferring a design to embroidery material are well known the outline string The : may paper be traced . bordered or not) into a frame is first to sew it to the webbing (top and bottom). The stuff should first be bordered with strips of linen or strong tape. tightening them fine evenly. and lastly to lace it to the sides with put : The way and a packing needle. 251 but a stand for it is not FRAMES. In any case. should be rather wider than always necessary. In stretching silk (not backed with linen) upon TO STRETCH SILK a frame. . more peculiarly adapted to needlework.A one is WORD TO THE WORKER. the outline marked upon the stuff should be well within what is to be the actual outline of the embroidery when worked. and then traced upon in with a brush or pen. some preliminary care is necessary.

One is gets by this method naturally rather a rotten line upon the ground-stuff. you have a flap of lining. well judge its effect.k no t your thread run a few stitches (presently STARTING m . but a trace of ox-gall. which you raise and turn back when you are at work. to go over the lines again with a ruling pen and Indian On a light stuff it is possible to instead of a pen. and cannot so . On a dark use. but it is enough for all Delicate practical purposes. not only a little gum (arabic). material one must use Chinese white. white glazed lining. If the work is very delicate. tarlatan (leno muslin will do for very coarse work). one may end with a over) worked buttonhole-stitch. run them at the back of the stuff. work It is is easily rubbed and soiled in the working. tacked round the edges on to the stuff. There is less danger of puckering the stuff if .252 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. to be on the right side of the stuff. a hard pencil. cutting through three of them. well to add. KEEPING CLEAN. do not begin by making a AND FINISH. soft. In starting work. In finishing. only reasonable precaution to protect it by a veil or covering of thin. and. you may make instead of one flap a succession of little ones but you see then only a portion of your work at a time. and. you for greater security still. having laid this down upon the stuff. to make it work easily. to which it ink or colour. On this you mark the four lines inclosing the actual embroidery.

253 you hold it over two fingers taut and the thread loose. it opposite to that from which you are new one.A WORD TO THE WORKER. UNDOING. This temptation must be is resisted. (at least). In working with double silk or wool. cut it out and do it again. separate threads through the eye of the needle. If your work is faulty. and . but to pass two THREAD. the thread by this means is not pulled too tight. which passes easily moreover. loosens the stuff and the thread . or puckering sure to result. wants always adaptation to the work it has to do. and there is a natural inclination to pull it in that direction. In working a curved line. say in herring-bone-stitch. a thread runs short. stitch The When finishing direction on working with off. but to take another . In starting the new you naturally bring your needle out as if were a continuation of that last made. The four threads (where these are turned back near the eye) make way through the stuff for the double thread. keeping it PUCKERING. it is better not to go and in it. for example. it often comes handiest to hold the stuff askew. it is better DOUBLE not to double back a single thread. : to drag the thread Unpicking is not so satisfactory back through it it. remember to run the thread in the going to run the stitch. one is bound always to take up a larger piece of stuff on its outside than on its inner edge. Working without a frame. the effect is richer.

stitch In working. If now you lay tin-tacks rather close together. The work. on a drawing-board or other even wooden surface.254 ART IN NEEDLEWORK. When the needlework is done. Beginners find it hard to undo work once done but a really good needlewoman never hesitates about it her one saved . may just as well be . To do this. and. Don't break your thread ever that pulls it out of condition : : cut it always. should dry as possible to get it. do not finish it with a flat iron. and when that is removed. the embroidery. bigotry. for example. instead flat as it is of being nailed on to a board. face downwards. But suppose it is puckered ? In that case. no working-over with stitches to make good that is not playing fair. thought is to get the thing right. is of no further use. The thing to avoid laid right at Moreover. but not to the point of One may finish off darning. and on that. the embroidery will absorb the moisture from it. it is well to keep strictly to the you have chosen. at the edges with a satin stitch. stretch it and damp it. . A rather more daring plan is to damp the back of the stuff with a wet sponge. That finishes it in more senses than one. slightly stretching it. lay a piece of clean calico. upon it a damp cloth. stitches should be once there should be no boggling and botching. Then. nail it down by the tape with strong tape. first tack on to it (as explained on page 251) a frame of is fudging.

Ladies " There is too much in make they protest always. . they may as well be scared Art can do very well without them. Should that thought frighten folk .A WORD TO THE WORKER." Well. but a layer of wadding. In the case of raised embroidery there must be between it and the wood. The damping above described may take the form of a thin paste or stiffening. may they are not prepared to work. as well give themselves up to their play. The desire to make a great show with little work is a snare. not a cloth merely. Those who have really not time to do much. One last word as to thoroughness in needlework. should be satisfied with simple work. but upon silk or other such material this wants tenderly doing. work that. and doing plenty of it. away. hard work. 255 laced to a frame by the tape. if There was no labour shirked in the old work and nothing much worth illustrated in these pages was ever done without work. off at once.


. ARAB work ARTLESS art . . 226. 69. ATTACHMENT BACKSTITCH of cord 178. 226 . 76. . 38 et seq. 222. 53. 125. . 156. 122. . 159. . . . . 129. 41. 43 178 et seq. 126. 134 CHURCH work 248 252 . 56 42. 83. 8. 166. 208 gradation outline 98. . 182. . 152 BASKET patterns BEADS BEGINNING & FINISHING BLANKET-STITCH BRAID-STITCH . 144 et seq. . 152 . tapestry . 158. 145. 136. 25 stitches 12 et seq. 2 BUTTONHOLING (lace) BYZANTINE embroidery CABLE-CHAIN 86 24 CORAL CORD 166. 1 88. . 178. 41.E. 158. 86.. 162. 140.. CARD underlay 162. .INDEX. ANTIQUE APPLIQUE stitch 253 66 CANVAS CANVAS 7. 220. 55 el 182 COMBINATION of stitches COPTIC embroidery 12. .. 216 et seq. 140. 182 D. CLASSIFICATION of stitches 175 . . . . 30. . . CANVAS-STITCH embroidery 22 (See also Oriental-stitch) . 245 .114. . 182 84. 37. 202. 148. 178.. 96. 145. CHENILLE CHINESE embroidery 245 78. CLOTH COLOUR COLOUR . 243 no. 9. 12. 18 61. 248 122 42 (couched) 128. 37. 136. 172. 246 CASHMERE embroidery 228 . 236 124 129. 230 . 144. 118 146.. 185 BULLION-STITCH COLOUR and 165 BUTTONHOLE-STITCH seq.. . . BROAD surfaces BROCADE BULLION (covering) 244 165 75. 224 CASHMERE-STITCH CHAIN-STITCH 83. 103. . 226. PAGE PAGE ADAPTATION of stitch . .

199. DIAPERS 87. 86 (surface) . 196. PAGE PAGE CORD (attachment of) 124 COTTON 243 COUCHED cord 128. . 4 COUNTERCHANGE CRETAN embroidery CRETAN-STITCH . . DESIGN . Oriental) and stitch 220. 246 103. 255 8. 62 et seq. 108. 78 EIGHTEENTH century embroidery . 144.. (See also Ladder-stitch) CREWEL CREWEL-STITCH 86. 244 254. 233 et seq. . 208 et seq. 178. 210 FLAX thread FLEMISH embroidery FLESH FLORENTINE-STITCH . . 182 . 178 22. . .. .. . .. (See also Cushion stitch) . 105. 150.. 88. DOVETAIL-STITCH (See also . 244 142. . . 244 26 et seq. DOUBLE darning . 164. . the needle 192. . 169. 21 ENGLISH embroidery 34... 179 . . 51 . 10. 194. 211 .. DESIGN and stitch. EMBROIDERY and painting 20 i. 134. .. 21 . 103. 121. 144. 136. 83.. . 20.. ...* 26. . . 95.. 178 CREWEL work CROSS-STITCH . . 120. . . 24 244 124.. 21. 37 . 86 84 FIGURE work . et seq. 100. .. 198 et seq. . 47. Plumage . EASTERN embroidery. 244 . 103 12. . traditional 238. 36. 83. 16 buttonhole-stitch 56 .258 INDEX. . 116. .. 22. 244 130 154 12 61 DRAWN work 2. 146 DRAWING with COUCHING . .. 190. 114. . 200 204.. . . et seq. . 114. 106 FELT 243 FIFTEENTH century embroidery . 219. CROSSED 14. 238 DESIGNER and embroiderer 232. 233 FILOSELLE FISHBONE.. . . . (See also Plumage-stitch) CUSHION-STITCH .. DIRECTION of stitch 92. 178. . . 164 (Japanese) (surface) . 122 (reverse) . . . 104 182 Embroidery and Stitches) gold outline 131 elseq. (See . DAMASK DAMPING DARNING 243.i32. . 24. . 106 253 thread . . 36. 206 18. 90.240 FILLING-IN patterns FILO-FLOSS . . EFFECT 36. 202 EMBROIDERY-STITCH . 190. . . 83. CUT-WORK 169 156 FEATHER-STITCH . io8... 164.

GOLD . INDIAN herring-bone INLAY INTERLACING stitches . 18 12. 190. 100 wire . 116. 140.. 24 . . . 47. 120. 210... . PAGE 259 PAGE FLOSS . 192 8. . 245 84 el seq. 95. .. . 251 88. 87 . . 169. 136. . 169. 178 GOLD thread tinted by couching . 182 et seq. 125. 185. GERMANknot-stitch . . ..INDEX. 245 LADDER-STITCH LAID-WORK 112 59. 24. (couched) 131 (raised) 134. 211. . 129. 2 . . 248 LIMITATIONS of embroidery 240 LINE work 176. LEATHER LEATHER on velvet LENGTH of stitch 248 . 41. . 199 245 244 floss knots JAPANESE darning embroidery gold . 154. 182 72 18 GOBELIN-STITCH . . MECHANICAL embroidery 225 MEDIEVAL work 92. 41. 164. . 178. 22. . 176.. .. 83... stitch 44. 253 FRAMING work FRENCH embroidery . 24. . MAGIC-STITCH 41 MATERIAL stitch) (influence of on 88. 118. . 80 245 JEWELS 165. ITALIAN embroidery . . . . 18. 61. . 142.95. . 182 136. 244 86.. 126. INDIAN embroidery . 182 HILDESHEIM cope (the) . . MODELLING 222 . . HERALDIC embroidery HERRINGBONE-STITCH 47 et seq. . . . 154. 77. 178. 72 el seq. 162. 226 . 98. .2 stitches . . 98. 13. . -. 61. 150. 225 GERMAN embroidery no. 22. ITALIAN embroidery (Renaissance) . 222. 142 96. .. . 91 stitch . 156. 18 . 178. . .. . 46. 1. 100. 126 HUNGARIAN embroidery. 100. stitches .178 LINEN HALF-CROSS-STITCH. KNOT LACE LACE stitches . 46. 248 48 153 83 MATERIALS 242 et seq. 16. 244 FORM and 37. . 150 . . 118. 165 131. 114. LONG-AND-SHORT-STITCH 36. 222. . .. 243 20 156 22. . (embroidery on) . 248 GEOMETRIC pattern . et seq. . 138 1 20. 190 MILANESE-STITCH .







230, 231
18, 21





146, 250

MOROCCO embroidery





62, 100, 103, 178, 179, 192, 212

NEEDLE (tambour) NEEDLE pictures NEEDLES NET passing

. .





245 201 250 86





245 116,162

OPUS Anglicanum ORIENTAL embroidery
. . .







et seq.

2, 22,

61, 92, 112, 136, 140,




134, 136, 165
et seq.

153, 226





el seq.,

. .



134, 136, 159
et seq.

83, 178, 182


22, 77, 108, 146,
et seq.



et seq.,





168, 169, 172, 222

158, 178, 184. 185

RENAISSANCE embroidery



126, 128,

41, 92, 142, 154, 166
. .
. .

(double) 146, 185, 186


126 130





24 96, 187 (voided) OUTLINE embroidery 138 stitch 29, 30, 32, 86
. . .


150, 246





(See also Bullion-stitch)

159, 172

. .

. .

71 et


243 178





83, 106, 179


160, 168, 246
. .




" de luxe "
. .
. .



PEARLS 165, 166, 248 PEASANT work 12, 13, 226 PERSIAN embroidery 7, 24,
. . .

on velvet
. .





243 150

24, 91 et seq.,



112, 128, 158,

41, 174, 228

162, 175, 178, 182,

PICTORIAL effect 198, PICTURES (tent-stitch)

199, 201

206, 212, 245


SATIN-STITCH (surface) 98, 282



SATIN-STITCH in the making 91 SCISSORS 250 SERGE 243 SEVENTEENTH century embroidery 14, 166 SHADED silk 246
. .


stuff 12, 13, 16, 18,
24, 88, 91






el seq,

. .



87, 88



34, 176, iSSetseq-

146, 243


95, 124, 125






. .

and design .. 10,238 ,, STITCHES 7 STITCHING over stitching 215 STRETCHING work 251, 254 STRING 159, 160, 162 16 STROKE-STITCH STUFFS 242
. .

. .

. .




135, 138, 166



. .




180, 236, 238



(a plea for)


et seq.

. .

84 98, 182
. .




em185, 199

broidery 22, 120, 125, 142,



7, 130,

84 210

SOLID chain-stitch



43, 44


TAILORS' buttonhole






32, 34
. .

112 SOUDANESE embroidery SPANGLES 169,248

. .






SPANISH embroidery
. .

38, 245




. . .

142, 154, 166, 185

. .



44, 194


1,2, 4, 143, 220
. .
. .

(See also Plait-stitch)



38, 100, 105,

114, 179, 190, 196, 222 SPOT-STITCH 30






130 14, 18



32 95
. .


. .

238, 240












251 22

103, 188.


. .

95, 124, 125



and effect and form





44, 47, 100,

. .

159, 160, 165

118, 176, 211, 253





of stitch







96, 187

VARIETY of method..

148, 158


et seq.

VENETIAN embroidery

150, 222
. .


WEAVING WHITE on white WOOL. (See Crewel) WOOLLEN stuffs




162, 230




















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art linen.y. TORY "Authoritative as coming from a writer whose mastery of the subjects is not to be disputed. art linen." Arcldtect." Science ami Art. anatomising pattern in the way he has done in this manual a way beautiful as well as useful he has performed a service not only to the students of his profession. III. Comprising the above Three ANATOMY OF PATTERN. Skeleton Plans. 6d. Planning." Magazine of Art. many of which have been re-drawn. further revised. . the VI. II. Lewis Day few also who are more gifted as practical decorators . " DESIGN. .MR. sand). ductory. Intro- Contains many apt and well-drawn illustrations . or who hopes yet to do so. The "Drop" Pattern. Containing : I." handsomely in one volume. The Rationale of the Conventional. Where to Stop in Ornament. On THE APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT. net 3^. Some Third Edition (Sixth Thousand). revised. further Superstitions. V. art linen." Athenscuin. 6d. with 41 full-page Illustrations. Appropriate Pattern. " Pattern Dissections. Edition. 6d. Crown Svo. The Use of the Border. ductory. Day has produced a book of sterling value. net Ss. and intelligent treatise on a subject which is more difficult to treat than outsiders are It is a capital little book. 6d. Mr. minds) can avoid gaining a good deal. revised. it is a highly comprehensive. price io. teach and in THE PLANNING OF ORNAMENT. II. Order and Filling of the Circle and other Shapes. price %s. net 3^. "A good artist. Containing." and "APPLICATION OF ORNAMENT. and who is generous in imparting the knowledge he acquired with difficulty. cloth gilt. Intro- . as well as Mr. and a sound thinker." " PLANNING OF ORNA- bound MENT. net 35-. "A who has most worthy supplement to the former work. Day has taken much trouble with the new edition. " the IV. 6d. compact. Practical Pattern IV. There are few men who know the science of their profession better or can .. it . containing 70 Illustrations (Third Thousand). ORNAMENTAL Books. Style The Teaching of the Tool. Crown Svo. price 3*. is Implied by Repetition." Academy. Accident.. LEWIS F. Crown Svo.. III. and Handicraft. with 41 full-page Illustrations. INTRODUCCHAPTERS ON THE ARTS NOT FINE. Third Edition (Fifth Thousand). net 3^. Fourth Edition (Ninth ThouCrown Svo. but also to the public. III. Border. with 48 full-page Illustrations and 7 Woodcuts in the text. revised. VI. Mr. price 3^. .. from which no tyro (it is addressed to improvable likely to think. VI. Forming a Second Prefatory Volume to the Series of Text Books. art linen. THE ANATOMY OF PATTERN.: I. What Containing: I. V. V. II. DAY'S TEXT BOOKS OF ORNAMENTAL DESIGN. IV. and a distinct gain to the art student already applied his art knowledge in a practical manner. price 3^.. 6d. Within Some Alternatives in Design. SOME PRINCIPLES OF EVERY-DAY ART.

" Translated from the Second German Edition. "The book is a mine of wealth even to an ordinary reader. crowded with most part extremely well selected.. Thick crown 8vo. Nature in Ornament. the choice of examples is singularly good. "A Library. book of reference. or one more helpful to Students of Art. The Simplification of Natural Forms. S. Ornament in Nature. a Museum. South Kensington. : I." Science and Art. With 23 1 continued. Treatment. Karlsruhe." Magazine of Art. Designers and others. Containing Illustrations. VIII. and in Art and Tech" Handbook nical Schools.000 Illustrations of the Elements and Application of Decoration to Objects. " A book more beautiful for its illustrations. can ' ' hardly be imagined. "Amongst the best of our few good ornamental designers is Mr.. V. cloth gilt. MEYER. price i2. handsome Third Edition (Fifth Thousand). cloth binding. For the use of Practical Smiths. . Third English Edition. and is probably the best. price 6s. Tradition in Design. X. net \os. S. By F. It is profusely and admirably illustrated. VI. DATS WORKS ORNAMENT. gilt top. As a treasury of ornament drawn to scale in all styles. We A HANDBOOK OF ART SMITHING. Author of of Ornament. we have nothing in England which will not appear as poverty-stricken as compared with Professor Meyer's book. By F." The Studio. . Professor at the School of Applied Art. Lecturer on Applied Art at the Royal College of Art. XIV. its kind that approaches it for comprehensiveness and historical accuracy. STARKIE GARDNER. and his three thousand subjects are gleaned from the finest which the world affords. VII. The Element of the Grotesque. To rival it as a . and well printed. The work is practically an epitome of a hundred Works on Design. Consistency in the Modification of Nature. IV. Symbolic Ornament. and it is hoped will prove of value to all interested in the subject. More Parallels. LEWIS NATURE IN F." Studio. Parallel Renderings. Day." Architect. . for the It is really a most excellent manual. A With an Introduction by 214 J. while to the Student of Art know of no one work of and Archaeology it is simply indispensable as a reference book.r. With 300 Plates. net IQS. IX. . net 5$. revised by HUGH STANNUS. who is the author of several books on ornamental art. an Encyclopaedia and an Art School in one. Thick 8vo. The Elaboration of Natural Forms. 192 Illustrations in the text. Nature in Ornament is the latest of The treatise should be in the hands of every student of ornathese. " The author's acquaintance with ornament amazes. examples of ancient work. MEYER.MR. XII. . Demy "Charmingly produced. . Both the Artistic and Practical Branches of the subject are dealt with." Queen. in price I2S. Still Life in Ornament. cloth. . 6d. richly II. and derived from genuine concrete objects. The quality of the drawings is unusually high. CONTENTS III. 6^f. containing about 3. XL Animals in Ornament. The Volume thus fills the long-existing want of a Manual on Ornamental Ironwork. mental design. full-page Plates and gilt. Lewis F. Introductory. and the Illustrations give selected Examples of Ancient and Modern Ironwork. one must fill a bookcase. A HANDBOOK OF ORNAMENT. 8vo. XIII.

. Cloth gilt. logically or practically. price 28^. in portfolio." Magazine of Art. " The most useful and practical small book on wood-carving we know " . in one volume. By Miss E. wtll selected and very well The Builder. By ELEANOR ROWE. with descriptive Folio. 6d. CRALLAN. Wood Carving will find a mine of inexhaustible treasures in this Each plate is a work of art in French Wood Carvings. Fourth Edition. price is. Is a useful little book." Saturday Review. 4to.. in portfolios. Sections are given with several of the plates. . A Series of Examples printed in Collotype from Photographs specially taken from the Carvings direct. . By W. Series of Being a Drawings from original work of the Fourteenth and " The examples are carefully drawn to a large executed. Large 4to. while every detail is reproduced with a clearness that will prove inTlie Queen. 6d. price los. Builder. Part II. a handsome volume. "A capital manual of instruction in a craft that ought to be most popular. DETAILS OF GOTHIC WOOD CARVING.: Late i5th and Early i6th Century Examples. Part I. of a variety of objects suitable for Wood Carving. Containing 34 large Photo-lithographic Plates. PROGRESSIVE STUDIES AND DESIGNS FOR WOODCARVERS. The Three Series ComPart III. Consisting of five large folding sheets of Illustrations (drawn full size). handsomely bound . By FRANKLYN A. 8vo. . Price $s. price i. giving an interesting and useful series of Examples. whether archaeo" Students of the Art of series of illustrations of . . itself the distribution of light and shade is admirably managed. revised and enlarged. 8vo. enlarged. net 8. 2 $s. 6d. net 225. 1 7th and 1 8th Centuries.FRENCH WOOD CARVINGS FROM THE NATIONAL MUSEUMS.r. REDFARN. With descriptive text. Edited by ELEANOR ROWE. or bound in cloth gilt. . or letterpress." in cloth. little This Work." -The Studio. 40 Illustrations. HINTS ON CHIP CARVING. or bound of.r. and the differences in relief are faithfully indicated. PLOWDEN. is but ." " Needs only to be seen to be purchased by all interested in the craft.: i6th Century Work. known.) By ELEANOR ROWE. Second Edition. full of sound directions and good suggestions. each containing 18 large folio Plates. B. price 125-. : Published with the Sanction of the Science and Art Department. net. valuable to the student. or in cloth. with introductory and descriptive text. With a Preface by Miss ROWE. ANCIENT WOOD AND IRONWORK IN CAMBRIDGE. sewed." Fifteenth Centuries. in paper covers. CLARK. 6d. in paper covers. sewed.. Northern (Class Teaching and other Styles. R. net. HINTS ON WOOD CARVING FOR BEGINNERS. each net. plete. the Letterpress by JOHN WILLIS 29 folio Lithographed Plates drawn to a good scale. price is. price is. in handsome cloth portfolio. Very few copies remain. Illustrated. size .

bound in speckled cloth. With the 2 los... Chancellor secures the gratitude of all admirers of the consummate craftsmanship of the past. cloth. containing 200 Plates of Designs of Chairs. Queen Anne. of reference for . article approved Furniture in the newest and most complete facsimile reproduction of this rare work. Large nental work. all having an expresexamples sion and individuality of their own qualities that are so conspicuously lacking in the furniThe Morning Post. cloth. Library Book Cases. price Containing in all Appendix and 434 pages and EXAMPLES OF OLD FURNITURE. Darly. Sofas. Chippendale. net 4to. 410.) SHERATON'S CABINET-MAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S DRAWING-BOOK. old style. Folio.net. which every admirer of the author and period should possess. of drawings of old furniture. since no artist of importance is unrepresented. Drawn and described by ALFRED ERNEST CHANCELLOR. &c. Small folio. Containing 40 Photo-lithographic Plates exhibiting some 100 examples of Elizabethan.7 HEPPLEWHITE'S CABINET-MAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S GUIDE or Repository of Designs for every . Beds and Couches.^ Cabinet-makers." CHIPPENDALE'S THE GENTLEMAN AND CABINETMAKER'S DIRECTOR. &c. ENGLISH AND FOREIGN. net. Tables.) Original copies when met with taste. Hepplewhite. and all great English designers and cabinetfour. price bound of the scarce Third Edition. 2 ioi-. Pergolesi. and an interesting variety of ContiWith historical and descriptive notes. Shearer. ALDAM HEATON. It forms a very acceptable work. A complete facsimile of the 3rd and rarest Edition. Stove Grates. 122 Plates. price "In publishing his admirable collection i is. Richardson. A beautiful replica. &c. large folio. price (1794. \ 5*. Stuart. are selected from a variety of sources with fine discrimination. containing nearly 300 charming Designs on 128 Plates. By J. This work forms an encyclopaedic and almost inexhaustible treasury all Furniture Designers. Johnson. HU FURNITURE AND DECORATION IN ENGLAND DURING THE XVIIIxH CENTURY. Clock Cases. rare Accompaniment complete. Adam. each 1 of net. (1762. gilt. Sheraton. net. and a fair selection is in every case given of his work. gilt. Mr. Georgian and Chippendale furniture . Two volumes. A complete Facsimile Reproduction in half-cloth. Building Kews. Interior Decorator." ture of our own day. Painters.. & J. two parts. price makers of the period. bound in Containing upwards of 150 plates of photographic reproductions from the published designs of R. strongly ^3 15^. Cipriani. of Household A " fetch from 17 to 1 8 .

Paper c.A. Intarsia Work. By JAS. Architect. &c. from drawings by T. &c. to the XVth Century. price i $s. 6d. F. K. and about 500 smaller Illustrations in the Text. With an Introduction. price 12*. cloth. A Screens. price DECORATIVE WROUGHT IRONWORK OF THE AND i8TH 1 CENTURIES.I. WALL PAPERS. Designs by Dr. cloth back. price iSs. half-bound. and Illustrated all representing By T. EMBROIDERIES.A. Imperial analytical text. A GRAMMAR OF JAPANESE ORNAMENT AND DESIGN. gilt top. 6d. Taken from Buildings of the Xllth Containing 76 Lithographic Plates. some printed in Colours.s REMAINS OF ECCLESIASTICAL WOOD -WORK. and 79 Woodcut Illustrations. by G. Book-Boards. price i8s. F. With over 50 fullpage Plates. ROBINSON. by 65 Plates. INLAYS. containing 21 FLAT ORNAMENT : A PATTERN BOOK FOR DESIGNERS OF TEXTILES. Practical Treatise on the Art and Craft of Plastering and Modelling. net 15^. cloth. 410..I. W. &c.) 4to. net.S... "This new and in many senses remarkable treatise unquestionably contains an immense amount of valuable first-hand information. EBBETTS. treating of the History of the Art. drawn from the Originals. price los. Con- 6 large Lithographic Plates. containing 600 pages of text. Tile Pavements. with Text. 150 Plates. A . Classes of Natural and Conventional Forms. boards. exhibiting upwards of 500 Historical Examples of Textiles. Stalls. Thick 4to. . (published at Royal 2 2s.B. F. Including full descriptions of the various Tools. Embroideries. J. .B. EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH MEDIAEVAL FOLIAGE AND COLOURED DECORATION. Plates beautifully engraved on Copper. T.R. Materials.. in elegant cloth binding. . many in Gold and Colours. i i8s. A The Builder." .. Balustrades. Series of Examples of Pulpits. 4to. Millar on Plastering' may be expected to be the standard authority on the subject for many years to come. cloth back. By WILLIAM MILLAR.R. CUTLER. net. Archt. With some Hangings. taining .. illustrating 70 English examples of Screens.. net 8s. Panels. &c. FISCHBACH. net 2os.A. descriptive. TALBOT BURY. . ' . Imperial 410 boards. COLLING. By D. . 2 6s. 6d. Grilles. Roofs. PLASTERING PLAIN AND DECORATIVE. net los. truly monumental work. with introductory. Folio. Processes and Appliances employed.

bound in boards. : OF FIVE Plants. Animals. : A SERIES and III. IN CHARACTERISTIC AND LIFE-LIKE ATTITUDES. Books." Magazine of Art. 1. Containing over 600 most original and effective Designs for Diaper Ornament. 1 BOOK A DELIGHTFUL SERIES OF STUDIES OF MOST BIRDS. old style. net. " In attitude and or soaring.500 engraved curios. the renowned bookseller. net. and very few now remain. 7$. &c. Flowers. &c. whether perching swooping or brooding. net. Quaritch. STARKIE GARDNER. I. 8vo. and form an inexhaustible field of design. BOOK Containing over most ingenious Geometric Patterns of &c. &c. price A NEW SERIES OF BIRD AND FLOWER STUDIES. net. Bound in fancy IQJ. These books exhibit the varied charm and originality of conception of Japanese Ornament. SURROUNDED WITH APPROPRIATE FOLIAGE AND FLOWERS. Balconies. giving the base lines to the design..A A NEW BOOKE OF DRAWINGS OF IRONWORKS. of which the most part hath been wrought at the Royall Building of Hampton Court.) Containing 20 folio Plates. containing numerous exceedArtist in Japan. fancy covers.. ARTISTS' in SKETCH Vol.. also Birds. Fans. II. a Plants. ingly Price IQS. Flowers. 8vo. Only 150 copies were printed for England. price 2S. also artistic Miniature Picturesque Sketches. price 255. : Drawings of c\:c Natural Sccn. 6d. gesture and expression. An Folio. Vol. V. 8vo. With Introductory Note and Descriptions of the Plates by J.-ry. comprising Conventional Details of Plants. (Sold by the author in London. the acknowledged leading living In 3 Books. 1 2 mo. Fishes and Marine Animals. &c. Key Patterns. Petals. fancy covers. printed in tints. drawn Decorative Spirit. : Sketches of Insects. I. VOLUMES. Frontispieces. IV. Scenes from Japanese Lite. net. 1693. and Circles. Leaves. Vol. sortes Facsimile reproduction of one of the rarest and most remarkable Books of Designs ever published in England Invented and Desined by JOHN TIJOU. are admirable. &c. &c. Vol. Oblong II. these Birds. net. Landscapes. Pannells. BY WATANABE SIETEI. BAIREI KONO. Oblong 2 mo. price 2S. Vol. JAPANESE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF DESIGN. Staircases. each containing 36 pages of highly artistic and decorative Illustrations.. Containing severall of Iron Worke. . ALL FOR THE USE OF THEM THAT WORKE IRON IN PERFECTION AND WITH ART. : drawn for Designers. By In three the celebrated Japanese Artist. as Gates. original copy is priced at ^48 by Mr. BOOKS. Artistic Sketches in various tints. Birds. fancy covers. Medallions. paper covers.

revised. price Folio. 8vo. Spiers has done excellent . " Should rank amongst the best architectural writings of the day. With handsomely bound in cloth . revised lecture.I. though this was a matter of no small difficulty.B.. B. THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE GREEK. .R. By ANDREW N. price 125. and the arrangement of the subject is excellent. : A most useful work for architectural students. . For greater excellence with the object in hand there one more persp cuous. " Third Edition. " For the . . Professor Banister Fletcher's work will fill a void in our literature. F. F. and intelligible reading. short descriptive text.B. .R. . revised and enlarged.A. BATSFORD. Glasgow School of Art. containing 26 Plates. in Stone.10 THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE RENAISSANCE ITALY. and will find in it quite as much as he is likely to retain in his memory. and his notes on the plates are very appropriate and useful. i2s. Director of Archi Second Edition. and the architectural student As in search of any particular fact will readily find it in this most methodical work.I. RENAISSANCE IN SPAIN. 6d. Containing 60 beautiful Plates. veryfully illustrated. taining 300 pages." The Architect. It is a pleasure to have so good a record of such admirable Architectural Drawing.A. "As a synopsis of architectural dates and styles. mostly from Third large Photographs.. LONDON.R. Being a Comparative View of the Historical Styles from the Earliest Period. B. and become a most useful manual. 2 2S. . mostly reproduced from Photographs. net. firm and delicate. in is so not A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE CRAFTSMAN AND AMATEUR. B. and Metal. net los. J.A.I. It is affords easy " We know of no book which furnishes such information and such illustrations compact and attractive a form. and 100 Illustrations in text. British A rchitect. F. and other Illustrations in the text. with 115 Collotype Plates.. price los.I. " The general reader will read the book with not less profit than the student.I.. 6d. 6d. ANDERSON.. By W.. and B." The Times. Professor of Architecture in King's ConCollege." The Edinburgh A " " Large 8vo. By BANISTER FLETCHER. PHENE SPIERS. A. A. London.I. cloth gilt. Cr. ROMAN AND ITALIAN. net 8s.S. . reproduced by Photo-lithography and Photo Process from the author's drawings." '1 he Times. HIGH HOLBORN. drawing and production of this book one can have no words but praise. Review. "We . FOR THE STUDENT. cloth. service in editing this work." . The book the work of a scholar taking a large view of his subject. 6d. Mr. FLETCHER." Journal R.. 4to. ARCHITECTURE AND ORNAMENT A Series of Examples selected from the purest executed between the years 1500-1560. complete as it well can be." The Building News." British Architect. A.R.A. T. price A delightful and scholarly work .. shall be amazed if it is not immediately recognised and adopted as par excellence the student's manual of the history of architecture." The Building News. B. Edited with Notes by R. . of Perspective Views and Geometrical Drawings. B. 94. IN General View for the Use of Students and Others. and details. A. Wood. cloth gilt. 2 ios. Edition. A. net gilt. . Containing 64 full-page Plates. and enlarged. F. free.R. PRENTICE. A.


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