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Chapter 4 Syntax I. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False: 1.

Syntax is a subfield of linguistics that studies the sentence structure of la nguage, including the combination of morphemes into words. 2. Grammatical sentences are formed following a set of syntactic rules. 3. Sentences are composed of sequence of words arranged in a simple linear order , with one adding onto another following a simple arithmetic logic. 4. Universally found in the grammars of all human languages, syntactic rules tha t comprise the system of internalized linguistic knowledge of a language speaker a re known as linguistic competence. 5. The syntactic rules of any language are finite in number, but there is no lim it to the number of sentences native speakers of that language are able to produ ce and comprehend. 6. In a complex sentence, the two clauses hold unequal status, one subordinating the other. 7. Constituents that can be substituted for one another without loss of grammati cality belong to the same syntactic category. 8. Minor lexical categories are open because these categories are not fixed and new members are allowed for. 9. In English syntactic analysis, four phrasal categories are commonly recognize d and discussed, namely, noun phrase, verb phrase, infinitive phrase, and auxili ary phrase. 10. In English the subject usually precedes the verb and the direct object usual ly follows the verb. 11. What is actually internalized in the mind of a native speaker is a complete list of words and phrases rather than grammatical knowledge. 12. A noun phrase must contain a noun, but other elements are optional. 13. It is believed that phrase structure rules, with the insertion of the lexico n, generate sentences at the level of D-structure. 14. WH-movement is obligatory in English which changes a sentence from affirmati ve to interrogative. II. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the let ter given: 15. A s________ sentence consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate and stands alone as its own sentence. 16. A s______ is a structurally independent unit that usually comprises a number of words to form a complete statement, question or command. 17. A s______ may be a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence that usually precedes the predicate. 18. The part of a sentence which comprises a finite verb or a verb phrase and wh ich says something about the subject is grammatically called p_________. 19. A c_________ sentence contains two, or more, clauses, one of which is incorp orated into the other. 20. In the complex sentence, the incorporated or subordinate clause is normally called an e_______ clause. 21. Major lexical categories are o_________ categories in the sense that new wor ds are constantly added. 22. That component that precedes the head of a phrase is termed as s_________ in syntax. 23. There is no limit to the number of c___________ categories that can appear p rior to a conjunction. III. There are four given choices for each statement below. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement: 24. A sentence is considered ____ when it does not conform to the grammatical kno wledge in the mind of native speakers. A. right B. wrong C. grammatical D. ungrammatical 25. Phrase structure rules have ____ properties. A. recursive B. grammatical C. social D. functi onal 26. Phrase structure rules allow us to better understand _____________.

A. B. C. D. 27.

how words and phrases form sentences. what constitutes the grammaticality of strings of words how people produce and recognize possible sentences All of the above. Syntactic movement is dictated by rules traditionally called ________. A. transformational rules B. generative rules C. phrase structure rule s D. x-bar theory 28. The sentence structure is ________. A. only linear B. Only hierarchical C. complex D. both li near and hierarchical 29. The syntactic rules of any language are ____ in number. A. large B. small C. finite D. infinite 30. The ________ rules are the rules that group words and phrases to form gramma tical sentences. A. lexical B. morphological C. linguistic D. com binational 31._______ rules may change the syntactic representation of a sentence. A. Generative B. Transformational C. X-bar D. P hrase structure IV. Define the following terms: 32. syntax 33. Sentence 34. syntactic categories 35. subcategorization 36. transformational rules 37. D-structure V. Answer the following questions: 38. What syntactic mechanisms are involved in deriving a surface structure from a deep structure? 39. What is a coordinate structure and what properties does it have? 40. Draw a tree diagram for each of the following sentences so as to reveal thei r internal structures: 1) Will you tell me what this is about? 2) Scar and his hyena allies execute a sly plan which hurt Simba deeply. 3) I m afraid that I don t really know you. 4) I made the mistake of being honest with you. 5) She was looking indifferently at the passing cars. 6) The wonderful thing about living is that this sort of thing can happen. 7) He asked me if I was expecting the visitor that came from the countryside.