Anthropometry (Greek anthropos (άνθρωπος - "man") and metron (μέτρον - "measure") therefore "measurement of man") refers to the measurement

of the human individual. An early tool of physical anthropology, it has been used for identification, for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. Craniometry is a section of anthropometry that exclusively studies craniums. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design,ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in life styles, nutrition and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic), and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. [edit] In 1784 Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, who wrote many essays on comparative anatomy for the Académie française, published his Memoir on the Different Positions of the Occipital Foramen in Man and Animals(Mémoire sur les différences de la situation du grand trou occipital dans l’homme et dans les animaux). Six years later Pieter Camper (1722–1789), distinguished both as an artist and as an anatomist, published some lectures that laid the foundation of much subsequent work. Camper invented the "facial angle", a measure meant to determine intelligence among various species. According to this technique, a "facial angle" was formed by drawing two lines: one horizontally from the nostril to the ear; and the other perpendicularly from the advancing part of the upper jawbone to the most prominent part of the forehead. Camper's measurements of facial angle were first made to compare the skulls of men with those of other animals. Camper claimed that antique statues presented an angle of 90°, Europeans of 80°, Black people of 70° and the orangutan of 58°. Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius (1796–1860) first used the cephalic index in physical anthropology to classify ancient human remains found in Europe. He classed skulls in three main categories; "dolichocephalic" (from the Ancient Greekkephalê, head, and dolikhos, long and thin), "brachycephalic" (short and broad) and "mesocephalic" (intermediate length and width). Scientific research was continued by Étienne Geoffroy SaintHilaire (1772–1844) and Paul Broca (1824–1880), founder of the Anthropological Society in France in 1859. Paleoanthropologists still rely upon craniofacial anthropometry to identify species in the study of fossilized hominid bones. Specimens of Homo erectus and athletic specimens of Homo sapiens, for example, are virtually identical from the neck down but their skulls can easily be told apart. Samuel George Morton (1799–1851), whose two major monographs were the Crania Americana (1839), An Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of America and Crania Aegyptiaca (1844) concluded that the ancient Egyptians were not African but white and that caucasians and negroes were already distinct three thousand years ago. Since The Bible indicated that Noah's Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat only a thousand years before this Noah's sons could not account for every race on earth. According to Morton's theory of polygenism the races had been separate from the start. Nott and George Gliddon carried Morton's ideas further.
[2] [1]

Josiah C.

Charles Darwin, who thought

Cranioscopy was later renamed phrenology (phrenos: mind. At the turn of the 19th century. according to which characteristics of the body can be translated into characteristics of the mind. In 1856 workers found in a limestone quarry the skull of a Neanderthal man. a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity. and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head. Craniometry was also used in phrenology. Intelligence testing was compared with anthropometrics. opposed Nott and Gliddon in his 1871 The Descent of Man. Eugène Dubois' (1858–1940) discovery in 1891 in Indonesia of the "Java Man". he also believed that criminality could be predicted according to the body type. first expressed in On the Origin of Species (1859). scopos . and developed the "Pithecometra principle" which stated that man and ape were descended from a common ancestor. logos: study) by his student Johann Spurzheim(1776– 1832). During the 1940s anthropometry was used by William Sheldon when evaluating his somatotypes. arguing for monogenism. thinking it to be the remains of a bear. Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) became famous for his "recapitulation theory". Morton claimed that he could judge intellectual capacity by cranial capacity. Gall and Spurzheim's physiognomical System. By comparing skeletons of apes to man T.the single-origin hypothesis essential to evolutionary theory. Inspired by Cesare Lombroso's criminal anthropology. [edit]Forensic anthropometry Further information: Forensic anthropology and Anthropological criminology Forensic anthropologists study the human skeleton in a legal setting. the first specimen ofHomo erectus to be discovered. according to which each individual mirrors the evolution of the whole species during his life. which purported to determine character. Huxley(1825–1895) backed up Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. A basically anthropometric division of body types into the categories endomorphic. ectomorphic and mesomorphic derived from Sheldon'ssomatotype theories is today popular among people doing weight training. a method to determine the personality and development of mental and moral faculties on the basis of the external shape of the skull. Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1822) developed "cranioscopy" (Ancient Greek kranion "skull". . Forensic anthropologists utilize the Fordisc program to help in the interpretation of craniofacial measurements in regards to ancestry/race determination."vision"). Samuel George Morton (1799–1851) collected hundreds of human skulls from all over the world and started trying to find a way to classify them according to some logical criterion. They gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Karl Fuhlrott who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of a decedent through various skeletal analyses that produce a biological profile." These all claimed the ability to predict traits or intelligence and were intensively practised in the 19th and the first part of the 20th century. demonstrated mankind's deep ancestry outside Europe. giving rise to the discipline of paleoanthropology. The discovery was jointly announced in 1857. personality traits. who wrote extensively on "Drs. H. A large skull meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity.

width of cheeks and length of the right ear and theleft foot. The system was soon adapted to police methods: it prevented impersonation and could demonstrate wrongdoing. bust (torso from head to seat when seated). Bertillon's hope was that. Previously police could only record general descriptions. Bertillon originally measured variables he thought were independent . remain fairly constant throughout adult life. height. and an angular and sloping eye orbit shape. independently of names. notable facial projection in the jaw and mouth area (prognathism). as the result of a fresh inquiry ordered by the Home Office. People with considerable African ancestry typically have a broad and round nasal cavity. a triangularshaped palate. and a rounded and non-sloping eye orbit shape. such as the dimensions of bony structures in the body. genetics. England followed suit when in 1894 a committee was sent to Paris to investigate the methods and its results. People with considerable East Asian ancestry are often characterized by a relatively small prognathism. where measurements were abandoned in 1897 after the finger print system was adopted throughout British India. and a square or rectangular eye orbit shape. stretch (distance from left shoulder to middle finger of raised right arm). It was possible. relied upon finger prints alone. through the use of measurements. It was also difficult to tell whether individuals arrested were first-time . Three years later England followed suit and.but Galton had realized that both were the result of a single causal variable (in this case. by exhaustion. stature) and developed the statistical concept of correlation. no dam or nasal sill. tent-shaped nasal bones. a relatively small face. an oval-shaped nasal cavity. "Bertillonage" was before long represented in Paris by a collection of some 100. He concluded that when these measurements were made and recorded systematically every individual would be distinguishable. latterly. middle finger and cubit (elbow to tip of middle finger).000 cards and became popular in several other countries' justice systems. to sort the cards on which these details were recorded (together with a photograph) until a small number produced the measurements of the individual sought. tower-shaped nasal bones. In 1883 in France the savant Alphonse Bertillon introduced a system of identification that was named after him. Bertillonage exhibited certain defects and was gradually supplanted by the system of finger prints and. Bertillon's goal was a way of identifying recidivists ("repeat offenders"). The system involved ten measurements. no nasal sill or dam. reporting favorably on the use of measurements for primary classification but also recommending the partial adoption of the system of finger prints suggested by Francis Galton and currently in use in Bengal. a "silled" nasal aperture. People with considerable European ancestry generally have relatively no prognathism. tear-shaped nasal cavity.One part of a biological profile is a person's racial/ancestral affinity. Quonset hutshaped nasal bones. a rectangular-shaped palate. a horseshoeshaped palate. a narrow. a set of identifying numbers could be entered into a filing system installed in one single cabinet. Photography of criminals had become commonplace but there was no easy way to sort the many thousands of photographs except by name. [4] Many of these characteristics are only a matter of frequency among particular races: their presence or absence of one or more does not automatically classify an individual into a racial group. head length crown to forehead and widthtemple to temple. based on the finding that several measures of physical features.such as forearm length and leg length .

Bernier based his racial classification on physical type which included hair shape. dolichocephalic" to the "brachycephalic" (short and broad-headed) race. hierarchized. Nott translated Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853– 1855). Linguistics can follow the movement of languages and archaeology can follow the movement of artefact styles but neither can tell whether a culture's spread was due to a source population's physically migrating or to a destination population's simply copying the technology and learning the language."The Aryan and his social role") divided humanity into various. and privileged the "Aryan" race. who in L'Aryen et son rôle social (1899 . alleged descendants of the Nordic Franks. Turkish. Protestant. [edit]Physiognomy Main article: Physiognomy Physiognomy claimed a correlation between physical features (especially facial features) and character traits. scanty beard or baldness. Linnaeus based a similar racial classification scheme. Lombroso tried to recognize criminals by measurements of their bodies. It was made famous by Cesare Lombroso(1835–1909). flattened or upturned nose. Anthropometry was used extensively by anthropologists studying human and racial origins: some attempted racial differentiation and classification.) and the "Homo mediterraneus" [5][6] . and members of the aristocracy. He concluded that skull and facial features were clues to genetic criminality and that these features could be measured with craniometers and calipers with the results developed into quantitative research. which have been current since Boulainvilliers (1658–1722) contrasted theFrançais (French people). handleshaped ears. insensitivity to pain. different " races". nose shape and skin color. Between these Vacher de Lapouge identified the "Homo europaeus (Teutonic. long arms. high cheekbones. who claimed to be able to scientifically identify links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender. skilled measurers were needed. often seeking ways in which certain races were inferior to others.offenders. one prominent figure being Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854–1936).). hard shifty eyes. Carolus Linnaeus and Blumenbach had examined multiple observable human characteristics in search of a typology. Science has tested many theories aligning race and personality. François Bernier. considered to be indigenous Gallo-Roman people subordinated by right of conquest. etc. the founder of anthropological criminology. race and human origins Phylogeography is the science of identifying and tracking major human migrations. forward projection of jaw. based not on colour but on climatic conditions and geographic location. A few of the 14 identified traits of a criminal included largejaws. Theories of scientific racism became popular. Instruments employed were costly and liable to break down. hawk-like noses or fleshy lips. especially in prehistoric times. low sloping forehead. errors were frequent and all but irremediable and it was necessary to repeat measurements three times to arrive at a mean result. [edit]Phylogeography. spanning from the "Aryan white race. As anthropologists gained access to methods of skull measure they developed racial classification based on skull shape. The originator of the concept of a "born criminal" and arguing in favor of biological determinism. and so on. etc. a founding work of racial segregationism that made three main divisions between races. to the Third Estate. the "Homo alpinus" (Auvergnat.

also citing Aurel von Törok's 1895 work. contra Gould. and Africans.347 for white caucasians and 1. "Homo africanus" (Congo. the reverse of the bias that Dr. (1909). stated in the same congress that the people of Europe. does not necessarily imply differences in [13][14] intelligence: women tend to have smaller brains than men yet have more neural complexity and loading in certain areas of the brain. Evolution and Behavior (1995). In 1873 Paul Broca (1824–1880) found the same pattern described by Samuel Morton's Crania Americana by weighing brains at autopsy. etc. (1934) and Vint (1934). members of the school of cultural anthropology of Franz Boas began to use anthropometric approaches to discredit the concept of fixed biological race. In Crania Americana Morton claimed that Caucasians had the biggest brains. reanalyzed Gould's retabulation in 1989. who basically proclaimed the failure of craniometry. published a study that concluded that “Morton did not manipulate his data to support his preconceptions. and argued that Samuel Morton. be them German. Andalus. however. Researches on skulls and skeletons eventually helped liberate 19th century European science from its ethnocentric bias. J. belonged to a "mixture of various races. Philippe Rushton.). [9] [1] [8] This school of physical anthropology generally Virchow later rejected measure of skulls as legitimate means of taxonomy.. 1. Indians were in the middle with an average of 82 cubic inches and Negroes had the smallest brains with an average of 78 cubic inches. But in Germany Rudolf Virchow's study led him to denounce "Nordic mysticism" in the 1885 Anthropology Congress in Karlsruhe. in The Races of Europe(1899). "Alpine" and "Mediterranean") was also used by William Z. Other historical studies alleging a Black-White difference in brain size include Bean (1906). A subsequent study by John Michael concluded that "[c]ontrary to Gould's [11] interpretation. had shown a pattern of decreasing brain size proceeding from East Asians. His racial classification ("Teutonic". in his 1839 book Crania Americana. [12] Difference in brain size. averaging 87 cubic inches. Pearl.” They identified and remeasured half of the skulls used in Morton’s reports. though. Boas used the cephalic index to show the influence of environmental factors." furthermore declaring that the "results of craniology" led to "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race". which owns Morton’s collection. Ripley (1867–1941) who. finding that in only 2% of cases did Morton’s measurements differ significantly from their own and that these errors either were random or gave a larger than accurate volume to African skulls. .(Napolitano. Italian.268 for black africans. a collaborator of Virchow." In 2011 physical anthropologists at the University of Pennsylvania. psychologist and author of the controversial work Race. Josef Kollmann. Florida) was excluded from discussion.364 cm³ for East Asians. [10] [9] Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) claimed Samuel Morton had fudged data and "overpacked" the skulls. made a map of Europe according to the cephalic index of its inhabitants. Gould imputed to Morton. Morton's research was conducted with integrity. During the 1920s and 1930s. Rushton alleged an average endocranial volume of 1. Vacher de Lapouge became one of the leading inspirations of Nazi anti-semitism and Nazi ideology. English or French.. Paul Kretschmer quoted an 1892 discussion with him concerning these criticisms. [7] Nazi Germany relied on anthropometric measurements to distinguish Aryans from Jews and many forms of anthropometry were used for the advocacy of eugenics. Mall. went into decline during the 1940s. Europeans.

Finally. Nordics generally tall-medium height/mesocepahlic-dolichocephalic). Because of the inconsistencies in the old three-part system (Caucasoid. doliocephalic) breadth of nasal aperture.  Caucasoid characterized by a tall skull with a cephalic index in the mesocephalic range (Mediterraneans generally high/dolichocephalic. Dinarics generally high/brachycephalic. brow ridge size and forehead slope. absent browridges. Coon adopted a five-part scheme. Negroid). receded zygomas and wide nasal aperture. which is found at low latitudes around the globe and is a product of adaptation. and Beals et al. nasal root height. Coon.261 brains at autopsy. Coon. North Africa. South Asia. 1962). who measured 1. Thomas Huxley considered India to fall in this group's [20] craniofacial measurements. most educated areas and colder climates. (1984). Z. finding the same East Asian → European → African pattern but warning against using the findings as indicative of racial traits. Central Asia.000 skulls.  Australoid. and Northeast Africa (Ethiopia. [16] He also compared equatorial Africans from the poorest and least educated areas of [16] Africa with Asians from the wealthiest. used the technique for his The Origin of Races (New York: Knopf. a twentieth century craniofacial anthropometrist. and Somalia). a craniofacial type fell between Negroid and Caucasoid was added. (1980). causes of similarity by genogroup and ecotype are hopelessly confounded". Observable craniofacial differences included. Z. Using this skull-based categorization [who?] anthropologists identified three or four racial groups. jaw thickness. small nasal aperture and projecting zygomas. he split "Australoid" from "Mongoloid" along a line roughly similar to the modern distinction between sinodonts in the north and sundadonts in the south. [18] previous work by Rushton showed appreciable differences in cranial capacity between North This is consistent with the findings of Z. Americans of different race. who measured approximately 20. Mongoloid characterized by a medium height/brachycephalic skull. Mongoloid. head shape (mesocephalic. "If one merely lists such means by geographical region or race. With the addition of this category. large brow ridge and narrow nasal aperture. sagittal crest appearance.Similar claims were previously made by Ho et al. receded zygomas. He discarded the term "Negroid" as misleading since it implies skin-tone. Alpines generally medium height/brachycephalic. Carleton S. Cernovsky that people from different climates tend to have minor differences in brain size.  Negroid characterized by a short dolichocephalic skull shape. and defined skulls typical of sub-Saharan Africa as "Congoid" and those ofSouthern Africa as "Capoid". He defined "Caucasoid" as a pattern of skull measurements and other phenotypical characteristics typical of populations in Europe. He argued that these races had  . brachycephalic. to Z. Cernovsky Rushton's own study [17] According though a shows that the average cranial capacity of North [16] American blacks is similar to that of Caucasians from comparable climatic zones. who generally have smaller craniums as people from hot climates often have slightly smaller crania. Ripley's The Races of Europe was rewritten in 1939 by Harvard physical anthropologist Carleton S. West Asia. [15] Rushton's findings have been criticized for confusing African-Americans with equatorial Africans.

it is likely that it would not be or historical periods. Noric and Armenoid. while some of his other works were discounted because he would not agree with the evidence brought forward byFranz Boas. Neo-Danubian. there is no objective test that will identify their US endogamous group membership without an interview. Mediterranean. Dinaric. Leonard Lieberman and others. On a micro evolutionary level anthropologists use anthropometric variation to reconstruct small-scale population history.g. which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to have shorter. Irano-Afghan. developing into Homo Sapiens at different periods of time. however. resulting in different levels of civilization. following Bergmann's rule. This typological view of race. [22] [23] Although craniofacial race categorization based on skull indices is unambiguous categorized using alternative methods yield different groups. As more migrate and Americans become more racially mixed such craniofacial identification is of reduced utility. Human populations exhibit climatic variation patterns similar to those of other large-bodied mammals. [21] In The Races of Europe (1939) Coon classified Caucasoids into racial sub-groups named after regions or archaeological sites such as Brünn.g. Lappish. Measurements of the foot are used in the manufacture and sale of footwear: measurement devices may be used either to determine a retail shoe size directly (e. Coon eventually resigned from the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Stephen Jay Gould. stubbier limbs than those in warm climates. Atlanto-Mediterranean. Hallstatt. Alpine. The United States has group ancestries from geographically distant locations which have generally remained endogamous. This raised considerable controversy and led the American Anthropological Association to reject his approach without mentioning him by name. [30] . Keltic. For instance John Relethford's studies of early twentiethcentury anthropometric data from Ireland show that the geographical patterning of body proportions still exhibits traces of the invasions by the English and Norse centuries ago. and given that they have precisely the same AfroEuropean mix of ancestries (one "mulatto" grandparent). Borreby. About one-third of "white" Americans have detectable African DNA markers [25] and about five percent of "black" Americans have no detectable "negroid" traits at [26] all. ALINEr). Nordic. [29] anthropometry and biometrics Anthropometric studies today are conducted to investigate the evolutionary significance of differences in body proportion between populations whose ancestors lived in different environments. and Allen's rule.developed independently of each other over the past half-million years. Richard Lewontin. reliable for populations from other countries [edit]Modern [28] [27] While this method produces useful results for the population of the United States. craniofacial or genetic. Scientists working for private companies and government agencies conduct anthropometric studies to determine a range of sizes for clothing and other items. Tronder. was starting to be seen as out-of-date at the time of publication. making them nonconcordant [24] races Neither will the method pin-point geographic origins reliably due to variation in skulls within a geographic region. black and Hispanic. East Baltic. Given three Americans who self-identify and are socially accepted as white. the Brannock Device) or to determine the detailed dimensions of the foot for custom manufacture (e. which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to be larger than ones in warm climates. Ladogan.

The US Military has conducted over 40 anthropometric surveys of U. SizeMexico & Size Thailand. The aim is to establish whether The Body Volume Index has the potential to be used as a long-term computer based anthropometric measurement for health care. followed by the discovery of the DNA code. With the discovery that many blood proteins vary consistently among populations. A global collaborative study to examine the uses of three-dimensional scanners for health care was launched in March 2007. Anthropometric measurements also have uses in medical anthropology and epidemiology. weight. In 2001 the UK conducted the largest sizing survey using scanners up to date. including the 1988 Army Anthropometric Survey (ANSUR) of men and women with its 240 measures.) and medical outcomes. imaging techniques such as MRI. The Body Benchmark Study [2] will investigate the use of threedimensional scanners to calculate volumes and segmental volumes of an individual body scan. which can be used on living persons. Direct measurements involve examinations of brains from corpses. the latter still ongoing. [31] Today anthropometry can be performed with three-dimensional scanners. phylogeographers largely switched away from craniofacial [citation needed] anthropometry whenever DNA is available. notably SizeUSA. and to analyze the evolution of the human species in archeology. Since then several national surveys have followed in the UK's pioneering steps. or more recently.S. and used their bodies as paintbrushes. Size UK showed that the nation had become taller and heavier but not as much as expected. etc. Military personnel between 1945 and 1988. the average weight for women had gone up from 62 to 65 kg. Since 1951. Such measurements is used research on neuroscience and intelligence. for example in helping to determine the relationship between various body measurements (height. the invention of the polymerase chain reaction that amplifies trace amounts of DNA. Anthropometric measurements are frequently used to diagnosemalnutrition in resource-poor clinical settings. when the last women's survey had taken place. Statistical data from these surveys encompasses over 75. percentage body fat. Note 1 • Eye height variance for the average range of male to female operators • Design criteria used for design of a 6” vertically adjustable VDT mounting apparatus Average Male Average Person Average Female 5% Female .000 individuals. and the decoding of the human genome. In art Yves Klein termed anthropometries his performance paintings where he covered nude women with paint. Brain volume data and other craniometric data is used in mainstream science to compare modern-day animal species.

9 42.6 21.4 38.4 24.6 40.5 21.0 15.0 15.5 27.9 21.8 20.0 Av. Male 64.0 4.2 Av.5 Variance F/M 5.5 15.50% Stand Sit Variance Stand Sit Variance Stand Sit Av.1 15.9 15.5 21.7 4. Female 59. Person 61.4 44.3 21.7 46.4 48.0 15.0 Eye Height Elbow Height Height Variance Eye/Elbow 1 2 5 4 3 55 Note 2 • Elbow height variance for the average range of male to female operators • Design criteria used for design of most adjustable keyboard mounts Note 3 • Eye to elbow height variance for the average range of male to female operators • Optimum top of screen to centerline (C/L) of keyboard relationship for most computer workstations – average 21” Note 4 • Eye height to eye height variance for the average standing to sitting person • Ideal mounting height for fixed height workstation components that must interface to a range of operators .95% Male Average Range of Operators .5 3.8 23.

A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Leave an extra inch or two. weight. In general. as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size. stain resistance and artistic design.• Design height adjustment range for a minimum height adjustable screen/ keyboard sit-stand workstation Note 5 • Eye and elbow height variances for the average standing male to the average sitting female • Design height adjustment range for a sit-stand workstation designed to accommodate the average range of male and female operators – 20” Furniture and Light Measure your light sources in the room. including dining chairs. . ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant). stackability. reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. Sophisticated designs measure where light falls at times of day and the relationship between light sources and art displays. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. mark the place with a pencil or finger. Experiment with placing. You do not want to hang 3-foot curtains on a 6foot window or put a bookshelf over a heating vent. Calculations can show you where you need more storage and the best angle for your bed. "Task chairs". but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. To hang evenly. if the occupant is supposed to sit for a long time. Make an arrangement that harmonizes attractiveness. otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. However. Where does it come from and at what angle? Where do you need light? Remember that a lamp cord will have to reach an outlet. foldability. durability. Use your floor plan to determine where lamps and lights can go. pictures and mirrors should fall directly at eye level. They help to determine where to add new features and discover solutions like pot hanging racks. ease and space. Ergonomic design distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Use tape. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. pencil or a handy chalk string to mark where the nails or screws should go. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area. can only recline very slightly. or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table. weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. Art. Use calculations for unstructured decoration. Measure furniture and other objects. The room should not feel empty or cluttered. Design and ergonomics Chair design considers intended usage. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat.The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant. on the seat and back. or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only. backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbarregion. . the knees. to support the weight of the body. In general. padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. such as wicker. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. In lieu of padding. may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. The Difference between Leg Room & Seat Pitch Some chairs have foot rests. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. flexible materials. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Some chairs have two curved bands of wood (also known as rockers) attached to the bottom of the legs. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his or her feet on. reducing the weight on other parts of the body. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. They are called rocking chairs. However. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometricmeasurements. For American men. such as an office chair. For example. contouring may be used instead. the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Where padding is not desirable. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. Mass produced chairs are typically 15-17 inches deep. clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. after adjusting for heels. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks. in chairs that are intended primarily for outdoor use. weight is distributed and maximum pressure is reduced. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal heightand buttock popliteal length. For adjustable chairs. It is sometimes called the "stool height. For someone seated.There may be cases where padding is not desirable. the median popliteal height is 16.0 inches (380 mm) [1]. For someone seated. The popliteal height." The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width.3 inches (410 mm) and for American women it is 15. Caster wheels are attached to the feet of chairs to give more mobility Gas springs are attached to the body of the chair in order to give height adjustment and more comfort to the user . In some airplanes and stadiums the leg room (the seat pitch less the thickness of the seat at thigh level) is so small that it is sometimes insufficient for the average person. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches (430 mm) high.

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