88A 303 Ŷ ChapLer 12 noLes

Leadershlp Ŷ 1he exerclse of lnfluence by one member of a group or organlzaLlon over oLher members
Lo help Lhe group or organlzaLlon achleve lLs goals

Leader Ŷ An lndlvldual able Lo lnfluence group or organlzaLlon members Lo help Lhe group achleve lLs
goals

Leader LffecLlveness Ŷ 1he exLenL Lo whlch a leader acLually does help a group or organlzaLlon achleve
lLs goals

lormal Leader Ŷ A member of an organlzaLlon who ls glven auLhorlLy by Lhe organlzaLlon Lo lnfluence
organlzaLlonal members Lo achleve organlzaLlonal goals
lnformal Leader Ŷ An organlzaLlonal member wlLh no formal auLhorlLy Lo lnfluence oLhers who
neverLheless ls able Lo exerL conslderable lnfluence because of speclal skllls or LalenLs

LLAuL8 18Al1 AÞÞ8CACP
Lndurlng personal LralLs LhaL dlsLlngulsh leaders from followersţ and from lneffecLlve Lo effecLlve leaders

lnLelllgence Ŷ Pelps leaders solve problems

1askŴ8elevanL knowledge Ŷ Leader knows whaL and how lL should be doneţ and whaL resources
are requlred for Lhe group Lo achleve lLs goals

uomlnance Ŷ lndlvldual's need Lo exerL lnfluence and conLrol over oLhersţ helps leader channel
followers' efforLs and ablllLles Loward achlevlng group and organlzaLlonal goal

SelfŴConfldence Ŷ Pelps leader lnfluence followers and moLlvaLe followers Lo persevere ln Lhe
face of obsLacles

Lnergy/acLlvlLy levels Ŷ Plgh energy levels help leaders deal wlLh Lhe many demands or acLlvlLles
encounLered day Lo day

1olerance for SLress Ŷ Leader's ablllLy Lo deal w/ uncerLalnLy/amblgulLy lnherenL ln complex
slLuaLlons

lnLegrlLy and honesLy Ŷ Slgh LhaL leader wlll acL eLhlcally aL all Llmes and ls worLh of followers
LrusL and confldence

LmoLlonal MaLurlLy Ŷ Slgn LhaL leader ls noL overly selfŴcenLeredţ can conLrol hls or her feellngsţ
and can accepL crlLlclsm

LLAuL8SPlÞ 8LPAvlC8 AÞÞ8CACP Ŷ WhaL speclflc behavlors are performed by leadersŦ 1he 8ehavlor
Approach seeks Lo ldenLlfy whlch leader behavlors help employeesţ groupsţ and organlzaLlons achleve
Lhelr goalsŦ

ConslderaLlon Ŷ 8ehavlor lndlcaLlng LhaL a leader LrusLsţ respecLsţ and values good relaLlonshlps wlLh hls
or her followers
lnlLlaLlng SLrucLure Ŷ 8ehavlors LhaL a leader engages ln Lo make sure LhaL work geLs done and
subordlnaLes perform Lhelr [ob accepLably

****1hese are compllmenLary b/c leaders can engage ln boLh Lypes of behavlors
****1hese are lndependenL b/c knowlng Lhe exLenL Lo whlch a leader engages ln conslderaLlon says
noLhlng abouL Lhe exLenL Lo whlch he or she engages ln lnlLlaLlng sLrucLures and vlce versa

Leader 8eward 8ehavlor Ŷ A leader's poslLlve relnforcemenL of subordlnaLes' deslrable behavlor

Leader Þunlshlng 8ehavlor Ŷ A leader's negaLlve response Lo subordlnaLes' undeslred behavlor

NA1UkL CI LLADLkSnIÞť 1nL kCLL CI 1kAI1S AND 8LnAVICkS
ConLlngency 1heory of Leadershlp Ŷ 1he Lheory LhaL leader effecLlveness ls deLermlned by boLh Lhe
personal characLerlsLlcs of leaders and by Lhe slLuaLlon ln whlch leaders flnd Lhemselves

8elaLlonshlpŴCrlenLed Leaders Ŷ 1
sL
prlorlLy Ŷ develops good worklng relaLlonshlps w/ followersŦ
2
nd
prlorlLy Ŷ Make sure [ob ls done (Lask accompllshmenL)

1askŴCrlenLaLed leaders Ŷ wanL subordlnaLes Lo perform aL a hlgh level and accompllsh all Lhelr
asslgned Lasks Lo Lhe besL of Lhelr ablllLles

LeasL Þreferred CoŴLmployee Scale Ŷ A quesLlonnalre LhaL measures leader sLyle by scorlng leaders'
responses Lo quesLlons abouL Lhe coŴemployee wlLh whom Lhey have Lhe mosL dlfflculLy worklng

8elaLlonshlpŴorlenLed leaders (also called Plgh LÞC Leaders) descrlbed Lhelr leasL preferred coŴ
employeeţ generallyţ ln poslLlve Lerms

1askŴorlenLed leaders (also called Low LÞC leaders) descrlbed Lhelr leasL preferred coŴemployee
negaLlvelyŦ

Approach

Þrem|se

Drawbacks
1ra|t

LffecLlve leaders possess
cerLaln quallLles or LralLs
LhaL help a group or orgŦ
reach lLs goals

Some effecLlve leaders do noL
possess all of Lhese LralLsţ some
leaders who possess Lhese LralLs
are noL effecLlveŦ 1he approach
lgnores Lhe slLuaLlon ln whlch
leadershlp Lakes placeŦ


8ehav|or

LffecLlve leaders perform
cerLaln behavlorsţ whlch
may lnclude
conslderaLlonţ lnlLlaLlng
sLrucLureţ reward
behavlorţ and punlshlng
behavlorŦ

1he relaLlonshlp beLween Lhese
behavlors and subordlnaLe
performance and saLlsfacLlon ls noL
necessarlly clearŴcuLŦ 1he behavlor
approach lgnores Lhe slLuaLlon ln
whlch leadershlp Lakes placeŦ

LeaderŴMember 8elaLlons Ŷ 1he relaLlonshlps beLween a leader and hls or her followers
1ask SLrucLure Ŷ 1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe work Lo be performed by a group ls clearly deflned

ÞoslLlon Þower Ŷ 1he amounL of formal auLhorlLy a leader has

ÞaLhŴCoal 1heory Ŷ A Lheory LhaL descrlbes how leaders can moLlvaLe Lhelr followers Lo achleve group
and organlzaLlonal goals and Lhe klnds of behavlors leaders can engage ln Lo moLlvaLe followers (8oberL
Pouse)

1Ŧ ueLermlne whaL ouLcomes subordlnaLes are Lrylng Lo obLaln ln Lhe workplace

2Ŧ 8eward subordlnaLes for performlng aL hlgh levels or achlevlng Lhelr work goals by glvlng
Lhem deslred ouLcomes

3Ŧ Make sure Lhe subordlnaLes belleve Lhey can obLaln Lhelr work goals and perform aL hlgh
levels

ÞA1n 1nLCk¥

LffecLlve leaders moLlvaLe Lhelr followers Lo achleve group and organlzaLlonal goalsŦ

LffecLlve leaders make sure LhaL Lhey have conLrol over ouLcomes Lhelr subordlnaLes deslre

LffecLlve leaders reward subordlnaLes for performlng aL a hlgh level or achlevlng Lhelr work goals by
glvlng Lhem deslred ouLcomes

LffecLlve leaders ralse Lhelr subordlnaLes' bellefs abouL Lhelr ablllLy Lo achleve Lhelr work goals and
perform aL a hlgh level

ln deLermlnlng how Lo LreaL Lhelr subordlnaLes and whaL behavlors Lo engage lnţ effecLlve leaders Lake
lnLo accounL Lhelr subordlnaLes' characLerlsLlcs and Lhe Lype of work Lhey do

ICUk 1¥ÞLS CI 8LnAVICk 1nA1 LLADLkS CAN LNGAGL IN 1C MC1IVA1L SU8CkDINA1LS

1Ŧ ulrecLlve 8ehavlor (slmllar Lo lnlLlaLlng sLrucLure) Ŷ leLs subordlnaLes know whaL Lasks need Lo be
performed and how Lhey should be performed

2Ŧ SupporLlve 8ehavlor (slmllar Lo conslderaLlon) Ŷ leLs subordlnaLes know Lhelr leader cares abouL Lhelr
wellŴbelng and ls looklng ouL for Lhem

3Ŧ ÞarLlclpaLlve 8ehavlor Ŷ enables subordlnaLes Lo be lnvolved ln maklng declslons LhaL affecL Lhem

4Ŧ AchlevemenLŴorlenLed behavlor Ŷ pushes subordlnaLes Lo do Lhelr besLŦ Such behavlor lncludes
seLLlng dlfflculL goals for followersţ expecLlng hlgh performanceţ and expresslng confldence ln Lhelr
capablllLles

vroom and ?eLLon Model Ŷ A model LhaL descrlbes Lhe dlfferenL ways ln whlch leaders can make
declslons and gulde leaders ln deLermlnlng Lhe exLenL Lo whlch subordlnaLes should parLlclpaLe ln
declslon maklngŦ

lour ulfferenL ueclslon Maklng SLyle

AuLocraLlc Ŵ 1he leader makes Lhe declslon wlLhouL lnpuL from subordlnaLes
ConsulLaLlve Ŵ SubordlnaLes have some lnpuLţ buL Lhe leader makes Lhe declslon
Croup Ŵ 1he group makes Lhe declslonŤ Lhe leader ls [usL anoLher group member
uelegaLed Ŵ 1he leader makes subordlnaLes solely responslble for maklng Lhe declslon

LeaderŴMember Lxchange 1heory Ŵ A Lheory LhaL descrlbes Lhe dlfferenL klnd of relaLlonshlps LhaL may
develop beLween a leader and Lhe follower glve Lo and recelve back from Lhe relaLlonshlp

Leadershlp SubsLlLuLe Ŵ SomeLhlng LhaL acLs ln place of a formal leader and makes leadershlp
unnecessary

Leadershlp neuLrallzer Ŵ SomeLhlng LhaL prevenLs a leader from havlng any lnfluence and negaLes a
leader's efforLs

*When subordlnaLes lack lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlonţ exLrlnslc rewards such as pay moLlvaLe Lhem Lo
perform beLLer

*SubsLlLuLes for leadershlp are acLually funcLlonal for organlzaLlons b/c Lhey free up some of Lhe
leader's LlmeŦ neuLrallzer are dysfuncLlonal b/c Lhe reduce a leader's ablllLy Lo lnfluence
subordlnaLes

1ransformaLlonal Leadershlp Ŵ Leadershlp LhaL lnsplres followers Lo LrusL Lhe leaderţ perform behavlors
LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe achlevemenL of organlzaLlonal goalsţ and perform aL hlgh levels

1P8LL WA?S 1PA1 1CCL1PL8 8LSuL1 ln lCLLCWL8S 18uS1lnC 1PL LLAuL8S

1Ŧ 1ransformaLlonal leaders lncrease subordlnaLes' awareness of Lhe lmporLance of Lhelr Lasks and Lhe
lmporLance of performlng Lhem well

2Ŧ 1ransformaLlonal leaders make subordlnaLlng aware of Lhelr needs for personal growLhţ
developmenLţ and accompllshmenL

3Ŧ 1ransformaLlonal leaders moLlvaLe Lhelr subordlnaLes Lo work for Lhe good of Lhe organlzaLlon raLher
Lhan excluslvely for Lhelr own personal galn beneflL

CharlsmaLlc Leader Ŵ A selfŴconfldenLţ enLhuslasLlc leader able Lo wln followers' respecL and supporL for
hls or her vlslon of how good Lhlngs could be

uevelopmenLal ConslderaLlon Ŵ 8ehavlor by a leader LhaL ls supporLlve and encouraglng Loward
followers and glves Lhem opporLunlLles Lo develop and grow on Lhe [obţ such as by acqulrlng new skllls
and capablllLles

1ransacLlonal Leadershlp Ŵ Leadershlp LhaL moLlvaLes followers by exchanglng rewards for hlgh
performance and noLlclng and reprlmandlng subordlnaLes for mlsLakes and subsLandard performance

1rusL Ŵ 1he wllllngness of one person or group Lo have falLh or confldence ln Lhe goodwlll of anoLher
personţ even Lhough Lhls puLs Lhem aL rlsk

Approach

Iocus
1ra|t Approach

Speclflc LralLs LhaL
conLrlbuLe Lo effecLlve
leadershlp


8ehav|or Approach

Speclflc behavlors LhaL
effecLlve leaders engage
ln
I|ed|erƌs Cont|ngency Mode|

CharacLerlsLlcs of
slLuaLlons ln whlch
dlfferenL klnds of leaders
(relaLlonŴshlp orlenLed
and Lask orlenLed) are
mosL effecLlve
ÞathŴGoa| 1heory

Pow effecLlve leaders
moLlvaLe Lhelr followers

Vroom and ¥etton Mode|

When leaders should
lnvolve Lhelr subordlnaLes
ln declslon maklng

LeaderŴMember Lxchanges 1heory

1he klnds of personal
relaLlonshlps LhaL leaders
develop wlLh followers

Subst|tutes and Neutra||zers

When leadershlp ls
unnecessary and when a
leader ls prevenLed from
havlng lnfluence


1ransformat|ona| and Char|smat|c Leadersh|p

Pow leaders make
profound changes ln Lhelr
followers and
organlzaLlons

Leader Mood

Pow leadersƌ feellngs
lnfluence Lhelr
effecLlveness

Gender and Leadersh|p

SlmllarlLles and
dlfferences ln men and
women as leaders