# Data and Signals Data must be transformed to electronic signals (why?

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Analog data: Continuous information, e.g., voice has a value at any time. Analog clock have values at any time! Digital data: Discrete state information. e.g., digital clock. Analog signal: They have infinitely many levels over a period of time. Digital signals: They have limited number of defined values. Periodic Signals: “Repeat a pattern every measurable time frame, “period” or “cycle”. (most used for analog signals) Non-Periodic (Aperiodic) Signals: No pattern or cycle. (most used for digital signals)

Figure 3.1

Comparison of analog and digital signals

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but different amplitudes 3. where as the “cos” phase = π/2 Figure 3.Periodic Analog Signals Figure 3.9 Frequency (f) = 1/T and T = 1/f Phase: It is the position of waveform relative to time = 0.12 .2 A sine wave 3.3 Two signals with the same phase and frequency. Ex: The “sine” phase is 0.

23 Wave length: It relates the frequency / period of a signal to its propagation speed in the medium. .Figure 3. f = frequency of light signal. λ = Wave length of light signal. but different phases 3.15 Figure 3.5 Three sine waves with the same amplitude and frequency. but different frequencies 3. In case of “light” over fiber: λ=c/f c = propagation speed of light signal.4 Two signals with the same amplitude and phase.

Time vs. with 5 volt peak amplitude.8 The time domain and frequency domain of three sine waves 3. Frequency domain: The amplitude values are plotted versus time in case of time domain signals.29 .26 The amplitude is shown for each frequency component of a signal in the frequency domain. Figure 3. The above sin(6t) has one frequency of 6 Hz. Figure 3.7 The time-domain and frequency-domain plots of a sine wave 3.

35 . a non-periodic composite signal is a group of sine waves with continuous frequencies in the frequency domain.10 Decomposition of a composite periodic signal in the time and frequency domains 3. phases.9 A composite periodic signal 3. (Fourier analysis) A periodic composite signal can be decomposed into a number of signals with discrete frequencies in the frequency domain. Figure 3.Composite Signals: Every composite signal is made of many sine waves of different amp’s. Whereas. freq’s.34 Figure 3.

Figure 3. Refer fig 3.12 The bandwidth of periodic and nonperiodic composite signals 3.37 Band width: (non/composite signals).11 The time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal 3. a non-periodic composite signal is a group of sine waves with continuous frequencies in the frequency domain.39 .12 BWcs = fh – fl Hz Figure 3.Whereas.

3) Noise: i) Thermal (white) caused by elections random movement in the medium (extra superimposed signals) ii) Induced: Caused by appliances acting as a sending antenna with medium as receiving one iii) Crosstalk: Mutual affect between wires acting as sending/ receiving antenna iv) Impulse: caused by a power lines. It is measured (and always given) in decibel units (powers ratio) dB SNRdB = 10 log10 SNR . Composite signal components have different propagation speed through the medium. signal power / avg. It is always desirable to have it high (lower noise than signal power) for good reception of signals passing through noisy environment (low quality channel). noise power SNR plays a profound role in deciding the bit rate limit (max). Decibel: Unit measure of signal’s power loss or gain Power units dB = 10 log10 (Pdest/Psrc) Pdest: Signal Power at destination Psrc: Signal power at source 2) Distortion: Signal changes in form / shape.Transmission Impairment Causes: 1) Attenuation: Loss of energy as a function of the signal traveling distance and its power. hence destination arrivals delays/phase shifts causing incorrect receiving of the original signal at the destination. lightning shaped as a “spike” (high frequency on very short time) Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): SNR = avg.

Digital Signals Figure 3. • Bit length = propagation speed * bit duration (distance one bit occupies on the Tx medium) • Bit interval: Time to Tx a bit = 1/bit rate = s/b • Baud rate: Number of distinct changes (in signal) over the medium per sec Bit rate = Baud rate X number of bits per a signal change In binary signals encoding. bit rate = baud rate (why?) .50 • Bit Rate: “non-periodic” digital signals are the most used in digital data transfer. hence period or frequency are not used.16 Two digital signals: one with two signal levels and the other with four signal levels 3. instead we use “Bit rate” which is the number of bits Tx per sec.

Figure 3.18 Baseband transmission 3. Figure 3. since we are Tx digital signal. . flow = 0).17 The time and frequency domains of periodic and nonperiodic digital signals 3..e.58 Since a digital signal is a composite of (infinite) analog signal with infinite BW. the idle case is to have low-pass channel with infinite bandwidth (not in real life!) that must start from frequency component zero in the spectrum.57 Transmission of Digital Signals: 1) Baseband (digital/encoding): We use low-pass channel with its BW starting from 0 (i.

20 Baseband transmission using a dedicated medium 3.19 Bandwidths of two low-pass channels 3. hence we need a wider medium low-pass wider BW (BWm) For safe digital signal reception: BWm >= BWss Figure 3. we can still send only the signal’s frequency components with significant amplitudes within some acceptable threshold for minimum distortion and receive a reasonably acceptable digital signal at the receiver.Figure 3.60 Yet. the signal significant BW (BWss) increases. As the bit rate increases.61 .

22 Simulating a digital signal with first three harmonics 3.Figure 3.64 Figure 3.65 .21 Rough approximation of a digital signal using the first harmonic for worst case 3.

.23 Bandwidth of a bandpass channel 3. flow. we need to convert our digital signal to analog signal (modulation process)-.72 Since we are modulating our digital data into analog signals (sin wave carriers with different amplitude/frequencies/phases) we need not to .Why?. the channel lower bound freq.24 Modulation of a digital signal for transmission on a bandpass channel 3. i.70 If the available channel is a “bandpass”..e.2) Broadband (analog/modulation): Digital signal  analog signal Figure 3. can be any non zero value. Figure 3.

then we might end up with an upper bound CNyq that is much lower than a valid CShan. obtaining CShan from (2) and plugging it in lhs of (1) will guide us in the practical and correct choice of encoding (bit/level). the BW of a link is its potential speed) Throughput (T) <= BW ..start from the zero in the spectrum. if we made a wrong choice of encoding (not following the above) . Signal to Noise Ratio (given in dB always): SNRdB = 10log10 SNR where to convert to watts: SNRwatt = Signal power watt / Noise power watt (SNR /10) = 10 dB Noise Free channel: Nyquist Capacity (max channel bit rate) Max Bit Rate ––– CNyq = 2 BWch * log2 L -----------(1) Where L is the number of signal levels Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity Max Bit Rate ––– CShan = BWch log2 (1 + SNRwatt) ---(2) Both limits are important CNyq to decide the encoding bit/level and CShan for the actual noisy environment limitation.e. hence band-pass channel instead of low-pass as in the case of baseband digital Tx. the CShan is much higher than the CNyq . yet we are forced to the lowest value of the two obtained capacities (i. Otherwise. In case of noisy channel. Example: What is the max bit-rate capacity of a 4000 Hz binary channel (2 levels encoding) has a SNR of 30 dB? CNyq = 2*4000 * log2 2 = 8000 b/s CShan = 4000 * log2 (1+ 10(30/10)) = 4000 * 9. as a result of bad encoding decision of only two levels! Performance of Networks 1) Throughput: The actual speed of data traveling a link (notice. 8000 b/s). but anywhere we select our carrier frequency (no need to have infinite number of frequency components).9672 ≈ 39869 b/s Even though.

Therefore TME < BW 2) Delay (Latency): L = propagation + Tx + queuing + processing Propagation delay = Distance (m) / propagation speed (m/s) Tx delay = message size (bit) / data-rate (bit/sec) 3) Jitter: Packets of data will encounter different delays. (not very good for real time multimedia applications!) .Example: bad encoding might waste BW in case of Ethernet ME.