CIPA ASSIGNMENT Culture: • Explain the role of culture in development of country.

• What specific dimensions of our culture do we need to change, to improve the administrative system of Pakistan? • How can we bring those changes? Requirement: • Critical analysis of number of resources like (general articles, newspapers, websites) • Word count 1500 (+-10%) • Complete assignment in black and white (no color) • Acknowledgement • Executive summary • Table of content • Main report • conclusion\09\05\story_5-9-2011_pg13_6

Dr. education and performance of different cultural activities. the policy aims at wider participation of people in preserving and promoting their culture in an environment free of certain arbitrary colonial laws. facilitate the growth of cultural expression and lay the foundation of an integrative cultural configuration. and imposed patterns. We need to rehabilitate our cultural pride and to anticipate its future manifestations so that we emerge as a nation living in the modern world with a unique. . Dr. we are bound to suffer from externally imposed cultural patterns. Pakistan’s historical experience is a multicultural one. and fanaticism and to inculcate the spirit of inquiry and research in application of modern technology to our social and economic needs. as well as the guidelines provided by the founding parents of Pakistan. testifying the capacity of our cultural patterns to absorb new ideas while retaining their identity and strength. to provide a healthy environment for training. The contours of this policy have been shaped by the historical experience of the Pakistani nation. it could result in the adoption of only superficial symbols of these new changes. and that they were at the periphery of Muslim political power show the receptiveness of Pakistani culture to this world religion. provide incentives. If globalisation finds us in cultural confusion and chaos. In our fast-changing world. terrorism. mutual appreciation and respect for other cultures. Such an adoption would lead neither to any meaningful change in our socio-economic development nor to a meaningful integration of our social consciousness. The state does not intend to impose any specific rigid frameworks of cultural values but aims at providing an enabling environment in order to ensure the preservation and growth of diverse cultural patterns in our country. 1947 provide the intellectual impetus to our cultural policy.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Iqbal’s lectures on the Spirit of Islamic Culture and Quaid-i-Azam’s speech of 11th August. 2. following the constitution as the primary document for all policy. to eradicate the culture of violence. In order to seek a balance between the spiritual and material growth of Pakistani culture. If confidence and pride is not restored to our cultural values. The fact that Islam flourished in the areas of today’s Pakistan long before the Muslim rule began in Delhi. 3. The policy aims at building a nationally shared value system capable of developing into a higher intellectual culture. Our cultural heritage is one of the oldest in the world and our people have always shown resilience to new ideas. The state will make policies. whereby our people came in contact with some of the best known civilizations. The objectives of this policy therefore. intolerance. This may be accomplished by encouraging free expression. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah. distinct. Muhammad Iqbal. are guided by the principles or preserving Pakistan’s cultural heritage. and proud heritage. It is essential that our cultural structure is receptive to new ideas to comprehend the technological stimulation of consciousness. notably. the rapid transformations in communication and technology are bound to influence our culture. religious fanaticism. 4.

the National Gallery of the Arts and the National Museum of Ethnology. In addition it aims at creating new institutions such as a National Centre for the Performing Arts. a National Film Academy.5. Guidelines have also been provided for educational institutions to integrate various forms of cultural expressions in their curriculum. Cultural Centres at different levels and an Institute of Islamic Art and Architecture. The policy directives aim at strengthening existing institutions such as the National Academy of Performing Arts. Those laws which hinder will be carefully substituted with legislation conducive to the promotion of Pakistani Culture. .

although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. There are also small indigenous film industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood).g. Faisalabad. Pakistani society is largely multilingual and 96% Muslim. Kearney/FP with close to a half-million expatriates living in the United States. State-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets. In cities western dress is also popular among the youth and the business sector. The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music. birth of Allama Iqbal (9 November) and the birth (30 July) and death (8 July) of Madar-e-Millat. Indian film stars are still generally popular in Pakistan due to the fact that Pakistanis are easily able to buy Bollywood films from local shops for private home viewing. (also known as May Day). Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi. There are many festivals celebrated annually in Pakistan .INTRODUCTION: Pakistan has a rich and unique culture that has preserved established traditions throughout history. such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. But recently Pakistan allowed selected Bollywood films to be shown in Pakistani cinemas. who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The national dress of shalwar qamiz is originally of Central Asian origin derived from Turko-Iranian nomadic invaders and is today worn in all parts of Pakistan. Many cultural practices. Increasing globalization has increased the influence of "Western culture" with Pakistan ranking 46th on the A. and Peshawar that wish to move in a more liberal direction. foods. all providing burgeoning cultural connections. Lahore. the anniversaries of the birth (25 December. but there are now numerous private television channels.which may or may not be observed as national public holidays . and Asian television channels and films are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via private Television Networks. Labour Day. with high regard for traditional family values. European. Hyderabad. Women wear brightly colored shalwar qamiz. Pakistan Day (23 March). Various American. In addition Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar. around a million living in Saudi Arabiaand nearly one million in the United Kingdom. Independence Day (14 August). Rawalpindi. Defence of Pakistan Day (6 September). and shrines were inherited from the rule of Muslim Mughal and Afghan emperors.T. as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. cable. monuments. Although Bollywood films have been banned from being played in public cinemas since 1965.e. Pakistan Air Force Day (7 September). while men often wear solid-colored ones. is . a national holiday) and death (11 September) of Quaid-e-Azam. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad. and satellite television.

at Nankana Sahib. predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and IndianIslamic components. an animal is sacrificed in remembrance of the actions of Prophet Abraham (Arabic: Ibrahim) and the meat is shared with friends. Sindhi. Muslims also celebrate Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi . a smooth transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be designated to four distinct periods — pre-Islamic. Sikhs. The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. mystical and popular materials. During the . The rise of Buddhism and the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style. family. The literature of Pakistan covers the literatures of languages spread throughout the country. is characterized by daytime fasting for 29 or 30 days and is followed by the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. and Christians in Pakistan also celebrate their own festivals and holidays. Baluchi as well as English in recent times and in the past often Persian as well. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. Islamic. the colorful. the literature mainly consisted of lyric poetry and religious. such as the Punjabi festival of Basant.C. Ramadan. Punjabi. Several important religious festivals are celebrated by Pakistani Muslims during the year.the birthday of the prophet Muhammad . However. among them the Badshahi mosque. the founder of Sikhism. the ninth month of the calendar. In a second festival. During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of the Hindustani art. with large structural facilities. Hindus. the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid. The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture. including the shrine of Guru Nanak. and sweets. and for children to receive new clothes. an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region. namely Urdu. exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire. Lahore. Also the Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the epoch of the Mughals. still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. Eid ul-Adha. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province. at Hasan Abdal in Attock District. Mohenjo Daro. and the less fortunate. There are also several regional and local festivals. colonial and post-colonial. Buddhists.. Pushto. Sikhs come from across the world to visit several holy sites in Punjab. presents. serving as opportunities for people to visit family and the third month of the calendar (Rabi' al-Awwal) and mark the Day of Ashurah on the 9th and 10th days of the first month (Muharram) to commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn bin Ali. occasional residence of Mughal rulers. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque.also observed in Pakistan on 1 May and is a public holiday. Prior to the 19th century. Both Eid festivals are public holidays. which marks the start of spring and is celebrated by kite flying. Harappa and Kot Diji belong to the preIslamic era settlements. some of which survive to this day. the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate. and his birthplace. starting from the 1st century CE. the celebrations days depend on the lunar Islamic calendar. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium B. In the British colonial period.

The most famous works of early Urdu literature originated in the 14th century. naats and qawaalis are delivered. Muhammad Iqbal. Sufi Shah Abdul Latif is considered one of the most outstanding mystical poets. wrote mainly in the Persian language.colonial age the native literary figures. His works are concerned mostly with Islamic philosophy. took up increasingly different topics and telling forms. The national poet of Pakistan. Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose. and additionally in Urdu. . short stories enjoy a special popularity. In Baluchi language songs and ballads are popular. Today. under the influence of the western literature of realism. Iqbal's most well-known work is the Persian poem volume Asrar-i-Khudi ("the secrets of the even"). Extensive lyric poetry and epic poems have been published in Pushto. The most well-known representative of the contemporary Urdu literature of Pakistan is Faiz Ahmed Faiz. [94] In Punjabi. The Pushto literature tradition is a cultural link between Pakistan and neighbouring Afghanistan.

compared to Ireland. provided evidence that a different set of assumptions was needed. inculcated the virtues needed for maximum economic productivity. that population growth doomed people to a declining standard of living. It has also been busy . though. Yet it doesn't seem to know what to do with a concept as untidy as culture. The discipline. Economic progress was now a given. income policies. Portugal and Italy in his day. The remarkable growth in the economies of the United States and many European countries during the 19th century. once known as "the dismal science. rents. contributes to the public interest in a system that is self-regulating. Hence. Spain. the worldview of economists was radically changing. In theory. After having offered hope to the underdeveloped that they could join the party. but an ever expanding economic pool to draw from. Back in its earliest days. economics seems to have narrowed its field of vision since the 1930s and dedicated its energies largely to generating ever more sophisticated formulas relating to such things as markets. sometimes regarded as the founder of modern economics. and inflation control. In the meantime. Smith was keen-sighted enough to recognize that the "pursuit of personal interests" involved much more than just making money. John Stuart Mill. It wasn't always this way. has patented a storehouse of remedies for ailing economies. the German social scientist writing in the early 20th century. there would be plenty for everyone to eat. argued in his classic work Wealth of the Nations (written in 1776) that each individual. Adam Smith. supported by Reformation teachings that the pursuit of wealth was a duty. after all-and that most of the world's population would inevitably be reduced to fighting over the scraps from the table. Protestants were more productive than Catholics throughout Europe-just think of Germany and Great Britain. made the same point when he noted that cultural constraints on individuals could have a stronger impact on them than the pursuit of personal financial gain. as the discipline shed its grim premise. Malthus believed that total wealth was a constant-there was only so much land and a strict limit to the resources it could produce. that those nations that had little industrialization and whose people lived a largely subsistence life could join the more highly developed nations at the table. deals with what today we would call cultural values. Max Weber. Economic theory was subsequently guided by a new insight: there was not simply a fixed amount of wealth. offered more specific insights into how cultural or even religious values could impact on economic output. "Theory of Moral Sentiments"." has come a long way since its early days. relying on its scientific formulas and precise metrics. for one thing. for instance. price stability. economics had plenty of room for the vagaries of human behavior. writing 70 years later. Economics. his tract. This meant. however. For this reason.ROLE OF CULTURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTRY. motivated by the pursuit of his own interests. He argued that the Protestant work ethic. first enunciated by Thomas Malthus in the 18th century.

economics has little to offer them on how this might be done. no matter where he happens to be dwelling. with the prophets of globalization proclaiming new hope for nations struggling to pull themselves out of poverty. it appears that its interest in culture has been waning. the discipline's abandonment of its early fascination with culture has rendered it speechless to those who most need its help today. ironically enough. and pricing. . Its presupposition seems to be that Homo economicus. Today. In short.refining its set of mathematical tools to test the theories that the discipline has been generating. But as it has been doing all this. Its principal interest has been in measuring the impact of different strategies on financial and economic crises so as to develop a dependable set of guidelines for predicting and managing these crises. is subject to the same ineluctable laws of supply and demand. maximization of profit. The apparatus it's devised to analyze and manage economic situations are self-contained and have little room for the vagaries of human behavior.

Collectivism Individualism is contrasted with collectivism. Femininity Masculine cultures tend to be ambitious and need to excel. Catholics fall in the collectivist category since it follows the Pakistani culture which emphasizes on joint family and following a single organization to support their family financially. In workplaces employees emphasize their work to a great extent (live in order to work) and they admire achievers who accomplished their tasks. which shows that the Catholics accept that the power lies with the Muslims as it covers the majority of the population in the country. TO IMPROVE THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN • Low vs. Catholics in Pakistan scored high in uncertainty avoidance as they prefer rules and structured circumstances. Feminine cultures consider quality of life and helping others to be very important. • Masculinity vs. or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-long group or organization. and employees tend to . Small and slow are considered to be beautiful.SPECIFIC DIMENSIONS OF OUR CULTURE WE NEED TO CHANGE. assertiveness. Members of these cultures have a tendency to polarize and consider big and fast to be beautiful. • Individualism vs. Catholics or Pakistani culture in general are considered to be a masculine in nature as they possess wealth and believe in domination through power and rigidity. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal. hierarchical positions. So called 'masculine' cultures value competitiveness. but at the same time they do reflect a feminine culture as they don't strive for better but rather just work to earn money. and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions. In business as well as in private life they strive for consensus and develop sympathy for people who are in trouble. High Power Distance This dimension speaks of the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and societies expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. • Uncertainty avoidance This dimension reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. ambition. and refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to choose their own affiliations. It is found that the Catholics in Pakistan are high in power distance which means that the less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic. Working is basically to earn money which is necessary for living.

thrift. values include persistence (perseverance). values include normative statements. protecting ones face. and gifts. 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'. • Long vs. in short term oriented societies like the Pakistanis. ." or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present. and reciprocation of greetings. favors.remain longer with their present employer. ordering relationships by status. Catholics in Pakistan value social responsibility and therefore live by traditions and rituals that have been followed since their ancestors. Their lifestyle is ‘laid back' and they do not accept the change that easily. Short term orientation Describes a society's "time horizon. personal steadiness and stability. and having a sense of shame. respect for tradition. In long term oriented societies. They try to avoid uncertainty on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth.

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