Here are some notes on vector and dyadic tensor notation similar to what I will be using in class, with

just a couple of changes in notation. Notes = Dowling


British notation for Cross-Product vs. American (Dowling’s) Notation for Vector vs. Standard (Dowling’s). Notation for Dyadic Tensor vs. Standard (Dowling’s).

With these notes you should be able to make sense of the expressions in the vector identities pages below that involve the dyadic tensor T. (Notes courtesy of Peter Littlewood, University of Cambridge.) The vector identity pages are from the NRL Plasma Formulary – order your very own online or download the entire thing at: --JPD

VECTOR IDENTITIES4 Notation: f, g, are scalars; A, B, etc., are vectors; T is a tensor; I is the unit dyad. (1) A · B × C = A × B · C = B · C × A = B × C · A = C · A × B = C × A · B (2) A × (B × C) = (C × B) × A = (A · C)B − (A · B)C (3) A × (B × C) + B × (C × A) + C × (A × B) = 0 (4) (A × B) · (C × D) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C) (5) (A × B) × (C × D) = (A × B · D)C − (A × B · C)D (6) ∇(f g) = ∇(gf ) = f ∇g + g∇f (7) ∇ · (f A) = f ∇ · A + A · ∇f (8) ∇ × (f A) = f ∇ × A + ∇f × A (9) ∇ · (A × B) = B · ∇ × A − A · ∇ × B (10) ∇ × (A × B) = A(∇ · B) − B(∇ · A) + (B · ∇)A − (A · ∇)B (11) A × (∇ × B) = (∇B) · A − (A · ∇)B (12) ∇(A · B) = A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A · ∇)B + (B · ∇)A (13) ∇2 f = ∇ · ∇f (14) ∇2 A = ∇(∇ · A) − ∇ × ∇ × A (15) ∇ × ∇f = 0 (16) ∇ · ∇ × A = 0 If e1 , e2 , e3 are orthonormal unit vectors, a second-order tensor T can be written in the dyadic form (17) T =

Tij ei ej

In cartesian coordinates the divergence of a tensor is a vector with components (18) (∇·T )i =

(∂Tji /∂xj )

[This definition is required for consistency with Eq. (29)]. In general (19) ∇ · (AB) = (∇ · A)B + (A · ∇)B (20) ∇ · (f T ) = ∇f ·T +f ∇·T


of which the line element is dl. (33) S dS × ∇f = C dlf 5 . Then (21) ∇ · r = 3 (22) ∇ × r = 0 (23) ∇r = r/r (24) ∇(1/r) = −r/r 3 (25) ∇ · (r/r 3 ) = 4πδ(r) (26) ∇r = I If V is a volume enclosed by a surface S and dS = ndS.Let r = ix + jy + kz be the radius vector of magnitude r. from the origin to the point x. y. where n is the unit normal outward from V. (27) V dV ∇f = S dSf (28) V dV ∇ · A = S dS · A (29) V dV ∇·T = S dS ·T (30) V dV ∇ × A = S dS × A (31) V dV (f ∇ g − g∇ f ) = S 2 2 dS · (f ∇g − g∇f ) (32) V dV (A · ∇ × ∇ × B − B · ∇ × ∇ × A) = S dS · (B × ∇ × A − A × ∇ × B) If S is an open surface bounded by the contour C. z.

(34) S dS · ∇ × A = C dl · A (35) S (dS × ∇) × A = C dl × A (36) S dS · (∇f × ∇g) = C f dg = − C gdf 6 .

Section D introduces the properties of the antisymmetric third-rank tensor ijk which can be used to derive many results in vector calculus much more rapidly than by other methods. Section C returns to a physical problem also about polarization and leads to a discussion of principal axes. Section A introduces the concept of a tensor in this case.2.. but in dynamics. a linear operator that transforms one vector into another in the physical context of studying the polarisation of an aspherical molecule.99 Commentary: This is the rst of two sheets on tensors the second will come in class VIII. These are mathematical objects which take the projection or component of a vector along a particular direction. uid mechanics. Introduction to Tensors 3. and projection operators. Tensors have many applications in theoretical physics. not only in polarization problems like the ones described below. The mathematical apparatus for dealing with tensor problems may not yet be familiar.EXAMPLES CLASS IN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS V. etc. elasticity. quantum theory. . so this sheet contains quite a high proportion of formal material. eigenvectors and eigenvalues of tensor quantities. and concepts such as the outer product of two vectors. Section B summarizes various mathematical and notational ideas that are useful in physics these include su x notation. This ground will be covered again in sheet VIII so it doesn't matter if you run out of time.

Usually books denote vectors by bold type in the rest of this sheet we treat the two notations as completely interchangeable. A1. The two vectors P and E are no longer necessarily parallel and what connects them is called a tensor. The response to perpendicular elds is p? = ?E? where ? k .A. for instance the polarisation P induced in a medium by applying a eld E P = 0 E 1 Here P and E are parallel. Their cartesian components are related to each other by the same constant of proportionality 0 for each component. An Electrostatics Problem. It is possible to imagine situations where the medium is anisotropic and the response factor 0 in 1 is di erent for components in di erent directions. pk = kEk being the induced dipole for a eld Ek applied along the molecule. The diacetylene molecule. Let the cylindrical molecule point in the 1 1 0 direction and apply a eld in the x direction: E = Exx ^ i Prove: px py =  k + ?Ex=2 = k pz 2 3 4 ? Ex =2 =0 2 . H-C C-C C-H is highly polarisable along its long axis. Here we have denoted vectors by underlinings as one would do if writing this out by hand. We will use simple model of molecular polarisability to show the underlying physics and introduce the ideas of tensors. Introduction We often nd vectors that are linearly related to other vectors.

A hypothetical diacetylene solid might consist of such rods arranged in an array. Tensors are written with a double underline as matricies often are or in books sometimes as doubly bold" bold sans serif typeface characters. Then the macroscopic to replace in 1 would neglecting internal eld corrections be . all directed along 1 1 0. Su x notation: Commonly. Remark: If many molecules are present with the same orientation. For instance 6 to 8 can be succinctly written as pi = ij Ej 3 .Hence one sees that p and E are not parallel and in general we must write p=  E 5 where is the polarisability tensor. its components ij depend on the coordinate system used. su ces such as i and j are dummy symbols and when repeated in an expression they are to be summed over this is the Einstein Convention. Miscellaneous Ideas and Notations B1. although the tensor is the same physical entity in all coordinate systems it relates p with E in whatever basis these are expressed. In component form 5 is px = py = pz = xx Ex + Ex + Ex + xy Ey + Ey + Ey + xz Ez 6 7 8 yx yy yz Ez Ez zx zy zz ii What are the coe cients ij explicitly for the above example? Write as a matrix of its components. Note that. P is p where there are molecules per unit volume. B.

The operation of a tensor on a vector also involves an inner product sum over repeated indices as described above.which is Eq. In this notation we have a b  c = ab  c: prove this using su x notation if you did not do so already above. This notation is used in various areas of mathematics and physics. Eq. E = Exx: p= ^ E xE =  x xx yx zx  Ex : 4 . We see that Qij is a linear operator that transforms one vector p into another it is therefore a tensor.9 is written as Q = ab 10 or Q = a b. In su x notation the dot product also called scalar product. In non-su x notation sometimes called dyadic notation. The outer product: Consider the object Qij de ned as Qij ai bj 9 where a and b are vectors. Note the order of the indices on the right.  B2. Note that Qp Qij pj .5 rewritten in su x notation. where there is no dot between the two vectors. Q  p is also a vector nd its magnitude and direction. A1 in the following form: = xx xx+ ^^ xy xy + ^^ xz x z + 6 other terms ^^ 11 Check that 11 indeed agrees with 6 to 8 by nding the result of applying a eld in ^ the x-direction. or inner product of two vectors a b is written as aibi. i Show using su x notation that if p is a vector. Likewise can be denoted ij . ii We can write the tensor in Q. The unit tensor ij by de nition transforms any vector into itself: ij vj = vi. Thus we have written the vector p simply as pi and it will be clear from context that a vector is intended and not simply one of its components. This de nes the outer product or dyadic product of two vectors. but in general su x notation is more versatile and can always be used instead.

^v ^ iv Show that. and 1  10 12 C m in the x. The de nition of an idempotent operator G is that GG = G.-1. the identity tensor ij is often written ^^ as the unit operator" 1. and w are the eigenvectors of .1. A xed object is placed in a uniform electric eld of 1 kV m. the dipole moments are 2 4 1  10 12 and 1 1 4  10 12 C m respectively. if we use as a coordinate system the unit vectors u.^ . 2. i Write down the components of the tensor that describes the polarisability of the object using the x y z coordinate frame. where u is a unit vector. p ii What is the torque T = p ^ E on the object when it is placed in an electric eld of 3 kV m in the 1. Prove that these projection operators" are idempotent. ^ p ^^ ^^ = kuu + ?1 uu C.iii Projection operators: In dyadic notation.^ . The three diagonal elements. ^v ^ iii Suppose there are eld directions u. Use of Principal Axes. Show that the polarizability tensor in problem A1 can be written where u = 1 1 0= 2. Show that these perform the job of resolving the vector ^ v into vectors vk and v?. w for which there is no torque on the object ^ ^ ^ what relation do E and p then have? Show that u. is in the x direction. 1 2 and 3 are called the principal polarisabilities of the object and are the eigenvalues of . w there are no o -diagonal elements of the tensor when it is written as a matrix of components. v.1 direction? Ans: 1. Consider the action on a vector v of the operators uu and ^^ ^ 1 uu. z directions. y. For the same eld strengths in the y. respectively parallel and perpendicular to u. When the eld . For this problem. z directions. it acquires a dipole moment with components 4. one eigenvalue is  = 2  10 15: nd the 5 C1.0 10 9 Nm.

vii Eq. Con rm from Eq. Force on a Dipole. z ? ^ ^ ^ v In this example. This is very general the gradient of a vector is a second@x rank tensor. is symmetric and hence has real eigenvalues and orthogonal eigenvectors. 6 . prove the vector relation A =  A + A  r r r Derive a similar result for A B. Prove it for a convenient choice of co-ordinates system and hence generally. a dipole experiences a net force r   Fi = i j @Ei p @xj j 13 and explain why @E is a tensor. The same applies to any problem involving a symmetric tensor.^ . so if it holds in one co-ordinate system it also holds in any other. Show that in a non-uniform eld. y. i By using su x notation.12 that this is precisely what operating with on b does. E.^v ^ other two. To nd b. and the ordinary chain rule for derivatives.often a very convenient frame to think about the physics in. ^ w can be accomplished using projection operators: = 1uu + 2vv + 3ww ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 12 This is a relation between tensors.^ .  C2. a dipole p experiences a couple p E but no net force.12 expresses in a very direct way the operation of a symmetric tensor on a vector b. the recipe is: 1 resolve b into components along the principal axes 2 multiply each component by the corresponding eigenvalue 3 add to form the resultant. ii In a uniform electric eld. w coordinate system can hence always be found and is called the principal frame . It's best to leave the answer in su x notation. the decomposition of into principal directions u. w in terms of x. ^v vi In a general coordinate system.^ . What are the vectors u. An energy argument shows this to be true for the polarizability of any object ^v ^ the u.

Show that A ^ Bi = ijk Aj Bk The following relation ijk klm = il jm im jl ijk = 0 e.g. or: @ Fj = @x piEi : j Show that this is equivalent to Eq13 only in the absence of a time-varying magnetic eld. D1. An important and useful tensor of rank three is the fully antisymmetric three tensor denoted ijk . The tensor ijk is very useful for writing down a vector product 14 15 7 . and its linear operation on a vector gives another vector.. Bij = Qijkl Akl with summation over repeated indices. Under what conditions can this be written F = gradE 2=2 ? D.iii A more general expression for the force on a permanent dipole. For example a tensor of rank four. derived from the energy. is F =gradp:E. For i 6= j 6= k it is de ned as ijk = 1 if ijk is a cyclic permutation of x y z e. xxy = 0. Under what conditions can we write a pi = ij Ej b pi = Ei? Write down the force in each case. This operates on either a second rank tensor or two vectors to give a vector. dyadic notation becomes extremely cumbersome and su x notation is essential. A tensor with two indices such as ij is called a tensor of second rank. xzy.g.. but the eld E induces a moment p in it.g. yzx and = 1 if the order is anticyclic e. The antisymmetric three-tensor ijk .. A vector is technically a tensor of rank one a scalar of rank zero. iv A speck of matter has no permanent dipole moment. Qijkl acts on a rank two tensor to give another rank two tensor. If any two of ijk are the same then in su x notation. Tensors of higher rank can also be de ned. For tensors higher than rank two.

It saves a great deal of time when manipulating vector identities such as A ^ B ^ C  = ijk Aj klm Bl Cm = Aj Bl Cm  il jm im jl  = Bi Aj Cj Ci Aj Bj = A  C B A  BC which is a familiar result normally derived by far more tedious means. i Make sure you understand each step of this derivation. using similar methods. For example r  E ^ H  ri  ijk Ej Hk  16 17 18 19 = ijk riEj Hk  = ijk Ej riHk + Hk riEj = Ej jik riHk + Hk kij riEj = Er^H +H r^E which is a result used in in connection with Poynting's vector in electromagnetism. and in the parts II and III well worth remembering you should come across this in maths lectures . The result Eq. that r ^ r ^ A = rr  A r2 A r ^  A =  r ^ A A ^ r These relations are useful in electromagnetism and other topics in IB.15 is especially helpful when dealing with vector identities involving the r operator. it commutes with r. and expressions can be re-ordered accordingly. 8 . Because ijk is a constant tensor. ii Show.

The linear relation between these is governed by a fourth rank tensor. and the formal development given here is good practice and will help deepen your understanding of moments of inertia. It follows on from Sheet 5. Su x notation and the summation convention are also used.. whose properties are investigated.2. Section C introduces the concepts of stress and strain tensors in a solid. As on sheet 5 we use underlining and bold notation interchangeably. Further Applications of Tensor and Vector Calculus 24. Section D of that sheet on uses of the antisymmetric 3-tensor. Carets ^ denote unit vectors. In Sections A and B tensor ideas are used to work through some results in rigid body dynamics. . You should have covered this material in IB dynamics courses. Section D contains problems on the transformation properties of tensors: in mathematical courses. ijk  is reprinted here as an appendix. etc. you may have seen tensors de ned in terms of these transformation properties. if you didn't do so last time. and you should complete it before starting the main part of this sheet. as well as of tensors.EXAMPLES CLASS IN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS VIII.99 Commentary: This is the second sheet on tensors.

ii Find the components of Iij in a Cartesian system.A . iii Iij is a symmetric tensor. It is given by: I = X r r2 1 ^^ rr  mr 1 Show. Thus I speci es the linear dependence of angular momentum Li on the angular velocity !j via Li = Iij !j . Deduce it also from the matrix of components of Iij found in ii. iv Take the continuum limit in Eq. The vector ! points along the axis of rotation and determines the velocity of rotation at r according to v = ! ^ r. such as a sphere.. that is the usual basis set x. that would be enough for a very symmetrical body.1. the inertia tensor of a body of variable density r. The tensor I is called the inertia tensor of the body. Eq. that the angular momentum L and the kinetic energy T of the body are: L = I! 2 1 3 T = 2 !  I  ! 1 !i Iij !j 2 You will need to expand the vector triple product f ^ g ^ h see Appendix. v Write down the inertia tensor of a body consisting of eight masses M at the corners of 2 . ^ ^ z P P Answer: Ixx = r y2 + z2  mr. y. i Consider the body as a collection of point masses mr with position vectors r relative to the centre of mass 0. using Eq. that is I:v = v:I for any vector v.1 to obtain formally. the moment of inertia. Rigid Body Rotations A rigid body rotates with angular velocity ! about an axis through its centre of mass at the origin. which should be clear from the de nition 1. 0. as an integral. Make sure you can derive this if you are not sure where it comes from.2 and replaces the single number. etc. ^. Ixy = r xy  mr .

xed but has a rate of change  W in the space.xed frame. the rotational motion of an asymmetric body. changes with time in a space. n. by an amount W in time : d dt d W =  ^W !dt d and hence that if W is not body. even for an asymmetric body one sometimes speaks of the moment of inertia about ^ ^ ^ ^ some speci c axis. What is the moment of inertia of this cube? Why can we talk of the moment of inertia when we strictly speaking have a tensor? In fact. Choose the coordinate system most convenient to you. Show that one can equally well express it as v =  r where is an antisymmetric tensor with components: a : : : !: ! ! !  0 ! !z !y !x 0 !z !y ! 0 !x 4 vii Show that any vector W.xed frame obeys  d W body . the vector =dt W space =  W body + =dt d =dt ! ^W : 5 B.a light cubic frame of side . this does not o er a complete description. 3 . The velocity of a point in the body is v = ^ r. Principal Axes and Precession We now use the above results to solve simply a di cult problem. say. constant with respect to axes xed in the body. This is written as n I n and gives the ratio of the n component ^ ^ ^ of angular momentum L n to the n component of angular velocity  n. Since in general ^ L has components which are not parallel to n. vi Angular velocity: A body rotates about an axis through its centre of mass with an angular velocity .

v For the inertia tensor of the square frame found in question i.i What is the inertia tensor of four point masses M xed at the corners of a massless square frame of side a? What are the principal axes. and so  for an arbitrary motion the inertia tensor Iijsp in space. trivially.xed frame involves an angular  velocity ! which changes in time.xed axes. and principal moments of inertia? Why are two of the axes indeterminate? This is an example of a nontrivial body unlike the sphere or cube where the principal moments of inertia are not all the same. I2.xed frame the principal frame of Iij . by taking as the body. Show from 5 that in the body frame L obeys dL=dt = ! ^ L 6 iv Deduce that Iij !j = _ ijk !j Ikl !l and show that. Show that in general the motion of a nontrivial body whose angular momentum Lsp is conserved in a space. I3 are the principal moments of inertia. i iii The problem of nding ! for a body of xed angular momentum not parallel to a principal axis is best solved by adopting a body frame where the inertia tensor is constant. it is proportional to ij . ii It is clear from 1 that in general I for a body is constant in body. I1 = I2 such a body 4 .xed axes is not constant unless. Now L need not be parallel to ! for a body whose angular momentum is conserved the result is free precession of the angular velocity see iii below. Hint: consider Lsp = Iijsp!j . this can be simpli ed to I1 !1 = !2 !3 I3 I2 _ I2 !2 = !3 !1 I1 _ I3 !3 = !1 !2 I2 _ I3 I1 where I1.

there can also be a shear force exerted in equal and opposite directions on the two sides of the element such a force lies in the plane of the element rather than normal to it. Prove for this case that ! precesses in the body frame according to !3 = const. since the element has no mass and would otherwise be subject to in nite acceleration. !1 = A cos t !2 = A sin t where = I3I1I1 !3. In the general case. These point in opposite known as a symmetric top". Show also that. 5 . Stress and strain tensors. there is a normal force on each side of the surface element PdS. C. and so con rm that ! is not a constant vector unless it happens to point along one of the principal axes. The corresponding moment of inertia is of order dx2dz2dy. Consider a small area element dS embedded at a point r in an isotropic liquid. In the case of a solid. For example the element xz of determines the x-force per unit area on an element of surface with its normal pointing in the zdirection: dFx = xz dSz . we can write dF =  dS 7 where is the stress tensor at the point r. i Show that a small box of sides dx dy dz experiences a couple  xz zxdx dy dz about the y axis. so the net force on the surface element is zero which is as it must be. For a surface element of general orientation dFx = xx dSx + xy dSy + xz dSz . If the material is subject to pressure P . Explain why this means that must be symmetric. C 1. if r is a function of position.

without distortion of the bit of matter near r. 6 . but has no dependence on R? iii Elasticity: For small deformations. What type of deformation does e represent? Why may we assume that the stress tensor depends on the strain tensor e.e. Since is symmetric. Eijkl has 21 independent components. ii Strain: Suppose a solid material is subjected to a small deformation r ! r + ur. the relation between them generally involves a tensor of the fourth rank: ij = Eijkl ekl 10 which is the generalization of Hooke's law to an arbitrary three-dimensional material. Hint: compare Eq. we may write dui = i @ui dr : @rj j j 9 Let us now decompose the tensor Uij @u into its symmetric and anti-symmetric parts: @r Uij eij = eij + Rij  1 = 2 Uij + Uji 1 U U  Rij = 2 ij ji Show that e is symmetric and R antisymmetric. Eijkl must be symmetric under exchange of i and j various other symmetries can be found from considering the form of the stored elastic energy. So long as the deformation depends continuously on position. Show also that R corresponds to a pure rotation i. but even when these are taken into account.then the net force on a nite piece of material is given by Fi j = Z @ ij dV : @rj 8 @ where in a conventional notation @r rj . but since both are described by second-rank tensors.4 in section A. we expect the stress and strain to be linearly related.

the following relation applies Y exx = xx  yy + zz  11 with similar relations for eyy ezz all o -diagonal elements of e are zero in this coordinate system. and hence derive the following result in the principal frame: . ii ii = 1Y e2 Combine the above two results to give expressions for xx etc in terms of the elements of e. by adding Eq. Note that ii = Trace  under the summation convention.11 to its analogues. By rearranging Eq. Show that. These are the Young's modulus Y and Poisson's ratio . and have only two independent constants.iv Isotropic elastic solids are much simpler however.11 obtain the result Y exx = 1 +  xx ii where x indicies are not summed over but ii is summed with similar relations for yy and zz components. The de nition of these is that in the principal axes of ij .

subject to external forces only at its surface. obeys grad divu + 1 2 r2u = 0: 7 . Hence. ii Show that the displacement u inside a homogeneous isotropic solid. derive the general frame independent form for the elasticity tensor in an isotropic solid:     Y ik jl + il jk Eijkl = + 1 2  ij kl 1+ 2 i Apply Eijkl to suitable deformations to recover expressions for the bulk modulus and shear modulus of an isotropic solid in terms of Y and . C 2. Y ij = 1 + eij + 1 2 ij Tre : Bear in mind that eij = 0 for i 6= j . in this frame.

improper rotations. the fact that the e basis is orthonormal 0 0 0 can be written e e = i  j 0 ij 12 The unit vectors ei are linear combinations of the ei: e =T e : 0 i ij j 13 Suppose that x = xiei = xiei is any vector. Show that these are the only possible values of the determinant for transformations between orthonormal bases as de ned above. Transformations with detT  = 1 are usually called proper rotations and those with detT  = 1. mathematically.. one factor of the transformation matrix T is needed for each index. Prove that i ei ek = Tik ii The inverse transformation ei = Tik 1ek has Tik 1 = Tki iii xi = Tik xk iv xi = Tkixk v yi = Tij Tlk Ajk xl This means you have found the components of the tensor A in the rotated coordinate system: 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 A =T T A 0 il ij lk jk Indeed. so that we can use su x notation. each of which is orthonormal.D. We call our two sets of base vectors e1 e2 e3 and e1 e2 e3. 8 . e. D 1. For tensors of higher rank than 2. often taken as the de ning property of a tensor A. Here we consider transformations of vectors and tensors between two sets of base vectors. and y = Ax. Transformation Laws.g. this property under orthogonal coordinate transformations T is.

g. An important and useful tensor of rank three is the fully antisymmetric three tensor denoted ijk . For i 6= j 6= k it is de ned as ijk = 1 if ijk is a cyclic permutation of x y z e. If any two of ijk are the same then ijk = 0 e. Qijkl acts on a rank two tensor to give another rank two tensor. A tensor with two indices such as ij is called a tensor of second rank. Show that A ^ Bi = ijk Aj Bk The following relation ijk klm = il jm im jl 14 15 is tedious to prove using components you should come across this in maths lectures but is worth remembering. Bij = Qijkl Akl with summation over repeated indices.g. This operates on either a second rank tensor or two vectors to give a vector.. Tensors of higher rank can also be de ned.. The tensor ijk is very useful for writing down a vector product in su x notation. For tensors higher than rank two.g. A vector is technically a tensor of rank one a scalar of rank zero. xxy = 0.. yzx and = 1 if the order is anticyclic e. 1. xzy. It saves a great deal of time when manipulating vector identities such as A ^ B ^ C  = ijk Aj klm Bl Cm = Aj Bl Cm  il jm im jl  = Bi Aj Cj Ci Aj Bj = A  C B A  BC 9 . For example a tensor of rank four. and its linear operation on a vector gives another vector. ijk .Appendix: The antisymmetric three-tensor Reprise of Sheet V section D. dyadic notation becomes extremely cumbersome and su x notation is essential.

10 . i Make sure you understand each step of this derivation. and expressions can be re-ordered accordingly. Because ijk is a constant tensor. The result Eq. it commutes with . that r^  r^ A =  A  r r r^ r 2 A r^ A =  A A ^ r These relations are useful in electromagnetism and other topics in the IB and parts II and III courses.15 is especially helpful when dealing with vector identities involving the operator. ii Show. using similar methods.which is a familiar result normally derived by more tedious means. For example r r r E ^ H  ri  ijk Ej Hk  + Hk ri Ej 16 17 18 19 = ijk ri Ej Hk  = Ej ijk Ej ri Hk = = jik ri Hk + Hk +H kij ri Ej E r^ H r^ E which is a result used in in connection with Poynting's vector in electromagnetism.