10 PDH's, 10 Training Hours or 1 CEU upon completion

Copyright Notice ©2006 Technical Learning College (TLC) No part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without TLC’s prior written approval. Permission has been sought for all images and text where we believe copyright exists and where the copyright holder is traceable and contactable. All material that is not credited or acknowledged is the copyright of Technical Learning College. This information is intended for educational purposes only. Most unaccredited photographs have been taken by TLC instructors or TLC students. We will be pleased to hear from any copyright holder and will make good on your work if any unintentional copyright infringements were made as soon as these issues are brought to the editor's attention. Every possible effort is made to ensure that all information provided in this course is accurate. All written, graphic, photographic or other material is provided for information only. Therefore, Technical Learning College accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the application or misuse of any information included herein. Requests for permission to make copies should be made to the following address: TLC P.O. Box 420 Payson, AZ 85547 Information in this document is subject to change without notice. TLC is not liable for errors or omissions appearing in this document.

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Special State Approval Information
This course is approved for 10 contact hours/10 PDHS/1 CEU in most States. There is a 40 hour version of this course. It is called Water Treatment Fundamentals and can be found at www.ABCTLC.com.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 10 CEHs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 10 PDHs. California Department of Health Services acceptance, 10 contact hours. Colorado, #06-OW-0029, 1 TUs in Water and Distribution. Georgia, 6 Continuing Education Points, # CE-6-106-TLC-013108-1814. Hawaii Department of Health approval, Public Water System Operators. 1.0 CEU. Indiana, Water Approval PWSTO1-1912, 10 Contact Hours. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Water approval, 10 continuing Education Training Contact Hours. Kentucky, DOW course #ALT-1913 - 10 hours for water operators only. Missouri, Water Approval # 0127336, 10 Renewal Hours, Wastewater 4 Renewal Hours New York Dept. of Health, 10 contact hours. Ohio EPA, Course #D096, Approved for Drinking Water for 10.0 contact hours. Expires 6/26/2009. Oregon, OESAC approval #884, 1.20 CEUs in Drinking Water, and 0.4 CEUs in Wastewater. Expires 12/17/2006. Pennsylvania DEP, 10 hours in Water # 681. Rhode Island, 10 contact hours. Tennessee, Water and Wastewater Certification Board, Approval #R02048, 10 Water Treatment Credit Hours. Utah Department of Environmental Quality requires special form from TLC. Washington WETRC approved 1 CEU. Wyoming DEQ, #373.00 for levels II, III, &IV. 10 Contact Hours “CREDIT is entered into a certified operator’s training record based on the CERTIFICATE NUMBER they list on the roster. FAILURE to provide a certification number or proving an incorrect number may result in no credit given.”

Check with your State to see if this course is accepted for CEU credit.

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Jar Testing
The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. What do these conditions include? A simulation of a water treatment plant’s flash mixing process. Under normal plant conditions a flow is 3.0 MGD and a one-minute fast mixing in the jar test is adequate. If the plant flow increases to 4.0 MGD, how long of fast mix is needed in the jar test? Less than one minute is necessary.

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Course Description
Water Treatment CEU Course
Water Distribution, Well Drillers, Pump Installers, Water Treatment Operators. The target audience for this course is the person interested in working in a water treatment or distribution facility and/or wishing to maintain CEUs for certification license or to learn how to do the job safely and effectively, and/or to meet education needs for promotion. This short CEU course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection and distribution making sure that it meets federal compliance. This course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection of the water that meets federal compliance. Task Analysis and Training Needs Assessments have been conducted to determine or set Needs-To-Know for this course. The following is a listing of some of those who have conducted extensive valid studies from which TLC has based this program upon: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the American Boards of Certification (ABC).

Course Goals
I. The Water Hydrological Cycle A. Terminology. B. Define Water’s Characteristics. II. Source of Water and Quality A. Define Ground water. B. Define Surface water. C. Define Quality Characteristics and Terms. III. Physical Processes A. Define Process Objectives. B. Define Concepts and MCLs. C. Define Terminology. D. Define Plant Layout. IV. Sedimentation and Related Processes A. Define Grit Chambers. B. Define Plain Sedimentation. C. Define Coagulation and Flocculation. 1. Chemical. 2. Process design. D. Define Thickening. E. Define Dewatering. F. Define Drying. G. Define Sludge Recovery and Transport. V. Define Filtration and other Treatment Techniques A. Process descriptions. 1. Functions. 2. Structure. 3. Operation. 4. Application. VI. Define Chlorination, Disinfection and Bacteria Testing.

CEU Course Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the water hydrologic cycle. Describe the source of water and the types of water quality issues. Describe the objectives of physical process of water treatment. Define terminology associated with physical processing of water. Describe the layout of physical processing facilities in water treatment plants. Describe the function, structure, operation, and application of racks, bars, and screens.

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7. 8. 9. 10.

Describe the coagulation and flocculation treatment processes. Describe sedimentation processes. Describe the filtration process. Describe the disinfection process.

Knowledge Obtained by this CEU Course Knowledge of chemical feeders, including startup/shutdown, calibration of feeder and calculation of dosage. 30 Minutes Knowledge of coagulation/flocculation systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of baffle, stationary, and mechanical systems. 20 Minutes Knowledge of sedimentation/clarification systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of sedimentation basin, solids-contact, and sludge depth determination. 25 Minutes Knowledge of granular activated carbon filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of deep-bed monomedia filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of multi-media gravity filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of membrane filtrations systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for operating conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of measurement techniques for expansion of backwash and depth of filter media. 15 Minutes Knowledge of alarm testing of disinfection systems. 5 Minutes Knowledge of operation and calibration of chemical feed pumps, e.g., hypochlorinators, chlorine systems, aqueous ammonia feeders, etc. 50 Minutes Knowledge of calculation of disinfectant dosage, including when to add disinfectant. 25 Minutes Knowledge of gas chlorinator operation, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 50 Minutes Knowledge of gas ammoniator systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 5 Minutes Knowledge of ozonators, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 35 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control solid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control liquid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of the chemistry of lime, caustic, bicarbonate, phosphates, silicates, and acids interacting with processed water. 40 Minutes Knowledge of stabilization reaction basins and correcting for abnormal conditions. 15 Minutes. Knowledge of electrical cathodic protections devices, including calibration. 10 Minutes Knowledge of calibration of flow meters, in-line turbidmeters, in-line chorine analyzers, and in-line pH meters. 10 Minutes Knowledge of programming alarms, autodialers, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes Knowledge of operation of auto shutdown systems, signal generators, signal receivers, signal transmitters, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes EPA Operator Rules, Security information and OSHA rule information. 210 Minutes.

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Other Areas Covered Intake Pretreatment Chemical Feed Chemical Mixing/Rapid Mix Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation/Clarification Filtration Disinfection Fluoridation Storage Softening Corrosion Control Sludge Disposal Recirculation Systems Instrumentation Maintenance Plumbing/Cross-Connections Laboratory Procedures Perform Specific Tests Operate Moving Equipment Management/Supervision/Reporting Specific Course Goals and Timed Outcomes (Beta Testing ) Eleven students were tested and the average time necessary to complete each task was recorded as the stated in the above objectives and timed outcome section. In the above timed outcome section area, the tasks were measured using times spent on each specific objective goal and final assignment grading of 70% and higher. Sixteen students were given a task assignment survey in which to track their times on the above learning objectives (course content) and utilized an essay style answer sheet to complete their final assignment. All students were given 30 days to complete this assignment and survey. September 2000 Beta Testing Group Statistics Sixteen students were selected for this assignment. All the students held water distribution or water treatment operator certification positions. None of the test group received credit for their assignment. Three students failed the final examination. Three students did not complete the reading assignment. The average times were based upon the outcome of eleven students. Prerequisites None Course Procedures for Registration and Support All of Technical Learning College correspondence courses have complete registration and support services offered. Delivery of services will include, e-mail, web site, telephone, fax and mail support. TLC will attempt immediate and prompt service. When a student registers for a distance or correspondence course, he/she is assigned a start date and an end date. It is the student's responsibility to note dates for assignments and keep up with the course work. If a student falls behind, he/she must contact TLC and request an end date extension in order to complete the course. It is the prerogative of TLC to decide whether to grant the request. All students will be tracked by their social security number or a unique number will be assigned to the student. Instructions for Written Assignments The Water Treatment correspondence course uses a multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank answer key. TLC would prefer that the answers are typed and e-mailed to, info@tlch2o.com. If you are unable to do so, please write inside the booklet and make a copy for yourself and mail me the completed manual. There are a total of 66 questions in this course.

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You can find course assistance on the website under the Assignment Page, under the Course Assistance button. Feedback Mechanism (examination procedures) Each student will receive a feedback form as part of their study packet. You will be able to find this form in the rear of the course or lesson. Security and Integrity All students are required to do their own work. All lesson sheets and final exams are not returned to the student to discourage sharing of answers. Any fraud or deceit and the student will forfeit all fees and the appropriate agency will be notified. Grading Criteria TLC will offer the student either pass/fail or a standard letter grading assignment. If TLC is not notified, you will only receive a pass/fail notice. (Certificate) Recommended Texts The Water Treatment course can be completed without any other text but you may use either a copy of WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION VOLUME ONE AND TWO - Office of Water Programs, California State University Sacramento or WATER TREATMENT - American Water Works Association to assist in completion or understanding of the assignment. Recordkeeping and Reporting Practices TLC will keep all student records for a minimum of seven years. It is your responsibility to give the completion certificate to the appropriate agencies. We will send the required information to Texas, Indiana and Pennsylvania for your certificate renewals. ADA Compliance TLC will make reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Students should notify TLC and their instructors of any special needs. Course content may vary from this outline to meet the needs of this particular group. Mission Statement Our only product is educational service. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible education service possible. TLC will attempt to make your learning experience an enjoyable educational opportunity.

What are a couple of corrosive substances may be found in a laboratory? Hydrochloric and Sulfuric acids HCL & H2SO4

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Water Operator’s Lab Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 9 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To provide a forum for the collection and dissemination of current information related to environmental education. and to maintain an environment that nurtures academic and personal growth. To provide TLC students opportunities to apply and understand the theory and skills needed for operator certification. To provide opportunities for TLC students to learn and practice environmental educational skills with members of the community for the purpose of sharing diverse perspectives and experience.Educational Mission The educational mission of TLC is: To provide TLC students with comprehensive and ongoing training in the theory and skills needed for the environmental education field. To provide a forum in which students can exchange experiences and ideas related to environmental education.

Final Sedimentation Basin Pre-Sedimentation Clarifier Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 10 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

AZ 85547-0420 ℡Toll Free (866) 557-1746℡ (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 info@tlch2o. Box 420. please write your customer#_________________ Referral’s Name_____________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 11 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Date_________ If you’ve paid on the Internet. Payson. Operator ID# ________________________________Expiration Date____________ Class/Grade__________________________________ Your certificate will be mailed to you in about two weeks.00 Start and Finish Dates:_________________________You will have 90 days from this date in order to complete this course Name______________________________________Signature____________________ (This will appear on your certificate as above) Address:________________________________________________________________ City______________________________State________Zip___________Email________ Phone: Home ( )_______________Work ( )_____________Fax ( )_____________ Social Security___________________________ Your State may require this information.O.com 3 digit code on back of card _____ American Express Visa or MasterCard #__________________________________Exp. Water Treatment Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Groundwater Degree Program Other ___________________________ Technical Learning College P. Please circle which certification you are applying the course CEU’s.Contact Hour CEU/PDH Training Registration Water Treatment CEU Course Course Price $50.

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Index New EPA Rules 15 Microbes 18 Radionuclides 19 Inorganic Contaminants 20 Volatile Organic Contaminants 21 Primary Drinking Water Requirements 23 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations 29 SDWA Terms 31 Groundwater and Wells 35 Water Sources 37 Source Water Quality 39 Water Treatment 42 Conventional Treatment 49 Rapid Sand Filtration 51 Backwash Rule 57 Algae 59 Waterborne Pathogens 61 Protozoan Diseases 64 Waterborne Diseases 66 Jar Testing 69 Periodic Chart 79 pH 81 Water Disinfectants 82 Chlorine Section 83 DPD Residual Method 97 Amperometric Titration 98 Chemistry Chlorination 99 Chlorinator Parts 108 Chlorine Dioxide 115 Bacteriological Monitor 127 HPC 133 Total Coliforms 136 Fluoride 137 Water Quality 141 Activated Carbon 147 Corrosion Control 148 Cathodic Protection 149 Alkalinity 151 Water Storage 153 Cross-Connections 155 Centrifugal Pumps 157 Hard Water 163 Water Softening 166 Split Case Centrifugal Pump Vertical Turbine Pumps Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 13 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

infants & young children: nervous system effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 14 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .81 MRDL=0.Membrane Filtration Processes Reverse Osmosis Ozone Ultraviolet Radiation DBP Removal Chart Glossary 185 Conversion Factor 209 Assignment 213 Customer Survey 229 169 173 180 181 183 Control Room Disinfectants Contaminant MRDL1 (mg/L)2 MRDL1 (mg/L)2 Potential Health Effects from Sources of Contaminant Ingestion of Water in Drinking Water Chloramines (as Cl2) Chlorine (as Cl2) Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2) MRDLG=41 MRDLG=41 MRDL=4.01 Eye/nose irritation. stomach Water additive used to discomfort control microbes Water additive used to control microbes MRDLG=0. stomach Water additive used to discomfort.81 Anemia. anemia control microbes MRDL=4.01 Eye/nose irritation.

. More information on the rulemaking process and the costs and benefits of setting the arsenic limit in drinking water at 10ppb can be found at www. When rocks. When people either drink this water or eat animals and plants that drink it. and disinfection byproducts. Drinking water microbial and disinfection byproduct information collected for the ICR is now available in EPA's Envirofacts Warehouse. ordering that it fall to 10 ppb by 2006. and engineering data to control these contaminants. After adopting 10ppb as the new standard for arsenic in drinking water. To protect human health. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 15 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). ICR EPA has collected data required by the Information Collection Rule (ICR) to support future regulation of microbial contaminants.gov/safewater/arsenic. In October 2001. minerals. EPA revised the standard from 50 parts per billion (ppb). they release arsenic into water supplies.html.New EPA Water Rules Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's crust.S. although it can also come from industrial sources. eating and drinking are the most common ways that people are exposed to arsenic. In January 2001.epa. an EPA standard limits the amount of arsenic in drinking water. EPA decided to review the decision to ensure that the final standard was based on sound science and accurate estimates of costs and benefits. Studies have linked long-term exposure of arsenic in drinking water to a variety of cancers in humans. including Cryptosporidium. they are exposed to arsenic. and soil erode. For most people in the U. The rule is intended to provide EPA with information on chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with chemicals already present in source water (disinfection byproducts (DBPs)). EPA decided to move forward with implementing the 10ppb standard for arsenic in drinking water. disinfectants.

EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate HAA5 at 60 parts per billion annual average.. The EPA has established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate bromate at annual average of 10 parts per billion in drinking water. The regulated haloacetic acids. bromodichloromethane. Disinfection byproducts are formed when disinfectants used in water treatment plants react with bromide and/or natural organic matter (i. the EPA established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule that requires public water systems to use treatment measures to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and to meet the following specific standards: Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic acids (HAA5) Bromate Chlorite 80 parts per billion (ppb) 60 ppb 10 ppb 1.e. Disinfection byproducts for which regulations have been established have been identified in drinking water. dichloroacetic acid.000 people under the Total Trihalomethane Rule finalized by the EPA in 1979. Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) are a group of chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. known as HAA5. trichloroacetic acid. and chlorite.Disinfection Byproduct Regulations In December 1998. The trihalomethanes are chloroform. Those standards became effective in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water public water systems. The standard became effective for the first time in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water systems.0 parts per million (ppm) Currently trihalomethanes are regulated at a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion for water systems serving over 10. dibromochloromethane. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 16 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . decaying vegetation) present in the source water. haloacetic acids. are: monochloroacetic acid. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water. and bromoform. monobromoacetic acid. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. and dibromoacetic acid. The Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule standards became effective for trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts listed above in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. This standard will replace the current standard of a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. including trihalomethanes. bromate. The EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate total trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a maximum allowable annual average level of 80 parts per billion. Different disinfectants produce different types or amounts of disinfection byproducts. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water.

respectively. including pathogens. have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least 99. and disinfectant contact time conditions. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate chlorite at a monthly average level of 1 part per million in drinking water. for systems serving fewer than 10.99%. disinfectant residual. The EPA is also planning to develop other rules to further control pathogens. Chlorite is a byproduct formed when chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect water. This is to improve physical removal of Cryptosporidium. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems back in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003.This standard became effective for large public water systems by December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground public water systems back in December 2003. The EPA has promulgating a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. the rule requires that a public water system. using surface water (or ground water under the direct influence of surface water) as its source. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems lower disinfection byproduct levels to comply with the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems comply with Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. Microbial Regulations One of the key regulations developed and implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to counter pathogens in drinking water is the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 17 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Turbidity is an indicator of the physical removal of particulates. The Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule was established in December 1998 to control Cryptosporidium. Among its provisions. The EPA established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for all public water systems and a 99% removal requirement for Cryptosporidium in filtered public water systems that serve at least 10.000 people. they include turbidity limits. The Surface Water Treatment Rule specifies treatment criteria to assure that these performance requirements are met.9% and 99. The new rule will tighten turbidity standards by December 2001.000 people.

Often referred to as HPC. a mild gastrointestinal disease. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e. Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including nonpathogens. or other symptoms. diarrhea. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. headaches. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 18 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . However. pathogens. cramps. nausea. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. and cramps).g. However. The above photo is of a SimPlate for HPC multi-dose used for the quantification of HPC in water. Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects. vomiting. and opportunistic pathogens. such as diarrhea. the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. The EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium.Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. It causes cryptosporidiosis. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water.

Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources.Radionuclides Alpha emitters. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. and in the air in your home. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 19 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . As the organics are driven off by heating. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. a carrier gas transports them through a separation column and into a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) where individual components are identified. Gas Chromatograph (GC) Separates vaporized sample into individual components. such as wells. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Combined Radium 226/228. Operation A sample is placed into a heated injection port. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Beta/photon emitters.

Fluoride. see the EPA’s lead in your drinking water fact sheet. including pesticides & herbicides 2. may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth. Synthetic Organic Contaminants. before they erupt from the gums. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the EPA's standard over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system. For advice on avoiding lead. Lead typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings.7.8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 20 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . including pain and tenderness of the bones). The EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. in its moderate or severe forms. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.4-D 2. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health. The EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis. This problem occurs only in developing teeth.3.5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2.4.Inorganic Contaminants (IOC) Antimony Asbestos Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Thallium Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride. Dental fluorosis.

-Trichloroethane 1.1.2-Dicholoroethylene Dichloromethane 1.2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Toluene Vinyl Chloride Xylenes Common water sampling bottles VOC bottles are the smaller.2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethylene 1.Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC) Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloroethylene trans-1. thin bottles with the septum tops.2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 21 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .4-Trichlorobenzene 1.1-Dichloroethylene cis- 1.

Giardia Cryptosporidium Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 22 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

discharge from metal refineries. erosion of natural deposits Corrosion of household plumbing systems. natural deposits Adults: Kidney problems. leaching from wood preservatives 0. runoff from waste batteries and paints Discharge from steel and pulp mills. physical or mental plumbing systems. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories. Those with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor if their water systems exceed the copper action level.0 Bone disease (pain and Water additive which promotes tenderness of the bones). strong teeth. Gastrointestinal distress.2 4. solder Discharge from semiconductor manufacturing.1 0.National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Inorganic Chemicals Antimony Arsenic MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Increase in blood cholesterol. erosion of natural deposits. TT Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage.006 none5 0. decrease in blood glucose Skin damage.004 Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps Increase in blood pressure Intestinal lesions Cadmium 0. 6 3.004 0. ceramics.3 Cyanide (as free cyanide) Fluoride 0.005 Kidney damage Chromium (total) 0. discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories 4.005 0. 0. erosion of natural deposits.010 Asbestos (fiber >10 micrometers) Barium Beryllium 7 million 7 MFL fibers per Liter 2 2 0. circulatory system problems. erosion of natural deposits Discharge of drilling wastes. fire retardants. and defense industries Corrosion of galvanized pipes. discharge from metal refineries. discharge from teeth. electronics.006 0. animal feed additives. aerospace. high blood pressure Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 23 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . petroleum refining. fertilizer and aluminum factories Action Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household Level=0. increased risk of cancer Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Discharge from petroleum refineries.2 Nerve damage or thyroid problems Lead zero Discharge from steel/metal factories. erosion of natural deposits Decay of asbestos cement in water mains.0 Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis Action Short term exposure: Level=1.1 Copper 1. wood preservatives. erosion of 015. herbicides. erosion of natural Children may get mottled deposits. TT6 development. discharge from electrical.

discharge from mines Leaching from ore-processing sites. "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . kidney. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from petroleum refineries. sewage.life threatening without immediate medical attention. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. numbness in fingers or toes. changes in blood. or liver problems Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 24 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . leaching from septic tanks. Hair or fingernail loss.002 "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath.05 0. erosion of natural deposits Runoff from fertilizer use. intestine.Inorganic Mercury 0. and pharmaceutical companies Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen) 10 10 Nitrite (measured as 1 Nitrogen) 1 Selenium Thallium 0. discharge from refineries and factories. erosion of natural deposits.002 0. leaching from septic tanks.002 Kidney damage Erosion of natural deposits. runoff from landfills and cropland Runoff from fertilizer use.0005 0.life threatening without immediate medical attention. discharge from electronics. circulatory problems Hair loss. sewage.05 0. glass.

increased risk Discharge from pharmaceutical of cancer and chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories General toxic effects or Leaching from PVC plumbing reproductive difficulties systems.007 Discharger from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Kidney.2Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1-2Dichloropropane Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Nervous system or blood problems.04 . liver Discharge from rubber and problems. 2Dichloroethylene trans-1.007 Di(2zero ethylhexyl)phthalate Dinoseb 0.003 0. increased risk of cancer Reproductive difficulties.2 zero TT 7 0. increased risk of cancer Problems with blood or nervous system. Runoff/leaching from soil increased risk of cancer fumigant used on soybeans.005 0.6 0.2 0.005 0. cotton. discharge from chemical factories Reproductive difficulties.1 0.4 0. leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Residue of banned termiticide zero zero 0. or circulatory Discharge from industrial system problems chemical factories Anemia. increased risk of cancer Eye.2-Dibromo-3chloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.006 0. pineapples. or adrenal gland Runoff from herbicide used on problems row crops Minor kidney changes Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Reproductive difficulties. increased risk of chemical factories cancer Reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 25 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . kidney or spleen Discharge from industrial damage. reproductive difficulties.002 0.4-D Dalapon 1. anemia. changes in blood chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems.1 0.002 0.003 zero zero 0. liver.005 0.007 0. liver. reproductive difficulties Anemia.075 zero 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or nervous system problems.1 zero zero 0.0002 0. and orchards Liver.2-Dichloroethane 1-1Dichloroethylene cis-1.07 0.0002 0.4 0.075 0.04 zero zero 0. increased risk of cancer Cardiovascular system problems.005 0.1 0. decrease in blood platelets.07 0. kidney. liver.005 0. kidney or spleen problems.Organic Chemicals Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Carbofuran Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene 2.07 0. Liver problems. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Discharge from factories.007 0.6 0.07 0.

05 0.001 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Stomach problems.0002 0.2 zero Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Styrene zero 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems.07 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney problems.2 0. increased risk of cancer Liver damage.005 1 0. kidney or central nervous system problems. reproductive difficulties.0004 0. discharge of waste chemicals Heptachlor epoxide zero Hexachlorobenzene zero Hexachlorocyclopen 0. lumber. or liver problems Liver.04 0.07 0.1 0.004 0.02 0.04 0.003 0. reproductive difficulties Liver damage.2 Tetrachloroethylene zero Toluene Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Toxaphene 2.004 0. nervous system.05 tadiene Lindane 0.4. livestock Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples. reproductive or nervous system difficulties.002 zero 0.10 0.4Trichlorobenzene 1. potatoes.8TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethelyne dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor zero 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney or stomach problems Liver or kidney problems Reproductive difficulties Slight nervous system effects Skin changes. kidney. added to water during treatment process Discharge from petroleum refineries Discharge from petroleum refineries Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned termiticide Breakdown of hepatachlor Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Discharge from chemical factories Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle.00005 0. reproductive difficulties.001 0.1. and circulatory problems Liver problems.5-TP (Silvex) 1. alfalfa. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Changes in adrenal glands Liver.2. immune deficiencies.0005 Cataracts Stomach and intestinal problems Nervous system effects Stomach problems. kidney.0002 Methoxychlor Oxamyl (Vydate) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 0. and tomatoes Runoff from landfills. increased risk of cancer Nervous system.7.1 0.5 0.7 zero 0. leaching from landfills Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Discharge from petroleum factories Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Residue of banned herbicide Discharge from textile finishing factories Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 26 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0002 0. or circulatory problems 0. vegetables. liver. reproductive difficulties.5 0.7 0.7 zero Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion. discharge from chemical factories Runoff from herbicide use Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned insecticide Discharge from industrial chemical factories.1 0. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Problems with blood Liver.3. gardens Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits. thymus gland problems.02 0.1 0.Dioxin (2.7 0.05 0. 03 increased risk of cancer 0.05 0.002 TT7 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems.000000 Reproductive difficulties.1Trichloroethane 1 none5 zero 0.20 Discharge from wood preserving factories Herbicide runoff Herbicide runoff Discharge from rubber and plastic factories. or thyroid problems.

Gastroenteric disease n/a Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Human and animal fecal waste Giardia lamblia Heterotrophic plate count zero N/A TT 8 TT8 Legionella zero TT8 5. discharge from plastic factories Discharge from petroleum factories. discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides Beta particles and photon emitters MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Decay of natural and manmade deposits Erosion of natural deposits none 5 Gross alpha particle none5 activity Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined) none5 4 Increased risk of cancer millirems per year 15 Increased risk of cancer picocurie s per Liter (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L Increased risk of cancer Erosion of natural deposits MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 Microorganisms (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Giardiasis.005 0. multiplies in heating systems Human and animal fecal waste Soil runoff Total Coliforms zero (including fecal coliform and E. It may indicate the presence of microbes. Coli) N/A Turbidity Viruses (enteric) zero TT8 Human and animal fecal waste Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 27 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .005 0.1. but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms.2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) 0. kidney. a gastroenteric disease HPC has no health effects.003 zero zero 10 0. Legionnaire's Disease.1.0%9 TT8 Found naturally in water. commonly known as pneumonia Used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria 10 may be present Turbidity has no health effects but can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer Nervous system damage Discharge from industrial chemical factories Discharge from petroleum refineries Leaching from PVC pipes. or immune system problems Liver problems.002 10 Liver.

Cholera Legionella Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 28 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

or color) in drinking water.3 mg/L 0.05 to 0.5-8.0 mg/L 0.National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. odor. The EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply.5 mg/L 0. Contaminant Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Fluoride Foaming Agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc Secondary Standard 0.10 mg/L 250 mg/L 500 mg/L 5 mg/L Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 29 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .5 0. states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. However.05 mg/L 3 threshold odor number 6.2 mg/L 250 mg/L 15 (color units) 1.0 mg/L noncorrosive 2.

6 Lead and copper are regulated in a Treatment Technique which requires systems to take tap water samples at sites with lead pipes or copper pipes that have lead solder and/or are served by lead service lines.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent) • Epichlorohydrin = 0. and which allows for a proper margin of safety. for copper is 1.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent) 8 The Surface Water Treatment Rule requires systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water. Legionella will also be controlled. and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Giardia lamblia: 99.99% killed/inactivated • Legionella: No limit. MCLs are enforceable standards. MCLGs are nonenforceable public health goals. but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are inactivated.9% killed/inactivated Viruses: 99. • HPC: NO more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter. which triggers water systems into taking treatment steps if exceeded in more than 10% of tap water samples. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month. 9 No more than 5. 2 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) . coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human animal wastes. 4 Units are in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. as follows: • Acrylamide = 0. to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems. Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms.The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. 7 Each water system must certify. 5 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act.Notes 1 Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) .3 mg/L.An enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. in writing. The action level. Therefore. and for lead is 0. systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0. cramps.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified.0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. nausea.015mg/L. • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 30 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 10 Fecal coliform and E. no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive). Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea. 3 Treatment Technique . The margins of safety in MCLGs ensure that exceeding the MCL slightly does not pose significant risk to public health.The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. There cannot be any fecal coliforms. or other symptoms. headaches. there is no MCLG for this contaminant.

" Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Exposure Contact between a person and a chemical. the EPA awards capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance drinking water system infrastructure improvements. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. fatigue. to enhance operations and management of drinking water systems. and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 31 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and verifying accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea. A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents of the area served by the system or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. . describing sources within the source water protection area. and as necessary. abdominal pain. or other exposure routes. Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person. person-to-person contact. The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea. exposure from person-to-person contact. In the SDWA. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water. Contamination Source Inventory. Under section 107 of the SDWA Amendments of 1996.Safe Drinking Water Act Terms Community Water System (CWS)." MCLs are enforceable standards. vomiting. II. and which allows for an adequate margin of safety. associated with the disease giardiasis. but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people. The process of identifying and inventorying contaminant sources within delineated source water protection areas through recording existing data. ". source water protection. Cryptosporidium A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF). and other activities to encourage public water system compliance and protection of public health. Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR). Giardia lamblia A protozoan. MCLGs are non-enforceable public health goals. A rule under development covering wells not included in Class I. ground water systems. . Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Rule. Under section 1452 of the SDWA. and cramps. an MCL is defined as "the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. the Administrator shall also promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems. the statute reads. collecting and interpreting new information on existing or potential sources through surveys. III or IV in which nonhazardous fluids are injected into or above underground sources of drinking water. targeting likely sources for further investigation. including surface water systems.

2-dichlorothane. para-dichlorobenzene. As radionuclides decay. 1989. Organics Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 32 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . There are two types of NCWSs: transient and non-transient. Primacy State. if necessary.1.The Safe Drinking Water Act. Non-Community Water System (NCWS). pesticides. Carbon Tetrachloride.1-dichloroethylene. The 8 VOCs regulated under this rule are: Benzene. gallons per capita per day (gpcd). Point-of-Use Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment. The SDWA was amended in 1986 and again in 1996. This rule. generally used in expressions of water use. State has adopted rules at least as stringent as federal regulations and has been granted primary enforcement responsibility. vinyl chloride. Nitrates Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges.Nephelolometric Turbidity Units. Non-Community water systems to monitor for and. they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. 2-trichlorethane. and others. trichloroethylene. there must be hazard and there must be exposure. 1. Radionuclides Elements that undergo a process of natural decay. which results from interferences in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. and 1. Radiation can cause adverse health effects. State that has the responsibility for ensuring a law is implemented. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting the national drinking water regulations while individual states are responsible for ensuring that public water systems under their jurisdiction are complying with the regulations. Phase I Contaminants The Phase I Rule became effective on January 9. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobanemia. or blue baby syndrome. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons. 1. or VOC Rule. so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water. such as cancer. SDWA . treat their supplies for these chemicals. (NTU) A unit of measure used to describe the turbidity of water. set water quality standards for 8 VOCs and required all community and Non-Transient. A public water system that is not a community water system. Per capita Per person. Point-of-Entry Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home. Risk The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals. Turbidity is the cloudiness in water. also called the Volatile Organic Chemical Rule. In order for there to be risk. The Safe Drinking Water Act was first passed in 1974 and established the basic requirements under which the nation’s public water supplies were regulated. and has the authority to enforce the law and related regulations.

This analysis will assist the state in determining which potential sources of contamination are "significant. the EPA can instead specify a treatment technique. Source Water Protection Area (SWPA). hotels. A state management plan under FIFRA required by the EPA to allow states (e. Non-Community Water Systems (T/NT.g. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 33 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . An analysis to determine. tribes and U. These systems typically are schools. Transient non-community systems typically are restaurants." To the Extent Practical. State Management Plan (SMP) Program. as part of the state SWAP approved by the EPA under section 1453 of the SDWA. The surface area above a sole source aquifer and its recharge area. All information sources may be used. Susceptibility Analysis. large stores. uses. Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) Designation. factories. Sub watershed. treatment. viruses and Legionella. and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided.S. A state program implemented in accordance with the statutory language at section 1454 of the SDWA to establish local voluntary incentive-based partnerships for SWP and remediation. Water systems that are non-community systems: transient systems serve 25 non-resident persons per day for 6 months or less per year. offices. with a clear understanding of where the significant potential sources of contamination are located. churches. The area delineated by the state for a PWS or including numerous PWSs. states. The rule specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL. Non-transient systems regularly serve at least 25 of the same non-resident persons per day for more than 6 months per year.Significant Potential Source of Contamination. and that has the potential to release contaminants identified in a state program (contaminants with MCLs plus any others a state considers a health threat) within a source water protection area in an amount which could contribute significantly to the concentration of the contaminants in the source waters of the public water supply. States must inventory sources of contamination to the extent they have the technology and resources to complete an inventory for a Source Water Protection Area delineated as described in the guidance. A topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a tributary of a stream. State Source Water Petition Program. whether the source is ground water or surface water or both. or produces chemicals or elements. particularly previous Federal and state inventories of sources. A treatment technique is an enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. The regulations also specify water quality.NCWS). Treatment Technique A specific treatment method required by the EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. A facility or activity that stores. etc. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). and promulgated filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface water sources or by ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water. Transient/Non-Transient. territories) the flexibility to design and implement approaches to manage the use of certain pesticides to protect ground water. etc. the susceptibility of the public water systems in the source water protection area to contamination from these sources.

Total Coliform Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water well or well field. and on all U. A topographic area that is within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking water intake. Toxicity The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it. taking into consideration both ground and surface water flow. The program is designed to prevent underground injection which endangers drinking water sources. Watershed. supplying a PWS. A topographic boundary area that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a stream. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 34 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .S. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA). from which overland flow drains to the intake. A watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. The program applies to injection well owners and operators on Federal facilities. Native American lands. land and territories.The surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field. Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. Watershed Approach. Watershed Area.

Contaminated wells used for drinking water are especially dangerous. Well with a mineral oil sealed vertical turbine pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 35 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In some places. its rate of flow can be relatively fast but this is exceptional. to water to irrigate crops to industrial processing water. where groundwater has dissolved limestone to form caverns and large openings.Groundwater and Wells A well can be easily contaminated if it is not properly constructed or if toxic materials are released into the well. Toxic material spilled or dumped near a well can leach into the aquifer and contaminate the groundwater drawn from that well. When water is pumped from the ground. Groundwater flows slowly through water-bearing formations (aquifers) at different rates. Wells can be tested to see what chemicals may be present in dangerous quantities. the dynamics of groundwater flow change in response to this withdrawal. Groundwater is withdrawn from wells to provide water for everything from drinking water for the home and business.

Therefore. Here the spaces in the rock and soil contain both air and water. but the spaces are not large enough to permit free movement of water. Clay. lie beneath layers of impermeable materials. The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone.Many terms are used to describe the nature and extent of the groundwater resource. The piezometric surface is the level to which the water in an artesian aquifer will rise. Water in this zone is called soil moisture. Unconfined aquifers are those that are bounded by the water table. it does not always mirror the flow of water on the surface. or sometimes artesian aquifers. Groundwater flow in the aquifers underlying surface drainage basins. forming large channels or even caverns. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 36 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Fractured aquifers are rocks in which the groundwater moves through cracks. the rock is no longer a porous medium. Like surface water. groundwater may move in different directions below the ground than the water flowing on the surface. In this case. Examples of fractured aquifers include granite and basalt. lakes and the oceans. If the water level rises above the ground surface a flowing artesian well occurs. but here the cracks and fractures may be enlarged by solution. if it contains cracks it can still act as a fractured aquifer. These are called confined aquifers. rises higher than the top of the aquifer because of confining pressure. however. The level below which all the spaces are filled with water is called the water table. A well in such an aquifer is called an artesian well. and eventually drains into streams. and water in this saturated zone is called groundwater. However. joints or fractures in otherwise solid rock. however. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone. rivers. Limestone terrain where solution has been very active is termed karst. Most of the aquifers of importance to us are unconsolidated porous media such as sand and gravel. for instance. Some aquifers. Some very porous materials are not permeable. The water in these wells. Groundwater usually flows downhill with the slope of the water table. groundwater flows toward. Limestones are often fractured aquifers. has many spaces between its grains. Porous media such as sandstone may become so highly cemented or recrystalized that all of the original space is filled.

As it becomes rain or snow it may be polluted with organisms. we must treat the water for human consumption. Infiltration: The gradual flow or movement of water into and through the pores of the soil. hail or other forms of moisture. 4. 2. 3. organic compounds. Evaporation: The process by which the water or other liquids become a gas. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 37 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Transpiration: Moisture that will come from plants as a byproduct of photosynthesis. snow. 6. Water will be collected as surface supplies or circulate to form in the ground. Condensation: The collection of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. 5. Runoff: Water that drains from a saturated or impermeable surface into stream channels or other surface water areas. and inorganic compounds.Water Sources Before we discuss the types of treatment it is easier to first understand how the source of water arrives. Water Cycle Terms 1. Most lakes and rivers are formed this way. Once the precipitation begins water is no longer in its purest form. Precipitation: The process by which atmospheric moisture falls on to the land or water surface as rain. Because of this.

These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide. Your water will normally contain chlorine and varying amounts of dissolved minerals including calcium. The pipework (including the service pipe) within the boundary of the property is the responsibility of the owner of the property. lake. As with surface water. copper. Most of these substances are of natural origin and are picked up as water passes round the water cycle. not the water supplier. when you think about where your drinking water comes from. coffee makers and taps and appears as a scum or film on tea and coffee. but the entire watershed. Lead Lead does not usually occur naturally in water supplies but is derived from lead distribution and domestic pipework and fittings. such as lakes. Cysts These are associated with the reproductive stages of parasitic micro-organisms (protozoans) which can cause acute diarrhea type illnesses. manganese. Some are present due to the treatment processes which are used make the water suitable for drinking and cooking. Your annual drinking water quality report will tell you where your water supplier gets your water. nitrates. It is also not uncommon to find traces of iron. depending on its source.Where Does Drinking Water Come From? A clean. Cysts are rarely present in the public water supply. Temporary hardness comes out of the water when it's heated and is deposited as scale and fur on kettles. aluminium. Other times. sulphates and bicarbonates. Particles and rust These come from the gradual breakdown of the lining of concrete or iron mains water pipes or from sediment which has accumulated over the years and is disturbed in some way. In rural areas. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river. industry. leisure facilities and gardens to control weeds and insect pests and may enter the water cycle in many ways. and reservoirs. it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water. chlorides. or may span the borders of many states. These are usually referred to as 'contaminants'. people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources. Permanent hardness is unaffected by heating. many older properties still have lead service pipes and internal lead pipework. or reservoir. magnesium and sodium. insecticides and herbicides although the maximum amounts of all these substances are strictly limited by the regulations. Water Hardness There are two types of hardness: temporary and permanent. Although water suppliers have removed most of the original lead piping from the mains distribution system. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 38 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In either case. wild animals and people. constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. they come from farm animals. The water will also contain a relatively low level of bacteria which is not generally a risk to health Insecticides and herbicides (sometimes referred to as pesticides) Are widely used in agriculture. rivers. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. Aluminium Aluminium salts are added during water treatment to remove color and suspended solids. They are very resistant to normal disinfection processes but can be removed by advanced filtration processes installed in water treatment works. drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see.

viruses. the recharge area is often the immediate vicinity around the well or "wellhead. Wellhead Protection Wellhead protection refers to programs designed to maintain the quality of groundwater used as public drinking water sources. For example. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 39 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Groundwater is distributed fairly evenly throughout the crust of the earth. one gallon of pure trichloroethylene. Although it is common practice to associate contamination with highly visible features such as landfills. Groundwater moves from areas where the water table is high to where the water table is low." Some wells are recharged in areas that may be a great distance from the well itself. C) Perform a contaminant use inventory. fuels. lawn and garden chemicals. such as septic systems. will contaminate approximately 292 million gallons of water. at the surface or below it. industry or agriculture. Importantly. dry cleaners. etc. E) Plan for the future. B) Delineate geologically the protection zone. The theory is that management of land use around the well. Wellhead Protection Sequence A) Build a community-wide planning team. medical institutions. It occurs in the natural open spaces (e. fractures or pore spaces between grains) in sediments and rocks below the surface. inorganic chemicals (nitrate. potential contaminants are widespread and often come from common everyday activities as well. it lowers the water table in the immediate vicinity of the well. and over water moving (underground) toward the well.Source Water Quality Groundwater Groundwater contributes most of all of the water that is derived from wells or springs.g. gas stations.). etc. Groundwater originates as precipitation that sinks into the ground. D) Create a management plan for the protection zone. etc..). pesticides. will help to minimize damage to subsurface water supplies by spills or improper use of chemicals. The concept usually includes several stages. beauty shops. stormwater runoff. for example less than 50-75 feet. a contaminant may enter the aquifer some distance upgradient from you and still move towards your well. but it is not readily accessible or extractable everywhere. a common solvent. photo processing labs. the water may dissolve some of that contaminant and carry it to the aquifer. increasing the tendency for water to move towards the well. metals. pesticides applied to highway right-of-ways. More than 90 percent of the world's total supply of drinkable water is groundwater. Some of this water percolates down to the water table (shallowest surface of the groundwater) and recharges the aquifer. auto repair shops. When a well is pumping. it takes only a very small amount of some chemicals in drinking water to raise health concerns. Giardia. arsenic. Consequently. by managing the land uses around the wellfield. For shallow wells. etc. If the downward percolating precipitation encounters any source of contamination. Contaminants can be conveniently lumped into three categories: microorganisms (bacteria.) and organic chemicals (solvents.

suspended solids. Some lakes and reservoirs may experience seasonal turnover. Runoff could produce mud. and non metals such as fluoride. Biological characteristics are the presence of living or dead organisms. sulfides or acids. some lakes and rivers receive discharge from sewer facilities or defective septic tanks. and carbon dioxide will change because of biological activities. leaves. and some will collect as runoff to form streams and rivers that will then flow into the ocean. Quality of Water Here are the different classifications or the way water characteristics change as it passes on the surface and below the ground it would be in four categories: Physical characteristics such as taste. and turbidity. the rotten egg smell. Radiological characteristics are the result of water coming in contact with radioactive materials. temperature. The consumer relates it to scaling of faucets or staining. Water is known as the universal solvent because most substances that come in contact with it will dissolve. decayed vegetation. Chemical characteristics are the elements found that are considered alkali. this is how the consumer judges how well the provider is treating the water. and human and animal refuse. temperature. This will also interact with the chemical composition of the water. odor. Prescriptive: Rights based upon legal prescription or long use or custom. The discharge from industry could increase volatile organic compounds. algae. turbidity. Depending on the region. metals. Surface water is usually contaminated and unsafe to drink. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 40 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This could be associated with atomic energy. Surface Water Some of the rainwater will be immediately impounded in lakes and reservoirs. What’s the difference between lakes and reservoirs? Reservoirs are lakes with man-made dams. Changes in the dissolved oxygen. The consumer will become sick or complain about hydrogen sulfide odors.Water Rights Appropriative: Acquired water rights for exclusive use. Riparian: Water rights because property is adjacent to a river or surface water.

source water may have several restrictions of use as part of a Water Shed Management Plan. Algae can be controlled by using chemicals such as copper sulfate. Depending on the pH(Power of Hydrogen) and alkalinity of the water will determine how these chemicals will react. Algae growth is the result of photosynthesis. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. Depending on federal regulations and the amount of copper found natural in water. the algae would consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. discharge or runoff from agriculture. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC or GAC) and Chlorine. Another aspect of quality control is aquatic plants. and toxicity. operators have used Potassium Permanganate. Algae growth is supplied by the energy of the sun. as algae absorb this energy it converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. The lack of dissolved oxygen in water is known as anaerobic conditions. Certain vegetation removes the excess nutrients that would promote the growth of algae. and filter clogging is due to algae. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 41 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . With out sun light. Most treatment plant upsets such as taste and odor. Too much algae will imbalance the lake and this will result to fish kill. corrosion. color. In some areas it may be restricted from recreational use. The ecological balance in lakes and reservoirs plays a natural part in the purification and sustaining the life of the lake. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Most systems no longer use Chlorine because it reacts with the organics in the water to form Trihalomethanes.Managing Water Quality at the Source Depending on the region. or central nervous systems. The type of algae determines the problem it will cause for instance slime. This creates aerobic conditions that supply fish with oxygen. or industrial and wastewater discharge. color. For example algae and rooted aquatic plants are essential in the food chain of fish and birds. kidneys. Total Trihalomethanes.

radium. microbiological contaminants (Giardia. configuration of the existing system. or it may be purified by filtration through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. These include regulatory requirements. and improve aesthetic qualities such as appearance. “Impure water should be purified by being boiled over a fire.C. Common surface water contaminants include turbidity. the water supplier must consider a number of factors. color. operating requirements and future needs of the service area. Large surface water impound Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 42 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . odor. fluoride. and taste. viruses and bacteria) and low levels of a large number of organic chemicals. Groundwater contaminants include naturally occurring inorganic chemicals (such as arsenic. As early as 2000 B. radon and nitrate) and a number of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that have recently been detected in localized areas. people have treated water intended for drinking to remove particles of solid matter. medical lore of India advised.Water Treatment For thousands of years. cost. or being heated in the sun or by dipping a heated iron into it.. When selecting among the different treatment options. reduce health risks.” The treatment needs of a water system are likely to differ depending on whether the system uses a groundwater or surface water source. characteristics of the raw water.

and trash. this will cause problems to the treatment plants pumps and equipment. Both require manual cleaning. leaves. gravel. The best way to protect the plant is screening. weeds. The type of screening used depends on the raw water and the size of intake. Wire mesh screens are woven stainless steel material and the opening of the fabric is narrow. The spacing of the horizontal bars will rank the size. sticks.Preliminary Treatment Most lakes and reservoirs are not free of logs. If not removed. Bar screens are made of straight steel bars at the intake of the plant. tree limbs. sand and rocks. Mechanical bar screen Non-automated bar screen 43 . Mechanical bar screens very in size and use some type of raking mechanism that travels horizontally down the bars to scrap the debris off.

This will damage plant equipment and pipes. This is generally done with clarifiers shaped in either rectangular or round shapes. Most are designed with scrapers on the bottom to move the settled sludge to one or more hoppers at the influent end of the tank. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 44 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Clarifiers Let’s first look at the components of a rectangular clarifier.Pre-Sedimentation Once the water passes the bar screens. It could have a screw conveyor or traveling bridge used to collect the sludge. Most designs will have baffles to prevent short-circuiting and scum from entering the effluent. Sedimentation basins are also used after the flocculation process. The most common is a chain and flight collector. sand and grit are still present.

The shoes are usually metal and travel across a metal track. The shafts can be located overhead or below. Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 45 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Remember that the gear moves the drive chain. The flights are usually wood or nonmetallic flights mounted on parallel chains. a shear pin is used. wearing shoes are used to protect the flights. They move the settled sludge to the hopper in the clarifier for return and they also remove the scum from the surface of the clarifier. This means that the gear would simply slide around the shaft and movement of the drive chain would stop. the “flights and chains”. To prevent damage do to overloads.Flights and Chains The most important thing to consider is the sludge and scum collection mechanism. Some clarifiers may not have scum removal equipment so the configuration of the shaft may very. If a heavy load is put on the sludge collector system then the shear pin should break. The shear pin holds the gear solidly on the shaft so that no slippage occurs. The motor shaft is connected through a gear reducer to a shaft which turns the drive chain. The drive chain turns the drive sprockets and the head shafts. As the flights travel across the bottom of the clarifier.

Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 46 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Scrapers The most common type has a center pier or column. The major mechanic parts of the clarifier are the drive unit.Clarifiers In some circular or square tanks rotating scrapers are used. The diagram below shows a typical circular clarifier. and the scum removal system. Circular clarifier and collector mechanism Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 47 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the sludge collector mechanism.

Backwashing filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 48 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Fast rinse lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. the filter should be reconditioned. Turbidity washes out of the filter bed as the filter media particles scour one another. the pressure drop through the filter increases.10 psi (34 to 68 kPa) from the beginning of the cycle. Traditional treatments rely on expensive. construction-intensive processes with lengthy times. The conventional process uses alum (aluminum sulfate) and cationic polymer to neutralize the charge. Since the sand grains all have about the same density.Conventional Treatment Improving the clarity of surface water has always presented a challenge because source quality varies. Light. When the pressure difference between filter inlet and outlet increases by 5 . A depth filter has four layers of filtration media. at about 14 gpm per square foot (34m/hr) of filter bed area that lasts about 10 minutes. The media become progressively finer and denser in the lower layers. Conventional technology uses a 30 to 50 mg/L alum dosage to form a large floc that requires extensive retention time to permit settling.called "mud-balling" . Backwash is an up flow operation. That allows a depth filter to run substantially longer and use less backwash water than a traditional sand filter. As suspended particles accumulate in a filter bed. Operating beyond this pressure drop increases the chance of fouling . Traditional filter systems use graded silica sand filter media. Suspended particles carry an electrical charge which causes them to repel one another. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 49 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The down flow rinse settles the bed before the filter returns to service. each of different size and density. filtration occurs only within the first few inches of the finer grains at the top of the bed. Particles are trapped throughout the bed. coarse material lies at the top of the filter bed. That allows suspended particles to clump together to form more easily filtered particles. Alum combines with alkalinity in the raw water to form a white precipitate that neutralizes suspended particles' electrical charge and forms a base for coagulating those particles. not in just the top few inches. The reconditioning cycle consists of an up flow backwash followed by a down flow rinse. larger grains lay toward the bottom of the filter bed and finer grains lay at the top of the filter bed. As a result. Larger suspended particles are removed by the upper layers while smaller particles are removed in the lower layers.within the filter.

In addition to the conventional filtration processes. but without the construction costs and space requirements associated with separately constructed sedimentation basins. measured in NTU. Chemical pretreatment may increase filtered water clarity. Flocculation and Filtration all with in a 20 foot area Package Plants Representing a slight modification of conventional filtration technology. filtered water clarity improvements in the range of 93 to 95% are achievable. by 90% compared with filtration alone. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 50 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and transported virtually assembled to the operation site. If an operator is present to make adjustments for variations in the raw water. particularly when turbidity includes fine colloidal particles. or a cationic polymer neutralizes the charge. Small water treatment package plant Coagulation. These are appropriate for small community systems where full water treatment is desired. package plants are found as two types: tubetype clarifiers and adsorption clarifiers. Suspended particles are usually electrically charged. allowing the particles to cling to one another and to the filter media.Chemical pretreatment is often used to enhance filter performance. Feeding chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate). ferric chloride. filter beds. clear wells. package plants are usually built in a factory. mounted on skids. etc.

But since colloidal particles are so small. In this process. their charge per volume is significant. is added to the water in the "flash mix" to cause microscopic impurities in the water to clump together. Several recent studies have shown that bacteria and viral agents are attached to organic and inorganic particulates. Which chemical is used depends on the application. which can be thought of as positively charged strings that attract the particles to them. All matter has a residual surface charge to a certain degree. as follows: Coagulation At the Water Treatment Plant. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 51 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and they stay suspended in water. Large microorganisms including algae and amoebic cysts are readily removed by coagulation and filtration. This is primarily due to a negative charge on the surface of the particles. and will usually be chosen by the engineer designing the water treatment system. When solid matter is too small to be removed by a depth filter. The resulting larger particles will be removed by filtration. As well.Rapid Sand Filtration Also known as rapid-sand filtration. Flocculation The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses which can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. this is the most prevalent form of water treatment technology in use today. Coagulation is the process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. form a larger particle. Aluminum Sulfate is the most widely used coagulant in water treatment. Gentle agitation of the water and appropriate detention times (the length of time water remains in the basin) help facilitate this process. the chemically treated water is sent into a basin where the suspended particles can collide. Aluminum Sulfate is also excellent for removing nutrients such as phosphorous in wastewater treatment. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate is a 48. Other coagulants are called "cationic polymers". new chemicals have been developed which combine the properties of alum-type coagulants and cationic polymers. Bacterial removals of 99% are also achievable. or "stuck together" to form larger particles which can be filtered.86% solution. Therefore. the like charges on the particles repel each other. This is achieved through the use of coagulant chemicals. Coagulant chemicals are required since colloidal particles by themselves have tendency to stay suspended in water and not settle out. which follows the rapid mixing. More than 98% of poliovirus type 1 was removed by conventional coagulation and filtration. The alum and the water are mixed rapidly by the flash mixer. removal of these particulates by conventional coagulation and filtration is a major component of effective treatment for the removal of pathogens. Hence. This filtration process employs a combination of physical and chemical processes in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. and in the process. aluminum sulfate. agglomerate (stick together). the fine particles must be coagulated. and form heavier particles called “floc”. which allows the particles to come together. commonly called alum. Coagulation is necessary to meet the current regulations for almost all potable water plants using surface water. Coagulant chemicals such as "alum" (aluminum sulphate) work by neutralizing the negative charge.

Inlet Zone B. Outlet Zone Shapes for a Sedimentation Basin A. bacteria and other microorganisms are caught in the floc structure. Circular Basins C. granular synthetic material. Following flocculation. Pre-Sedimentation Depending on the quality of the source water. To allow larger particles time to settle in a reservoir or lake (sand. odor. taste and color. but would not be recommended for that purpose only. or plastic material are also common and are often much smaller and cheaper and are disposable. Provides an equalization basin which evens out fluctuations in concentrations of suspended solids. The most widely used are rapid-sand filters in tanks. will also remove turbidity. Once settled. Double deck Basins Sedimentation The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. paper. a sedimentation step may be used. including flocculated particles. Filters are available in several ratings depending on the size of particles to be removed. The floc particles are removed in these filters. dissolved organics. The water flows by gravity through large filters of anthracite coal. and fabrics. Filters for suspended particle removal can also be made of graded sand. Sludge Zone D. screens of various materials. the particles combine to form a sludge that is later removed from the bottom of the basin." As these floc particles mix in the water. A. described earlier. The rate of filtration can be adjusted to meet water consumption needs. During sedimentation. heavy silt) reducing solid removal loads. Sedimentation Basin Zones A. Cartridge filters made of fabric.The water is slowly mixed in contact chambers allowing the coagulated particles to become larger and stronger and is now called "floc. Square Basins D. Settling Zone C. The filter is periodically cleaned by a reversal of flow and the discharge of back flushed water into a drain. Activated carbon filters. garnet and gravel. B. In these units. the velocity of the water is decreased so that the suspended material. Filtration A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. silica sand. can settle out by gravity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 52 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Rectangular Basins B. gravity holds the material in place and the flow is downwards. some plants have pre-sedimentation.

With most of the larger particles settled out, the water now goes to the filtration process. At a rate of between 2 and 10 gpm per square foot, the water is filtered through an approximate 36" bed of graded sand. Anthracite coal or activated carbon may also be included in the sand to improve the filtration process, especially for the removal of organic contaminants, taste, and odor problems. The filtration process removes the following types of particles Silts and clay Colloids Biological forms Floc Four desirable characteristics of filter media A. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) B. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) C. Hard and durable D. Free of impurities and is insoluble in water Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis, at least once per day. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The more uniform the media, the slower head loss buildup. All the water treatment plants that use surface water are governed by the U.S. EPA’s Surface Water Treatment Rules or SWTR. Direct Filtration Plant vs. Conventional Plant The only difference is that the sedimentation process or step is omitted from the Direct Filtration plant. Declining Rate Filters The flow rate will vary with head loss. Each filter operates at the same rate, but can have a variable water level. This system requires an effluent control structure (weir) to provide adequate media submergence. Detention Time Is the actual time required for a small amount of water to pass through a sedimentation basin at a given rate of flow, or the calculated time required for a small amount of liquid to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. Detention Time = (Basin Volume, Gallons) (24 Hours/day) Flow, Gallons/day Disinfection Chlorine is added to the water at the flash mix for pre-disinfection. The chlorine kills or inactivates harmful microorganisms. Chlorine is added again after filtration for post-disinfection.

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Jar Testing (More information later in manual)
Jar testing traditionally has been done on a routine basis in most water treatment plants to control the coagulant dose. Much more information, however, can be obtained with only a small modification in the conventional method of jar testing. It is the quickest and most economical way to obtain good reliable data on the many variables which affect the treatment process. These include: 1. Determination of most effective coagulant. 2. Determination of optimum coagulation pH for the various coagulants. 3. Evaluation of most effective polymers. 4. Optimum point of application of polymers in treatment train. 5. Optimum sequence of application of coagulants, polymers and pH adjustment chemicals. 6. Best flocculation time. pH Expression of a basic or acid condition of a liquid. The range is from 0-14, zero being the most acid and 14 being the most alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Most natural water has a pH between 6.0 and 8.5. Caustic (NaOH) also called Sodium Hydroxide is a strong chemical used in the treatment process to neutralize acidity, increase alkalinity or raise the pH value. Polymer A type of chemical when combined with other types of coagulants aid in binding small suspended particles to larger particles to help in the settling and filtering processes. Post Chlorine Where the water is chlorinated to make sure to hold a residual in the distribution system. Pre Chlorine Where the raw water is dosed with a large concentration of chlorine. Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine before the filtration process will help: A. Control algae and slime growth B. Control mud ball formation C. Improve coagulation D. Precipate iron Raw Turbidity The turbidity of the water coming to the treatment plant from the raw water source. Settled Solids Solids that have been removed from the raw water by the coagulation and settling processes. Hydrofluosilicic Acid (H2SiF6) a clear, fuming corrosive liquid with a pH ranging from 1 to 1.5. Used in water treatment to fluoridate drinking water.

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Corrosion Control The pH of the water is adjusted with sodium carbonate, commonly called soda ash. Soda ash is fed into the water after filtration. Zinc Orthophosphate A chemical used to coat the pipes in the distribution system to inhibit corrosion. Taste and Odor Control Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is occasionally added for taste and odor control. PAC is added to the flash mix. Water Quality Water testing is conducted throughout the treatment process. Items like turbidity, pH and chlorine residual are monitored and recorded continuously. Some items are tested several times per day, some once per quarter and others once per year. Sampling Collect the water sample at least 6 inches under the surface by plunging the container mouth down into the water and turning the mouth towards the current by dragging the container slowly horizontal. Care should be taken not to disturb the bottom of the water source or along the sides so as not to stir up any settled solids. This would create erroneous errors. Chemical Feed and Rapid Mix Chemicals are added to the water in order to improve the subsequent treatment processes. These may include pH adjusters and coagulants. Coagulants are chemicals, such as alum, that neutralize positive or negative charges on small particles, allowing them to stick together and form larger particles that are more easily removed by sedimentation (settling) or filtration. A variety of devices, such as baffles, static mixers, impellers, and in-line sprays can be used to mix the water and distribute the chemicals evenly. Short Circuiting Short Circuiting is a condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the water travels faster than the rest of the flowing water. This is usually undesirable since it may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times in comparison with the presumed detention times. Tube Settlers This modification of the conventional process contains many metal “tubes” that are placed in the sedimentation basin, or clarifier. These tubes are approximately 1 inch deep and 36 inches long, split-hexagonal shape, and installed at an angle or 60 degrees or less. These tubes provide for a very large surface area upon which particles may settle as the water flows upwards. The slope of the tubes facilitates gravity settling of the solids to the bottom of the basin, where they can be collected and removed. The large surface settling area also means that adequate clarification can be obtained with detention times of 15 minutes or less. As with conventional treatment, this sedimentation step is followed by filtration through mixed media.

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Adsorption Clarifiers: The concept of the adsorption clarifier package plant was developed in the early 1980’s. This technology uses an up flow clarifier with low-density plastic bead media, usually held in place by a screen. This adsorption media is designed to enhance the sedimentation/ clarification process by combining flocculation and sedimentation into one step. In this step, turbidity is reduced by adsorption of the coagulated and flocculated solids onto the adsorption media and onto the solids already adsorbed onto the media. Air scouring cleans adsorption clarifiers followed by water flushing. Cleaning of this type of clarifier is initiated more often than filter backwashing because the clarifier removes more solids. As with the tube-settler type of package plant, the sedimentation/ clarification process is followed by mixed-media filtration and disinfection to complete the water treatment. Clearwell: The final step in the conventional filtration process, the clear well provides temporary storage for the treated water. The two main purposes for this storage are to have filtered water available for backwashing the filter, and to provide detention time (or contact time) for the chlorine (or other disinfectant) to kill any microorganisms that may remain in the water.

Public education is key to a water treatment facility’s image. This is a difficult balance with new security rules that are in place since 9/11.

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EPA Filter Backwash Rule The U. by establishing filtration and monitoring requirements for systems serving more than 10. The IESWTR set the first drinking water standards to control Cryptosporidium in large water systems. This rule will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water. Physical removal is critical to the control of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to standard disinfection practice. 2000 ((1412(b)(14)). 2000 ((1412(b)(2)(C)) and also required the EPA to “promulgate a regulation to govern the recycling of filter backwash water within the treatment process of a public water system” by August.S.000 people) by November. Cryptosporidium caused over 400. Cryptosporidiosis may manifest itself as a severe infection that can last several weeks and may cause the death of individuals with compromised immune systems. This rule proposes to extend protections against Cryptosporidium and other disease-causing microbes to the 11. and headaches and fatigue.000 people in Milwaukee to experience intestinal illness. The filter backwash requirements will reduce the potential risks associated with recycling contaminants removed during the filtration process.500 small water systems which serve fewer than 10. The LT1FBR proposal builds on those standards by extending the requirements to small systems. Background The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires the EPA to set enforceable standards to protect public health from contaminants which may occur in drinking water. The 1996 Amendments to SDWA require The EPA to promulgate an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (announced in December 1998).Apply to systems serving fewer than 10.000 people annually. and fall into the three following categories: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 57 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 were hospitalized. The 1996 Amendments also require the EPA to promulgate a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (for systems serving less than 10.000 people. The EPA has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants is a health concern. cramps. The EPA has set enforceable drinking water treatment requirements to reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreaks. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Filter Backwash Rule (LT1FBR) to increase protection of finished drinking water supplies from contamination by Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens. and at least 50 deaths were attributed to the cryptosporidiosis outbreak. What will the LT1FBR require? The LT1FBR provisions will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water systems.000 people each. The current proposed rule includes provisions addressing both of these requirements. This rule also establishes filter backwash requirements for certain public water systems of all sizes. LT1 Provisions . In 1993. If finished water supplies contain microbiological contaminants. disease outbreaks may result. possibly jaundice. More than 4. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea. Treatment technologies such as filtration and disinfection can remove or inactivate microbiological contaminants. nausea.

• Conventional systems that practice direct recycle. gauges and pumps. • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with individual filter turbidity requirements. • If a system considers making a significant change to their disinfection practice they must develop a disinfection benchmark and receive State approval for implementing the change. The self assessment requires hydraulic flow monitoring and that certain data be reported to the State. and liquids from dewatering process prior to the point of primary coagulant addition unless the State specifies an alternative location. FBR Provisions . and. • Direct filtration systems recycling to the treatment process must provide detailed recycle treatment information to the State. which may require that modifications to recycle practice be made. thickener supernatant. and recycle spent filter backwash water.Turbidity • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with specific combined filter effluent turbidity requirements.Apply to all systems which recycle regardless of population served: • Recycle systems will be required to return spent filter backwash water. be made to protect public health. which may require modifications to recycle practice. Under the filtration basins are tunnels and complex machinery. employ 20 or fewer filters to meet production requirements during a selected month. Disinfection Benchmarking • Public water systems will be required to develop a disinfection profile unless they perform applicability monitoring which demonstrates their disinfection byproduct levels are less than 80% of the maximum contaminant levels. and • Unfiltered systems must comply with updated watershed control requirements that add Cryptosporidium as a pathogen of concern. Other Requirements • Finished water reservoirs for which construction begins after the effective date of the rule must be covered. one-time recycle self assessment. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 58 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and/or liquids from dewatering process within the treatment process must perform a one month. thickener supernatant.

With the exception of the larger Algae -. such as ponds and reservoirs. the diatoms). may attain a length of more than 200 ft (61 m). The cells of the colonies are generally similar.g. Green Algae (Gamophyta & Chlorophyta) 7000 species Red Algae (Rhodophyta) 4000 species such as this Coralline Alga (Calliarthron tuberculosum) Other species include Diatoms (Bacillariophyta.g. Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able.. to ingest food in an animal like manner. the green color of the chlorophyll is masked by the presence of other pigments.000 species) and various Plankton Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 59 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . in a ribbonlike filament (e.g. Pond scum. The green algae include most of the freshwater forms. Fucus). The pond scum. as is the green film found on the bark of trees. accumulation of floating green algae on the surface of stagnant or slowly moving waters.. Blue-green algae have been grouped with other prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera and renamed cyanobacteria.g. Volvox). 10. under certain conditions.seaweeds and kelp -. a green slime found in stagnant water. but some are differentiated for reproduction and for other functions. is a green alga. Spirogyra).Types of Algae The simplest algae are single cells (e. or in a branching thallus form (e.. Kelps. the largest algae.Protoctista are pretty much all microscopic organisms.. the more complex forms consist of many cells grouped in a spherical colony (e. The more complex brown algae and red algae are chiefly saltwater forms. One of the commonest forms is Spirogyra.

They are easy to spot because of their red eye. too.Major Algae Groups Blue-green algae are the slimy stuff. Dinoflagellates have a flagella and can swim in open waters. Diatoms look like two shells that fit together. Euglenoids are microscopic and single celled. they are bacteria. They are microscopic and single celled Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 60 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Green algae cells have nuclei and the pigment is distinct. They are microscopic and single celled. Euglenoids are green or brown and swim with their flagellum. Green algae are the most common algae in ponds and can be multicellular. Blue-green algae are not actually algae. Its cells lack nuclei and its pigment is scattered.

failing sewage treatment plants or cross-connections of water lines with sewage lines provide the potential for contaminating water with pathogens. viruses and protozoan that cause disease are known as pathogens. How Diseases are Transmitted Cryptosporidium Pathogens that may cause waterborne outbreaks through drinking water have one thing in common: they are spread by the fecal-oral. These particles. Pathogens may get into water and spread when infected humans or animals pass the bacteria. or feces-to-mouth. may remain in the water and be passed to humans or animals unless adequately treated. other methods exist for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. The water may not appear to be contaminated because feces has been broken up. The individual who eats fecescontaminated food may become infected and ill. A frequent source is a food handler who does not wash his hands after a bowel movement and then handles food with “unclean” hands. In addition to water. viruses and protozoa in their stool. It is interesting to note the majority of foodborne diseases occur in the home. For another person to become infected. he or she must take that pathogen in through the mouth. containing pathogens. Here. Most pathogens are generally associated with diseases that cause intestinal illness and affect people in a relatively short amount of time. not restaurants. then put their fingers in a friend’s mouth or Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 61 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria. The foodborne route is one of the more common methods. Only proper treatment will ensure eliminating the spread of disease. Human or animal wastes in watersheds. Influenza virus and tuberculosis bacteria are spread by secretions that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. They can cause illness through exposure to small quantities of contaminated water or food or from direct contact with infected people or animals. dispersed and diluted into microscopic particles. route. generally a few days to two weeks. Waterborne pathogens are different from other types of pathogens such as the viruses that cause influenza (the flu) or the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. Day care centers are another common source for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. failing septic systems. infected children in diapers may get feces on their fingers.

others. This chain lists the events that must occur for the transmission of disease via drinking water. This depends on the temperature of the water and the length of time the pathogens are in the water. These organisms are also an important cause of “travelers’ diarrhea. Bacterial Diseases Campylobacteriosis is the most common diarrhea illness caused by bacteria. viruses or protozoa). Shigellosis. may survive for months. yet is accepted by the general public. no disease will result. The pathogens in the water must enter the water system’s intake and in numbers sufficient to infect people. Salmonellosis. If the human or animal source is not infected with a pathogen. you may want to think twice about what you’ve digested within the past few days. The illness is frequently over within two to five days and usually lasts no more than 10 days. Other symptoms include abdominal pain. Some pathogens will survive for only a short time in water. Legionellosis. Cholera. Illness (disease) will occur. therefore. A susceptible person must drink the water that contains the pathogen. This contamination may be of human or animal origin. nausea and vomiting. the transmission of disease will be prevented. Chain of Transmission Water is contaminated with feces. The feces must contain pathogens (disease-causing bacteria. So the next time you get the stomach flu. stomach flu is a misleading description for foodborne or waterborne illnesses. All bacteria in water are readily killed or inactivated with chlorine or other disinfectants. Yersiniosis. especially chicken and unpasteurized milk as well as unchlorinated water.handle toys that other children put into their mouths. The pathogens must survive in the water. By breaking the chain at any point.” Technically. fever. The water is either not treated or inadequately treated for the pathogens present. Symptoms begin three to five days after exposure. E. Campylobacteriosis outbreaks have most often been associated with food. influenza is an upper respiratory illness and rarely has diarrhea associated with it.” Medical treatment generally is not prescribed for campylobacteriosis because recovery is usually rapid. The general public and some of the medical community usually refer to diarrhea symptoms as “stomach flu. malaise. such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium. Coli Bacteria Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 62 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . are other bacterial diseases that can be transmitted through water.

The disease varies in severity from a mild illness lasting one to two weeks. loss of appetite. followed within a few days by jaundice. including sandwiches and salads that are not cooked or are handled after cooking. The incubation period is 15-50 days and averages 28-30 days. nausea and abdominal discomfort. Hepatitis A outbreaks have been related to fecally contaminated water. Norwalk Agent Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 63 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Aseptic meningitis. food contaminated by infected food handlers. malaise. polio and viral gastroenteritis (Norwalk agent) are other viral diseases that can be transmitted through water. Most viruses in drinking water can be inactivated by chlorine or other disinfectants.Viral-Caused Diseases Hepatitis A is an example of a common viral disease that may be transmitted through water. to a severely disabling disease lasting several months (rare). and raw or undercooked mollusks harvested from contaminated waters. The onset is usually abrupt with fever.

The diarrhea is associated with cramping abdominal pain. fever. Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is an example of a protozoan disease that is common worldwide but was only recently recognized as causing human disease. The organism. called a “cyst. which may be profuse and watery. Some parasites enter the environment in a dormant form. anorexia. Giardiasis occurs worldwide. It has also been referred to as “backpacker’s disease” and “beaver fever” because of the many cases reported among hikers and others who consume untreated surface water. Drugs are available for treatment but these are not 100% effective.S. Giardia lamblia. with an average of 7-10 days. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea. Many infections are asymptomatic (no symptoms). Waterborne outbreaks in the United States occur most often in communities receiving their drinking water from streams or rivers without adequate disinfection or a filtration system. The incubation period is 1-12 days. fatigue and weight loss. Symptoms usually come and go.Protozoan Caused Diseases Protozoan pathogens are larger than bacteria and viruses but still microscopic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 64 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Effective filtration treatment is therefore critical to removing these organisms from water sources. bloating. than any other pathogen. Giardiasis is a commonly reported protozoan-caused disease. frequent loose and pale greasy stools. abdominal cramps. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea. has been responsible for more community-wide outbreaks of disease in the U. with an average of about seven days. The incubation period is 5-25 days or longer. nausea and vomiting occur less often. General malaise. with a protective cell wall.” The cyst can survive in the environment for long periods of time and be extremely resistant to conventional disinfectants such as chlorine. and end in fewer than 30 days in most cases. They invade and inhabit the gastrointestinal tract.

The mode of transmission is fecal-oral. operated and maintained public water systems becomes obvious. For those who operate water systems with inadequate source protection or treatment facilities. All these diseases. with the exception of hepatitis A. self-limiting disease. While water treatment cannot achieve sterile water (no microorganisms). the potential risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is real. the importance of properly constructed. There is no specific treatment for Cryptosporidium infections. either by person-to-person or animal-to-person. the goal of treatment must clearly be to produce drinking water that is as pathogen-free as possible at all times. whether through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. operating and maintaining the system at a high level on a continuing basis is critical to prevent disease. Although most pathogens cause mild. They also have the same mode of transmission. they can cause serious. and the same routes of transmission. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 65 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Particularly vulnerable are persons with weak immune systems such as those with HIV infections or cancer. fecal-oral.Cryptosporidium organisms have been identified in human fecal specimens from more than 50 countries on six continents. For those operating systems that currently provide adequate source protection and treatment. have one symptom in common: diarrhea. even life threatening illness. By understanding the nature of waterborne diseases. on occasion. being either foodborne or waterborne.

abdominal pain — low mortality. stomach pain — lasts (protozoan) days to weeks E. coli organisms Typhoid Salmonella typhi (bacterium) Human feces. (also. enlarged spleen. (protozoan) extra intestinal infection Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (protozoan) Animal or human feces Diarrhea. dysentery. cramps. high temperature— sometimes fatal Shigellosis Shigella (bacterium) Human feces Diarrhea Cholera Vibrio choleras (bacterium) Human feces. shellfish Diarrhea and vomiting lives in polluted waters) Salmonellosis Salmonella (bacterium) Animal or human feces Diarrhea or vomiting Escherichia coli-. shellfish Vomiting. and general weakness — lasts one week to months Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Animal or human feces Diarrhea.Waterborne Diseases Name Causative organism Source of organism Disease Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus ( lives mostly in young Human feces. coli O1 57:H7 (bacterium) Human feces Symptoms vary with type caused gastroenteritis Other E. severe diarrhea. lives in polluted waters fever. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Human feces. enlarged liver. lasts up to four months Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Human feces Mild diarrhea. Diarrhea or vomiting children) Norwalk-like viruses Human feces. rapid lives in many coastal waters) dehydration.E. vomiting. weight loss. urine Inflamed intestine. shellfish grown Yellowed skin. mineral loss — high mortality. nausea. (also. Coli O157 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 66 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

000 residents in the rapidly growing town are served by private water companies which mainly rely on groundwater sources. They attended separate schools.000 of Peoria's 120. Schools and restaurants in the suspect area were also closed. Both boys became ill on 9 October and died a few days later on 12 and 13 October respectively. the remaining 20. spas and fountains. however the Glendale boy frequently visited his grandparents' home a few blocks from the other boy's residence in Peoria. some four miles away. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 67 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . although periodic chlorination has been used after new connections. The source of the infections has not been positively established but suspicion has fallen on a small unchlorinated ground water supply operated by a private company.Health Stream Article . Some of these companies chlorinate their groundwater supplies and some do not. fowleri in three samples: · one pre-chlorination water sample from a municipal well that was routinely chlorinated · one tank water sample from the suspect unchlorinated groundwater system · the refrigerator filter from the home of the grandparents of one of the boys The chlorinated well is believed unlikely to be the source of infection as chlorination is effective in killing N.000 consumers were warned not to use unboiled tap water for drinking. One of the victims lived in Peoria and the other in the neighboring town of Glendale. Naegleria fowleri is a free living amoeba which is common in the environment and grows optimally at temperatures of 35 to 45 degrees C. line breaks or incidents that might allow ingress of microbial contamination. The disease was first described in 1965 by Dr Malcolm Fowler. a boil water notice was issued and 6. pools. Exposure to the organism is believed to be relatively common but infections resulting in illness are rare. cooking or bathing. and a flushing program with hyperchlorinated water was carried out to remove possible contamination from the water distribution system.000 residents receive chlorinated drinking water from the municipal supply.Issue 28 December 2002 Naegleria Deaths In Arizona Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. Supply to the affected area was switched to a chlorinated surface water source. Tests by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have detected N. fowleri. and residents were advised to drain and clean spas and hyperchlorinate swimming pools. who identified the amoeba in a patient who had died from meningitis. About 100. This supply was taken off-line on 3 November. This supply is predominantly drawn from surface water sources but is supplemented by groundwater in times of high demand. Health authorities then began investigating possible common sources of Naegleria exposure including drinking water. an Australian pathologist. As Arizona state law prevents counties from supplying water to areas outside the incorporated municipal zones. The suspect water supply is drawn from a deep aquifer and is not routinely chlorinated. bathtubs.

Queensland and New South Wales. fowleri meningitis are associated with swimming in natural surface freshwater bodies. it is feasible that the amoeba may penetrate poorly constructed bores or be introduced by occasional contamination events. high pitched crying and convulsions. confusion. N. with only four survivors known among about 100 cases in the US since 1965. where a number of cases occurred in the 1960s and 70s in several towns served by unchlorinated surface water delivered through long above-ground pipelines. providing conditions where water is forced into the nose at pressure. and spread to the meninges (the membrane surrounding the brain) and often to the brain tissue itself. a semiporous barrier. The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days. About half of the cases in the state did not have a recent history of freshwater swimming. fowleri meningitis are fatal. vomiting. making them more susceptible to infection than adults. The involvement of tap water supplies was first documented in South Australia. The amoeba may then penetrate the cribiform plate. Most cases of N. Similar symptoms also occur in viral and bacterial forms of meningitis which are much more common than the amoebic form. and the infection cannot be transmitted from person to person. Plans are also underway to install a continuous chlorination plant on the groundwater supply. and infection occurs through introduction of the organism into the nasal cavities. Local health authorities in Arizona are continuing their investigation into the two deaths with assistance from CDC personnel. drowsiness. and N. fowleri in the water supply pipelines. Cases are often reported to be associated with jumping or falling into the water. Cases of disease have also been associated with swimming pools where disinfection levels were inadequate. The cribiform plate is more permeable in children.Most reported cases of N. and concluded that the high water temperatures reached in summer provided a suitable environment for growth of the organism. However as the organism may be found in moist soil. and some residents have called for the municipality to purchase the private water company and take over its operations. Investigators found N. Tap water may also have been the primary source of infections attributed to swimming pools in these towns. and inhalation of tap water from surface water supplies that have been subject to high temperatures. N. Warm water conditions and the absence of free chlorine may then allow it to proliferate in the system. transmission by contaminated dust was suspected as an infection route but this has since been discounted as the organism does not survive desiccation. People with immune deficiencies may also be more prone to infection. irritability. fowleri meningitis causes non-specific symptoms such as fever. Cases of disease have also been recorded in Western Australia. In early studies. fowleri has been detected in water supplies in each of these states as well as the Northern Territory.fowleri from the water supplies. but had intra-nasal exposure to tap water through inhaling or squirting water into the nose. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 68 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The incidence of disease was greatly reduced by introduction of reliable chlorination facilities along the above-ground pipelines and introduction of chloramination in the 1980s led to virtual elimination of N. fowleri infections had not been reported to be associated with groundwater supplies. Prior to the incidents in Peoria.

continues to be one of the most effective tools available to surface water plant operators. and hardness reduction. will only provide accurate results when properly performed. operate the jar test to simulate conditions in YOUR plant.Agglomeration of particles into groups thereby increasing the effective diameter. Take time to observe what happens to the raw water in your plant after the chemicals have been added. followed by gravity settling. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. then simulate this during the jar test.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns. and nonsettleable matter from water by chemical coagulation-flocculation.1 This practice covers a general procedure for the evaluation of a treatment to reduce dissolved. all depend on the proper application of chemicals to the raw water entering the treatment plant. suspended. starting the test at high rpm would provide misleading results. Scope 1. Terms Flocculation . Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 69 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Turbidity . your plant does not have a static or flash mixer. turbidity. 1. colloidal.2 The practice provides a systematic evaluation of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process. The procedure may be used to evaluate color. If. as with any coagulant test. length of settling time and floc development.A chemical technique directed toward destabilization of colloidal particles. Coagulation . cost of production. Before you start The jar test. Because the jar test is intended to simulate conditions in your plant. developing the proper procedure is very important. 1.The Jar Test Jar testing. This rule applies to flocculator speed. for instance.A measure of the presence of suspended solid material. Again. length of filter runs and overall filter life. if any. THE RPM OF THE STIRRER AND THE MINUTES TO COMPLETE THE TEST DEPEND ON CONDITIONS IN YOUR PLANT. associated with its use. Finished water quality. 1. to determine the proper coagulant dosage.

decay of this force occurs exponentially with distance. but their surface properties. in other words somehow make them “stick” together. at least momentarily. van der Waals force. When two or more nonpolar molecules. H2. This force.Turbidity Particles less about 1 to 10 µm in diameter (primarily colloidal particles) will not settle out by gravitational forces. such as He. somehow have them come together (conglomerate). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 70 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . thereby increasing there size and mass. In order to have gravity affect these particles we must somehow make them larger. The most important factor(s) contributing to the stability of colloidal particles is not their mass. This idea can be better understood by relating the colloidal particles large surface area to their small volume (S/V) ratio resulting from their very small size. are in close proximity the nucleus of each atom will weakly attract electrons in the counter atom resulting. therefore making them very difficult to remove. In order to remove these small particles we must either filter the water or somehow incorporate gravitational forces such that these particles will settle out. As can clearly be seen from this relationship. is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance (1/d6) between the particles. in an unsymmetrical arrangement of the nucleus. These particles are the primary contributors to the turbidity of the raw water causing it to be “cloudy”. The two primary forces that control whether or not colloidal particles will agglomerate are: Repulsive Force An electrostatic force called the “Zeta Potential” - 4π q d ζ = D Where: ζ = Zeta Potential q = charge per unit area of the particle d = thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface through which the charge is effective D = dielectric constant of the liquid Attractive Force Force due to van der Waals forces van der Waals forces are weak forces based on a polar characteristic induced by neighboring molecules. Ar.

thereby reducing the size of the particles and would therefore increase the settling time in the clarifier. Ferrous Sulfate works well in through a range of pH values. How to Treat Turbidity Supercharge the water supply . Al(OH)21+ etc). 5. If to much alum is added then the opposite effect occurs. By introducing aluminum (Al3+) into the water in the form of Alum (Al2(SO4)3•nH20) we can accomplish the supercharging of the water. the faster they will settle within a clarifier. A sensitive photomultiplier tube at a 90o angle from the incident light beam detects the light scattered by the particles in the sample. The photomultiplier tube converts the light energy into an electrical signal. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 71 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . which is amplified and displayed on the instrument.Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) or Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU). rotating the paddles too fast. Units . i. This is the coagulation part of the coagulation/flocculation process.0 .By supercharging the water supply momentarily with a positive charge. During the coagulation process charged hydroxy-metallic complexes are formed momentarily (i. therefore upsetting the stable negative charge of the target particles. By “pushing” (adding energy) the particles together we can aid in the flocculation process forming larger flocs. The final key to obtaining good flocs is the added energy put into the system by way of rotating paddles in the flocculator tanks. 3.5. Other chemical coagulants used are Ferric Chloride and Ferrous Sulfate. we can upset the charge effect of the particle enough to reduce the Zeta potential (repulsive force) thereby allowing van der Waals forces (attractive forces) to take over.7. Ferric Chloride works best at lower pH values.) Jackson Candle Test 2. Theses complexes are charged highly positive. 4. down to pH 4. and settle out (note – the flocculated particles settle out separately from the precipitated Al(OH)3 (s)). During the flocculation process the particles join together to form flocs. would cause the particles to shear (breakup).5.e.a black and white disk divided like a pie in 4 quadrants about 6" in diameter. It important to understand that too much energy. the larger the flocs. The particles are then able to get close enough together for van der Waals forces to take over and the particles begin to flocculate.Ways to Measure Turbidity 1. flocculation follows coagulation. Alum works best in the pH range of natural waters.5.Light is passed through a sample. Al(OH)3 (s).5 to 9. the particles form sub complexes with the Al+3 and gain a positive charge about them. The chemical reaction continues until the aluminum ions (Al+3) reach their final form.) Turbidimeter .e.) Secchi Disk . thereby displacing the water layer surrounding the charged particle momentarily. This upset decreases the distance “d” in-turn decreasing the Zeta potential. and the particles restabilize. Al(OH)2+.

2) Make up a 0. 9) Measure final pH Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 72 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . off.Key Equations Al 2 (SO 4 )3 • 14. 4) Measure the temperature and conductivity. slow mix . settling .3H 2O (4) Apparatus 1) Jar Test Apparatus 2) 6 1500 mL Beakers 3) pH meter 4) Pipettes 5) Conductivity Meter 6) Turbidimeter Procedure 1) Make up a 10-g/L solution of alum.3H 2O + 6Na(OH ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14. 7) Mixing protocol: a. Be careful not to disturb the flocs that have settled. about 2" down for each one liter sample.3H 2O + 3H 2SO 4 (2) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14.1 minute (100 rpm) b. Take the sample from the center. rapid mix .15 minutes (20 rpm) c. O-2 = 16 mg/mmol.1 N solution of NaOH (buffer). (Na+1 = 23 mg/mmol.3H 2O + 6CO2 (3) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14.3H 2O + 6Na(HCO3 ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.30 minutes 8) Measure final turbidity. 5) Measure the initial pH 6) Add alum and NaOH solutions in equal portions as specified by instructor. H+ = 1 mg/mmol) 3) Fill each of the six 1500 mL beakers with one-liter of river water.3H 2O + 6H 2O → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 14.

1 N Beaker Alum (ml) Buffer (ml) Alum .0. oC Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 73 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .g/L Turbidity (NTU) pH-Before Buffer pH-After Temp.Information to be Recorded Initial Turbidity = ? NTU .

Different Types of Chemical Storage Tanks found in Water Treatment Facilities Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 74 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

8. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 75 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Solution polymers and Inorganics (Prepare a 1. but preferably overnight. Dilution technique ("make down") is especially critical. Add 198 mL of water to a beaker. 7.Preparing Polymers for the Jar Test A successful Jar Test is very reliant upon the proper preparation of the polymers being tested. 6. Emulsion polymers (Prepare 1. Using a syringe. Add 20 mL of 1 % solution. Prepare 0. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Syringes (1cc. 250 and 500 mL beakers. 3. Add 20 mL of 1. 6.0% solution. 2. 4. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Do not exceed 20 seconds! 5. Using a syringe. Graduated cylinder (100 mL). Shake vigorously for at least 1 minute.1% solution. 6. 1. 4. Water (it is recommended that the makedown water from the plant be used). the Jar Test results will be very unreliable. 5cc. 2. 3. Insert Braun mixer into water and begin mixing. High speed hand mixer (for emulsion polymers). Mix for 20 seconds. 5.) 1. Required equipment: 250 mL bottles with lids. 10cc). If the following procedures are not followed. Prepare 0.0% polymer solution. Add 180 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. add 2 mL of neat product to bottle. prior to activation. 2. 4. 3. 7. Allow dilute polymer to age for at least 20 minutes. since it involves compactly coiled large molecules in emulsions. Add 180 mL to 250 mL bottle. The polymer must be uncoiled to provide maximum contact with the colloidal particles to be flocculated. 5.) 1. inject 2 mL of neat polymer into vortex.1% solution. Add 198 mL of water to 250 mL bottle.0% solution.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 76 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions.

The final product formed is manganese dioxide (Mn02) an insoluble precipitate that can be removed by sedimentation and filtration. coagulant. Stock Solutions (Strong Stock Solution) 5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 ml distilled water.25 0.. dose each beaker with the test stock solution in the following manner. or the reaction may continue in the system and the same conditions as exist with naturally occurring manganese may cause staining of the plumbing fixtures.25 no pink 5 1.Potassium Permanganate Jar Test Potassium Permanganate has been used for a number of years in both water & wastewater treatment.35 pink Stir the beakers to simulate the turbulence where the KMn04 is to be added and observe the color change. KMn04 must be used with caution as this material produces an intense purple color when mixed with water. Jar Testing Example If you have a six position stirrer: Using a graduated cylinder.50 0. Each 5 ml of the test stock solution added to a 2000 ml sample equals 1 mg/l.50 0.30 pink 6 1. If it is not all converted and is still purple or pink it will pass through the filter into the clearwell or distribution system. pH adjustment. KMn04 is a strong oxidizer which can be used to destroy many organic compounds of both the natural and man made origin. Using a graduated pipette. (Test Stock Solution) 4 ml strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 ml distilled water.10 no pink 2 0.75 0. As the permanganate ion is reduced during its reaction with compounds that it oxidizes.75 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 77 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . I must caution you that all KMn04 applied must be converted to manganese dioxide (Mn02) form prior to filtration. This may cause the customer to find pink tap water. Jar # KMn04 ml KMn04 mg/l Color 1 0.15 no pink 3 1. Do not add carbon or chlorine. manganese and sulfide compounds and other taste and odor producing substances usually due to the presence of very small quantities of secretions given off by microscopic algae. measure 2000 ml of the sample to be tested into each of the six beakers.00 0.20 no pink 4 1. which develop on the surface waters and on beds of lakes and rivers under certain conditions of temperature and chemical composition.etc. KMn04 is also used to oxidize iron. Dose each beaker to simulate plant practices in pre-treatment. it changes color from purple to yellow or brown.

When applying potassium permanganate to raw water.25 ml of the test stock solution to 1000 ml finished water. In the preceding table a pink color first developed in beaker #5 which had been dosed with 1.64 mg/l KMn04 dose is the minimum dose.0(Manganese.2 mg/l Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l. indicating the presence of oxidized iron and or manganese. Also. oxidation is complete.6(iron.3 mg/l. Jar testing should be done to determine the required dose. continue with increased dosages. This dose assumes there are no oxidizable compounds in the raw water. permanganate generally reacts more quickly at pH levels above 7. mg/l) = 0. If the sample remains pink. If the first jar test does not produce the correct color change. Known Unknown Iron. Its usefulness also extends to algae control as well as many taste odor problems. KMn04 Dose. mg/l Manganese. mg/l) + 2. mg/l) + 2. mg/l = 0.64 mg/l Note: The calculated 2. care must be taken not to bring pink water to the filter unless you have "greensand".2 mg/l) = 2. mg/l = 0.5 ml/ 0.6(Iron. the actual dose may be higher. As well as being a strong oxidizer for iron and manganese. The end point has been reached when a pink color is observed and remains for at least 10 minutes.6(0.2 mg/l. The manganese concentration is 1. mg/l) Example: Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l for a water with 0. KMn04 used as a disinfectant in pre-treatment could help control the formation of trihalomethanes by allowing chlorine to be added later in the treatment process or after filtration. With proper application. If the sample turns brown there is iron or manganese remaining in the finished water. Samples which retain a brown or yellow color indicate that the oxidation process is incomplete and will require a higher dosage of KMn04. Quick Test A quick way to check the success of a KMn04 application is by adding 1.0(1.4 mg/l) + 2.0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 78 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . KMn04 Dose. Therefore.0(Manganese. the sample will turn varying shades of brown. mg/l = 0.4 of iron. potassium permanganate is an extremely useful chemical treatment. To calculate the dosage of KMn04 for iron and manganese removal here is the formula to use.As the iron and manganese begin to oxidize.4 mg/l Kmn04 Dose. mg/l = 1.

Cs. K. Na. can be cut with a knife Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 79 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .How is the Periodic Table Organized? The periodic table is organized with eight principal vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. Rb. and the periods are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom. and all the nonmetals are grouped together on the right side of the periodic table. Semimetals are found in between the metals and nonmetals. shiny solids and good conductors of heat and electricity) softer than most familiar metals.) All the metals are grouped together on the left side of the periodic table. What are the Eight Groups of the Periodic Table? Group I: Alkali Metals . Fr known as alkai metals most reactive of the metals react with all nonmetals except the noble gases contain typical physical properties of metals (ex. (The groups are numbered I to VIII from left to right.Li.

Ar.Group II: Alkaline Earth Metals-Be. Te. liquids. Po oxygen. but more slowly than the Group I metals solids at room temperature have typical metallic properties harder than the Group I metals higher melting points than the Group I metals Group III: B. Ra known as alkaline earth metals react with nonmetals. Br. sulfur. Sb. In. Xe. Mg. all the others are metals Group IV: C. Sr. Ne. Sn. silicon and germanium are semimetals. arsenic and antimony are semimetals. Pb carbon is a nonmetal. S. Rn very unreactive Properties of Metals Solids at room temperature Conduct heat very well Have electrical conductivities that increase with decreasing temperature Have a high flexibility and a shiny metallic luster Are malleable-can be beaten out into sheets or foils Are ductile-can be pulled into thin wires without breaking Emit electrons when they are exposed to radiation of sufficiently high energy or when They are heated (known as photoelectric effect and thermionic effect) Properties of Nonmetals May be gases. Ga. Ba. Si. Se. tin and lead are metals Group V: N. bismuth is a metal Group VI: O. Bi nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. Ge. At very reactive nonmetals Group VIII: Noble Gases-He. P. I. and selenium are nonmetals. Ca. Tl boron is a semimetal. tellurium and polonium are semimetals Group VII: Halogens-F. As. Cl. Kr. or solids at room temperature Poor conductors of heat Are insulators-very poor conductors of electricity Do not have a high reflectivity or a shiny metallic appearance In solid form generally brittle and fracture easily under stress Do not exhibit photoelectric or thermionic effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 80 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Al.

represents the neutral point. The acidity of a water sample is measured on a pH scale. pH = (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity).6 – slightly acidic because of the carbon dioxide picked up in the earth's atmosphere by the rain. The acidity increases from neutral toward 0. Because the scale is logarithmic. The middle of the scale. would mean that the acidity is one hundred times greater. a difference of one pH unit represents a tenfold change. This scale ranges from 0 (maximum acidity) to 14 (maximum alkalinity). A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity.The pH Scale pH: A measure of the acidity of water. from 6 to 4. and so on. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. 7. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. A difference of 2 units. Normal rain has a pH of 5. the acidity of a sample with a pH of 5 is ten times greater than that of a sample with a pH of 6. For example. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 81 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Chloramine Some people who use drinking water containing chloramines well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. kidneys. Chlorine Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. You will see an increase of these technologies in the near future. Total Trihalomethanes Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver.Modern Water Treatment Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. Disinfectant alternatives will include Ozone. Chlorite Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. Haloacetic Acids Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people may experience anemia. Bromate Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 82 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Chlorine Dioxide Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard. Some people may experience anemia. and Ultraviolet light. Especially after heavy rainstorms. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort or anemia. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard. or central nervous systems. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 83 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Chlorine Section 2 Ton Cylinders The top lines are for extracting the gas. The water will help create acid which will make the leak larger. Never place water on a leaking metal cylinder. and the bottom lines are for extracting the Cl2 liquid.

150 Pound Chlorine Cylinder Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 84 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Melting point: -101 degrees C (-149. Contact between chlorine and many combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. 8. Prolonged exposures may result in olfactory fatigue. bismuth.Chlorine * Formula: Cl(2) * Structure: Not applicable. alcohols.8 degrees F) 6. Chemical and Physical Properties Physical data 1. It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29. RTECS No. ammonia. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water. * Synonyms: Bertholite. Conditions contributing to instability: Cylinders of chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures.08 to part per million (ppm) parts of air have been reported. 3. and water. alcohols.6 degrees C (-30. Evaporation rate: Data not available.28 degrees F) 3. DOT label: Poison gas Appearance and odor Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. DOT UN: 1017 20 4. and coatings. Odor thresholds ranging from 0. oxomonosilane. steam. Molecular weight: 70. Chlorine in solution forms a corrosive material.86 atm 4. and chlorides. Reactivity 1. and finely divided metals may cause fires and explosions. glycerol. propylene. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 85 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2 degrees F) or at high pressures. 4. Incompatibilities: Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures with chlorine. Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture. potassium. Special precautions: Chlorine will attack some forms of plastics. calcium. hydrazine. Hazardous decomposition products: None reported. Specific gravity (liquid): 1. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): -34.5 5. turpentine. and silicon should be avoided. boron. reducing agents. methane. acetylene.800 mm Hg 7. rubber. molecular chlorine Identifiers 1. hydrocarbons. iodine. Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F): 4.: FO2100000 3. Vapor density: 2. soluble in alkalies.9 2.41 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 6.: 7782-50-5 2. and sulfur). Contact between chlorine and arsenic. activated carbon. 2. carbon disulfide. hydrogen. CAS No. and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid.

5 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1. 254]. If fire must be fought. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering. 15]. 2. withdraw from the area and let the fire burn.Flammability Chlorine is a non-combustible gas. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 86 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .5 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1 ppm (3 mg/m(3))[NIOSH 1992]. 1. most combustible materials will burn in chlorine. Flammable limits in air: Not applicable. use water spray or fog. however. For a massive fire in a cargo area. 3. p. Keep unnecessary people away. Contain and let large fires involving chlorine burn. Exposure Limits * OSHA PEL The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. * ACGIH TLV The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned chlorine a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0. p. if this is impossible. The ACGIH limits are based on the risk of eye and mucous membrane irritation [ACGIH 1991. Extinguishant: For small fires use water only.9 mg/m(3)) for periods not to exceed 15 minutes. The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 0 (no fire hazard) to chlorine. * NIOSH REL The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0. isolate the hazard area and deny entry. mucous membrane and skin irritation [NIOSH 1992]. Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely. 4. Stay away from the ends of containers. If this is not possible.1000. Fires involving chlorine should be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible.0 ppm (2. Table Z-1]. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level [29 CFR 1910. Exposures at the STEL concentration should not be repeated more than four times a day and should be separated by intervals of at least 60 minutes [ACGIH 1994. cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out. do not use dry chemical or carbon dioxide.5 ppm (1. Autoignition temperature: Not applicable. Flash point: Not applicable. * Rationale for Limits The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of severe eye. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles.contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving chlorine. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self.

5 ppm. convert to chlorinated derivatives. Because chlorinated organic compounds are less effective. Also. For example. because concentrations of natural organic matter are lower and less chlorine is required to disinfect at colder temperatures. There is a constant danger that safe water leaving the treatment plant may become contaminated later. There will be no chlorine residual unless there is an excess over the amount that reacts with the organic matter present. and that which is bound but still effective is combined chlorine. at the turn of the century. chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. The amount of THMs formed in drinking water can be influenced by a number of factors. Other less common chlorination by-products includes the haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles. some of which are effective killing agents.Chlorine (DDBP) Today. particularly chlorination. several studies of cancer incidence in human populations have reported associations between long-term exposure to high levels of chlorination by-products and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. The correct excess is obtained in a method called "Break Point Chlorination ". or plumbing errors. THM concentrations are generally lower in winter than in summer. Living cells react with chlorine and reduce its concentration while they die. Chlorine present as Cl. a typical residual is 2 ppm for combined chlorine. Health Effects Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of THMs have shown increased incidences of cancer. The Principal Trihalomethanes are: Chloroform. A particularly important group of compounds with combined chlorine is the chloramines formed by reactions with ammonia.S. One especially important feature of disinfection using chlorine is the ease of overdosing to create a "residual" concentration. Chlorine By-Products Chlorination by-products are the chemicals formed when the chlorine used to kill diseasecausing micro-organisms reacts with naturally occurring organic matter (e. decay products of vegetation) in the water. including the season and the source of the water. loss of pressure that permits an inward leak. such as cholera and typhoid fever. This is largely due to the introduction of water treatment. There may be breaks in water mains. reaction kinetics complicates interpretation of chlorination data. bacteria and protozoa — that cause serious and life-threatening diseases.g. bromodichloromethane. The most common chlorination by-products found in U. The organic matter and other substances that are present. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 87 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . because organic matter concentrations are generally low in these sources. most of our drinking water supplies are free of the micro-organisms — viruses. a typical residual is from 0. With free available chlorine. and OCl¯ is called free available chlorine. The opposite — high organic matter concentrations and high THM levels — is true when rivers or other surface waters are used as the source of the drinking water. THM levels are also low when wells or large lakes are used as the drinking water source. However. This residual concentration of chlorine provides some degree of protection right to the water faucet.1 to 0.. drinking water supplies are the trihalomethanes (THMs). HOCl.

Possible relationships between exposure to high levels of THMs and adverse reproductive effects in humans have also been examined recently. Chlorine storage room. The available studies on health effects do not provide conclusive proof of a relationship between exposure to THMs and cancer or reproductive effects. a recent study conducted in the Great Lakes basin reported an increased risk of bladder and possibly colon cancer in people who drank chlorinated surface water for 35 years or more. but indicate the need for further research to confirm their results and to assess the potential health effects of chlorination by. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 88 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The bottom vent will allow the gas to ventilate because Cl2 gas is heavier than air.products other than THMs. notice the vents at the bottom and top. In a California study.For instance. pregnant women who consumed large amounts of tap water containing elevated levels of THMs were found to have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.

however. It is easy to apply. THM levels may also be reduced through the replacement of chlorine with alternative disinfectants. they are very persistent and. Chlorine Piping and chlorine cylinder yoke Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 89 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . most importantly. chlorine continues to be the choice of water treatment experts.g. the preferred method of controlling chlorination by-products is removal of the naturally occurring organic matter from the source water so it cannot react with the chlorine to form by-products. Assessments of the health risks from these and other chlorine-based disinfectants and chlorination by-products are currently under way. can be useful for preventing re-growth of microbial pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. Chloramines are weaker disinfectants than chlorine. it breaks down quickly. Modifying water treatment facilities to use ozone can be expensive. Examples of other disinfectants include chloramines and chlorine dioxide. and.Risks and Benefits of Chlorine Current evidence indicates that the benefits of chlorinating our drinking water — reduced incidence of water-borne diseases — are much greater than the risks of health effects from THMs. This ensures that the water remains free of microbial contamination on its journey from the treatment plant to the consumer’s tap. It is extremely important that water treatment plants ensure that methods used to control chlorination by-products do not compromise the effectiveness of water disinfection. viruses and protozoa. chlorine is effective against virtually all infective agents — bacteria. A third option is removal of the by-products by adsorption on activated carbon beds. A number of cities use ozone to disinfect their source water and to reduce THM formation.. bromate). so that small amounts of chlorine or other disinfectants must be added to the water to ensure continued disinfection as the water is piped to the consumer’s tap. but it forms chlorate and chlorite. When used with modern water filtration practices. especially against viruses and protozoa. Although other disinfectants are available. and ozone treatment can create other undesirable by-products that may be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. compounds whose toxicity has not yet been fully determined. In general. Although ozone is a highly effective disinfectant. Chlorine dioxide can be an effective disinfectant. as such. small amounts of chlorine remain in the water and continue to disinfect throughout the distribution system.

lung congestion. Summary of toxicology 1.0 ppm for 8 hours produced statistically significant changes in pulmonary function that were not observed at a 0. Responses for sensations of itching or burning of the nose and eyes. The lowest lethal concentration reported is 430 ppm for 30 minutes [Clayton and Clayton 1982].5 ppm exposure concentration. but were perceptible.2 percent in the control group.Health Hazard Information Routes of Exposure Exposure to chlorine can occur through inhalation. There has been one confirmed case of myasthenia gravis associated with chlorine exposure [NLM 1995]. and pulmonary edema. but 9.0 ppm exposure level [ACGIH 1991]. Effects on Animals: Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes. A study of workers exposed to chlorine for an average of 10. and lungs in experimental animals. Exposures of 1. Tooth enamel damage may also occur [Parmeggiani 1983]. Other severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks. All but six workers had exposures below 1 ppm. many of these effects are not confirmed in recent studies and are of very dubious significance [ACGIH 1991]. ingestion.9 years was published in 1970. Clayton and Clayton 1982]. A 1983 study of pulmonary function at low concentrations of chlorine exposure also found transient decreases in pulmonary function at the 1.0 ppm for 8 hours showed increased mucous secretions from the nose and in the hypopharynx. The incidence of fatigue was greater among those exposed above 0. especially at the 1.0 ppm for 4. Six of 14 subjects exposed to 1. which was associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. but not at the 0. Animals surviving sublethal inhalation exposures for 15 to 193 days showed marked emphysema. 2. and general discomfort were not severe. Exposure to 15 ppm causes throat irritation. and exposures to 1000 ppm can be fatal. and bronchitis [Hathaway et al. These exposures have caused death. 1991]. Effects on Humans: Severe acute effects of chlorine exposure in humans have been well documented since World War I when chlorine gas was used as a chemical warfare agent. and injury to the lens [Grant 1986].5 ppm level [ACGIH 1991]. and eye or skin contact [Genium 1992]. atrophy of the iris. skin. exposures to 50 ppm are dangerous. even if exposure is brief [Sax and Lewis 1989.0 ppm exposure level. mucous membranes. Earlier literature reported that exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints. No evidence of permanent lung damage was found.and 8-hour periods.5 ppm [ACGIH 1991]. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and susceptibility to tuberculosis among chronically-exposed workers. a study was published involving 29 subjects exposed to chlorine concentrations up to 2. The 1 hour LC(50) is 239 ppm in rats and 137 ppm in mice ()[Sax and Lewis 1989]. However. 21 had TWAs above 0. In 1981. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 90 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . pneumonia. pleurisy. opacification of the cornea. Chlorine injected into the anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes resulted in severe damage with inflammation. Acne (chloracne) is not unusual among persons exposed to low concentrations of chlorine for long periods of time.52 ppm. corrosion of the teeth.4 percent had abnormal EKGs compared to 8.

in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. general excitement. and bleaching cellulose. and in sewage. Higher concentrations causes difficulty in breathing. hemoptysis and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis [Genium 1992].1200]). Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes [Genium 1992]. purification. resins. automotive antifreeze and antiknock compounds. and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations. depending on the feasibility of implementation. lubricants. are as follows: Process enclosure Local exhaust ventilation General dilution ventilation Personal protective equipment. and textile industries for bleaching cellulose for artificial fibers. use to shrink-proof wool. Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 CFR. chemical pneumonia. and demulsifier in treatment of drinking water. disinfectant. swimming pools. headache. in special batteries containing lithium or zinc. and in the manufacture of rocket fuel. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to low levels of chlorine gas can result in a dermatitis known as chloracne. vomiting.g. flameproofing. All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures. Emergency Medical Procedures: [NIOSH to supply] Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e. sneezing. and restlessness. and throat irritation. Use in the paper and pulp. pesticides. Use as bleaching and cleaning agents. dizziness. cyanosis. 2. Use as a bacteriostat. adhesives. choking. use in the processing of meat. and as a disinfectant in laundries. violent coughing. use in detinning and dezincing iron. those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. Use as a fluxing. Methods that are effective in controlling worker exposures to chlorine. refrigerants. severe chest pain. sore throat. nausea. vegetables. coughing. dishwashers. and in hydraulic fluids. excessive salivation. laryngeal edema..Signs and Symptoms of Exposure 1. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye. Exposure Sources and Control Methods The following operations may involve chlorine and lead to worker exposures to this substance: The Manufacture and Transportation of Chlorine Use as a chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis. polymers (synthetic rubber and plastics). use in the manufacture of chlorinated lime. tooth enamel corrosion. acute tracheobronchitis. cosmetics. nose. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 91 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . elastomers. cleaning powders. fish. odor control. cleaning dairy equipment. the location and proper use of emergency equipment. and fruit. and extraction agent in metallurgy. Use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals.

The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: 1. acetylene. move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. Spills and Leaks In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine. glycerol. New York. and sulfur). alcohols. 5. potassium.Good Sources of Information about Control Methods are as Follows: 1. combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. Plog BA [1988]. ACGIH [1992]. 21st ed. and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures for handling compressed corrosive gases. boron. hydrocarbons. steam. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 92 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 7. propylene. Cincinnati. Cincinnati. if not. 3. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers. etc. 4. moisture. Design of industrial ventilation systems.1200]. Use water spray to reduce vapors. carbon disulfide. Chicago. 6. vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. ammonia. Empty containers of chlorine should have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately. NY: McGraw-Hill. activated carbon. silicon. Inc. and they should be stored separately from flammable gases and vapors. and physical damage. hydrogen sulfide and water. NY: Industrial Press. Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. Burton DJ [1986]. IL: National Safety Council. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. iodine. do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. hydrazine. finely divided metals. Kane JM [1982]. reducing agents. hydrogen. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Chlorine Storage Chlorine should be stored in a cool. cylinders. Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk. All pipes and containment used for chlorine service should be regularly inspected and tested. oil. 2. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. 5. arsenic. New York. 2. Alden JL. Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. bismuth. methane. and water. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. Notify safety personnel. 4. calcium. Keep all combustibles (wood. Scheff PA [1987]. persons not wearing protective equipment and fullyencapsulating. Wadden RA. Remove all sources of heat and ignition.) away from the leak. paper. oxomonosilane. Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather. 3. dry. extreme temperatures changes. turpentine.

escaping. employers are required to notify the proper Federal. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24-hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility. corrosivity.]. emitting. pumping.6].000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372. leaking. employers are required to do the following: Notify the National Response Center immediately at (800) or at (202) 426-2675 in Washington.40]. community right-to-know. and local authorities [40 CFR The Reportable Quantity of Chlorine is 10 Pounds. reportable quantities of hazardous releases. the EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 93 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . emptying. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning. Notify the community emergency coordinator of the local emergency planning committee (or relevant local emergency response personnel) of any area likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. State. dumping. reactivity. Notify the emergency response commission of the State likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261. Emergency Planning Requirements Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 100 pounds or more of chlorine must comply with the EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355. D. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available. and hazardous waste management may change over time.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year or otherwise use 10.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to the EPA reporting the amount of chlorine emitted or released from their facility annually. Hazardous Waste Management Requirements EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability. [40 CFR 302.S. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical. pouring. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq. leaching. Community Right-to-Know Requirements Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25.C.Special Requirements The U.30].21-261. injecting.40]. discharging. or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances.24. Reportable Quantity Requirements for Hazardous Releases A hazardous substance release is defined by the EPA as any spilling.

). transport. area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington. and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal.Although chlorine is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA. the EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above. Of the 70.5 million tons and over 1 million containers of chlorine are shipped in the U.C. D. To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets the EPA regulatory requirements. D. and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations. Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline. Department of Transportation. In addition. Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres. employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington. France in 1915.S. 1843 were exposed to chlorine gas. Approximately 10. the EPA.C.552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I. The U. relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance.S. Chlorine Gas Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 94 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . each year.

It is extremely reactive with most elements. Solubility Effects Hydrochloric acid is highly soluble in water.3-0. Mechanism of Activity The mechanisms of the above biological activity are poorly understood and the predominant anatomic site of injury may vary. Hypochlorous acid may account for the toxicity of elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid to the human body. and it burns the skin. The intermediate water solubility of chlorine accounts for its effect on the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract. although Chlorine can be found in a number of compounds. and (4) individual susceptibility. Operators have the equipment necessary to reduce the impact of a gas leak.5 parts per million (ppm). Although the idea that chlorine causes direct tissue damage by generating free oxygen radicals was once accepted.Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas at standard temperature and pressure. this idea is now controversial. depending on the chemical species produced. The odor threshold for chlorine is approximately 0. The predominant targets of the acid are the epithelia of the ocular conjunctivae and upper respiratory mucus membranes. the gas settles low to the ground. The cylinders are on a scale that operators use to measure the amount used each day. chloramines decompose to ammonia and hypochlorous acid or hydrochloric acid. distinguishing toxic air levels from permissible air levels may be difficult until irritative symptoms are present. Hypochlorous acid is also highly water soluble with an injury pattern similar to hydrochloric acid. (3) water content of the tissues exposed. The cylinders on the right contain chlorine gas. Because its density is greater than that of air. but rely on trained emergency response teams to contain leaks. the density of the gas is greater than that of air. (2) duration of exposure. from reactions with tissue water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. It is a respiratory irritant. causing it to remain near ground level and increasing exposure time. Chlorine gas is stored in vented rooms that have panic bar equipped doors. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 95 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and from the generation of free oxygen radicals. Cellular injury is believed to result from the oxidation of functional groups in cell components. Early Response to Chlorine Gas Chlorine gas. however. The early response to chlorine exposure depends on the (1) concentration of chlorine gas. The chains are used to prevent the tanks from falling over. Cl2 gas does not occur naturally. In the presence of water. Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow. noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. reacts to form chloramine gas. In addition. when mixed with ammonia. Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes. Just a few breaths of it are fatal. The gas comes out of the cylinder through a gas regulator.

multiple pulmonary thromboses. Irritation of the airway mucosa leads to local edema secondary to active arterial and capillary hyperemia. and bronchi. The hallmark of pulmonary injury associated with chlorine toxicity is pulmonary edema. Chlorine Wrenches and Fusible Plugs Simple Chlorine Field Test Kit Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 96 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . manifested as hypoxia. Pathological Findings Pathologic findings are nonspecific. hyaline membrane formation. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is thought to occur when there is a loss of pulmonary capillary integrity. pharynx. pneumonia. trachea. larynx. Plasma exudation results in filling the alveoli with edema fluid. and ulcerative tracheobronchitis. nose. resulting in pulmonary congestion. They include severe pulmonary edema.Immediate Effects The immediate effects of chlorine gas toxicity include acute inflammation of the conjunctivae.

) Chlorine test kits are very useful in adjusting the chlorine dose you apply. The redder the mixture the “hotter” or stronger the chlorine in solution. A convenient. Free chlorine residuals need to be checked and recorded daily. and not the outdated orthotolodine method. (Make sure you buy a test kit using the DPD method. N – diethyl-p-phenylenediame Small portable chlorine measuring kit. These results should be kept on file for a health or regulatory agency inspection during a regular field visit. Measuring Chlorine Residual Chlorine residual is the amount of chlorine remaining in water that can be used for disinfection. You can measure what chlorine levels are being found in your system (especially at the far ends). simple and inexpensive way to measure chlorine residual is to use a small portable kit with pre-measured packets of chemicals that are added to water.Using DPD Method for Chlorine Residuals N. The most accurate method for determining chlorine residuals to use the laboratory ampermetric titration method. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 97 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

yet convenient: the easiest way to complete ppb-level amperometric titration. calculation. chlorine reacts to form the chloramines: monochloramine. Both free and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously. and reaction time. hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion will predominate. • Back titration: USEPA-accepted method for total chlorine in wastewater. The presence and concentrations of these combined forms depend chiefly on pH. as well as certain chlorinated industrial effluents. Historically the principal analytical problem has been to distinguish between free and combined forms of chlorine. • Forward titration: USEPA-accepted methods for free and total chlorine and chlorine dioxide with chlorite. benchtop chlorine-measurement system that does it all: calibration. initial chlorine-to-nitrogen ratio. the AutoCAT 9000 gives you: • High throughput: performs the titration and calculates concentration. More a laboratory assistant than an instrument. A secondary benefit. Potentially carcinogenic chloro-organic compounds such as chloroform may be formed. real-time graphs. hypochlorous acid. dichloramine. and some organic substances. Free chlorine reacts readily with ammonia and certain nitrogenous compounds to form combined chlorine. particularly in treating drinking water. iron. and nitrogen trichloride. Chlorine applied to water in its molecular or hypochlorite form initially undergoes hydrolysis to form free chlorine consisting of aqueous molecular chlorine. To fulfill the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimize any adverse effects. temperature. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia. With ammonia. and hypochlorite ion. it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination. Taste and odor characteristics of phenols and other organic compounds present in a water supply may be intensified. • Accurate. Chlorinated wastewater effluents.or amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. sulfide. is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the reaction of chlorine with ammonia. Combined chlorine in water supplies may be formed in the treatment of raw waters containing ammonia or by the addition of ammonia or ammonium salts. Hach’s AutoCAT 9000™ Automatic Titrator is the newest solution to hit the disinfection industry – a comprehensive. graphic print output. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 98 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . all automatically. Chlorination may produce adverse effects. The relative proportion of these free chlorine forms is pH.and temperature-dependent. At the pH of most waters. normally contain only combined chlorine. titration. absolute chlorine demand. manganese. even electrode cleaning.Amperometric Titration The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms.

Column 18. become ions Be2+. in barium chloride ( BaCl2) the oxidation number of barium is +2 and of chlorine is -1. Oxidation The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance. Ne. as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s. Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s. K+. Ar. An ion is the reactive state of the chemical. for example. here. etc. a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen. two electrons (negative charges) are transferred from the iron atom to the copper atom. involves partial oxidation of the methane.. there are 18 columns. Ca2+. i. Cl. and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent. The next column. both positive ions and negative ions. each having one electron. etc. Have a look at the “periodic table of the elements”.e. I. when two hydrogen atoms. H. Oxidation Number The number of electrons that must be added to or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form. ionize to a negative F-. let us look at some common ions.Chemical Equations. column 2. Na. He. Mg. halogen addition to a double bond is regarded as an oxidation. These all become ions as H+. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 99 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred. thus the iron becomes positively charged (is oxidized) by loss of two electrons while the copper receives the two electrons and becomes neutral (is reduced). Kr are inert gases. Br. Li+. What you need to memorize is the table of common ions. cupric ion is the oxidizing agent in the reaction: Fe (metal) + Cu++ --> Fe++ + Cu (metal). Cl-. Ca etc. K etc. the two reacting chemicals will go to products C + D etc. It is arranged in columns of elements. CH4 + 2 Cl --> CH3Cl + HCl. Now. Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions). and is dependent on its place within the periodic table. Be. Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation. Beginning The common chemical equation could be A + B --> C + D. This is chemical A + chemical B. I-. For example. Oxidation States and Balancing of Equations Before we breakdown Chlorine and other chemicals. Li. Reaction of a hydrocarbon with a halogen. etc. Electrons may also be displaced within the molecule without being completely transferred away from it. let’s start with this review of basic chemical equations. F. Column 17. You can see column one. Mg2+. Br-. Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state.

--> H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) 2Na+ + S2O32.--> NaOH (sodium hydroxide) Na+ + Cl. This is the start of our chemical reactions.--> NaCl (salt) 3H+ + PO43.--> Na2S2O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 100 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Table of Common Ions Positive Ions Valency 1 lithium sodium potassium silver hydronium (or hydrogen) ammonium copper I mercury I Negative Ions Valency 1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate bicarbonate bisulphate nitrite chlorate permanganate hypochlorite dihydrogen phosphate F - Valency 2 Li+ Na+ K+ Ag+ H3O+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Hg+ magnesium calcium strontium barium copper II lead II zinc manganese II iron II tin II Valency 2 oxide sulfide carbonate sulfate sulfite dichromate chromate oxalate thiosulfate tetrathionate monohydrogen phosphate Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Cu2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Mn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Valency 3 aluminum iron III chromium Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+ Valency 3 O 2- phosphate PO43- ClBr IOHNO3HCO3HSO4NO2ClO3MnO4OClH2PO4- S2CO32SO42SO32Cr2O7CrO42C2O42S2O32S4O62HPO42- Positive ions will react with negative ions. and vice versa. For example: Na+ + OH.

and balance them.(phosphate will require an ion of 3+ or an ion of one (+) (but needs three of these) to neutralize the 3. the 2 times 3+ = 6+. as a whole number. and equal amounts of negative ions. We have equal amounts of positive ions. this same number (now in front of each ion on the left side of the equation). On the right hand side of the equation. in this case Cl-. to balance the number of chlorine’s (Cl-) required. For example.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Put the three from the Al in front of the SO42. and it is this ion that is 2.has one negative (-) It will require 3 negative charges to cancel out the 3 positive charges on the aluminum ( Al3+).as 3SO42-. is placed after each “ion” entity. and SO42-. examples: Cl-. When the left hand side of the equation is written. in front of the other ion. OH-.--> AlCl3 (correct) How did we work this out? Al3+ has three positives (3+) Cl. Now to check.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) Al3+ + SO42. the 2 goes in front of the Al3+ to become 2Al3+. Then on the right hand side of the equation. reacts with an ion of one (-) then the equation is balanced. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 101 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . SO42-. Remember to encase the SO4 in brackets. Al3+ the 3 goes in front of the SO42. or cancel each other out.and the 2 from the SO42. it will react with many negatively charged ions.charge on the phosphate. aluminum exists in its ionic state as Al3+.You will see from these examples. So. to the other ion. PO43-. in front of the other ion. Why? Because we are dealing with the sulfate ion.in front of the Al3+.charged (not just the O4). becomes 3Cl-.--> Al2(SO4)3. That is.= 6-. so we have to ensure that the “ion” is bracketed.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) 2Al3+ + 3SO42. the number is transferred to after the relevant ion. Al3+ + Cl.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Let me give you an easy way of balancing: Al is 3+ SO4 is 2Simply transpose the number of positives (or negatives) for each ion. and 3 times 2. what you are doing is balancing the charges (+) or (-) to make them zero. SO42-. Let us again look at: Al3+ + SO42. However. Cl3. where the ions have become a compound (a chemical compound). Equation becomes: 2Al3+ + 3SO42.--> AlCl (incorrect) Al3+ + 3Cl. that if an ion of one (+). by placing this value of one ion. Another example: Al3+ + SO42. and vice versa. Let us do these examples. an ion like PO43. You simply place the valency of one ion. the number 3 is placed in front of the ion concerned.

or Na+OH. so: 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. so the equation is balanced. and then placing this number after each ion on the right side of the equation) What is left is the H+ from the H3PO4 and this will react with a negative ion. so let us rewrite the equation in ionic form. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 102 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . HCl is H+ + Cl -. and 2H3PO4.--> ? (equation on left not balanced). The Mg2+ needs to react with a negatively charged ion. 6H+ + 6OH. on the left side of the equation.--> 6H2O The full equation is now balanced and is: 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H2O I have purposely split the equation into segments of reactions. and placing it in front of each ion. Reaction is going to be the Na+ reacting with a negatively charged ion. The balancing of equations is simple.--> Mg3(PO4)2 (Remember the swapping of the positive or negative charges on the ions in the left side of the equation. Originally the one positive canceled the one negative. so this gave us NaOH. We have equal amounts of all atoms each side of the equation. You need to learn the valency of the common ions (see tables). This is showing you which ions are reacting with each other. So: H+ + OH.+ 3H+PO43. as 6H+ + 6OH.--> H2O (water). ( because we originally had (OH)2 attached to the Mg. This will have to be the chlorine. The equation becomes: 6H+ + 6OH. So: Na+ + Cl.--> Mg3(PO4)2 Therefore. and H3 attached to the PO4. OH is OH-.from the Mg(OH)2 left for it to react with. the equation became 3Mg2+ + 2PO43.+ H+Cl. this gave us HCl. The complete reaction can be written: NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O.--> NaCl The H+ from the HCl will react with a negative (-) ion this will be the OH.because we need it in ionic form. we only have the OH.--> Na+Cl. because at the moment the Na+ is tied to the OH-.--> 6H2O Where did I get the 6 from? When I balanced the Mg2+ with the PO43-.+ H+OHSomething More Difficult: Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 --> ? (equation on left not balanced) Mg2+ 2OH. Once you get the idea of equations you will not need this step. this will be the PO43-. Cl-. I therefore have 2H3 reacting with 3(OH)2. I must have required 3Mg(OH)2 to begin with.Another example: NaOH + HCl --> ? Na is Na+.from the NaOH. We have to write this.

You have to have the same number of negatives. example OH. Take my earlier hint.--> Al(OH)3 The 3 is simply written in front of the OH-. temperature and pH measuring equipment. place the 3 from the Al3+ in front of the OH-. On the right hand side of the equation. place the 1 from the hydroxyl OH. If one ion. now stays the same. example Al3+.in front of the Al3+. Brackets are also used for compounds (reactants) in the left side of equations. positives versus negatives. now reads 3OH-. as in 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> ? Conductivity. all numbers in front of each ion on the left hand side of the equation are placed after each same ion on the right side of the equation.(one negative ion) then we require 2 more negatively charged ions (in this case OH-) to counteract the 3 positive charges the Al3+ contains. Al3+ (the 1 is never written in chemistry equations). you are balancing valency charges. Al3+ + 3OH. (3 positive charges) reacts with another ion. Brackets are used in the right side of the equation because the result is a compound. and the same number of ions or atoms each side of the equation. a recognized ion. there are no brackets placed around the OH-. each side of the equation. or positives. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 103 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .The rest is pure mathematics.

Do you have an eye wash and emergency shower? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 104 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . but these are one ton cylinders.Hard to tell. Also notice that this picture is the only eye wash station that we found during our inspection of 10 different facilities. Notice the five gallon bucket of motor oil in the bottom picture.

Under normal water conditions. which will combine chemically with the chlorine. turbidity. This is called the chlorine demand. manganese. either a total or a free chlorine residual can be read. Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid but a strong disinfecting agent. Total chlorine residual = free + combined chlorine residual. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 105 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Let’s now look at how pH and temperature affect the ratio of hypochlorous acid to hypochlorite ions. higher water temperatures and a lower pH are more conducive to chlorine disinfection. All other things being equal. It is free chlorine that is much more effective as a disinfecting agent. the measured amount of chlorine in the water should be the same as the amount added. Total residual is all chlorine that is available for disinfection. calcium hypochlorite or chlorine gas. Types of Residual If water were pure.Chemistry of Chlorination Chlorine can be added as sodium hypochlorite. But water is not 100% pure. the ratio of hypochlorous acid increases. once chlorine molecules are combined with these interfering agents they are not capable of disinfection. about 100 times less effective. chemical reactions occur as these equations show: Cl 2 + H 2 O → HOCI + HCI (chlorine gas) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (hydrochloric acid) CaOCI + H 2 O → 2HOCI + Ca(OH) (calcium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (calcium hydroxide) NaOCI + H 2 O → HOCI + Na(OH) (sodium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (sodium hydroxide) All three forms of chlorine produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when added to water. The amount of hypochlorous acid depends on the pH and temperature of the water. So let’s look now at how free. As the temperature is decreased. When a chlorine residual test is taken. total and combined chlorine are related. There are always other substances (interfering agents) such as iron. Although the ratio of hypochlorous acid is greater at lower temperatures. etc. pathogenic organisms are actually harder to kill. Temperature plays a small part in the acid ratio. Naturally..): HOCI H + + OCI – Also expressed HOCI → H + + OCI – (hypochlorous acid) (hydrogen) (hypochlorite ion) The hypochlorite ion is a much weaker disinfecting agent than hypochlorous acid. When any of these is added to water. hypochlorous acid will also chemically react and break down into a hypochlorite ion (OCl .

The CT concept. since monitoring for very low levels of pathogens in treated water is analytically very difficult. Residual Concentration/Contact Time (CT) Requirements Disinfection to eliminate fecal and coliform bacteria may not be sufficient to adequately reduce pathogens such as Giardia or viruses to desired levels. and the contact time used is the T10 of the process unit (time for 10% of the water to pass). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 106 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The 1 ton is on a scale. The residual is measured at the end of the process. June 29. Use of the "CT" disinfection concept is recommended to demonstrate satisfactory treatment. Therefore.Free chlorine residual is a much stronger disinfecting agent. any additional chlorine will be considered free chlorine. Break-point chlorination is where the chlorine demand has been satisfied. Parts 141 and 142. most water regulating agencies will require that your daily chlorine residual readings be of free chlorine residual. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) The effective reduction in pathogens can be calculated by reference to standard tables of required CTs. 1 Ton and 150 pound cylinders. uses the combination of disinfectant residual concentration (mg/L) and the effective disinfection contact time (in minutes) to measure effective pathogen reduction. 40 CFR. as developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Register. 1989).

Calculation and Reporting of CT Data Disinfection CT values shall be calculated daily using either the maximum hourly flow and the disinfectant residual at the same time. Users may also calculate and record actual log reductions.4-log 10 cysts/100 L . These requirements are based on unpolluted raw water sources with Giardia levels of = 1 cyst/100 L. temperature.1 Level of Giardia Reduction Raw Water Giardia Levels* Recommended Giardia Log Reduction < 1 cyst/100 L 3-log 1 cyst/100 L . The reduction Ratio must be greater than 1. residual concentration.000 L (equivalent to 1 in 10. temperature and the disinfectant used. or by using the lowest CT value if it is calculated more frequently. The tables attached to Appendices A and B shall be used to determine the required CT.5-log > 100 cysts/100 L > 5-log *Use geometric means of data to determine raw water Giardia levels for compliance.0 to be acceptable. Results shall be reported as a reduction Ratio.100 cysts/100 L 4-log . Required CT Value Required CT values are dependent on pH. Higher raw water contamination levels may require greater removals as shown on Table 4. Reduction Ratio = CT actual : CT required Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 107 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . TABLE 4. and disinfectant residual. along with the appropriate pH.10 cysts/100 L 3-log . and a finished water goal of 1 cyst/100. and 4-log reduction in viruses.000 risk of infection per person per year).1. Actual CT values are then compared to required CT values.Required Giardia/Virus Reduction All surface water treatment systems shall ensure a minimum reduction in pathogen levels: 3-log reduction in Giardia.

C. This metal plug will melt at 158 to 165o F. D.Chlorinator Parts A. Ejector Check Valve Assembly Rate Valve Diaphragm Assembly Interconnection Manifold Rotometer Tube and Float Pressure Gauge Gas Supply Chlorine measurement devices or Rotometers Safety Information: There is a fusible plug on every chlorine tank. H. G. E. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 108 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . F. B. This is to prevent a build-up of excessive pressure and the possibility of cylinder rupture due to fire or high temperatures.

Chlorination Equipment Requirements For all water treatment facilities. chlorine gas under pressure shall not be permitted outside the chlorine room. In the automatic proportional controlled system. spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators. A manual chlorine feed system may be installed for groundwater systems with constant flow rates. The chlorinator. the feed rate of the chlorinator is controlled by a flow proportional signal and a residual analyzer signal to maintain particular chlorine residual in the water. Injectors should be located to minimize the length of pressurized chlorine solution lines. The gas pressure relief system shall vent pressurized gas to the atmosphere at a location that is not hazardous to plant personnel. or automatic residual controlled. Methods of Control Chlorine feed system shall be automatic proportional controlled. from the chlorine room. chlorine gas vacuum lines should be run as close to the point of solution application as possible. In the automatic residual controlled system. or compound loop controlled. For uninterrupted chlorination. Vacuum regulators shall also be located inside the chlorine room. Anti-siphon valves shall be incorporated in the pump heads or in the discharge piping. which is the mechanical gas proportioning equipment. A chlorine room is where chlorine gas cylinders and/or ton containers are stored. In the compound loop control system. vent line should be run in such a manner that moisture collecting traps are avoided. standby chlorination equipment having the capacity to replace the largest unit shall be provided. A gas pressure relief system shall be included in the gas vacuum line between the vacuum regulator(s) and the chlorinator(s) to ensure that pressurized chlorine gas does not enter the gas vacuum lines leaving the chlorine room. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 109 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Standby Provision As a safeguard against malfunction and/or shut-down. it is permissible to use hypochlorite with positive displacement pumping. the equipment adjusts the chlorine feed rate automatically in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant pre-established dosage for all rates of flow. As an alternative to chlorine gas. the chlorine feeder is used in conjunction with a chlorine residual analyzer which controls the feed rate of the chlorine feeders to maintain a particular residual in the treated water. The vacuum regulating valve(s) shall have positive shutdown in the event of a break in the downstream vacuum lines. For new and upgraded facilities. may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. Capacity The chlorinator shall have the capacity to dose enough chlorine to overcome the demand and maintain the required concentration of the "free" or "combined" chlorine. gas chlorinators shall be equipped with an automatic changeover system. In addition.

At large plants. Chlorine leak detection equipment should be connected to a remote audible and visual alarm system and checked on a regular basis to verify proper operation. Chlorine leak detection equipment may not be required for very small chlorine rooms with an exterior door (e. the ammonia will create a white colored smoke. eyewash. If there is a leak. Respiratory equipment shall be provided which has been approved under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Leak detection shall be provided for the chlorine rooms. a platform scale shall be provided.. Ton containers may not be stacked. Equipment shall be in close proximity to the access door(s) of the chlorine room. protective clothing.g. safety shower. the chlorine gas leakage shall be contained within the chlorine room itself in order to facilitate a proper method of clean-up. Consideration should also be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where such cylinders are in use. Tag the cylinder ”empty” and store upright and chained. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 110 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Securing Cylinders All chlorine cylinders shall be securely positioned to safeguard against movement. Scales shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Chlorine Leak Detection Automatic chlorine leak detection and related alarm equipment shall be installed at all water treatment plants using chlorine gas.Selection of Respiratory Protective Equipment. You can use a spray solution of Ammonia or a rag soaked with Ammonia to detect a small Cl2 leak. gloves. Safety Equipment The facility shall be provided with personnel safety equipment including the following: Respiratory equipment. General Safety Regulation . floor area less than 3m2). eye protection. scales of the recording and indicating type are recommended. As a minimum.Weigh Scales Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all plants using chlorine gas to permit an accurate reading of total daily weight of chlorine used. During an emergency if the chlorine room is unoccupied. cylinder and/or ton repair kits. Leak detection equipment shall not automatically activate the chlorine room ventilation system in such a manner as to discharge chlorine gas.

Heating Chlorine rooms shall have separate heating systems. the air being of such temperature as to not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. and be made of clear wire reinforced glass. with no connection to the line. consideration shall be given to provide scrubbers for the chlorine room. and a clear wire-reinforced glass window shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the operator to inspect from the outside of the room. Windows should be at least 0. and arranged to prevent the uncontrolled release of spilled gas. Visual inspection of the chlorination equipment from inside may be provided by the installation of glass window(s) in the walls of the chlorine room. The vents to the outside shall have insect screens. Storage of Chlorine Cylinders If necessary. Cylinders or containers shall be protected to ensure that the chlorine maintains its gaseous state when entering the chlorinator. well illuminated.Chlorine Room Design Requirements Where gas chlorination is practiced. Scrubbers For facilities located within residential or densely populated areas. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 111 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . entry into the chlorine rooms may be through a vestibule from outside. In very large facilities. The chlorine room shall be located at the ground floor level. a separate storage room may be provided to simply store the chlorine gas cylinders. The chlorinator may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. The hot water heating system for the building will negate the need for a separate heating system for the chlorine room. Air inlets should be louvered near the ceiling. Separate switches for fans and lights shall be outside the room at all entrance or viewing points. Viewing glass windows and panic button on the inside of door should also be provided. The chlorine cylinder storage room shall have access either to the chlorine room or from the plant exterior. The chlorine gas storage room shall have provision for ventilation at thirty air changes per hour. The air outlet from the room shall be 150 mm above the floor and the point of discharge located to preclude contamination of air inlets to buildings or areas used by people. The heat should be controlled at approximately 15oC.20 m2 in area. There should also be a 'panic bar' on the inside of the chlorine room door for emergency exit. if forced air system is used to heat the building. Access All access to the chlorine room shall only be from the exterior of the building. and corrosion resistant and mechanically ventilated enclosure. Ventilation Gas chlorine rooms shall have entirely separate exhaust ventilation systems capable of delivering one (1) complete air change per minute during periods of chlorine room occupancy only. the gas cylinders and/or the ton containers up to the vacuum regulators shall be housed in a gas-tight.

How is the effectiveness of disinfection determined? From the results of coliform testing. Even brief exposure to 1. Their demand for chlorine must be satisfied before chlorine becomes available to accomplish disinfection.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal. Chlorine Questions and Answer Review Downstream from the point of post chlorination. These side reactions complicate the use of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. True How does one determine the ambient temperature in a chlorine room? Use a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. How often should chlorine storage ventilation equipment be checked? Daily. what should the concentration of a free chlorine residual be in a clear well or distribution reservoir? 0.5 mg/L. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 112 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . True or False. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods.Chlorine Demand Chlorine combines with a wide variety of materials. Also.

ozone may also produce its own oxygenated byproducts such as aldehydes. This limits usable residuals of chlorine dioxide at the end of a process unit to less than 0. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide may be used for either taste and odor control or as a pre-disinfectant. Chlorine dioxide provides good Giardia and virus protection but its use is limited by the restriction on the maximum residual of 0.30 mg/L during normal operation or 0. the ammonia residuals in the finished water.5 mg/L. Ozone does not produce chlorinated byproducts (such as trihalomethanes) but it may cause an increase in such byproduct formation if it is fed ahead of free chlorine. Total residual oxidants (including chlorine dioxide and chlorite. chlorite and chlorate) during periods of extreme variations in the raw water supply. Ozone may also be used as an oxidant for removal of taste and odor or may be applied as a predisinfectant. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 113 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It is best utilized as a stable distribution system disinfectant. Ozone CT values must be determined for the ozone basin alone. and an ozone offgas destruction system. Ozone Ozone is a very effective disinfectant for both Giardia and viruses. when fed in excess of stoichiometric amount needed. an accurate T10 value must be obtained for the contact chamber. ketones or carboxylic acids. Any installed ozonation system must include adequate ozone leak detection alarm systems. should be limited to inhibit growth of nitrifying bacteria. Where chlorine dioxide is approved for use as an oxidant. In the production of chloramines. but excluding chlorate) shall not exceed 0. the preferred method of generation is to entrain chlorine gas into a packed reaction chamber with a 25% aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (NaClO2).Alternate Disinfectants Chloramine Chloramine is a very weak disinfectant for Giardia and virus reduction. Warning: Dry sodium chlorite is explosive and can cause fires in feed equipment if leaking solutions or spills are allowed to dry out. Ozone does not provide a system residual and should be used as a primary disinfectant only in conjunction with free and/or combined chlorine.50 mg/L (including chlorine dioxide.5 mg/L ClO2/chlorite/chlorate allowed in finished water. residual levels measured through the chamber and an average ozone residual calculated. it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with a stronger disinfectant.

(AWWA) 4500-Cl. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.Additional Drinking Water Methods (non EPA) for Chemical Parameters Method Method Focus - Title Order Number Source 4500-Cl B Chloride by Silver Nitrate Titration Chloride by Potentiometric Method Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Included in Standard Methods Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 D Chlorine Dioxide by the DPD Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method I Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl E Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl F Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 18th & 19th Ed. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Colorimetric Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) 4500-Cl G Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl H Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl I Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method II (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Low Level Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Residual by Iodometric Electrode Technique (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Ferrous Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Included in Standard Methods 4500-ClO2 E Included in Standard Methods Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 114 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 C Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.D 4500-Cl D Chlorine Residual by Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

numerous test kits are readily available that can be adapted to measure chlorine dioxide. Oxidizers 0. These titrations are repeated on the sparged sample. the color allowed to reform and the titration continued. ClO2 forms a pink color. Range 0.0 ppm.5 to 5. The direct measurement of ClO2 is determined between 350 and 450 nM. In addition.0 ppm 100 to 1000 ppm Color. new methods that are specific for chlorine dioxide are being developed. ClO2 bleaches chlorophenol red indicator.1 to 1. Consequently. Two aliquots are taken one is sparged with N2 to remove ClO2. The following are the common analytical methods for chlorine dioxide: DPD glycine Method Type: Colorimetric Chlorophenol Red Colorimetric Direct Absorbance Colorimetric Iodometric Titration Titrametric Amperometric Titration Titrametric How It Works Glycine removes Cl2. The pH is lower to 2. whose intensity is proportional to the ClO2 concentration. The degree of bleaching is proportional to the concentration of ClO2. KI is added to the other sample at pH7 and titrated to a colorless endpoint. turbidity Simple > 1 ppm < 1ppm Interferences None Oxidizers Complexity Equipment Required EPA Status Simple Moderate Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter Not approved Yes Moderate Titration equipment High Amperometric Titrator Approved Not approved Marginal Not approved Yes Approved Recommendation Marginal Marginal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 115 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Chlorine Dioxide Methods Most tests for chlorine dioxide rely upon its oxidizing properties.

approved gasket on the connector. secure position with proper signage. and a strong oxidizer.5 times heavier than air. The connection from a chlorine cylinder to a chlorinator should be replaced by using a new. pneumonia. When chlorine gas is added to water. A yellowish green. Cl2 + NH4. Emergency procedures in the case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak.is the hypochlorite ion and the both of these two species are known as free available chlorine. chlorine gas should be used only in a well ventilated area so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate. be sure that no one enters the leak area without adequate self-contained breathing equipment. the OCL.Chlorine Exposure Limits This information is necessary to pass your certification exam. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Notify local emergency response team. dichloramine.IDLH 10 PPM and Fatal Exposure Limit 1. fatal pulmonary edema. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level. amber-colored liquid. warn and evacuate people in adjacent areas.200 pound chlorine cylinder: Secure each cylinder in an upright position. It can be readily compressed into a clear. Cl is the elemental symbol and Cl2 is the chemical formula. Always follow your manufacturer’s instructions. nausea and vomiting. Never store near heat.5 times heavier than water and gaseous chlorine is about 2. a noncombustible gas. Monochloramine. In addition to protective clothing and goggles. HOCl and OCl-. This is the liquid chlorine supply line and it is going to be made into Chlorine gas. Here are several safety precautions when using chlorine gas. Solid Chlorine is about 1. attach the protective bonnet over the valve and firmly secure each cylinder. A little Cl2 will corrode the teeth and then progress to throat cancer. * OSHA PEL 1 PPM . they are the two main chemical species formed by chlorine in water and they known by collectively as hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion.+ HOCl. Here are several symptoms of chlorine exposure. Yoke-type connectors should be used on a chlorine cylinder's valve assuming that the threads on the valve may be worn. and mouth. Hypochlorous acid is the most germicidal of the chlorine compounds with the possible exception of chlorine dioxide. choking. and trichloramine are also known as Combined Available Chlorine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 116 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Approved method for storing a 150 . it rapidly hydrolyzes. headaches and dizziness. * IDLH 10 PPM Physical and chemical properties of chlorine. coughing. Burning of eyes. and skin blisters. The chemical equations best describes this reaction is Cl2 + H2O --> H+ + Cl. One reason for not adding it directly to the chamber is that the chamber has very little mixing due to low velocities. Chlorine is added to the effluent before the contact chamber (before the clear well) for complete mixing. the chlorine pressure reducing valve should be located downstream of the evaporator when using an evaporator. nose. On a 1 or 2 ton cylinder. sneezing. In water treatment. Atomic number of Chlorine is 17.000 PPM The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. Always store the empty in an upright.

and cleaning. Material is estimated (but not tested) to provide at least four hours of protection. and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with chlorine. (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits.g. respirator fit testing. at a minimum. consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a]. Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed. To evaluate the use of these PPE materials with chlorine. sleeves. degradation may occur. and (4) during emergencies. complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910. However..134]. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Personal Protective Equipment Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected. gloves. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users. encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to chlorine. (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures. an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator. The resistance of various materials to permeation by both chlorine liquid and chlorine gas is shown below: Material Breakthrough Time (hr) Chlorine Liquid Responder Chlorine gas butyl rubber neoprene Teflon viton saranex barricade chemrel responder trellchem HPS nitrile rubber H (PE/EVAL) polyethylene polyvinyl chloride. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 117 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. Not recommended. some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve chlorine. the regular training of personnel. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e. inspection.Respiratory Protection Section Conditions for Respirator Use Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. Such a program must include respirator selection. butyl) produced by different manufacturers. users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. In addition. used. periodic workplace monitoring. and regular respirator maintenance.g. Respiratory Protection Program Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that. the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.

aprons. or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes. Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation.g. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk. especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments. encapsulating suits). or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent. Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e. coveralls. SCBA Fit Test Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 118 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . caustic.Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long. workers should wear work uniforms. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately.

temperature. set of equipment installation configurations and operating conditions. it degrades over time. There are Many Factors that Effect the Stability of a NaOCl Solution • Initial solution strength. or metal oxides are brought into contact with the solution. Product Stability The oxidizing nature of this substance means that it should be handled with extreme care. One of these alternative forms is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). • Exposure of the solution to sunlight. copper or nickel. As NaOCl is relatively unstable.Recommendations for Preparing/Handling/Feeding Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions As a result of the pressures brought to bear by Health and Safety requirements. The handling and storage of NaOCl presents the plant with a new and sometimes unfamiliar. • pH solution. • Temperature of the solution. • Chlorine-producing reaction when solution pH falls below 6. some users of gas have chosen to seek alternative forms of disinfectants for their water and wastewater treatment plants. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 119 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . There are Three Ways in Which NaOCl Solutions Degrade • Chlorate-forming reaction due to age. such as iron. This is often purchased commercially at 10 to 15% strength. light and minor reduction in pH. • Oxygen-producing reaction that occurs when metals.

01 mg/L dissolved iron and a temperature range of 5 to 15°C. but the most common are iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (as well as other bacteria) can exist naturally in groundwater. water piping and pumping equipment. To thrive. bacteria growth will coat the inside of the well casing. Although not a cause of health problems in humans. Iron bacteria leave this slimy by-product on almost every surface the water is in contact with. creating problems such as: Reduced well yield Restricted water flow in distribution lines Staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Plugging of water treatment equipment “Rotten egg” odor. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. Many types of bacteria can contaminate wells. Iron bacteria aggravate the problem by creating an environment that encourages the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the well. Note: All iron staining problems are not necessarily caused by iron bacteria. Rotten Egg Odor Sulfate-reducing bacteria can cause a rotten egg odor in water. Sulfate-reducing bacteria prefer to live underneath the slime layer that the iron bacteria form. They include: Slime growth Rotten egg odor Increased staining. the water flowing in will also bring in nutrients that enhance bacterial growth.Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock chlorination is a relatively inexpensive and straightforward procedure used to control bacteria in water wells. iron bacteria are probably present. If you see a greasy slime or growth. iron bacteria require 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 120 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ideal Conditions for Iron Bacteria Water wells provide ideal conditions for iron bacteria. Signs of Iron and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria There are a number of signs that indicate the presence of iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A well creates a direct path for oxygen to travel into the ground where it would not normally exist.5-4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Some iron bacteria use dissolved iron in the water as a food source. as little as 0. When a well is pumped. However. The iron naturally present in the water can be the cause. Slime Growth The easiest way to check a well and water system for iron bacteria is to examine the inside surface of the toilet flush tank.

To be effective. Checklist to Determine an Iron or Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Problem Greasy slime on inside surface of toilet flush tank Increased red staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Sulfur odor Reduced well yield Restricted water flow Mixing a Chlorine Solution Add a half gallon of bleach to a clean pail with about 3 gallons of water. a large volume of super chlorinated water is siphoned down the well to displace all the water in the well and some of the water in the formation around the well.Some of these bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product. The first three are very specific problems related to these bacteria. increase the amount of bleach proportionately. The last two problems can be signs of other problems as well. To accomplish this. Others produce small amounts of sulfuric acid which can corrode the well casing and pumping equipment. This is generally sufficient to disinfect a 4 inch diameter well 100 feet deep or less. It can create a staining problem where one never existed before or make an iron staining problem worse as time goes by. Please note that many dug wells are difficult or impossible to disinfect due t o their unsanitary construction. shock chlorination must disinfect the following: The entire well depth The formation around the bottom of the well The pressure system Some water treatment equipment The distribution system. To be effective. Bacteria collect in the pore spaces of the formation and on the casing or screened surface of the well. Increased Staining Problems Iron bacteria can concentrate iron in water sources with low iron content. If you have a dug well with a diameter greater than 18 inches. Effectiveness of Shock Chlorination With shock chlorination. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock Chlorination Method Shock chlorination is used to control iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria and to eliminate fecal coliform bacteria in a water system. Use the following checklist to determine if you have an iron or sulfate-reducing bacteria problem. For wells greater than 100 feet deep or with a larger casing diameter. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 121 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . through the wellbore and the distribution system) is exposed to water which has a concentration of chlorine strong enough to kill iron and sulfate reducing bacteria. use 2 to 4 gallons of bleach added directly to the well. the entire system (from the water-bearing formation. you must use enough chlorine to disinfect the entire cased section of the well and adjacent water-bearing formation. resulting in a “rotten egg” or sulfur odor in the water.

A clean galvanized stock tank or pickup truck box lined with a 4 mil thick plastic sheet is suitable.1 5. (30 cm) per 1 ft.0 .3 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. To measure how much water is in the casing. (30 cm) per 1 ft.The procedure described below does not completely eliminate iron bacteria from the water system. you may have to repeat the procedure each spring and fall as a regular maintenance procedure. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate your well.8 1. To control the iron bacteria. Pump the recommended amount of water (see Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM) into clean storage. it may be necessary to use a stronger chlorine solution.9 . extra 1000 L 1. This is to dislodge and remove the bacterial slime. In more severe cases. You might also consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean and flush the well before chlorinating in order to remove any buildup on the casing.4 10. but it will hold it in check. See the example below.1 .16 27. Caution: If your well is low yielding or tends to pump any silt or sand.2 6 (150) 2. When pumping out the chlorinated solution. applied two or three times. This should be done by a drilling contractor.36 . before you notice a significant improvement in the water. (30 cm) per 1 ft. If your well has never been shock chlorinated or has not been done for some time. the pump may have to be removed and chemical solutions added to the well and vigorous agitation carried out using special equipment.21 .7 .7 286 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 122 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . extra 1000 L 3. subtract the non-pumping water level from the total depth of the well. Store sufficient water to meet farm and family needs for 8 to 48 hours.095 .74 127 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. monitor the water discharge for sediment.6 8 (200) 4. (30 cm) of water in the casing of water of water of water (in) (mm) (gal.) (L) (L) (L) (g) 4 (100) 1.091 15. The recommended amount of water to use is twice the volume of water present in the well casing. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Casing Diameter Volume of Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite L needed L need Dry weight1 Water needed per 1 ft. Shock Chlorination Procedure for Small Drilled Wells A modified procedure is also provided for large diameter wells. you must be very careful using the following procedure because over pumping may damage the well.042 7.2 19.

Using Table 1. you will use 0. Calculating Amount of Chlorine Example If your casing is 6 in. Flush the chlorine solution from the hot water heater and household distribution system. you will require . Use a drilling contractor who has the proper equipment and experience to do the job safely. The small amount of chlorine in the distribution system will not harm the septic tank. Since a dry chemical is being used. washing machine. Open each hydrant and faucet in the distribution system (including all appliances that use water such as dishwasher. Consult your water treatment equipment supplier to find out if any part of your water treatment system should be bypassed. you must make sure there is proper ventilation during the chlorination procedure. This will ensure all the plumbing fixtures are chlorinated. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Siphon this solution into the well. If you have 100 ft. furnace humidifier) until the water coming out has a chlorine odor.091 L x 100 ft. of water in the casing. Casing diameter_______ Chlorine strength_______ L needed per 1 ft. Make sure to direct the water away from sensitive plants or landscaping. of water in casing = _______ L of chlorine. Backwash and regenerate any water treatment equipment. of water in the casing. Mix the chlorine with the previously measured water to obtain a 1000 ppm chlorine solution. If your well is located in a pit. Allow the hot water tank to fill completely. to prevent damage.1 L of 12% chlorine.091 L per ft. the better the results. = 9. Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM. Leave the chlorine solution in the well and distribution system for 8 to 48 hours. Well pits are no longer legal to construct. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 123 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . calculate the amount of chlorine you will need for your well. Caution: Chlorine is corrosive and can even be deadly. Open an outside tap and allow the water to run until the chlorine odor is greatly reduced. of water_______ x _______ ft. Calculate the amount of chlorine that is required. The longer the contact time. and you are using 12% industrial sodium hypochlorite.12% industrial sodium hypochlorite and 70% high test hypochlorite are available from: • Water treatment suppliers • Drilling contractor • Swimming pool maintenance suppliers • Dairy equipment suppliers • Some hardware stores. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution before placing it in the well.

095 L =________ _______ft.2 g =________ 6 (150) _______ft.7 L =_________ ______ft. x 0. (30 cm) (in) (mm) in the casing of water of water of water 4 (100) _______ft. needed per Dry weight 1 ft.6 g =________ 8 (200) _______ft.3 g =________ 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. A more practical way to shock chlorinate a bored well is to mix the recommended amount of chlorine right in the well. x 127 g =________ 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal.4 gal. (30 cm) L per 1 ft. (1000 L) of water into a clean storage tank at the well head. Pump 200 gal. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate a large diameter bored well.7 L =________ _______ft.2 gal. x 15. x 0.091 L =________ ______ft. x 0.36 L =________ _______ft. (30 cm) per 1 ft. x 0. x 0. =_______ ________ft. x 27. This is dangerous.21 L =________ _______ft. consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean the well prior to chlorinating.4 kg of 70% calcium hypochlorite) into the 200 gal. x 0. x 7. (Note that the 70% hypochlorite powder should be dissolved in water to form a solution before placing in the well. Any floating debris should be removed from the well and the casing should be scrubbed or hosed to disturb the sludge buildup. Don't mix acids with chlorine.If you have an old well that has not been routinely chlorinated. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 124 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . x 1. Complete the procedure as described in Steps 5 to 9 for drilled wells. Modified Procedure for Large Diameter Wells Due to the large volume of water in many bored wells the above procedure can be impractical. Calculating Water and Chlorine Requirements for Shock Chlorination Complete the following table using your own figures to determine how much water and chlorine you need to shock chlorinate your well. x 286 g =________ Since a dry chemical is being used. x 1. x 1. Calculate the amount of chlorine you require per foot of water in the casing and add directly into the well. x 0. of water L per 1 ft. of stored water. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution prior to placing it in the well. _______ft.) Circulate chlorine added to the water in the well by hooking a garden hose up to an outside faucet and placing the other end back down the well. _______ft. This circulates the chlorinated water through the pressure system and back down the well. x 4.1 gal. =_______ ________ft. x 2.16 L =_________ ______ft. Siphon the 200 gal.8 L =________ _______ft. Mix 20 L of 5 1/4% domestic chlorine bleach (or 8 L of 12% bleach or 1.042 L =________ _______ft.74 L =_________ ______ft. Continue for at least 15 minutes. The chlorinated water is used to force some of the chlorine solution into the formation around the well. =_______ ________ft. bleach and water solution prepared in Steps 1 and 2 into the well. x 3. Casing Volume of 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Diameter Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite Imperial gal.

Anytime work is performed on the plumbing or pump. rather the well is acting to funnel contaminants down into the groundwater.What Should I do if my Well Water is Contaminated with Bacteria? First. It is important to remember that the groundwater is not necessarily contaminated in these cases." The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24 hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready to be used again. setting it on the grass to work on it. Concentrations of chlorine ranging from 50 to 200 mg/1 are used in the shock chlorination process. don't panic'! Bacterial contamination is very common. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 125 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and returning it to the well is enough to contaminate the well with bacteria. This is 100 to 400 times the amount of chlorine found in "city water. the entire water system should be disinfected with chlorine. At no time should the water be exposed to the ground surface. Although well pits were the common method of construction several years ago. Keeping the plumbing system clean is an important part of maintaining a sanitary water supply. Studies have found that over 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria. A properly protected well is evidenced by the well casing extending above the surface of the ground and the ground sloping away from the well to prevent water from collecting around the casing. A properly protected spring is developed underground and the water channeled to a sealed spring box. The procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine is called shock chlorination. they are no longer considered sanitary construction. Spring water supplies are the most frequently contaminated. with over 70 percent containing coliform bacteria. Improving protection of a well or spring from the inflow of surface water is an important option to consider if the supply is contaminated with bacteria. Simply pulling the pump out of the well.

Table 3 lists the amount of chlorine laundry bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) that is needed for wells.Periodic shock chlorination also may be effective in reducing an iron bacteria problem. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 126 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If in doubt. The amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined by the amount of water standing in the well. it is better to use more chlorine than less.

samples fluoresce under UV light. coli in water samples in 24 hours or less. and read results. Colilert is easy to read. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 127 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . as positive coliform samples turn yellow. coli is present. Simply add the Colilert reagent to the sample. incubate for 24 hours.Bacteriological Monitoring Section Colilert tests simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms and E. and when E.

SimPlate for HPC Multi Dose Method. The MPN values generated by the SimPlate for HPC method correlate with the Pour Plate method using Total Plate Count Agar incubated at 35o for 48 hours as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The number of fluorescing wells corresponds to a Most Probable Number (MPN) of total bacteria in the original sample. 19th Edition. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 128 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . IDEXX’s HPC method is used for the quantification of heterotrophic plate counts in water.

100 mls. Check for a reddish-brown slime inside a toilet tank or where water stands for several days. the potential presence of pathogens. A water test is not needed for identification. They are used to monitor for pathogens because of the difficulties in determining the presence of specific disease-causing microorganisms. Run the water for five minutes to clear the water lines and bring in fresh water. That is Sodium Thiosulfate. The coliform bacteria group is used as an indicator organism to determine the biological quality of your water. Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check the lab's schedule. Do not touch or contaminate the inside of the bottle or cap. often referred to as a Standard Sample. The routine microbiological analysis of your water is for coliform bacteria. The presence of an indicator or pathogenic bacteria in your drinking water is an important health concern. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 129 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Notice the white powder inside the bottle. Be careful not to wash-out this chemical while sampling. Bacteria Sampling Water samples for bacteria tests must always be collected in a sterile container. Sterilize by spraying a 5% Clorox or alcohol solution or flaming the end of the tap with disposable butane lighter. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the testing laboratory within six hours (in an ice chest). occur in high densities in their natural environment and are easily cultured in relatively simple bacteriological media. Fill the container and replace the top. Iron bacteria forms an obvious slime on the inside of pipes and fixtures. Indicator bacteria signal possible fecal contamination and therefore. Notice the custody seal on the bottle. Take the sample from an inside faucet with the aerator removed. a de-chlorination agent. Mailing bacteria samples is not recommended because laboratory analysis results are not as reliable.Bacteriological Monitoring Most waterborne disease and illnesses have been related to the microbiological quality of drinking water. Carefully open the sample container and hold the outside of the cap. Indicator bacteria are usually harmless. Standard Sample Coliform Bacteria Bac-T Bac-T Sample Bottle. Indicators in common use today for routine monitoring of drinking water include total coliforms.

Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity public water systems will sample at the same frequency as a like sized community public water system if: 1. Special: Samples collected for other reasons. EPA and your local environmental or health division: Methods The MMO-MUG test. a product marketed as Colilert is the most common. Examples would be a sample collected after repairs to the system and before it is placed back into operation or a sample collected at a wellhead prior to a disinfection injection point. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Laboratory Procedures The laboratory may perform the total coliform analysis in one of four methods approved by the U. Collection should be in accordance with an approved sampling plan. the laboratory will analyze the sample further to determine if these are fecal coliforms or E.000 daily population and has ground water as a source. Routine Coliform Sampling The number of routine samples and frequency of collection for community public water systems is shown in Table 3-1. coli and report their presence or absence. If coliforms are present. Noncommunity and nontransient. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. Types of Water Samples It is important to properly identify the type of sample you are collecting.000 daily population and groundwater as a source will sample on a quarterly basis. Please indicate in the space provided on the laboratory form the type of sample. However. It serves 25 or more daily population and utilizes surface water as a source or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as its source. The number of repeat samples to be collected is based on the number of routine samples you normally collect. noncommunity water systems with less than 1. 2. It has more than 1.Coliform Bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. The three (3) types of samples are: 1. 3. The sample results will be reported by the laboratories as simply coliforms present or absent. Routine: Samples collected on a routine basis to monitor for contamination.S. Repeat: Samples collected following a ‘coliform present’ routine sample. or 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 130 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

001 to 41.900 5 4. All repeat samples are included in the MCL compliance calculation.No.001 to 450.000 210 600.200 15 17.000 40 41. the repeat samples must be collected from the same sampling location over a four-day period or on the same day.001 to 220.901 to 17. Whenever a routine sample is total coliform or fecal coliform present a set of repeat samples must be collected within 24 hours after being notified by the laboratory.601 to 8.701 to 7.000 180 450. Within five (5) service connections upstream from the original sampling location.000 25 25.000 50 50. The follow-up for repeat sampling is: 1.000 1 1.501-3.001 to 59.000 120 220.100 4 4.001 to 320.201 to 21.500 2 2. For systems collecting two (2) or more routine samples per month. If a system which normally collects fewer than five (5) routine samples per month has a coliform present sample. d.501 to 25.001 to 600.000 30 33. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 131 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 80 83.000 70 70. 4.001 to 70.301 to 4.001-2.300 3 3.101 to 4.500 20 21.001 to 50.Samples per month up to 1. b. of Samples per System Population Persons served .901 to 5. Repeat samples must be collected from: a.900 10 12. 2. The original sampling location of the coliform present sample.000 60 59. Within five (5) service connections downstream from the original sampling location. it must collect five (5) routine samples the following month or quarter regardless of whether an MCL violation occurred or if repeat sampling was coliform absent.000 150 320. 5. 3.000 240 Repeat Sampling Repeat sampling replaces the old check sampling with a more comprehensive procedure to try to identify problem areas in the system.001 to 780. if necessary.001 to 83.001 to 33.000 100 130.501 to 12.000 90 96.800 6 5.700 7 6. three (3) repeat samples must be collected. four (4) repeat samples must be collected. c. If the system has only one service connection.801 to 6. If only one routine sample per month or quarter is required.500 9 8.600 8 7. Elsewhere in the distribution system or at the wellhead.001 to 96.001 to 130. 6.

Conduct routine distribution line flushing. Shock chlorination of a ground water well. Quebec Colony Counter Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 132 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Positive or Coliform Present Results What do you do when your sample is positive or coliform present? When you are notified of a positive test result you need to contact either the Drinking Water Program or your local county health department within 24 hours or by the next business day after the results are reported to you. Eliminate all of these connections or provide approved back flow prevention devices.2 mg/l free chlorine) at all times in the distribution system. When a particular contaminant exceeds its MCL a potential health threat may occur. Under normal circumstances when these standards are being met.coli. The MCLs are based on extensive research on toxicological properties of the contaminants. the water is safe to drink with no threat to human health. risk assessments and factors. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. You conduct the monitoring to make sure your water is in compliance with the MCL.. 4. The recommended dose of 5% household bleach is 2 cups per 100 gallons of water in the well. short term (acute) exposure and long term (chronic) exposure. Perform routine cleaning of the storage system. Install blowoffs on all dead end lines. 5. review your operation and be sure to maintain a detectable residual (0. If you plan to shock the entire system. Upgrade the wellhead area to meet current construction standards as set your state environmental or health agency. etc. Some examples of typical corrective measures to coliform problems are: 1. Conduct a cross connection program to identify all connections with non-potable water sources. The first is for total coliform. This should be done anytime the bell is opened for repair (pump replacement. 6. This list provides some basic operation and maintenance procedures that could help eliminate potential bacteriological problems. If you continuously chlorinate. 2. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLS) State and federal laws establish standards for drinking water quality. After you have contacted an agency for assistance you will be instructed as to the proper repeat sampling procedures and possible corrective measures for solving the problem. These standards are known as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). the second is an acute risk to health violation characterized by the confirmed presence of fecal coliform or E. calculate the total gallonage of storage and distribution. It is very important to initiate the repeat sampling immediately as the corrective measures will be based on those results.). There are two types of MCL violations for coliform bacteria. The Drinking Water Program contracts with many of the local health departments to provide assistance to water systems.. 3.

all of which are included in the term "colony-forming units" (CFU). 3.. Methods There are three methods for standard plate count: 1. clusters.Pipet 0. submerged colonies often are slower growing and are difficult to transfer. and colony morphology easily can be discerned and compared to published descriptions. or single cells. consider only plates having 30 to 300 colonies in determining the plate count. Pour Plate Method The colonies produced are relatively small and compact. starting with the highest dilution. On the other hand.Pour approximately 15 ml of medium in each Petri dish. Spread Plate Method All colonies are on the agar surface where they can be distinguished readily from particles and bubbles.Count all colonies on selected plates promptly after incubation.Boil mixture of nutrient agar and nutrient broth for 15 minutes. let medium solidify.Incubate plates at 35oC for 48h. 2. *Duplicate samples Computing and Reporting: Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 133 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . then cool for about 20 minutes. 6. is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria and measuring changes during water treatment and distribution in water or in swimming pools. Colonies may arise from pairs.1 ml of each dilution onto surface of pre-dried plate. chains. 3. 4.Distribute inoculum over surface of the medium using a sterile bent glass rod.Heterotrophic Plate Count Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) --. showing less tendency to encroach on each other than those produced by surface growth.formerly known as the standard plate count. Membrane Filter Method This method permits testing large volumes of volume of low-turbidity water and is the method of choice for lowcount waters. 2. Colonies can be transferred quickly. 5. Material i ) Apparatus Glass rod Erlenmeyer flask Graduated Cylinder Pipet Petri dish Incubator ii ) Reagent and sample Reagent-grade water Nutrient agar Sample Procedure* 1.

date and any other information before sample application. Quebec Colony Counter Hand Tally Counter Reagents: 1) R2A Agar: Dissolve and dilute 0. Preparation of Spread Plates: Immediately after agar sterilization.CFU/ml = colonies counted / actual volume of sample in dish. Pre-dry plates inverted so that there is a 2 to 3 g water loss overnight with the lids on. 0. 1. report the count as less than 1/actual volume of sample in dish estimated CFU/ml.1 mL.1 or 0.05 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Thoroughly mix all samples by rapidly making about 25 complete up-and-down movements. 0.5 g of casamino acids. a)If there is no plate with 30 to 300 colonies. Pipet: Glass.5 g of glucose. a bacteriological colony count provides an estimate of the concentration of heterotrophs in the sample of interest. 0. and 15. The R2A agar provides a medium that will support a large variety of heterotrophic bacteria. 2) Ethanol: As needed for flame sterilization. and one or more plates have more than 300 colonies. 3. Heterotrophic Plate Count (Spread Plate Method) Heterotrophic organisms utilize organic compounds as their carbon source (food or substrate). dilution. pour 15 mL of R2A agar into sterile 100 x 15 Petri dishes. let agar solidify.5 g of soluble starch. use the plate(s) having a count nearest 300 colonies.5 g of yeast extract. Adjust pH to 7. b) If plates from all dilutions of any sample have no colony. Sample Preparation: Mark each plate with sample type.3 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. Sample Application: Uncover pre-dried agar plate. 0. Sterilize before using.5 g of proteose peptone No. Heat to dissolve agar and sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes. Laboratory Equipment: 100 x 15 Petri Dishes Turntable Glass Rods: Bend fire polished glass rod 45 degrees about 40 mm from one end. After an incubation period. The Heterotrophic Plate Count provides a technique to quantify the bacteriological activity of a sample. Minimize time plate remains uncovered. 0.5 mL sample onto surface of pre-dried agar plate. Prepare at least duplicate plates for each volume of sample or dilution examined. Sterilize before using. 0. Pipet 0. 0.0 g of agar to 1 L. Use pre-dried plates immediately or store up to two weeks in sealed plastic bags at 4 degrees C.2 with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate before adding agar.3 g of sodium pyruvate. autotrophic organisms use inorganic carbon sources. In contrast. c) Avoid creating fictitious precision and accuracy when computing CFU by recording only the first two left-hand digits. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 134 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

comment on the general accuracy of this analytical technique and the factors that affect its accuracy and or applicability. 2. The aim of diluting samples is to produce a plate having 30 to 300 colonies. Calculate the CFU per mL for each plate. Using a sterile bent glass rod.) If plates of all dilutions for a sample have no colonies. In the conclusion of your lab report. Assignment: 1. Let the sample be absorbed completely into the medium before incubating. Remove Petri dishes from incubator for counting.1 mL of a 100:1 and 10000:1 dilution of a sample both turned up with no colonies formed. Data Table for Samples Sample ID Volume of Sample. the reported result would be <1 divided by the largest sample volume 0. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the largest sample volume used. 3.001 mL (0. distribute the sample over surface of the medium by rotating the dish by hand on a turntable. comment on your final results for each sample type as well as the quality of your application of this analysis technique. Feel free to justify your comments using statistical analysis. Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: CFU mL = colonies counted actual volume of sample in dish. Report the number of colony forming units (CFU) found on each plate. The final reported result for the sample is <1000 CFU per mL. Count all colonies on the plate. Put cover back on Petri dish and invert for duration of incubation time. Example: if 0. Also. use your calculated results to report the CFU per mL for each sample. use the plate(s) with a count closest to 300. mL Colonies Counted per plate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 135 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the sample volume put on that plate (remember to account for any dilution of that sample. which plates meet these criteria. Incubate at 28 degrees C for 7 days. promptly count all colonies on the plates. mL To report counts on a plate with no colonies. Use hand tally counter to maintain count.1 mL divided by 100). uncover plate and place on Quebec colony counter. Based on these criteria. If no sample produces a plate with a count in this range. To count. regardless of size. Counting and Recording: After incubation period.Record Volume of Sample Used.

An acute health risk violation requires the water system to provide public notice via radio and television stations in the area. Acute Risk to Health (Fecal Coliforms and E. In other words. no more than five (5) percent may be Positive. The following are acute violations: 1. Any violation of the MCL for total coliforms. This will inform users when there is a problem with the system and give them information. This type of contamination can pose an immediate threat to human health and notice must be given as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours after notification from your laboratory of the test results. depending on your water system type and state rule. Any outbreak of waterborne disease. Coli) An acute risk to human health violation occurs if either one of the following happen: 1. For systems which collect fewer than 40 samples per month. The timing and place of posting of the public notice depends on whether an acute risk is present to users. Public Notice A public notice is required to be issued by a water system whenever it fails to comply with an applicable MCL or treatment technique or fails to comply with the requirements of any scheduled variance or permit. be issued properly and in a timely manner and contain certain mandatory language. coli present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates total coliform present. when fecal coliforms or E. coli present. For systems which collect 40 or more samples per month. 3.Total Coliforms This MCL is based on the presence of total coliforms and compliance is on a monthly or quarterly basis. 2. A routine analysis shows total and fecal coliform or E. Each public notice must contain certain information. coli are present in the distribution system. A public notice is also required whenever a water system fails to comply with its monitoring and/or reporting requirements or testing procedure. Check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. as defined by the rules. 2. A routine analysis shows total coliform present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates fecal coliform or E. no more than one sample per month may be positive. the second positive result (repeat or routine) in a month or quarter results in an MCL violation. Violation of the MCL for nitrate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 136 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Certain language maybe mandatory for both these violations and is included in your state drinking water rule. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions.

Hoppers should be designed to hold a 24 hour supply of the fluoride compound and designed such that the dust hazard to operators is minimized. Feeders shall be provided with anti-siphon valves on the discharge side. and the dissolving chambers shall be designed such that at the required rate of feed of the chemical the solution strength will not be greater than 1/4 of that of a saturated solution at the temperature of the dissolving water. A "day tank" capable of holding a 24 hour supply of solution should be provided.Fluoride Some water providers will add Fluoride to the water to help prevent cavities in children. and be capable of feeding over the entire pumpage range of the plant. Dissolving chambers are required for use with dry feeders. Wherever possible. 8. 10. Chemical Feed The equipment used for feeding the fluoride to water shall be accurately calibrated before being placed in operation. and at all times shall be capable of maintaining a rate of feed within 5% of the rate at which the machine is set. Solution feeders shall be of the positive displacement type and constructed of material compatible with the fluoride solution being fed. 6. It is undesirable to inject the fluoride compound or solution directly on-line unless there are provisions for adequate mixing. 2. The fluoride solution should be added to the water supply at a point where the fluoride will not be removed by any following treatment processes and where it will be mixed with the water. All equipment shall be sized such that it will be operated in the 20 to 80 percent range of the scale. 11. Where a dry feeder of the volumetric or gravimetric type is used. 9. Alarm signals are recommended to detect faulty operation of equipment. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 137 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and. The following chemical feed practices apply: 1. a suitable weighing mechanism shall be provided to check the daily amount of chemical feed. positive anti-siphon breakers other than valves shall be provided. 3. Vacuum dust filters shall be installed with the hoppers to prevent dust from rising into the room when the hopper is filled. 5. 7. Too much Fluoride will mottle the teeth. 4. The construction material of the dissolving chamber and associated piping shall be compatible with the fluoride solution to be fed. The weight of the daily amount of fluoride fed to water shall be accurately determined.

3. and the operation of the feeding equipment is to be controlled. the daily volume of water fluoridated. the daily reading of the water meter which controls the fluoridation equipment or that which determines the amount of water to which the fluoride is added. 4. if using bagged chemical. Sodium fluoride. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 138 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the following sampling procedures are required: 1. weekly samples of raw and treated water for a period of not less than four consecutive weeks. Sampling In keeping the fluoride records. and. the daily weight of fluoride compound in stock. whereby the fluoride feed rate is automatically adjusted in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant preestablished dosage for all rates of flow. or (2) automatic/ residual controlled. 2. 6. In addition to the reports required. and the storage area shall be marked "FLUORIDE CHEMICALS ONLY". and (ii) raw water being analyzed at least once a week. or. the fluoride content of the raw and fluoridated water determined by laboratory analysis. EPA may require other information that is deemed necessary. A sample of raw water and a sample of treated water shall be forwarded to an approved independent laboratory for fluoride analysis once a month. 3. Alternate Compounds Any one of the following fluoride compounds may be used: 1. On new installations or during start-ups of existing installations. Hydrofluosilicic acid. whereby the feed rate is controlled by a flow proportional signal and residual analyzer signal to maintain a constant residual. the daily weight of the fluoride compound fed to the water. Chemical Storage and Ventilation The fluoride chemicals shall be stored separately from other chemicals. 5. or compound loop controlled.Metering Metering of the total water to be fluoridated shall be provided. 2. kept relatively dry. Control of the feed rate shall be automatic/ proportional controlled. with the frequency of measurement as follows: (i) treated water being analyzed continuously or once daily. Sodium silicofluoride. These records shall include: 1. 3. Record of Performance Accurate daily records shall be kept. Other fluoride compounds may be used if approved by the EPA. 2. The storage area should be in close proximity to the feeder. and provided with pallets. the daily weight of fluoride compound in the feeder. whereby a continuous automatic fluoride analyzer determines the residual fluoride level and adjusts the rate of feed accordingly. to allow circulation of air and to keep the containers off the floor.

rubber gloves. 8. determining the length and duration of impulses. Rubber articles shall be washed in water. but shall be placed in operation immediately after the repair or replacement is complete. whether for routine or emergency use. This shall be done either by use of day tanks or containers. After use. a fluoridation program may be discontinued when necessary to repair or replace equipment. and appropriate covers shall be maintained over all fluoride solutions. anti-siphon devices. or other similar safety devices. Repair and Maintenance Upon notifying the appropriate local board of health. 4. and. chemical safety face shields. rubber gloves. chemical safety goggles and acid proof aprons shall be worn where acids are handled. Individual dust respirators. Safety features shall also be provided to prevent spills and overflows.Safety The following safety procedures shall be maintained: 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 139 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 3. boots. 2. 5. All equipment shall be maintained at a high standard of efficiency. Records shall be maintained and submitted during the period that the equipment is not in operation. and hands shall be washed after the equipment is stored. over-riding flow switches. and all areas and appliances shall be kept clean and free of dust. shall be inspected periodically and maintained in good operating condition. Personal protective equipment shall be used during the clean-up. Chemical respirators. safety features are to be considered and the necessary controls built into the installation to prevent an overdose of fluoride in the water. All protective devices. 7. and protective clothing shall be worn by all personnel when handling or being exposed to the fluoride dust. At all installations. Wet or damp cleaning methods shall be employed wherever practicable. 6. sizing of pump and feeders. all equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and stored in an area free of fluoride dusts.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 140 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

A container may be left with the customer for sample collection during normal tap use. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 141 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . magnification to identify matter on the membrane filter disk. Use a zoom microscope with at least 40×. For optimum observation. household plumbing. Although particles can come from cold or hot water systems.45 µm filter can be used if the water’s colloidal matter doesn’t clog the filter before enough particulate material is collected for analysis. Copyright 2003. preferably 75×. and water treatment. 29. ←Granular Rust Under a microscope. Burlingame Jameel Rahman is a retired analytical chemist supervisor for the Materials Testing Laboratory at the Philadelphia Water Department.” The Philadelphia Water Department has standardized procedures in place that can identify offending materials and help pinpoint their source.gov or (215) 685-1417. Particulates can also accumulate in the toilet tank. The most important step in solving a particulate complaint is to collect as much suspect material as possible. which can be stored in a Plexiglas Petri dish. No. the water supplier—at least in customers’ eyes—is usually “guilty until proven innocent. A 0.Water Quality What’s That Stuff in the Tap Water? by Jameel Rahman and Gary A. illuminate the particulates from above with a fiber-optic light. examine the particulate matter captured on a filter. 2 (February 2003). by permission. Burlingame is the supervisor of water quality and research. the suspended matter customers complain about is particulate in form. American Water Works Association.burlingame@phila. making sure it represents the customer’s actual concern. Reprinted from Opflow. Sometimes enough material for analysis can be collected from faucet aerators. Particulate matter can be extracted from water samples by using nitrocellulose membrane filters. Contact Burlingame at gary. Vol. Collecting and Identifying Particulates Typically. Almost every water utility employee responsible for solving customer problems has fielded a complaint about particles in a bathtub or faucet aerator. Enough particulate matter can usually be captured with a water sample of approximately 250 mL. larger volumes will need to be filtered. water distribution systems. where Gary A. When samples have low turbidity.

Color formed by chemical reactions can be seen by the unaided eye. relatively large. or solubility in a solvent. can be observed under the microscope. and often are visible to the unaided eye.Some particulates can be identified by their appearance and. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 142 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . remove sufficient particulates from the disk and further identify them by IR. are present in single strands. Most often they are polypropylene plastic. Mica particulates have a characteristic platelet shape and shine under reflected light. and may be present in large numbers. AC particulates will burn instantaneously with a glitter and no visible smoke or residue. Usually. Visual Identification Sand particulates have a characteristic vitreous appearance and irregular shape with smooth facets. A characteristic evolution of a gas. You will need to understand the common soil minerals in your area to identify them. They can show porosity but appear dull compared to anthracite particulates. indicating a common source. Disintegrated plastic particulates are usually white. used in gaskets. but fibers found in water typically have a strip shape. If pressed with a needle. Fibers used in apparel are round. sometimes. fibers are not present in large numbers — at most. Relatively large amounts of similar particulates often indicate a problem within a plumbing system. use infrared spectroscopy (IR). Disintegrated rubber gasket particulates are usually black. 10 per filter. With fine-tipped tweezers. rubber burns with a black smoke. or further delineation is required. Glass chips are transparent. Identify them further by IR. Heat Identification Activated carbon particulates are black and usually coated with debris. they flex. or a corroding component of the plumbing system. such as pump packing. They can be colorful but usually appear translucent to whitish. and may be colorful. perform simple chemical tests on the filter. Often these particulates are ethylene-propylene-diene monomer. may have smooth facets with sharp edges. have significant length. large. stickiness. by touching them with a sharp needle and observing their physical properties. a rubber gasket. Plastic burns with a smoke. which display a shiny luster under reflected light. If particulates cannot be identified by their appearance. Remove a few particulates and burn them. If these tests still fail to identify the debris. and do not smear the filter disk with black when a drop of toluene is applied. several. such as softness. Usually the source of such particulates is disintegrating plastic. Particulates can be quantified as few. Pick up a few particulates on the tip of a wetted platinum wire and burn them in the blue part of a Bunsen burner flame. Pick up a few particulates and burn them in a Bunsen burner flame. such as carbon dioxide from scale particulates or marble. or numerous. Man-made fibers. found in all colors and with a characteristic wrinkled strip shape.

Add a drop of 2 percent solution of potassium thiocyanate on the yellow area where HCl was added. If lead particulates are suspected. add a drop of (1+1) hydrochloric acid (500 mL of 11. lead solder is present. These irregularly shaped particulates result from corrosion of copper and copper alloys. Brick-red staining confirms the presence of potassium ferrithiocyanate. they are relatively large in size compared to most other particulates on the filter disk. Rust particulates will interfere with this test if it is performed on the rust-coated filter. Yellow staining indicates the presence of ferric chloride. add a drop of pH 2.2 percent solution of freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate. Often. Large Rust Particles Lead solder particulates are gray and may have a whitish coating. Prepare a pH 2.8 buffer solution by dissolving 1. Large particulates may have yellow and black streaks or inclusions. dissolve 0. If the particulates turn scarlet red.test plate. Remove a few particulates and place them in the cavity of a spot.Acid Identification Rust particulates are usually abundant and are easy to identify with their typically brown and rough irregular shapes. Patina is hydrated basic copper carbonate and has a greenish color. Add a drop of (1+1) HCl followed by a drop of ammonia. Scales can form in water heaters. To prepare the sodium rhodizonate reagent.8 tartrate-buffer solution followed by a drop of 0.5 g of tartaric acid in 100 mL of distilled water. Calcium carbonate can develop as a white scale through evaporation of hard water or can occur as a particulate of limestone or calcite. while fine rust particulates form a uniform brown film on the filter disk. are usually brittle. If tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form under the microscope.9 g of sodium bitartrate and 1. Appearance of a blue precipitate or blue color confirms the presence of patina particulates. To confirm their presence.5N hydrochloric acid [HCl] solution plus 500 mL of distilled water) to the filter. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 143 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and can be easily pulverized. add a drop of (1+1) HCl from a Pasture pipette. the presence of patina is indicated. To confirm rust.2 g of rhodizonic acid disodium salt in 100 mL of distilled water.

Add a drop of toluene. you might suspect a particulate is plastic in nature. metal oxides. and polyethylene. including polypropylene. lead carbonate. They are soft and sticky when touched with a needle and can be smeared easily on the disk. Touch the particulates with a needle in the area where toluene was added. silicates. Infrared Spectroscopy When particulates cannot be completely identified by the above means. They are usually present as tiny heaps on the filter disk because of their softness and hydrophobic nature. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 144 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Among these motions only certain vibrations absorb infrared radiation of specific energy. If the disk becomes smeared with black around the particulates. and 10 mg of sample is all that is commonly needed to produce a good infrared absorption spectrum. which an infrared spectrometer records. The usually brittle plastic fragments can be powdered easily. Anthracite particulates appear shiny compared with other black particulates and do not smear the filter disk if a drop of toluene is applied. Inorganic compounds include calcium carbonate. Atoms in a molecule are in constant motion. When portions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by such vibrations. organic materials are identified by scanning a pellet or a film of the sample cast on a KBr plate. use IR to identify organic and inorganic materials. an IR absorption band spectrum appears. The brisk evolution of gas confirms the presence of carbonates. polyvinyl chloride. To differentiate between various black particulates. All greases may not behave this way. Anthracite. grease will dissolve and a black color will spread around the particulates. add a drop of toluene or chloroform to the filter disk under the microscope. but their stickiness and extreme softness differentiates them from other black particulates. Add a drop of HCl (1+1) on the particulates and observe the evolution of carbon dioxide under the microscope. changing bond angles by bending and bond lengths by stretching. IR can differentiate between plastic materials. and various compounds can be identified by comparing absorption band positions in the IR spectrum of an unknown compound to band positions of known compounds. Visually. Each compound has a unique infrared absorption spectrum. but various types of plastics can occur in water systems. Let the toluene evaporate or use an oven to expedite drying. calcium sulfate. they will leave a solid residue. the particulates are classified as pipe-coating of an asphaltic nature. and rubber particulates are insoluble in the solvents used. Inorganic materials are identified by IR scanning of the KBr pellet of the sample alone. they should no longer be sticky and may behave like a black powder. These particulates can be removed from the filter disk and burned in a crucible. Grease particulates are black and may be shiny. and with the aid of heat. or phosphates. Solvent Identification Asphalt pipe-coating compounds are black. Particulates are removed with fine-tipped tweezers one by one from the filter disk and transferred to a small vial for dissolving in a solvent or to a small agate mortar for grinding and mixing with KBr for making a potassium bromide (KBr) pellet. barium sulfate. activated carbon.Limestone can come from water treatment processes.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 145 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . December 1998). Standard Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses available in most full-service water testing laboratories can be used to identify particulates when sufficient material is available. make a KBr pellet. During the late 1990s. When this issue made the TV news. evaporate the solvent completely and transfer the particulates to an agate mortar. aluminum oxides. Eventually. it can be analyzed for various elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. the sample is identified by manual means or a computer search of a commercially available online IR library. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the particulates to be polypropylene. cast a film of the sample on a KBr plate and scan it. try dissolving the sample in this solvent first. customers in Philadelphia and across the country complained about white particulates clogging faucet aerators. Philadelphia was in a good position to explain the situation to customers because our procedure was already in place for testing and characterizing particulates. For example. A variety of materials. hydrated aluminum oxide can occur as white slurry and be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry after dissolving in mineral acids. After a sample is dissolved in a mineral acid. the dip-tube manufacturer admitted to changing materials to a less-durable plastic.Zeolite Particles from a Water Softener Most plastics are readily soluble in hot o-dichlorobenzene. prompting water heater manufacturers to give rebates to customers for dip-tube replacements. including iron oxides. If soluble. granules of lead solder can also be analyzed by wet chemical or instrumental methods. and copper and silicate particulates. After obtaining a reasonably strong infrared spectrogram. manganese dioxides. and scan the pellet. Similarly. The only common source for this plastic was found to be the dip tubes in residential gas hot-water heaters (see Opflow. can be identified by common chemical analyses. a plastic not used in the distribution system. If the sample is insoluble. calcium carbonates.

Suspended matter classified by size Soluble < 0.45 µm Colloidal < 1. Potential sources for particulate matter found in tap water Particulate Activated carbon fines Asphaltic lining fragments Backfill sand Calcium carbonate scale X Cast iron rust Cement lining fragments Copper fragments X Glass chips Greases and lubricants X Lead fragments X Manganese dioxide deposits Man-made fibers On-site treatment device media Plastic fragments X Rubber gasket fragments X Soil minerals.0 µm Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 146 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0 µm but > 0.Dip Tube Particles Table 1.45 µm Particulate > 1. mica From Customer Plumbing From Water Supplier Piping X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 2.

Granular Activated Carbon / Powdered Activated Carbon Along with aeration. creating a vast network of pores with a very large internal surface area. Several operational and maintenance factors affect the performance of granular activated carbon. It removes contaminants through adsorption. After a period of a few months or years. GAC can be used as a replacement for existing media (such as sand) in a conventional filter or it can be used in a separate contactor such as a vertical steel pressure vessel used to hold the activated carbon bed. a process in which dissolved contaminants adhere to the surface of the carbon particles. solvents. adsorbed contaminants. The addition of PAC can improve the organic removal effectiveness of conventional treatment processes and also remove tastes and odors. PCBs. adsorbed contaminants can be replaced by other contaminants with which GAC has a greater affinity so their presence might interfere with removal of contaminants of concern. The disinfection process must be carefully monitored in order to avoid this problem. one gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to that of a football field. the surface of the pores in the GAC can no longer adsorb contaminants and the carbon must be replaced. Bacterial growth on the carbon is another potential problem. Activated carbon is carbon that has been exposed to very high temperature. Also. depending on the concentration of the contaminants. Powdered activated carbon consists of finely ground particles and exhibits the same adsorptive properties as the granular form. granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are suitable treatments for removal of organic contaminants such as VOCs. whether or not they are targeted for removal. The main disadvantage is that some contaminants require large doses of PAC for removal. Contaminants in the water can occupy adsorption sites. because GAC is essentially an equilibrium process. PAC is normally applied to the water in a slurry and then filtered out. A significant drop in the contaminant level in influent water can cause a GAC filter to desorb. does not encourage microbial growth and has relatively small capital costs. It is also somewhat ineffective in removing natural organic matter due to the competition from other contaminants for surface adsorption and the limited contact time between the water and the carbon. As a result. Excessive bacterial growth may cause clogging and higher bacterial counts in the treated water. herbicides and pesticides. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 147 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . creates no headloss. Advantages of PAC are that it can be used on a short-term or emergency basis with conventional treatment. or slough off. raw water with frequently changing contaminant levels can result in treated water of unpredictable quality.

slimes and further corrosion. Because it is widespread and highly toxic. In the past. solder used in plumbing has been 50% tin and 50% lead. The highest level of lead in consumers’ tap water will be found in water that has been standing in the pipes after periods of nonuse (overnight or longer). Also. odors. Lead. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 148 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . all discussed below. This is because standing water tends to leach lead or copper out of the metals in the distribution system more readily than does moving water. and cathodic protection. coatings and linings. Long-term measures for addressing lead and other corrosion by-products include pH and alkalinity adjustment. lead is the corrosion product of greatest concern. Therefore.Corrosion Control Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance by chemical action. drinking water should not be taken from the hot water tap. such as silver-tin and antimony-tin is a key factor in lead corrosion control. corrosion inhibitors. Drinking water contaminated with certain metals (such as lead and cadmium) can harm human health. as hot water tends to leach lead more readily than cold. The EPA has banned the use of lead solders. fluxes and pipes in the installation or repair of any public water system. copper and iron might be found in water when metals in water distribution systems corrode. zinc. Using lead-free solders. the simplest short-term or immediate measure that can be taken to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water is to let the water run for two to three minutes before each use. cadmium. Corrosion also reduces the useful life of water distribution systems and can promote the growth of microorganisms. resulting in disagreeable tastes.

The rectifier converts the alternating current to direct current. if proper considerations are not given.Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection protects steel from corrosion which is the natural electrochemical process that results in the deterioration of a material because of its reaction with its environment. cathodes. and back to the rectifier through another insulated copper wire. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 149 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . As a result of the electrochemical properties of the impressed current Cathodic protection system. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the piping system. or graphite. However. the corrosive current will exit from them rather than the piping system. Therefore. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the system. high silicon cast iron. Thus. it is often necessary to utilize either impressed current or sacrificial anode cathodic protection (CP) in combination with coatings as a means of suppressing the natural degradation phenomenon to provide a long and useful service life. where as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes partially dissolve each year and must be replaced over time. An asphalt coating is not considered a suitable dielectric coating. The direct current is then sent through an insulated copper wire to anodes that are buried in the soil near the piping system. Typical anode materials are ceramic. components and equipment exposed to aqueous environments. Ceramic anodes are not consumed. The direct current then flows from the anode through the soil to the piping system. premature failure. the system is protected while the attached anode is “sacrificed. which acts as the cathode. soil or seawater can be subject to corrosive attack and accelerated deterioration. problems can arise which can produce unexpected. corrosion takes place only at the anodes and not at the piping system. Metallic structures.” Sacrificial anodes can be attached to existing piping system or coated steel for a pre-engineered Cathodic protection system. Impressed or Induced Current Systems An impressed current Cathodic protection system consists of anodes. There are Two Types of Cathodic Protection: Ø Sacrificial Anodes (Galvanic Systems) Ù Impressed (Induced) Current Systems How Does Cathodic Protection Work ? Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal more electrically active than the steel piping system. Because these anodes are more active. a rectifier and the soil.

2. The driving voltage is small and therefore the anodes have to be fitted close to the structure or on the structure. Fewer anodes can protect large structure 3. Since the driving voltage is large. source. Installation is simple 5. thereby increasing the weight or load on the structure. Needs trained staff for maintenance of units and for monitoring 4. graphite anodes or lead silver alloy anodes. Economical for small structures Disadvantages 1. 3. Impressed Current System The impressed current anode system on the other hand has several advantages over the sacrificial anode systems. Does not involve expensive accessories like rectifier unit. Obviously we need some material to function as anodes. supply for a long times allows structure to corrode again. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 150 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Does not involve maintenance work 3. Initial investments are higher and can pay off only in long run and economic only for large structures 5. 7. These anodes are made of materials such as magnesium. a metal or alloy reacting more vigorously than that corroding specimen. this system offers freedom of installation design and location 2. Advantages 1. In this system the protection current is "Forced" through the environment to the structure (cathode) by means of an external D. Possibility of over protection should be avoided as it will affect the life of the paint. protection current cannot be altered or increased as may be needed in case of cathode area extension (unprotected) or foreign structure interference (physical contact). Needs no external power source. acts as an anode and the corroding structure as a whole is rendered Cathodic. 4. Advantages 1. 6. Power cost must be incorporated in all economic consideration.C.Sacrificial Anode System In this system. The sacrificial anodes are connected directly to the structure. aluminum or zinc which are anodic with respect to the protected structure. 2. etc. Once designed and installed. Reversal of anode cathode connection at D. If carefully designed it can render protection for anticipated period. Shut down of D. source will be harmful as structure will dissolve anodic 3. The anodes have to be distributed all over the structure (as throwing power is lower) and therefore have design limitations in certain applications. It can be high silicon chromium cast iron anodes.C. Variations in protection current requirements can be adjusted to some extend (to be incorporated at design stage) Disadvantages 1. 2. Any foreign structure coming within this field will cause interference problem.. 6.C.

5 and 8. low hardness. The phosphates used as corrosion inhibitors include polyphosphates. they are often used in boilers of steam heating systems. These chemicals have proven successful in reducing corrosion in many water systems. while pHs between 6. to maintain pH at a level that will control corrosion but not conflict with optimum pH levels for disinfection and control of disinfection by-products. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 151 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chemicals commonly used for pH and alkalinity adjustment are hydrated lime (CaOH2 or calcium hydroxide).Alkalinity and pH Adjustment Adjusting pH and alkalinity is the most common corrosion control method because it is simple and inexpensive. Some studies have suggested that systems using only pH to control corrosion should maintain a pH of at least 9. effectively reduce iron corrosion at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/l. Glassy phosphate has an appearance of broken glass and can cut the operator. Generally.0 can be associated with pitting corrosion.0 to reduce the availability of hydrogen ions as electron receptors. an increase in pH and alkalinity can decrease corrosion rates and help form a protective layer of scale on corrodible pipe material. such as sodium hexametaphosphate. essentially baking soda). They offer advantages in hot water systems because of their chemical stability.4. In some cases. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in water. however. Glassy phosphates. For this reason. The effectiveness depends on the water pH and carbonate concentration. water pH less than 6. Care must be taken. The most common corrosion inhibitors are inorganic phosphates. sodium silicates and mixtures of phosphates and silicates. Typical coating maintenance doses range from 2 to 12 mg/1. and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3.5 is associated with uniform corrosion. low alkalinity and a pH of less than 8. zinc is added in conjunction with orthophosphates or polyphosphates. pH is not the only factor in the corrosion equation. Corrosion Inhibitors Inhibitors reduce corrosion by forming protective coatings on pipes. soda ash (Na2CO3 or sodium carbonate). However. alkalinity is a measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids. Sodium silicates are particularly effective for systems with high water velocities. glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates. Sodium silicates have been used for over 50 years to inhibit corrosion. orthophosphates. caustic soda (NaOH or sodium hydroxide). Generally. carbonate and alkalinity levels affect corrosion as well.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 152 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

and application. By making the tower wider near the top. Just the name alone can give you an idea of its purpose.ENERGY . where it has lots of gravitational potential energy. shape. trapping the kinetic energy of moving water within the confined space of a piping system. You should hear a bang. These tanks serve multiple purposes in the distribution system. it should stay quiet. The shock waves created when hydrants. The goal of the water tower or standpipe is to store water high in the air. hydropneumatic tanks and surge tanks. then turn it off very quickly.When released in a confined space. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 153 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This stored energy can be converted to pressure potential energy or kinetic energy for delivery to homes. it's your pipe fittings. Since height is everything. building a cylindrical water tower is inefficient. There are different types that are used in the water distribution systems. it puts most of its water high up. or pumps are opened and closed quickly. valves. Most of the water is then near the ground. such as a water distribution system. elevated tanks and reservoirs. The release the surge usually finds is an elevated tank. but the surge doesn't always find this release quickly enough. • • • SURGE tanks RESERVOIRS ELEVATED tanks Water towers and Standpipes Surge Tanks What really causes water main breaks . as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually.turn on your tap. A Surge tank should not be used for water storage. Distribution operators are aware of this phenomenon! It's called WATER HAMMER. These shock waves can create a turbulence that travels at the speed of sound. and maybe even several. Try it at home . If you turn the tap off more slowly. Something has to give. often times. seeking a point of release. This banging can be heard as water hammer.Water Storage Section Water storage facilities and tanks vary in size. such as standpipes.

Aren’t you glad to work in a nice plant? This is a good reason never to complain. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 154 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Normal day for a Distribution Worker after a Water Hammer broke a water main.

The nonpotable water line may contain waste water or other liquids that are not safe to drink. Common causes of backpressure involve connecting plumbing to a pump or to steam and/or air pressure. you will attain an understanding of the mechanisms by which water flow. This condition can force waste water or other fluids back into the potable water line. biofilms and pathogens interact in pipes and service reservoirs to affect health-related and aesthetic dimensions of water quality at consumer's taps. Backflow from cross connections can cause serious illness. Such pressure drops can cause siphoning of waste water or other fluids into the potable water line. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 155 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Backflow is the waste water that enters potable water lines through a cross connection. Backsiphonage occurs when a water main or a plumbing system in a building lose water pressure. The water may drain from a building back to the potable water line. Backsiphonage and Backpressure • Cross connection occurs when a potable water line and a nonpotable water line connect.Cross-Connections. A large Fireline RP backflow Preventer • • Backpressure occurs when water pressure in a building or fixture is greater than the water pressure in the water supply. This can happen when a water main breaks or when a fire hydrant is used. Backflow. Hopefully. Substantial changes in water quality can occur as drinking water is transported through a distribution system from the point of major treatment and/or disinfection to consumer's taps.

Common Cross-Connections Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 156 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Seal piping leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 157 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . For example. Closed impellers have side walls that extend from the eye to the outer edge of the vane tips. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing. Centrifugal pumps are also classified as HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL. each impeller acts separately. depending upon the position of the pump shaft. the casing wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. As a rule. This arrangement is called series staging. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. to lubricate the packing. Recirculating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. they may be either SINGLE STAGE or MULTISTAGE. The single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from one side only.Centrifugal Pump Section Centrifugal pumps may be classified in several ways. A multistage pump has two or more impellers housed together in one casing. Open impellers do not have these side walls. discharging to the suction of the next stage impeller. The double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from two directions. a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. The impellers used on centrifugal pumps may be classified as SINGLE SUCTION or DOUBLE SUCTION. In this type of pump. A single-stage pump has only one impeller. and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. Impellers are also classified as CLOSED or OPEN. and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. During pump operation. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump. Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring.

Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. (2) insufficient speed of the pump. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient pump speed. (7) excessive discharge pressure. or sleeves. stuffing box packing. worn wearing rings. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation. (6) the wrong direction of rotation (this may occur after motor overhaul). impellers. excessively tight stuffing box packing. together with the probable causes are discussed in the following paragraphs. (4) excessive suction lift. If a centrifugal pump delivers some liquid but operates at INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY. may encounter with centrifugal pumps. or sleeves. (4) insufficient liquid on the suction side. such as worn wearing rings. or (3) misalignment. as an Operator. such as might be caused by a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line. such as worn wearing rings. (3) mechanical defects. Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leakoff on idle (vertical) pumps. or (5) excessive heat in the liquid being pumped. impellers. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient priming. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. If a motor-driven centrifugal pump DRAWS TOO MUCH POWER. or (8) mechanical defects. or (9) loss of suction pressure. Leakoff causes two types of seal leakage: a. (5) clogged impeller passages. (2) air leakage in the stuffing boxes. (4) excessive suction lift. (2) air leakage into the stuffing boxes in pumps operating at less than atmospheric pressure. If a centrifugal pump DOES NOT DELIVER ANY LIQUID. (5) insufficient liquid on the suction side. the trouble will probably be indicated by overheating of the motor. 2. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. (7) clogged suction screen (if used). Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1. stuffing box packing. or other mechanical defects. b. (8) ruptured suction line. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. a bent shaft. Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. (3) insufficient pump speed. or (4) reversed rotation of the impeller (3-phase electric motor-driven pumps). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 158 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. Pump Troubleshooting Some of the operating troubles you. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system. (3) clogged water seal passages. If a pump WORKS FOR A WHILE AND THEN FAILS TO DELIVER LIQUID. (2) air or gas in the liquid being pumped. The basic causes may be (1) operation of the pump to excess capacity and insufficient discharge pressure. (6) clogged impeller passages. (2) too high viscosity or specific gravity of the liquid being pumped. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings.Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water. (3) excessive discharge pressure. If a pump DOES NOT DEVELOP DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE.

Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration. such as the type of pump. make certain the shaft or sleeve is smooth when the packing is removed from a gland. be sure there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box or seal. 2. Open all valves in the pump suction line. Restart the pump. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 159 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and hours in use.VIBRATION of a centrifugal pump is often caused by (1) misalignment. Pack the box loosely. maintained and operated. Next. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing. When replacing packing. If the pump fails to build up pressure when the discharge valve is opened and the pump comes up to normal operating speed. 3. YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. centrifugal pumps are usually trouble-free. or (4) lack of rigidity in the foundation. it will score the shaft. 5. as well as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure. or otherwise unbalanced impeller. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. Repacking Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. eroded. Shut the pump discharge valve. 6. If it is very rough. If the discharge pressure is not normal when the pump is up to its proper speed. (2) a bent shaft. condition of the shaft sleeve. it will have to be renewed. If the pump is electrically driven. and set up the packing gland lightly. particularly in pumps that handle hot or volatile liquids. If the packing is allowed to dry out. (3) a clogged. Prime the pump (fill casing with the liquid being pumped) and be sure that all air is expelled through the air cocks on the pump casing. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell. Some of the most common corrective maintenance actions that you may be required to perform are discussed in the following sections. 4. or an impeller may be broken. be sure the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. Open the discharge valve to “load” the pump. If any of these conditions exist. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the packing gland for the desired amount of leak-off. Secure the pump. When operating a centrifugal pump. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing. it should be sent to the machine shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. start the pump. Rapid wear of the packing will be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). It is also possible that air is being drawn into the suction line or into the casing. the suction line may be clogged. proceed as follows: 1. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer to make it fit. You may then begin to adjust the packing gland. If the shaft is rough. or has deep ridges in it. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts. stop the pump and continue troubleshooting according to the technical manual for that unit. Maintenance of Centrifugal Pumps When properly installed. be sure the pump is rotating in the correct direction.

Mechanical shaft seals must not be positioned by setscrews. The type of material used for the seal faces will depend upon the service of the pump. Shaft sleeves are chamfered (beveled) on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. Most water service pumps use a carbon material for one of the seal faces and ceramic (tungsten carbide) for the other. Do not touch a new seal on the sealing face because body acid and grease or dirt will cause the seal to pit prematurely and leak. Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on rotary and positive-displacement pumps. Mechanical shaft seals serve to ensure that position liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage. and various cooling systems). chilled-water. When the seals wear out. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts. If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked). check it regularly to make certain that sufficient flow is maintained. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. You should replace a mechanical seal whenever the seal is removed from the shaft for any reason or whenever leakage causes undesirable effects on equipment or surrounding spaces. Mechanical Seal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 160 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. Once you have the desired leak-off. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts. it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves.Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments. they are simply replaced. Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps that operate in closed systems (such as fuel service and air-conditioning.

Multi-stage Bowl Assemblies Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 161 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Common Elements of Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical Turbine Pump Being Removed (notice line shaft) Closed Pump Impeller Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 162 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

It is considered "dead" water because the process removes all extra oxygen and energy. It is still second only to reverse osmosis water for health. The other commonly used method of softening involves the ion exchange process. and that the power cost for operation will be substantially higher than the operating cost of other types of treatment devices.5 -11 Lt) a day. In this document we will discusses the occurrence. Softening can also be accomplished using membrane technology. but those that are move volatile are often vaporized and condensed with the product water. It has no taste. The principal disadvantage is that operating costs are considerably higher. Consumers frequently complain about problems attributes to hard water.Hard Water Section Water contains various amounts of dissolved minerals. electrodialysis. They must be carbon filtered before and/or after to remove volatile chemicals. This process will provide softened water at the lowest cost. metals. This process has the advantages of a considerably lower initial cost and ease of use by small systems or by large systems at multiple locations. the process normally must be preceded by conventional treatment. and freezing. and other particles are removed. Of these. dissolved solids such as salt. Lime softening can be used for treatment of either groundwater or surface water sources. Distillers Various sizes of distillers are available for home use. Because of the special facilities required and the complexity of the process. For treatment of surface water. membrane methods seem to have the greatest potential. minerals. so long as turbidity and iron levels are not excessive. In the process. The precipitation process most frequently used is generally known as the lime process or lime soda process. some of which impart a quality known as hardness. Diet should be rich in electrolytes as the aggressive nature of distilled water can "leech" electrolytes from the body. Ion exchange processes can typically be used for direct treatment of groundwater. Water Distillers have a high energy cost (approximately 20-30 cents per gallon). asbestos fibers. it is generally applicable only to medium. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 163 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Some organic chemicals are also removed. They all work on the principle of vaporizing water and then condensing the vapor. distillation.or large-size water systems where all treatment can be accomplished at a central location. Distillers are effective in killing all microorganisms. The principal problem with a distiller are that a small unit can produce only 2-3 gal (7. such as the formation of scale in cooking utensils and hot water heaters. and effects of hard water and the hard water treatment or softening process that remove the hardness-causing minerals.

groundwater is normally harder than surface water. The principal chemicals that cause water hardness are calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). barium. divalent. Strontium. iron. Types of Hardness Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods: calcium versus magnesium hardness and carbonate versus non-carbonate hardness. and others. We will show two different classifications of the relative harness of water: Comparative classifications of water for softness and hardness Classification Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard * Per Sawyer (1960) + Per Briggs and Ficke (1977) mg/L as CaCO3 * 0 – 75 75 – 150 150 – 300 Over 300 mg/L as CaCO3+ 0 – 60 61 – 120 121 – 180 Over 180 Source: Adapted from sawyer 1960 and Briggs and Ficke 1977. aluminum. Hardness caused by calcium is called calcium hardness. Expressing Hardness Concentration Water hardness is generally expressed as a concentration of calcium carbonate. Because groundwater is in contact with these formations for a longer period of time than surface water. This is due to different geologic formations. and is also a function of the contact time between water and limestone deposits. Water hardness varies considerably in different geographic areas of the contiguous 48 states. hardness caused by magnesium is called magnesium hardness. so it is generally assumed that Total harness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness The carbonate-noncarbonate distinction. depending on other qualities of the water and on the hardness to which they have become accustomed. (positive ions having valence of 2). Calcium and magnesium are normally the only significant minerals that cause harness. are usually present in large enough concentrations to contribute significantly to the total hardness.Occurrence of Hard Water Hard water is caused by soluble. which include calcium sulfate (CaSO4). Magnesium is dissolved as water passes over and through dolomite and other magnesium-bearing minerals. calcium chloride (CaCl2). The degree of hardness that consumer consider objectionable will vary. The calcium-magnesium distinction is based on the minerals involved. is based on hardness from either the bicarbonate salts of calcium or the normal salts of calcium and magnesium involved in causing water hardness. regardless of the salts associated with it. in terms of milligrams per liter as CaCO3. however. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 164 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Likewise. metallic cations.

usually calcium carbonate. Hardness ions form precipitates with soap. In particular. when the magnesium hardness is more than about 40 mg/l (as CaCO3). magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). (1 mm) of scale on the heating surfaces of a hot water heater creates an insulation effect that will increase heating costs by about 10 percent. To counteract these problems. Although modern detergents counteract many of the problems of hard water. including showers doors. although it is a very rare condition. Ca(HCO3)2. Scale that forms within appliances and water meters causes wear on moving parts. Bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium then settle out of the water to form calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates. and sink tops. Because it can be removed by heating. For carbonate and noncarbonate hardness. Calcium and magnesium combined with nitrate may also contribute to noncarbonate hardness. Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness When hard water is boiled. it is sometimes called “Permanent hardness. When hard water is heated. A coating of only 0. scale forms much faster. These precipitates form the familiar chalky deposits on teapots. and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2. Causing unsightly “curd.” such as the familiar bathtub ring. Calcium and magnesium combined with carbonate (CO3) also contribute to carbonate hardness. These detergents have additives known as sequestering agents that “tie up” the hardness ions so that they cannot form the troublesome precipitates. magnesium hydroxide scale will deposit in hot water heaters that are operated at normal temperature of 140-150oF (60-66oC). carbonate hardness is sometimes called “Temporary hardness. many customers prefer softer water. Effect on Soap The historical objection to hardness has been its effect on soap. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 165 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Carbonate hardness is caused primarily by the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. faucets.” Because noncarbonated hardness cannot be removed or precipitated by prolonged boiling.” Objections to Hard Water Scale Formation Hard water forms scale. These salts ate calcium sulfate.04 in. Noncarbonate hardness is a measure of calcium and magnesium salts other than carbonate and bicarbonate salts. Scale that forms on the inside of water pipes will eventually reduce the flow capacity or possibly block it entirely. calcium chloride. and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). as well as reduced efficiency in washing and laundering. which are calcium bicarbonate. synthetic detergents have been developed and are now used almost exclusively for washing clothes and dishes. Left to dry on the surface of glassware and plumbing fixtures. which causes a variety of problems. hard water leaves unsightly white scale known as water spots. carbon dioxide (CO2) is driven off.

After household softeners become exhausted. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 166 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The most common way to soften household water is to use a water softener. semi-automatic. however. soda ash and lime are added to the water in amounts determined by chemical tests. The principal methods of softening water are the lime soda process and the ion exchange process. In the ion exchange process. and high levels can clog pipes. and the water is softened. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit connected into the water supply line. In the lime soda process. boilers. Calcium and magnesium in water create hard water. pending the results of studies on how people are affected by the consumption of the added sodium in softened water. These chemicals combine with the calcium and magnesium in the water to make insoluble compounds that settle to the bottom of the water tank. Water softening units also remove iron. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. Softeners may also be safely used to remove up to about 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved iron if the water softener is rated for that amount of iron removal. or manual. a strong solution of sodium chloride (salt) is passed through the filter to replace the sodium that has been lost. You may want to consider installing a separate faucet for unsoftened water for drinking and cooking. As the water passes through the filter. The use of two exchange materials makes it possible to remove both metal and acid ions from water. the sodium ions in the zeolite are exchanged for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. It forms scale in pipes. Hard water does not dissolve soap readily. Some cities and towns. and other equipment in which it is used. prohibit or restrict the use of ion exchange equipment on drinking water. Softeners are automatic.Water Softening Is a method of removing from water the minerals that make it hard. the water filters through minerals called zeolites.

Typical Water Softener Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 167 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The principle behind water softening is really just simple chemistry. In many areas. Semi automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration. When the resin is filled to capacity. brining and rinsing. Sodium ions from the water softening salt reactivate the resin beads so they can continue to do their job.Using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised. Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically. it must be recharged. Regeneration is usually started by a preset time clock. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing. Without sufficient softening salt. you should check your water softener once a week to be sure the salt level is always at least one quarter full. your water softener is less efficient. As a rule. When the resin beads in your softener become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. they need to be recharged. a green-sand filter is a better method. some units are started by water use meters or hardness detectors. For a monthly fee the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. It's the resulting removal of calcium and magnesium ions that produces "soft water. When hard water passes through the softener. there are companies that provide a water softening service." The diagram shows the exchange that takes place during the water softening process. calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to the charged resin beads. A water softener contains resin beads which hold electrically charged ions.

Nollet’s First Osmosis Machine Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 168 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

water is forced to move through a membrane from a concentrate solution to a dilute solution. scientists have attempted to develop membrane that would be useful in industrial processes. continual improvements and new developments have been made in membrane technology. This was the discovery of osmosis. In potable water treatment. There is great potential for the continuing wide use of membrane filtration processes in potable water treatment. such as brackish groundwater. and removal of the fine solids. the French physicist Nollet first noted that water would diffuse through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. In some cases. Since that time. but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that membranes were produced that could be used for what is known as reverse osmosis. In reverse osmosis. removal of dissolved inorganic and organic chemicals. membrane technology enables some water systems having contaminated water sources to meet new. Over the years. resulting in ever-increasing uses in many industries. Description of Membrane Filtration Processes In the simplest membrane processes.Membrane Filtration Processes In 1748. are: • Pressure-driven processes • Electric-driven processes Pressure-Driven Processes The four general membrane processes that operate by applying pressure to the raw water are: • Microfiltration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 169 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . especially as technology improves and costs are reduced. to be used. large molecules or ions are held back or rejected. water softening. it can also allow secondary sources. based on the driving force used to make the process work. Types of Membrane Filtration Processes The two general classes of membrane processes. more stringent regulations. water is forced through a porous membrane under pressure while suspended solids. a process in which water from a dilute solution will naturally pass through a porous membrane into a concentrate solution. membranes have been used for desalinization. In particular.

The RO also works with most organic chemicals. Membranes with a pore size of 0. and radionuclides and microorganisms. This capability will undoubtedly increase the use of NF for potable water treatment. which are called high-molecular-weight materials. This weight is called the molecular weight cutoff (MWC) of the membrane. In particular. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is a process that uses a membrane with a pore size generally below 0. this direct filtration process has used the injection of coagulants such as alum or polymers into the raw water stream to remove turbidity such as clay or silts. This was done to improve filtering efficiency. However. In addition. microfiltration has been proposed as a filtering method for particles resulting from the direct filtration process. UF membranes can be designed to pass material that weighs less than or equal to a certain molecular weight. Water from this process is very pure due to the high reject rates. The process has been use primarily in the water industry for desalinization of seawater because the capital and operating costs are competitive with other processes for this service. Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane process that has the highest rejection capability of all the membrane processes. the process has also been used as a pretreatment for other membrane processes. including chloride and sodium. Although UF does not generally work well for removal of salt or dissolved solids. Traditionally. Nanofiltration Nanofiltration (NF) is a process using a membrane that will reject even smaller molecules that UF. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 170 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . such as in electronic manufacturing. in recent years.Microfiltration Microfiltration (MF) is a process in which water is forced under pressure through a porous membrane. The smaller pore size is designed to remove colloids and substances that have larger molecules. especially for small particles that could contain bacterial and protozoan life.1 µm. NF operates with less pressure that reverse osmosis and is still able to remove a significant proportion of inorganic and organic molecules. The current primary use of MF is by industries to remove very fine particles from process water. The formed particles were then removed by rapid sand filters. The process has been used primarily for water softening and reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS). RO is discussed in more detail later. it can be used effectively for removal of most organic chemicals. These RO membranes have very low MWC pore size that can reject ions at very high rates. RO membranes are susceptible to clogging or binding unless the water being processed is already quite clean.45 µm are normally used. Industrial water uses such as semiconductor manufacturing is also utilizes the RO process. This process has not been generally applicable to drinking water treatment because it either does not remove substances that require removal from potable water. or the problem substances can be removed more economically using other processes. this size is relatively large compared with the other membrane filtration processes.

Membrane Configurations Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Plate and Frame Tubular Electric-Driven Processes There are two membrane processes that purify a water stream by using an electric current to move ions across a membrane. These processes are • Electrodialysis • Electrodialysis reversal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 171 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

The reversal in polarity reverses the flow of ions between demineralizing compartments. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 172 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The current carries the ions through a membrane from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated one. As a result. Electrodialysis Reversal Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a process similar to ED. EDR can often be used with little or no pretreatment of feedwater to prevent fouling.Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is a process in which ions are transferred through a membrane as a result of direct electric current applied to the solution. ED and EDR have been used at only a few locations for drinking water treatment. which provides automatic flushing of scale-forming materials from the membrane surface. except that the polarity of the direct current is periodically reversed. So far. Carbon Vessels used to remove tastes and odors from water.

The membrane must be physically strong enough to stand up to high osmotic pressure .in the case of sea water. and if that pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure. Most membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film. RO Skid After filtration to remove suspended particles.400 psi (1380 . water flows through the membrane from the more concentrated solution toward the dilute solution. A portion of the water (permeate) diffuses through the membrane leaving dissolved salts and other contaminants behind with the remaining water where they are sent to drain as waste (concentrate). removes up to 98% of dissolved minerals. This process. This flow produces a measurable pressure. 2500 kg/m. called osmotic pressure.passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a relatively dilute solution toward a more concentrated solution. If pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution. This exceeds the water's osmotic pressure. and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter.water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 173 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The membrane is constructed into a cartridge called a reverse osmosis module. RO produces high quality water at low cost compared to other purifications processes. in this case . either as a sheet or fine hollow fibers.2760 kPa) depending on the RO system model. called reverse osmosis. incoming water is pressurized with a pump to 200 . or RO.Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a liquid .

Pretreatment is important because it influences permeate quality and quantity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 174 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the need for pretreatment increases as systems become larger and operate at higher pressures. and as permeate quality requirements become more demanding. It also affects the module's life because many water-borne contaminants can deposit on the membrane and foul it. and most gases. In osmosis. the pure solution passes through the membrane until the osmotic pressure becomes equalized. while blocking others. separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The dissolved solids are usually further restricted based on their respective electrical charge. Because reverse osmosis is the principal membrane filtration process used in water treatment. The component parts include a pure or relatively pure water solution and a saline or contaminated water solution. it is described here in greater detail. The higher the content of dissolved solids. This pressure differential is determined by the total dissolved solids content of the saline solution or contaminated solution on one side of the membrane. which occurs in nature. one must begin by understanding the process of osmosis. the higher the osmotic pressure. Each element that may be dissolved in the solution contributes to the osmotic pressure. in that the molecular weight of the element affects the osmotic pressure. usually smaller molecules of dissolved solids. The elements that pass through include water. In living things. osmosis is frequently seen. and a container or transport mechanism of some type. Generally. The semi-permeable membrane is so designated because it permits certain elements to pass through. naturally occurring in living things. at which point osmosis ceases. The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring. To understand Reverse Osmosis.

it gets more and more concentrated. One of the membrane designs was the spiral wound membrane element. It may also be called brine if it is coming from a salt water source. Common tap water as found in most areas may have an osmotic pressure of about 10 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch). while keeping the membrane surface relatively free from particulate. called the product or permeate tube. approximate osmotic pressures are usually sufficient to design a system.75 Bar). ways of configuring the membranes would have to be engineered to handle a continuous flow of raw and processed water without clogging or scaling the membrane material. Each envelope is sealed at the incoming and exiting edge. higher molecular weights result in higher osmotic pressures. and manufactured to the required tolerances. Each sheet of membrane material is inspected at special light tables to ensure the quality of the membrane coating. as buildup on the membrane surface. Government scientists had the idea that the principles of osmosis could be harnessed to purify water from various sources.S. thicker cast layer of Polysulfone.68 Bar. These ideas were crystallized. it travels. Several decades ago.S. The membrane material itself is a special thin film composite (TFC) polyamide material. when sufficient flows are maintained. colloidal. around the spiral and collects in the permeate tube.000 PPM typically has an osmotic pressure of about 376 PSI (26. or about 1. Thus when water penetrates or permeates though the membrane. The permeate or product water is collected from the end of each membrane element. aided by a fine mesh called the permeate channel. This permits flows and pressures to be developed to the point that ample processed or purified water is produced. called the microporous support layer. The microporous support layer is cast on sheets of paper-like material that are made from synthetic fibers such as polyester. In order to transform this process into one that purifies water. The concentrate. before being assembled into the spiral wound element design. Additionally. U. osmosis would have to be reversed. Meanwhile. a pressure of 376 PSI would have to be applied to the seawater side of the membrane. and suitable synthetic membrane materials would have to be developed. and to permit the flow of raw water to pass along the length of the membrane. This design enabled the engineers to construct a membrane element that could contain a generous amount of membrane area in a small package. serves to carry away the impurities removed by the membrane. This concentrated raw water is called the reject stream or concentrate stream. called fouling. Thus.Generally. and becomes the product or result of the purification process. Hence the formula for calculating osmotic pressure is very complex. Seawater at 36. and fueled by U. and to stop osmosis in seawater. However. including brackish water and seawater. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 175 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . usable membrane materials and designs resulted. thus keeping the membrane surface clean and functional. and wound around this tube are one or more "envelopes" of membrane material. Government funding. This is important. impedes or even prevents the purification process. cast in a microscopically thin layer on another. as the raw water flows along the "brine channel" or coarse medium provided to facilitate good flow characteristics. The design features a perforated tube in the center of the element. a pressure of 10 PSI would have to be applied to the saline solution. bacteriological or mineralogical fouling. opening at the permeate tube. to reach the point at which osmosis stops for tap water.

the concentrations of TDS increase as it passes along the membrane’s length. Reverse Osmosis (R/O) systems are designed for raw water temperatures of 25° C (77° F). and membrane fouling. Thus with seawater osmotic pressure of 376 PSI. a membrane with a rejection rate of 99% (usually based on Na (Sodium)) will allow only 1% of the concentration of dissolved solids to pass through into the permeate. Typically.000 PPM would have 100 PPM remaining. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 176 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . For example. the osmotic pressure must be exceeded. while high rejection membranes under the same conditions produce drinking water TDS of below 300 PPM. or prevented from passing through the membrane. standard rejection membranes produce permeate below 500 PPM. membrane age. with each membrane in series seeing progressively higher dissolved solids levels. Factors that affect the pressure required include raw water temperature. In general. and so forth. Or if operating pressures do not increase. Higher temperatures or lower temperatures can be accommodated with appropriate adjustments in the system design. then the amount of permeate or product water is reduced. There are many considerations when designing R/O systems that competent engineers are aware of. starting with seawater of 36. The affect of temperature is that with higher temperatures. a typical system operating pressure is about 800 PSI. prefiltration and other pretreatment considerations. The rejection rate is the percentage of dissolved solids rejected. raw water TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). and usually multiple membranes are employed.000 PPM. the salt passage increases. optimum recovery rates (the percentage of permeate from a given stream of raw water). the osmotic pressure is generally doubled. With lower temperatures.To achieve Reverse Osmosis. Of course. and operating pressure required is lower. flux (permeate flow) increases. Hence product water from a source containing 10. while operating pressures increase. and to produce a reasonable amount of purified water. Membranes are available in "standard rejection" or "high rejection" models for seawater and brackish water. in that salt passage decreases (reducing the TDS in the permeate or product water). the inverse occurs. as the raw water is processed. These include optimum flows and pressures.

and softening unit. a membrane array including one or more membranes installed in one or more pressure tubes (also called pressure vessels. sized and driven appropriately for the flow and pressure required. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 177 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a pressure regulating valve. Often. R/O pressure vessels.Membrane systems in general cannot handle the typical load of particulate contaminants without prefiltration. to provide sufficient protection for the membranes. or Ozone. Bromine. relief valve(s) and/or safety pressure switches. a pressure pump suited to the application. R/O systems typically have the following components: A supply pump or pressurized raw water supply. well designed systems employ multiple stages of prefiltration. and possibly some form of post treatment. Usually the last stage would be 5m or smaller. prefiltration in one or more stages. various gauges and flow meters. Post treatment should usually include a form of sterilization such as Chlorine. including multi-media filtration and one or more stages of cartridge filtration. UV. or similar). Other types of post treatment may include carbon filters. Packaged skid with instrumentation. or mineral injection for some applications. chemical injection of one or more pretreatment agents may be added. tailored to the application. Ultra-Violet (U-V). pH adjustment.

Component parts have been improved as well. Another feature found in better systems is a provision to clean the membranes in place. R/O Systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 178 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the larger the driving force. Reverse Osmosis delivers product water or permeate having essentially the same temperature as the raw water source (an increase of 1° C or 1. R/O is usually the preferred method of desalination today. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream. dyes. preferably both before and after the membrane array. the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases. resulting in stable. salts.Clean-In-Place Some very low cost R/O systems may dispense with most of the controls and instruments. The larger the charge and the larger the particle. such as organics. multiple pressure gauges to indicate the pressure before and after each filtration device and the system operation pressure in the membrane loop. sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane. are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged. Advancements have been made in membrane technology. However. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol. Energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies. proteins. and the most common force is pressure from a pump. particles. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria. the more likely it will be rejected. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it. This is more desirable than the hot water produced by evaporation technologies. a reject. and hence its use has become more and more widespread. taste or properties of the fluid. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years. while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. Reverse osmosis. concentrate or brine flow meter. while rejecting the contaminants that remain. systems installed in critical applications should be equipped with a permeate or product flow meter. is the finest filtration known. further extending membrane life and improving performance. sugars. Such a system may be built right into the R/O system or may be provided as an attachment for use as required. commonly known as a "Clean In Place" (CIP) system. reducing maintenance and down time. Reverse Osmosis has proved to be the most reliable and cost effective method of desalinating water. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as cross-flow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane. The higher the pressure. also known as hyperfiltration. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place. such as salts. For these and other reasons. long lived membrane elements. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge.8° F may occur due to pumping and friction in the piping). which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane.

heavy metals. It is the best tasting because it is oxygen-rich. lead. arsenic. aluminum. herbicides. fluoride. parasites. radioactivity and asbestos. detergents. cadmium. calcium. pesticides. inorganic minerals. bacteria. when properly configured with sediment.Reverse Osmosis. Common packaged filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 179 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . odor. A Reverse Osmosis System removes virtually all: bad taste. magnesium. insecticides. phosphates. sodium. turbidity. dissolved solids. nitrates. carbon and/or carbon block technology. organic compounds. virus. chlorine and THM's. cysts. produces pure water that is clearly the body's choice for optimal health. sulfates.

O3 → O2 + O It is the nascent oxygen that produces the high oxidation and disinfections.000 to 20.5 ppm to 5.000 volts. temperature. it is not shipped and must be manufactured on-site.0 ppm. In use. and will remove practically all color. Ozone is a light blue gas at room temperature. Ozone is not practical for complete removal of chlorine or chloramines. 3O2 + electrical discharge → 2O3 Liquid ozone is very unstable and can readily explode. Ozone acts as a complete disinfectant.Ozone Ozone (O3) is probably the strongest oxidizing agent available for water treatment. and while it may destroy some THMs. As a result. and even sterilization. It has a self-policing pungent odor similar to that sometimes noticed during and after heavy electrical storms. Further. because of the possibility of formation of other carcinogens (such as aldehydes or phthalates) it falls into the same category as other disinfectants in that it can produce DBPs. in the order of 0. odor. Contact time. Oxygen tank is necessary to generate O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 180 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ozone is obtained by passing a flow or air of oxygen between two electrodes that are subjected to an alternating current in the order of 10. and manganese. or of THM and other inorganics. iron. Each water has its own ozone demand. it may produce other when followed by chlorination. is has no found much application in the United States. It is an excellent aid to the flocculation and coagulation process. It does not form chloramines or THMs. taste. Although it is widely used throughout the world. ozone breaks down into oxygen and nascent oxygen. and pH of the water are factors to be determined.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 181 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The UV sterilizer will consist of a various number of lamps and tubes. A mercury vapor lamp is one in which an electric arc is passed through an inert gas. leaving little for disinfection. and the water is in contact with the outside of the quartz tube.Ultraviolet Radiation The enormous temperatures on the sun create ultraviolet (UV) rays in great amounts. The water flow around the quartz tube. In this way the microorganisms spend maximum time and contact with the outside of the quartz tube and the source of the UV rays. and this radiation is so powerful that all life on earth would be destroyed if these ray were not scattered by the atmosphere and filtered out by the layers of ozone gas that float some 20 miles above the earth. The lamp itself does not come intro contact water. depending upon the quantity of water to be treated. Of course. the units are designed so that the contact or retention time of the water in the unit is not less than 15 seconds. This in turn will vaporize the mercury contained in the lamp. A sun lamp. Further.0 gpm for each inch of the lamp. Ordinary glass cannot be used since it will absorb the UV rays. sends out UV rays that when properly controlled result in a suntan. for example. This radiation can be artificially produced by sending strong electric currents thorough various substances. too much will cause sunburn. allowing all of the rays to reach the water. As water enters the sterilizer. The UV lamp that can be used for the disinfection of water depends upon the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp to produce the ultraviolet energy. it is given a tangential flow pattern so that the water spins over and around the quartz sleeves. The lamp is placed inside a quartz tube. Quartz is used in this case since practically none of the UV rays are absorbed by the quartz. The basic design flow of water of certain UV units is in the order of 2. and it is a result of this vaporization that UV rays are produced.

manganese. For effective use of ultraviolet. The lamp must be replaced when it loses about 40% to 50% of its UV output. although a water may appear to be clear. These are conditions that must be met. The UV manufacturer will of course stipulate which pretreatment may be necessary. which is about 1 year’s time. Each lamp is outfitted with its own photoelectric cell. UV radiation will not remove precursors. iron. and it does not form THMs. Ultraviolet radiation is an excellent disinfectant that is highly effective against viruses. it leaves no residual. in any installation this is determined by means of a photoelectric cell and a meter that shows the output of the lamp. and it is safe to use. and yeasts. the water to be disinfected must be clean. and odor.500 hours. Also. bicarbonates. It is used to remove traces of ozone and chloramines from the finished water. It adds no chemicals to the water. and sulfates affect absorption of the ultraviolet ray. but in combination with ozone. These parameters will probably require at least filtration of one type or another. taste.Most manufacturers claim that the UV lamps have a life of about 7. such substances as excesses of chlorides. The water must also be colorless and must be free of any colloids. and with it own alarm that will be activated when the penetration drops to a present level. Alone. The germicidal effect of UV is thought to be associated with its absorption by various organic components essential to the cell’s functioning. it is said to be effective in the removal of THM precursors and THMs. and free of any suspended solids. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 182 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . molds.

GAC or combinations of others processes. Phthalates None known Disinfectant By-product Removal Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). resins. RO. controlled coagulation. Carboxylics. nanofiltration. research to date indicates that this removal can be attained through the application of controlled chlorination plus coagulation and filtration. aeration. reverse osmosis. aeration. ionexchange GAC GAC Chloramine (NHxCly) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) Permanganate (KMnO4) Ozone (O3) Ultraviolet (UV) The table indicates that most of the disinfectants will leave a by-product that is or would possibly be inimical to health. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 183 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . GAC-UV GAC GAC UV? Use of Fe2+ in coagulation. This may aid with a decision as to whether or not precursors should be removed before these disinfectants are added to water. If it is decided that removal of precursors is needed.Removal of Disinfection By-products Disinfectant Chlorine (HOCl) Disinfectant Byproduct Trialomethane (THM) Chloramine Chlorophenol Probably no THM Others? Chlorites Chlorates No THMs Aldehydes.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 184 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

gases. This is normally an undesirable effect. Backflow 12 inches: Is the required distance above ground that a double check backflow or RP assembly needs to be installed. Electron is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. 0. Backflow: The definition of ‘backflow ’is a reverse flow condition that causes water or mixtures of water and other liquids. ultraviolet radiation. It is a cationic polymer. Anaerobic conditions: When anaerobic conditions exist in either the metalimnion or hypolimnion of a stratified lake or reservoir.other than chlorination (halogens) . ozone. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. Air Hood: Is the most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes. Anaerobic: An abnormal condition in which color and odor problems are most likely to occur. As: Is the chemical symbol of Arsenic. 10 ppm: Is the IDLH for Cl2 gas according to the NIOSH manual. Most of these problems are associated with Reduction in the stratified waters. Air Gap or Vacuum Breaker: A potable water line should be equipped with an air gap or vacuum breaker when connected to a chemical feeder for fluoride. An operator should not mix acid and water or acid to a strong base. Acid and a Base is Mixed: When an acid and a base are mixed an explosive reaction occurs and decomposition products are created under certain conditions. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply.used to treat water. Air Gap: A physical separation space that is present between the discharge vessel and the receiving vessel.g. To reverse the natural and normal directional flow of a liquid. gases. Absence of Oxygen: The complete absence of oxygen in water described as Anaerobic. and chloramine. for an example. This is different than 12 inches above the ground. Activated Charcoal: Is a treatment technique that is not included in the grading of a water facility. gases. Accuracy: Is how closely an instrument measures the true or actual value. needs to be installed 12 inches above the ground. An operator must ensure when installing a pressure vacuum breaker backflow device that it must be at least 12 inches about the highest downstream outlet. Backflow Prevention: To stop or prevent the occurrence of. Alternative Disinfectants: Disinfectants .1 year is the maximum time period between having a backflow device tested by a certified backflow tester. There is limited experience and scientific knowledge about the by-products and risks associated with the use of alternatives. water quality problems may make the water unappealing for domestic use without costly water treatment procedures.2 mg/L: Should be the target value for the free chlorine residual in the distribution system. Acid Rain: Acid rain a result of airborne pollutants. Is a permeable layer of the subsurface that allows the movement of groundwater. Minimum 1 inch or twice the diameter whatever is greater. Acid: Slowly add the acid to water while stirring. Atom: The general definition of an ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge. Most ammonia in water is present as the ammonium ion rather than as ammonia. the unnatural act of reversing the normal direction of the flow of liquid. Needs to be tested on an annual basis. e. See Cross-connection control. Ammonia: A chemical made with Nitrogen and Hydrogen and used with chlorine to disinfect water. The difference between a reduced pressure principle backflow device and a double check backflow device is that RP has a relief valve. a kitchen faucet. Aquifer: An underground geologic formation capable of storing significant amounts of water. Aluminum Sulfate: Is the chemical name for Alum. chlorine dioxide. The molecular formula of Alum is Al2(SO4)3~14H2O. or substances to flow back into the distribution system. Continuous positive pressure in a distribution system is essential for preventing a backflow event. Backflow or Cross-connection Failure: Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system.Water Treatment Glossary Excellent operator certification study tool. Backflow: A double check valve backflow assembly provides effective protection from both backpressure and backsiphonage of pollution only. Backsiphonage Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 185 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection interrupts corrosion by supplying an electrical current to overcome the corrosion-producing mechanism. Breakpoint Chlorination: The process of chlorinating the water with significant quantities of chlorine to oxidize all contaminants and organic wastes and leave all remaining chlorine as free chlorine. Carbonate. Cathodic Protection: An operator should protect against corrosion of the anode and/or the cathode by painting the copper cathode.g. Cadmium: A contaminant that is usually not found naturally in water or in very small amounts. Bacteria: Are small. Backwash: A surface wash system should be activated prior to the start of the backwash. Humans would be unable to live without the bacteria that inhabit the intestines and assist in digesting food. sodium bicarbonate. Ca: Is the chemical symbol for calcium. On a centrifugal pump. usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels. washing or as a solvent always susceptible to a crossconnection. including on and in the human body. Capillary Fringe: The material immediately above the water table may contain water by capillary pressure in the small void spaces.60. Equipment that utilizes water for cooling. Shigella. Ceiling Area: The specific gravity of ammonia gas is 0. one-celled animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. Buffer: Chemical that resists pH change. This chemical causes skin burns on contact. Calcium Hardness: A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide: Chemicals that are responsible for the alkalinity of water. Cl2 gas will settle on the floor. Bacillus. It is the method by which the liquid substance may be forced by excess pressure over or into a higher point.condition usually causes reduced pressure or negative pressure on the service or supply side. Cathodic Protection: Guards against stray current corrosion. Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because the bacteria may cause red water and slime. Bacteria are found everywhere. e. Salmonella. Back-up Disinfection units: If a chlorination system goes out of operation you are required to have back-up. Bromine: This chemical disinfectant has been used only on a very limited scale for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Minimum water pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate customer service during peak flow periods. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. and a residual is difficult to obtain. Centrifugal Force: That force when a ball is whirled on a string pulls the ball outward. Calcium Ion: Is divalent because it has a valence of +2. this gas will accumulate first at the ceiling are. Calcium. If released. Examples include. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 186 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This is one of the chemical disinfectants (HALOGEN) that kills bacteria and algae. However minimum positive pressure must be maintained in mains to protect against backflow or backsiphonage from cross-connections. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause disease in normal. Bromine: Has a limited use for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Battery: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller. CaOCl2. Bypass Valve: Is the name of a type of valve that reduces the differential pressure across a closed disk making the main valve easier to open and close. and Iron: Are the three elements that cause hardness in water.4H2O: Is the molecular formula of Calcium hypochlorite. Vibri Cholera and Cholera. Benching: A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps. healthy humans. Caustic Soda: Also known as sodium hydroxide and is used to raise pH. Backwashing: Backwash the filters more frequently can be used to increase water production if an increase in raw water turbidity and coagulation feed rate creates additional loading on the filter. Magnesium. Carbon Dioxide Gas: The pH will decrease and alkalinity will change as measured by the Langelier index after pumping carbon dioxide gas into water. lubrication. Backsiphonage: A liquid substance that is carried over a higher point.

when the temperature decreases. CL2 10 mg/L: Small water storage tanks are commonly disinfected with a solution containing a Cl2 concentration of 50 mg/L. breathing problems. After long exposure. shock. and edema of the lungs. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of chlorine gas in air. Chlorine is added to swimming pools to keep the water safe for swimming. Chlorine gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to chlorine. Some public water system’s drinking water treatment plants use chlorine in a gas form because of the large volumes required. reflex spasm in the larynx. The chlorine gas is controlled.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. metered. Chlorine Demand: Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. CL2 0. constriction of the chest. the minimum concentration of free Cl2 residual in the distribution system. Chlorine: Is a chemical used to disinfect water. Death is possible from asphyxia. Chlorine is very effective against algae. After 24 hours the minimum Cl2 concentration should be 10 mg/L. Protozoa are resistant to chlorine because they have thick coats. Free: Chlorine available to kill bacteria or algae. but less than 0. Cl2 Demand: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. Cl2 Cylinder is Increased: If the temperature of a full Cl2 cylinder is increased by 50o F or 30o C. This creates a persistent disinfectant residual called chloramines. Check Valve: It allows water to flow in only one direction. and when it comes in contact with microorganisms in water killing them.5 mg per liter (approximately 0. the chemical reaction rate also decreases. Chloramines are not effective as disinfectants and are responsible for eye and skin irritation as well as strong chlorine odors (also known as Combined Chlorine). Cl2 Expands in Volume: Happens to Cl2 when the temperature of a Cl2 cylinder increases. Chlorine. tightness in the throat. or chronic lung conditions. bacteria and viruses. Chelation: A chemical process used to control scale formation in which a chelating agent "captures" scale-causing ions and holds them in solution.Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. having an inlet and a discharge connection. Chlorine is available as solid tablets for swimming pools. Chlorine is extremely reactive. Chemical Reaction Rate: In general. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Also. a rupture may occur. or massive pulmonary edema. bronchitis. what should be the minimum concentration of free chlorine residual in the distribution system? 0.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. As little as 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 187 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . CL2 Free Concentration: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. The opposite is true for when the temperature increases. throat cancer will occur. The amount of chlorine available for sanitization after the chlorine demand has been met. Chlorination: The process in water treatment of adding chlorine (gas or solid hypochlorite) for purposes of disinfection. Populations at special risk from chlorine exposure are individuals with pulmonary disease. introduced into a stream of injector water and then conducted as a solution to the point of application. Chloramines: A group of chlorine and ammonia compounds formed when chlorine combines with organic wastes in the water. CL2 A Fusible Plug: Is considered a safety device on a Cl2 cylinder. Also known as chlorine residual. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. Protozoa are removed from drinking water by filtration.2 mg/L: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. CL2 Chronic Exposure Corrosion of the Teeth: May occur due to chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas. Chloramination: Treating drinking water by applying chlorine before or after ammonia.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. Chemical Oxidizer: KMnO4 is used for taste and odor control because it is a strong oxidizer which eliminates many organic compounds.2 mg/l CL2 Gas Exposure: Chlorine gas causes suffocation. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. Chlorine Feeding: Chlorine may be delivered by vacuum-controlled solution feed chlorinators.

and Tantalum. Cl2 Gas will Accumulate: If a Cl2 leak occurs. Normal breathing will cause coughing. which must be prevented if possible. the victim must attempt to do two things: get out of the area of the leak. it primarily transported and packaged as a liquefied gas under pressure in steel containers. CL2: Downstream from the point of post chlorination. Normal breathing will cause coughing. CL2: The Cl2 storage ventilation equipment be checked on a daily basis. CL2: Cl2 combines with water to form both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 188 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . corrosion will occur and the leak will get larger. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. CL2: Before entering a Cl2 room to check on a leak don a self-contained breathing apparatus and check to see that the ventilation system is working. CL2: Cl2 as with H2S gas produces olfactory fatigue. CL2: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and concentration of the disinfectant residual.5 mg per liter in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. CL2: If an operator places water on a leaking Cl2 cylinder. CL2 Gas Safety: Gas leak is the primary safety concern when using chlorine gas as opposed to calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. CL2: After Cl2 gas is manufactured. CL2: As soon as CL2 gas enters the throat area. As little as 2. CL2: Cl2 gas is highly corrosive in moist conditions. CL2: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. Be sure that no one enters the leak area without an adequate self-contained breathing apparatus. CL2: Breakpoint chlorination means adding Cl2 to the water until the Cl2 demand is satisfied. first loosen the packing gland around the valve.01 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. CL2: Even brief exposure to 1.CL2 Gas IDLH: As soon as Cl2 gas enters the throat area. CL2: Of an operator cannot open the valve on a Cl2 cylinder because it is too tight. CL2: 200 mg/l is a generally acceptable concentration of Cl2 solution that should be prepared to wash the inside of a storage facility.5 mg/L in a clear well or distribution reservoir. and edema of the lungs. Platinum. CL2: The effectiveness of disinfection determined from the results of coliform testing. CL2: Chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas may cause corrosion of the teeth. the Cl2 gas will accumulate on the floor. CL2: Free available Cl2 is very effective in killing bacteria. At this point. and tap the valve gently with your hand. CL2: Determine the ambient temperature in a Cl2 room by using a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of Cl2 gas in air. Chlorine gas causes suffocation. the concentration of a free Cl2 residual should be 0. CL2: A device that has a transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball and is often used to measure the rate of a gas or liquid is called a Rotameter.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal. The only metals that are TOTALLY inert to moist Cl2 gas are Gold. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this area—nature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. CL2: A burning sensation in the eyes and throat: Is the most likely type of symptom one could expect upon exposure to a very small percentage of Cl2 in the air. CL2: Cl2 gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to Cl2. The victim must attempt to get out of the area of the leak. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: Cl2 gas should only be used under a fume hood. CL2: Store an empty Cl2 cylinder upright. CL2 Gaskets: Replace according to manufacturers recommendations should be done with the gaskets when making a new connection on a chlorine feed system. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. constriction of the chest. CL2: 17 is the atomic number of Cl2. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this areaNature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. proceeding upwind. tightness in the throat. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. but less than 0. proceeding upwind. tagged as empty.

chemical. They are an indicator of potential contamination of water. To pollute or infect something. Each compliance cycle consists of 3 compliance periods. A noncombustible gas. Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences. and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. or dangerous to employees. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill = C x T. or radiological substance or matter in water. Combined Chlorine: The reaction product of chlorine with ammonia or other pollutants. Allow a longer contact time to maintain good disinfection of the water.5 times heavier than water and gaseous Cl2 is about 2. A clear well or a plant storage reservoir is usually filled when demand is low. CL2: When hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Colloidal Suspensions: Because both iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen to form insoluble compounds they are not found in high concentrations in waters containing dissolved oxygen except as colloidal suspensions of the oxide. which are unsanitary. Composite Sample: Is a water sample that is a combination of a group of samples collected at various intervals during the day. is that the ejector draws in additional water for dilution of the hypochlorinate solution. the organic material decomposes releasing heat very rapidly. which is at a level that may have an adverse effect on public health. pH and Low Turbidity: Are factors which are important in providing good disinfection using chlorine. hazardous. CL2: When determining a Cl2 use rate. ClO2: Is the molecular formula of Chlorine dioxide. Cl2 is about 1. The operator needs to increase the detention time to maintain good disinfection of the water. and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. CL2: The water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). Mixing is an important part of the coagulation process you want to complete the coagulation process as quickly as possible. the scale or meter should be read at the same time each day.CL2: The first step when removing a hypochlorinator from service is to turn off the water supply pump. Contaminant: Any natural or man-made physical. To reduce the quality of the Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 189 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . CL2: The purpose of the ejector on a hypochlorinator. CL2: The purpose of an evaporator is to convert liquid Cl2 to gaseous Cl2 for use by gas chlorinators. Colorimetric Measurement: A means of measuring and unknown chemical concentration in water by measuring a sample's color intensity. Condensation: Is the process called that changes water vapor to tiny droplets or ice crystals. Compliance Cycle: A 9-calendar year time-frame during which a public water system is required to monitor. CL2: The physical and chemical properties of Cl2 are: A yellowish green. Contains the Element Carbon: Is a simple definition of an organic compound. CL2: Where other factors are constant. also known as chloramines.5 times heavier than air. amber colored liquid. A positive sample is a bad thing and indicates that you have bacteria contamination. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions. Compliance Period: A 3-calendar year time-frame within a compliance cycle. Adequate and appropriate disinfection effectively destroys coliform bacteria. CL2: When Cl2 is inhaled in high concentrations it causes emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels. biological. CL2: The fusible plug on a 150-pound Cl2 cylinder is designed to soften and melt at high temperatures. Coliform Bacteria: Are bacteria that are normally found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Coliform Testing: The effectiveness of disinfection is usually determined by Coliform bacteria testing. Can be readily compressed into a clear. Contact Time. CL2: The purpose of the bottom valve on a 1-ton Cl2 cylinder is to remove liquid Cl2. Coagulation: The best pH range for coagulation is between a pH of 5 and 7. Contamination: To make something bad. Contact Time: If the water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). and a strong oxidizer. Clear Well: Is a large underground storage facility sometimes made of concrete. Coliform bacteria are present in high numbers in animal feces.

It may be found in fecal matter or contaminated drinking water. Direct Current: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. Coupon: A coupon placed to measure corrosion damage in the water mains. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 190 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Diatomaceous Earth: Is a fine silica material containing the skeletal remains of algae. Copper: Is the chemical name for the symbol Cu. Dangerous Chemicals: The most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes is to work under an air hood. Dissolved Oxygen: Can be added to zones within a lake or reservoir that would normally become anaerobic during periods of thermal stratification. and other parasites. The EPA has determined that these DBPs can cause cancer. The effectiveness of disinfection determined by the results of coliform testing. and/or remove pathogenic bacteria. Disinfectant Residual: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and disinfectant residual. other metal surfaces and concrete surfaces in a destructive manner. Decompose: To decay or rot. Acid feed is the most common method of scale control in a membrane demineralization treatment system. Disinfection: The treatment of water to inactivate. Distillation. protozoa. Corrosion is caused by improperly balanced water or excessive water velocity through piping or heat exchangers. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Reverse Osmosis and Freezing: Processes can be used to remove minerals from the water. Dental Caries Prevention in Children: Is the main reason that fluoride is added to a water supply. destroy. Cross-contamination: The mixing of two unlike qualities of water. Surface water sources. CWS: Community Water System. the unit may be protected by sealing it in a tight container. Corrosion: Is the gradual decomposition or destruction of a material as it chemically reacts with water and is often referred to as corrosion. Corrosivity: The Langelier Index measures corrosivity.potable (drinking) water and create an actual hazard to the water supply by poisoning or through spread of diseases. Cross-connection: A physical connection between a public water system and any source of water or other substance that may lead to contamination of the water provided by the public water system through backflow. Types of source water are required by law to treat water using filtration and disinfection are groundwater under the direct influence of surface water.The removal of metal from copper.000 feet in length should be 8 inches. Depolarization: Is the removal of hydrogen from a cathode. Detention Time: The minimum detention time range recommended for flocculation is 5 – 20 minutes for direct filtration and up to 30 minutes for conventional filtration. Disinfect: To kill and inhibit growth of harmful bacterial and viruses in drinking water.g. resistant to chlorine disinfection. soil) present in raw water during the water treatment process. leaves. Demineralization Process: Mineral concentration of the feed water is the most important consideration in the selection of a demineralization process. This container should contain a desiccant. Decibels: Is the unit of measurement for sound. Decomposition of Organic Material: The decomposition of organic material in water produces taste and odors. For example. Distribution 8 inches: The minimum pipe diameter for a dead end line exceeding 2. Desiccant: When shutting down equipment which may be damaged by moisture. Disinfection by-products (DBPs): The products created due to the reaction of chlorine with organic materials (e. Detection Lag: Is the period of time between the moment of change in a chlorinator control system and the moment when the change is sensed by the chlorine residual indicator. Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. Cryptosporidium: A disease-causing parasite. Control Taste and Odor Problems: KMnO4 Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer is commonly used to control taste and odor problems. the mixing of good water with a polluting substance like a chemical substance. viruses.

Enhanced Coagulation: The process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. and is simple to operate and maintain. Filter Clogging: An inability to meet demand may occur when filters are clogging. municipal water. adsorption. Electrical Resistance: Resistance of electrical equipment is affected by many variables including the thickness of the insulation and its total mass area. a virus that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This set-up or basin will give the best overall results. If the motor does not start. To become a new public water system. and biological action treatment methods are filtration processes that involves a number of interrelated removal mechanisms. Electrical Problem: Moisture will cause the deterioration of oil in a transformer. an owner shall file an elementary business plan for review and approval by the Department. Sedimentation. Electrical: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. Finished Water: Treated drinking water that meets minimum state and federal drinking water regulations. Electrical: If grease comes in contact with the winding of a motor the winding insulation may deteriorate. Demineralization is primarily used to remove total dissolved solids from industrial wastewater. Turbidity and Temperature. Dry Acid: A granular chemical used to lower pH and or total alkalinity. Slow sand filtration process does not require pretreatment. Flood Rim: The point of an object where the water would run over the edge of something and begin to cause a flood.Double Suction Pump: One advantage of a double suction pump is a reduction in the thrust load that the bearings must carry. For water quality analyses purposes. Effectiveness of the Chlorine Decreases: Will occur during disinfection in source water with excessive turbidity. Fecal Coliform: A group of bacteria that may indicate the presence of human or animal fecal matter in water. but do not necessarily cause disease themselves. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 191 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the operator should first check the fuse. make sure the main switch is off and the voltage tester is rated to handle the voltage expected in the circuit. and seawater. Enterovirus: A virus whose presence may indicate contaminated water. Floc Shearing: Is likely to happen to large floc particles when they reach the flocculation process. Escherichia coli : Is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine. has a flow of 0. a faucet with an aerator should not be used as a sample location. odor. Electrical: An operator using a voltage meter to test electrical equipment should first. dissolved organics. Indicator organisms may be accompanied by pathogens. These are considered evidence of water contamination. An operator waits for the overload to cool. then tries to start the motor again. Filtration: A series of processes that physically removes particles from water. Managerial Capacity. Elementary Business Plan: Technical Capacity. A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. Eccentric Valve: The plug on an eccentric valve contacts the valve seat when the valve is closed. Coli. it is considered an indicator organism. Direct filtration method is similar to conventional except that the sedimentation step is omitted. This type of filtration medium is only used for water with low turbidity. Electricity: Rubber may be used to prevent the flow of electricity through a wire.1 gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area. taste and color. Flocculation: The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses that can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. and filtration. Emergency Response Team: Get out of the area and notify your local emergency response team is the first should be done first in case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. and Financial Capacity make up the elementary business plan. flocculation. sedimentation. Filtration Methods: The conventional type of water treatment filtration method includes coagulation. E. Flocculation Basin: Is a compartmentalized basin with a reduction of speed in each compartment. Electron: Is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Diatomaceous earth method uses a thin layer of fine siliceous material on a porous plate. Faucet with an Aerator: When collecting a water sample from a distribution system. Effectiveness of Chlorination: The factors which influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most are pH. F: Is the chemical symbol of Fluorine.

Giardiasis. Frequency must a Remote Operator inspect a Grade 1 or grade 2 Water Treatment Plant: Monthly or as necessary a remote operator inspect a grade 1 or grade 2 water treatment plant or distribution system that produces and distributes groundwater. Hertz: Is the term is used to describe the frequency of cycles in an alternating current (AC) circuit. All the other valves are in the rotary classification. The most important safety considerations to know about fluoride chemicals is that all fluoride chemicals are extremely corrosive. Sodium silicofluoride and Hydrofluosilicic acid. This chemical must not be overfed due to a possible exposure to a high concentration of the chemical. This is called Mottling. Hepatitis. a free chlorine residual of at least 10 mg/L should be maintained in the clear well or distribution reservoir immediately downstream from the point of post-chlorination. Good Contact Time. Headworks: The facility at the "head" of the water source where water is first treated and routed into the distribution system. The water flux decreases through a semipermeable membrane means that the mineral concentration of the water is increasing. pH and Low Turbidity: These are factors that are important in providing good disinfection when using chlorine. pH and Temperature. Giardia Lamblia: A pathogenic parasite. Free Chlorine: In disinfection. contaminated water. Fluoride: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 192 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or Typhoid: Are diseases that may be transmitted through the contamination of a water supply but not AIDS. chlorine is used in the form of free chlorine or as hypochlorite ion. These are the substances is most commonly used to furnish fluoride ions to water: Sodium fluoride. Formation of Tubercles: This condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Free Chlorine Residual gives the best Disinfection: Is the reason for chlorinating past the breakpoint is to provide protection in case of backflow. And is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation. 1 PSI = 2. It is the creation of mounds of rust inside the water lines.Graphic Information System: Detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes. Static (water at rest) and Residual (water at flow conditions). Flux: The term flux describes the rate of water flow through a semipermeable membrane. Hazards of Polymers: Slippery and difficult to clean-up are the most common hazards associated with the use of polymers in a water treatment plant. valves.433 PSI. and manholes within geographic areas with the use of satellites. Health Advisory: An EPA document that provides guidance and information on contaminants that can affect human health and that may occur in drinking water. Grab Sample: Is a type of sample that should be collected to analyze for coliform bacteria.31 feet of water or 1 foot of head equals about a half a pound of pressure or . Gate Valve: Is the most common type of valve used in isolating a small or medium sized section of a distribution system and is the only linear valve used in water distribution. but which EPA does not currently regulate in drinking water.Flow must be Measured: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located in a central location. Fluoride Feeding System: Always review fluoride feeding system designs and specifications to determine whether locations for monitoring readouts and dosage controls are convenient to the operation center and easy to read and correct. H2SO4: Is the molecular formula of Sulfuric acid. Heat Damage to Air Compressor: An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. A snap shot of a certain location and time. Gt : Represents (Detention time) x (mixing intensity) in flocculation. Free Chlorine Residual: Regardless of whether pre-chloration is practiced or not. Hard Water: Hard water causes a buildup of scale in household hot water heaters. Globe Valve: The main difference between a globe valve and a gate valve is that a globe valve is designed as a controlling device. Head: The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water. There are various types of heads of water depending upon what is being measured. which may be found in. GIS .

the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill=C x T. but can also get into water through farming. Initial monitoring year: An initial monitoring year is the calendar year designated by the Department within a compliance period in which a public water system conducts initial monitoring at a point of entry. viruses and other microorganisms. total alkalinity. HF: Is the molecular formula of Hydrofluoric acid. HOCL and HCL or free available chlorine. and asbestos. Langelier Index: Is a measurement of Corrosivity. Iron and Manganese: In water can be usually detected by observing the color of the inside walls of filters and the filter media. the movement of water. Hypochlorous and Hydrochloric Acids: Chlorine combines with water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. and pH at a given temperature. The water is becoming corrosive in the distribution system causing rusty water if the Langelier index indicates that the pH has decreased from the equilibrium point. The presence of iron and manganese in water promote the growth of Iron bacteria. Hydrophobic: Does not mix readily with water. High Turbidity Causing an Increased Chlorine Demand: May occur or be caused by the inadequate disinfection of water. Every intake structure must be constructed with consideration for operator safety and for cathodic protection. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 193 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and opportunistic pathogens. iron and manganese exist in an oxidized state and normally precipitate into the reservoir bottom sediments. Iron and Manganese in water may be detected by observing the color of the of the filter media.e. The hardness of the source water affects the amount of water an ion exchange softener may treat before the bed requires regeneration. chemical manufacturing. These contaminants are naturally-occurring in some water. The energy terms that are used to describe the operation of a pump are pressure and head. Intake Facilities: One of the more important considerations in the construction of intake facilities is the ease of operation and maintenance over the expected lifetime of the facility. there will be black stains on the walls below the water level and a black coating over the top portion of the sand filter bed. Kill=C x T: Where other factors are constant. Infectious Pathogens/Microbes/Germs: Are considered disease-producing bacteria. pathogens. If the raw water is pre-chlorinated. Inorganic Contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals. Only when a water sample has been acidified then you can perform the analysis beyond the 48 hour holding time.Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including non-pathogens. and other human activities. Maintaining a free chlorine residual and regular flushing of water mains may control the growth of iron bacteria in a water distribution system. Mathematically derived factor obtained from the values of calcium hardness. Iron Fouling: You should look for an orange color on the resin and backwash water when checking an ion exchange unit for iron fouling Iron: The elements iron and manganese are undesirable in water because they cause stains and promote the growth of iron bacteria. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. nitrates. EPA has set legal limits on 15 inorganic contaminants. Insoluble Compounds: Are types of compounds cannot be dissolved. neither corroding nor scaling). When iron or manganese reacts with dissolved oxygen (DO) insoluble compound are formed. When significant levels of dissolved oxygen are present. Impeller: A rotating set of vanes designed to impart rotation to a mass fluid. Often referred to as HPC. Iron Bacteria: Perhaps the most troublesome consequence of iron and manganese in the water is they promote the growth of a group of microorganism known as Iron Bacteria. or allowing only with great difficulty. Hydrogen Sulfide or Chlorine: These chemicals can cause olfactory fatigue. Impervious: Not allowing. Kinetic Energy: The ability of an object to do work by virtue of its motion. A Langelier index of zero indicates perfect water balance (i. Hydrochloric and Hypochlorous Acids: Are the compounds that are formed in water when chlorine gas is introduced.. Hypochlorite and Organic Material: Heat and a possible fire may happen when hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material.

the water system must treat the water so that it meets the MCL. Mechanical Seal: A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. if a piece of equipment is locked out. especially one that causes disease. M-Endo Broth: The media shall be brought to the boiling point when preparing M-Endo broth to be used in the membrane filter test for total coliform. then tries to start the motor again. The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. Lime: Is a chemical that may be added to water to reduce the corrosivity. Motor 3600 rpms: Is the maximum synchronous speed of an electric motor that has a frequency of 60 Hz. Microbial Contaminants: Microscopic organisms present in untreated water that can cause waterborne diseases. Microbial: Any minute. An operator waits for the overload to cool. single-celled form of life. to the pH of the water is raised to 11. And a possible result of over greasing a bearing is that there will be extreme friction in the bearing chamber. Megger: Is used to test the insulation resistance on a motor. Lines: Lines in the distribution system should be flushed on a regular basis. Microbe. simple. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 194 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A possible cause for a mechanical noise coming from a motor is there is an unbalance of a rotating mechanical part. Calcium and magnesium become less soluble. LOTO: In a good lock-out/tag out program. mg/L: Milligrams per liter. Lead and Copper: Initial tap water monitoring for lead and copper must be conducted during 2 consecutive 6-month periods. In a lime softening process. Motor: If a motor is rated for 10 amps the overload relays that should be used are 10 to 11 amps. This goal is not always economically or technologically feasible.300 persons and 50. Moisture: If a material is hygroscopic it must it be protected from water. Usually made of two flat surfaces. Methane: Is classified as an organic compound. When an operator adds lime to water. mL: milliliter Moisture and Potassium Permanganate: The combination of moisture and potassium permanganate produces heat. Mottling: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. Measure Corrosion Damage: A coupon is a strip of metal and is placed to measure corrosion damage in the distribution system in a water main. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The maximum allowable level of a contaminant that federal or state regulations allow in a public water system. Microbiological: Is a type of analysis in which a composite sample unacceptable. the key to the lock-out device the key should be held by the person who is working on the equipment. The hardness due to noncarbonate hardness is most likely to determine the choice between lime softening and ion exchange to remove hardness. the operator should check first the Motor overload control. MCL for Turbidity: Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. An MCL for turbidity was established by the EPA because turbidity does not allow for proper disinfection. Held in place with spring pressure. Motor Overload Control: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. If the MCL is exceeded. If the motor does not start.0. The minimum hardness which can be achieved by the lime-soda ash process is 30 to 40 mg/L as calcium carbonate.000 or fewer persons. The tag is an identification device and the lock is a physical restraint.Leaching: A chemical reaction between water and metals that allows for removal of soluble materials. Medium Water System: More than 3. Magnetic Starter: Is a type of motor starter should be used in an integrated circuit to control flow automatically. The flushing should be done at night and the water pressure in the distribution system must be at least 25 PSI. excess lime is frequently added to remove Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health. and the goal is not legally enforceable. one of which rotates on the shaft. Lime Soda Softening: In a lime soda softening process. Magnesium Hardness: Measure of the magnesium salts dissolved in water – it is not a factor in water balance.

upon combination with chlorine. NH4+: Is the molecular formula of the Ammonium ion. or PAC. Powdered activated carbon may be used with some success in removing the precursors of THMs Packing: Material. Non-Community Water System: A water system which supplies water to 25 or more of the same people at least six months per year in places other than their residences. Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Are pairs of elements and major plant nutrients that cause algae to grow. Also used to separate combined chlorine and convert it into free chlorine.MSDS: Is a safety document must an employer provide to an operator upon request. Noncarbonate Ions: Water contains Noncarbonate ions if it cannot be softened to a desired level through the use of lime only. Non-Transient. O3: Is the molecular formula of ozone. NaOCl: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hypochlorite. Over time. Notification and Safety of the Public: Is the most important concern to an owner/operator if a toxic substance contaminates a drinking water. leading to trihalomethane formation. placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control the leakage from the stuffing box. Capacity Development Requirements for a New Public Water System. or NH4Cl2: These chemicals may be used as alternative disinfectants. Non-carbonate Hardness: Is the portion of the total hardness in excess of the alkalinity. NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit): A measure of the clarity or cloudiness of water. NTNCWS: Non-transient non-community water system. Removes tastes and odors by adsorption only. NaOH: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hydroxide. Osmosis: Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semi permeable membrane from a low concentration solute to a high concentration solute to satisfy the pressure differences caused by the solute. snubbers and an air cushion chamber are examples of surging and overrange protection devices. Overrange Protection Devices: Mechanical dampers. commonly used for in a water treatment plant for taste and odor control. Jar tests and threshold odor number testing determines the appli-cation rate for powdered activated carbon. Oxygen Deficient Environment: Name one of the most dangerous threats to an operator upon entering a manhole. Muriatic Acid: An acid used to reduce pH and alkalinity. Nitrate and nitrite are prohibited: The Department will not grant a nitrate or nitrite waiver. New Public Water System: Community water systems and non-transient non-community water systems that begin operations on or after October 1. Nitrates may also occur naturally in some waters. Ozone. NH3: Is the molecular formula of Ammonia. Non-point source pollution: Air pollution may leave contaminants on highway surfaces. Normality: It is the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. Chlorine Dioxide or Chloramine O3. office buildings. PAC: A disadvantage of using PAC is it is very abrasive and requires careful maintenance of equipment. Powdered activated carbon. Powered activated carbon frequently used for taste and odor control because PAC is non-specific and removes a broad range of compounds. ClO2. NO3-: Is the molecular formula of the Nitrate ion. and hospitals which have their own water systems. One precautions should be taken in storing PAC is that bags of carbon should not be stored near bags of HTH. Oxidizing: The process of breaking down organic wastes into simpler elemental forms or by products. Ozone does not provide a Residual in the Distribution System: One of the major drawbacks to using ozone as a disinfectant. Organic Precursors: Natural or man-made compounds with chemical structures based upon carbon that. This nonpoint source pollution adversely impacts reservoir water and groundwater quality. nitrates can accumulate in aquifers and contaminate groundwater. Some examples are schools. Nitrates: A dissolved form of nitrogen found in fertilizers and sewage by-products that may leach into groundwater and other water sources. Also used to remove stain and scale. factories. usually of woven fiber. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 195 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Oligotrophic: A reservoir that is nutrient-poor and contains little plant or animal life. 1999 must comply with Article 6. Mud Balls in Filter Media: Is a possible result of an ineffective or inadequate filter backwash.

Pre-chlorination: The addition of chlorine to the water prior to any other plant treatment processes. Potable: Good water which is safe for drinking or cooking purposes. PPM: Abbreviation for parts per million. Pollution: The duration of exposure to the contaminant affects the dose of a toxic contaminant in a water supply. A curie is the amount of radiation released by a set amount of a certain compound. A picocurie is one quadrillionth of a curie. Potential Energy: The energy that a body has by virtue of its position or state enabling it to do work. The pH where the Langelier Index equals zero. waterborne pathogens A pathogen is a bacterium. Proton. Pneumatic systems are not reliable over transmission lines greater than 1000 feet: Is the primary characteristic which limits the use of a pneumatic data transmission system. Permeate: Is the term for water which has passed through the membrane of a reverse osmosis unit. A mechanical seal is the best seal to use for a pump operating under high suction head Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 196 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . There are more than 170. Alkalinity and pH tell an operator with regards to coagulation how to determine the best chemical coagulant to be used. Nitrate.000 to 20. Phenolphthalein /Total Alkalinity: The relationship between the alkalinity constituents bicarbonate.000 hours: Is the typical operating life of a mechanical seal. carbonate. Pb: Is the chemical symbol of Lead. Pump Discharge Valve Off: Is when should a reciprocating pump or piston pump not be operated. at a particular temperature. The definition of an acidic solution is a solution that contains a significant number of H+ ions. and Organic Nitrogen: Nutrients in a domestic water supply reservoir may cause water quality problems if they occur in moderate or large quantities. Pressure Head: The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure. and hydroxide can be based on the P and T alkalinity measurement. Point of Entry: POE. Pressure: A Bellows-type sensor reacts to a change in pressure. virus or parasite that causes or is capable of causing disease.000 PWSs providing water from wells. bends. Perikinesis: Is the aggregation resulting from random thermal motion of fluid molecules. if any. pH (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity): A measure of the acidity of water. Polyphosphates: Are chemicals that may be added to remove low levels of iron and manganese. Pollution: To make something unclean or impure. pH of Saturation: The ideal pH for perfect water balance in relation to a particular total alkalinity level and a particular calcium hardness level. rivers and other sources to about 250 million Americans. Electron: Are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom. Phosphate. valves. An operator should calibrate the instrument with a known buffer solution before using a pH meter. pumping station or distribution system. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. Public Water System (PWS): Any water system which provides water to at least 25 people for at least 60 days annually. Pressure Measurement: Bourdon tube. Non-Potable: A liquid or water that is not approved for drinking. Peak Demand: The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant. Prevention: To take action. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. pH Temperature and Chlorine dosage are the factors that influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most. Pipeline Appurtenance: Pressure reducers. Neutron. they should take to protect their health. The notice advises consumers what precautions. Public Notification: An advisory that EPA requires a water system to distribute to affected consumers when the system has violated MCLs or other regulations. Bellows gauge and Diaphragm are commonly used to measure pressure in waterworks systems. The others drink water from private wells. See Contaminated. Rinse the electrodes with distilled water should be done with the electrodes after measuring the pH of a sample with a pH meter. There are differing standards for PWSs of different sizes and types.Pathogens: Disease-causing pathogens. Pump 5. regulators (which are a type of valve). Pump: A key and a tight fit is the common method used to secure an impeller to the shaft on doublesuction pump. Stop something before it happens. etc. Pathogens may contaminate water and cause waterborne disease. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. pCi/L: Picocuries per liter.

Residual Disinfection/Protection: A required level of disinfectant that remains in treated water to ensure disinfection protection and prevent recontamination throughout the distribution system (i. Recorder: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located anywhere in the plant where a flow must be measured and in a central location. an “Underground Service Alert” center should be contacted to assist in determining the location of all underground utilities in the work area. Relay Logic: Is the name of a popular method of automatically controlling a pump. Depending on the regulation. equipment. or produce other substances Red Water and Slime: Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because of red water and slime complaints. A possible cause of a scored shaft sleeve is that the packing has broken down or the packing is too tight or over tightened. or destroy a person’s skin or eyes and can be either acidic or basic. The main purpose of the wear rings in a centrifugal double suction pump is that the wear rings maintain a flow restriction between the impeller discharge and suction areas. One disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is that it is not selfpriming.. The purpose of the foot valve on a pump is that it keeps the air relief opened. Runoff: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of natural processes of runoff. What is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation? The lubricating oil tends to break down quickly requiring frequent replacement. An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. valve.conditions. An on-site review of the water sources. Cavitation is caused by a suction line may be clogged or is above the water line.e. Sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. from water leaving the treatment facility. Before beginning an excavation. EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water. or from the taps of selected consumers. Anthracite and Garnet: Mixed media filters are composed of these three materials. Raw Water: Water that has not been treated in any way. Centrifugal pumps do not generate suction unless the impeller is submerged in water. Salts are Absent: Is a strange characteristic that is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere. chemical feeder. and other devices. transient non community water system. Safe Yield: A possible consequence when the “safe yield” of a well is exceeded and water continues to be pumped from a well is land subsidence around the well will occur. Sand. The importance of a detailed sanitary survey of a new water source can not be overemphasized. Rotameter: Is the name of transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball is often used to measure the rate of flow of a gas or liquid. non-transient non-community water system. A reciprocating pump or piston pump should not be operated with the discharge valve in the closed position. it is generally considered to be unsafe to drink. The correct order for placing shorting equipment in a trench is starting at the top move to the bottom of the trench and reverse to remove it. Two pumps of the same size can be operated alternately to equalize wear and distribute lubricant in bearings. Reagent: A substance used in a chemical reaction to measure. operation. detect. Continuous leakage from a mechanical seal on a pump indicates that the mechanical seal needs to be replaced. Safety: 2 Feet: The distance from the edge of a hole must you place the spoil from an excavation. Safety Statements: A supervisor should warn an operator about the presence of a confined space by clearly posting the appropriate signage at all entries to a confined space. Reservoir: An impoundment used to store water. Sanitary Survey: Persons trained in public health engineering and the epidemiology of waterborne diseases should conduct the sanitary survey. Ladders and climbing devices by inspected by a qualified individual once a year. The viscosity decreases with most lubricants as the temperature increases. burn. pipes). examine. facilities. and maintenance of a public water systems for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the facilities for producing and distributing safe drinking water. Rules: The objective of a vulnerability assessment is to determine weakness in the distribution or water system. Corrosive-This type of chemical classification may weaken. If a pump is located above the level of water a foot valve must be provided on the suction piping to hold the prime. Community water system. The purpose of a non-regulatory sanitary survey is to identify possible biological and chemical pollutants which might affect a water supply. PWS: 3 types of public water systems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 197 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Sedimentation Basin: This location is where the thickest and greatest concentration of sludge will be found. Overfeeding must be prevented to protect public health when using a fluoridation system. Vapor: 3 forms of matter. kills algae and oxidizes organic matter. dosage. small motors. If a plant produces a large volume of sludge. Sedimentation: The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. Sodium Bicarbonate: Commonly used to increase alkalinity of water and stabilize pH. portable power tools and in homes. Crystal-grade types of sodium fluoride should be fed with a saturator.300 or fewer persons. Sludge Reduction: Organic polymers are used to reduce the quantity of sludge. Turbidity of source water. Scale: Crust of calcium carbonate. Shroud: The front and/or back of an impeller. Centrifuges and Filter Presses: Are procedures used in the dewatering of sludge. Saturation Index: See Langelier's Index. Softening: The process that removes the ions which cause hardness in water. 130 degrees F is the maximum temperature that transmitting equipment is able to with stand. or a spill. Solid. Scale is caused by high calcium hardness and/or high pH. Sectional Map: Is the name of a map that provides detailed drawings of the distribution system’s zones. Solar Drying Beds. The regular use of stain prevention chemicals can prevent scale. Liquid. Soda Ash: Chemical used to raise pH and total alkalinity (sodium carbonate). Split Flow Control System: This type of control system is to control the flow to each filter influent which is divided by a weir. or conditioned to decrease the volume of sludge. appliances. SPADNS: The lab reagent called SPADNS solution is used in performing the Fluoride test. SCADA: A remote method of monitoring pumps and equipment. Sludge Basins: After cleaning sludge basins and before returning the tanks into service the tanks should be inspected. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 198 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . agricultural drainage. Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda. If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. SOC: A common way for a synthetic organic chemical such as dioxin to be introduced to a surface water supply is from an industrial discharge. Small Water System: 3. the result of unbalanced water. Sensor: A float and cable system are commonly found instruments that may be used as a sensor to control the level of liquid in a tank or basin. Scroll and Basket: Are the two basic types of centrifuges used in water treatment. or color) of drinking water. Twice a year sedimentation tanks should be drained and cleaned if the sludge buildup interferes with the treatment process. Softening Water: When the water has a low alkalinity it is advantageous to use soda ash instead of caustic soda for softening water. and type of coagulant used are the most important factors which determine the amount of sludge produced in a treatment of water. Saturator: A device which produces a fluoride solution for the fluoride process. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Non-enforceable federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. repaired if necessary. Single Phase Power: Is the type of power is used for lighting systems. the sludge could be dewatered. Shock: Also known as superchlorination or break point chlorination. thickened. Solar Drying Beds or Lagoons: Are shallow.Sanitizer: A disinfectant or chemical which disinfects (kills bacteria). Hard insoluble minerals deposited (usually calcium bicarbonate) which forms on pool and spa surfaces and clog filters. small-volume storage pond where sludge is concentrated and stored for an extended periods. and disinfected. heaters and pumps. Ridding a water of organic waste through oxidization by the addition of significant quantities of a halogen. Sodium Bisulfate: Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity (dry acid). Chemical often used to soften water. odor. Some times we call these quarter-sections. a by-product chlorine generation and often used to raise pH.

Storage Tanks: Three types of water usage that determine the volume of a storage tank are fire suppression storage. trichloroethylene: A solvent and degreaser used for many purposes. since salinity comprises some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. Titration: Method of testing by adding a reagent of known strength to a water sample until a specific color change indicates the completion of the reaction. equalization storage. Stuffing Box: That portion of the pump that houses the packing or mechanical seal. Sum of all the Atomic Weights of the Elements in a Molecule: Is the molecular weight of a compound. a grab sample. Susceptibility Waiver: A waiver that is granted based upon the results of a vulnerability assessment. TCE. streams. Generally the operational definition is that the solids (often abbreviated TDS) must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve size of two micrometres. but it is rather used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants. Time for Turbidity Breakthrough and Maximum Head Loss: Are the two factors which determine whether or not a change in filter media size should be made. for example dry cleaning. lakes. A stoneline or benchmark. Equalization storage is the volume of water needed to supply the system for periods when demand exceeds supply. Taste and Odor Problems in the Water: May happen if sludge and other debris are allowed to accumulate in a water treatment plant. Total dissolved solids are normally only discussed for freshwater systems. TDS: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. Standpipe: A water tank that is taller than it is wide. Stationing: The word stationing on a plan drawing refers to a representation of a location from a starting point or reference. Surface Water Sources: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of Runoff.Spray Bottle of Ammonia: An operator should use ammonia to test for a chlorine leak around a valve or pipe. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams. This process is ideal as long as the water does not contain a large amount of TDS. Conditioning. Can be used to accomplish accurate and reliable remote monitoring and control over a long distribution system. Demineralization may be necessary in a treatment process if the water has a very high value Total Dissolved Solids. Sterilized Glassware: Is the only type of glassware that should be used in testing for coliform bacteria. You will see white smoke if there is a leak. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects). Three-phase Motor: The incoming leads for a three-phase motor all have power. Surface Water: Water that is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. Generally. ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. Temperature: This test should be performed immediately in the field. Sulfate: Will readily dissolve in water to form an anion. Thickening. and Dewatering: Are common processes that are utilized to reduce the volume of sludge. a sample should be filtered before being poured into an evaporating dish and dried. generally. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 199 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Supernatant: Is the liquid layer which forms above the sludge in a settling basin. a water storage tank’s interior coating (paint) protect the interior about 3-5 years. rivers and lakes. the chemical reaction rate decreases also. although TDS is generally considered not as a primary pollutant (e. When determining the total dissolved solids. Telemetering: The use of a transmission line with remote signaling to monitor a pumping station or motors. Tapping Valve: Is the name of the valve that is specifically designed for connecting a new water main to an existing main that is under pressure.g. when the temperature decreases. The rate decreases: In general. it is a common groundwater contaminant. TDS-Total Dissolved Solids: is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular. rivers. Three-Phase Pumps: Large three-phase pumps employs the use of a magnetic starter. and emergency storage. Taste and Odors: The primary purpose to use potassium permanganate in water treatment is to control taste and odors. Spring Pressure: Is what maintains contact between the two surfaces of a mechanical seal. Anaerobic water undesirable for drinking water purposes because of color and odor problems are more likely to occur under these conditions.

We have all seen these little rust mounds inside cast iron pipe. This characteristic of water changes the most rapidly after a heavy rainfall. For a given quantity of flow. Total Alkalinity: A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water that indicates its buffering ability. a scratched or unclean sample tube in the nephelometer and selecting an incorrect wavelength of a light path U. Tubercles are formed due to joining dissimilar metals. Vane: That portion of an impeller that throws the water toward the volute. VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive: The longest term VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive is 9 years. Trihalomethanes (THM): Four separate compounds including chloroform. dibromochloromethane. Transient Non-community Water System: Is not required to sample for VOC’s.S. A measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles.Titration: Is the common method of standardization of a solution determination in the lab. there will be a reduction in water treatment costs. it is primarily transported in steel containers.0005 mg/L. Under Pressure in Steel Containers: After chlorine gas is manufactured. the pressure in the pipeline is reduced.e. Generally. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of tiny particles. Environmental Protection Agency: In the United States. Valves: A gate valve should be operated in any position between fully open and fully closed. Turbidimeter: Monitoring the filter effluent turbidity on a continuous basis with an in-line instrument is a recommended practice. the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies. If high quality raw water is low in turbidity. i. causing electro-chemical reactions. Transient. Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. the greater the resistance to pH change. the temperature variation of a sample. Velocity Head: The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system. Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV): Is one of the most popular ways to compare filter runs. Turbidimeter is best suited to perform this measurement. See TDS. Turbidity: One physical characteristic of water. High levels of turbidity may interfere with proper water treatment and monitoring. dichlorobromom-ethane. and bromoform. Treated Water: Disinfected and/or filtered water served to water system customers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): The accumulated total of all solids that might be dissolved in water. See Disinfectant Byproducts. Velocities can be increased to a point that a partial vacuum is created. measure of its resistance to a change in pH. Like iron to copper pipe. Tubercles: The creation of this condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Volatile Organic Chemical: VOC. Turbidity Interferes with Disinfection: The primary reason turbidity of water be minimized. Non-Community Water System: A water system which provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. this agency responsible for setting drinking water standards and for ensuring their enforcement. Venturi: If water flows through a pipeline at a high velocity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 200 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The most common class of disinfection by-products created when chemical disinfectants react with organic matter in water during the disinfection process. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. Toxic substance contaminates a drinking water: Public Safety is the most important concern should an owner/operator allow a toxic substance to contaminate a drinking water. This technique is the best way to compare water treatment filter runs. VOC’s: The reporting limit for all regulated VOC’s is 0. The following conditions may cause an inaccurate measure of turbidity. Valve 20 or 30 Feet Per Inch: Is the typical scale of a Valve and Hydrant map using an intersection method of indexing. They still must test their water for microbes and several chemicals. An MCL for turbidity established by the EPA because turbidity interferes with disinfection. It must meet or surpass all drinking water standards to be considered safe to drink. the higher the total alkalinity.

gastroenteritis). Water Vapor: A characteristic is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere is does not contain salts. The three main classifications of water meters are Compound. Volute: The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharge by the impeller. Peak day demand is the greatest amount of water used for any one day in a calendar year. The land area from which water drains into a stream. Physical. Source water monitoring for lead and copper be preformed when a public water system exceeds an action level for lead of copper.. Vulnerability Assessment: An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals. amoebic dysentery. capable of being transmitted by water (e.g. Watershed: An area that drains all of its water to a particular water course or body of water. Water Quality: Name the 4 broad categories of water quality. river. caused by a virus. Waterborne Diseases: A disease. Velocity. supply. Course Proctor Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 201 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Water Hammer: A surge in a pipeline resulting from the rapid increase or decrease in water flow. Displacement. biological. cholera. A positive bacteriological sample indicates the presence of bacteriological contamination. radiological. typhoid fever. bacterium. or other microorganism. Pathogens are disease causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Water Level: The probe may be coated by calcium carbonate is a common problem with an electrical probe that is used to measure the level of water. and furnish quality water to a community.Voltage: 1. Water Meter: A water meter that is removed from service for repair should be handled by sealing the meter to retain water. protozoan. Water Meter: Head loss may occur with the use of a water meter. Waivers: Monitoring waivers for nitrate and nitrite are prohibited. Jerry Durbin. Water hammer exerts tremendous force on a system and can be highly destructive. Water Purveyor: The individuals or organization responsible to help provide. chemical.000 volts is the maximum number of volts that electrical equipment can be insulated with a lower limit of 1 megaohm. or reservoir.

Cincinnati. Technical Information Branch. Am Rev Respir Dis CFR. 73rd ed. Code of Federal regulations. Public Health Service. NIOSH [1992]. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. Bethesda. Hall RC [1987]. Mickelsen RL. American Thoracic Society. NY: Genium Publishing Corporation. Office of the Federal Register. 3rd rev. Quincy. Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. New York. Department of Health and Human Services. New York. Toxicology of the eye. Schenectady. 9th ed. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Department of Transportation. ATS [1987]. Clayton F [1981-1982]. New York. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Centers for Disease Control. Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer. Washington. Department of Health and Human Services. ed. IL: Charles C Thomas. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Chlorine. MA: National Fire Protection Association. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 941-947 Mickelsen RL. Cincinnati. Centers for Disease Control. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.S. Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation. OH: U. Centers for Disease Control. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Genium [1992].S.S. ACGIH [1994]. Hall RC. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Hazardous substance fact sheet: Chlorine. Hazardous substances data bank: Chlorine. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 445-447 NFPA [1986].S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. OH: U. OH: U. 92-100. 94-113. Department of Health and Human Services. NIOSH [1987a]. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 202 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chern RT. 1993 Emergency response guidebook.S. Trenton.S. NIOSH [1994]. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Public Health Service. Inc. OH: U. NIOSH respirator decision logic. Centers for Disease Control. Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Research and Special Programs Administration. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. [1993]. 87-116. Standardization of spirometry -. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Proctor NH. Washington. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Government Printing Office. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Department of Health and Human Services. Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Cincinnati. Myers JR [1991]. Forsberg K. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Boca Raton. Material safety data sheet No. Hathaway GJ. Cincinnati. NY: John Wiley & Sons. ed. 12th ed. Mansdorf SZ [1993]. and Fischman ML [1991]. 3rd ed. Centers for Disease Control.1987 update. MD: National Library of Medicine. 87-108. NJ: New Jersey Department of Health. Public Health Service.References ACGIH [1991]. Lide DR [1993]. Cincinnati. NLM [1995]. DOT [1993]. FL: CRC Press. OH: U. DC: U. guide 20. 3rd ed. Cincinnati. Hughes JP. Grant WM [1986]. Clayton G. 4th ed. NIOSH [1995]. Lewis RJ. Cincinnati. Public Health Service. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 53. A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. 6th ed. New York. NIOSH [1987b]. DC: U. Springfield.S. NJDH [1992].

4H2O Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 C CO2 H2CO3 Cl2 ClO2 CuSO4 . liquid Al(OH)3 AL2(SO4)3 .7H20 H2SiF6 HCl H2S HOCL Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 MgO2 Mn(HCO3)2 MnSO4 NH2Cl KHCO3 KMnO4 Alum. 14(H2O) NH3 NH4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 203 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Common Water Treatment and Distribution Chemicals Chemical Name Common Name Chemical Formula Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Bentonitic clay Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Chlorine gas Chlorine Dioxide Copper sulfate Dichloramine Ferric chloride Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous bicarbonate Ferrous hydroxide Ferrous sulfate Hydrofluorsilicic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hypochlorus acid Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium dioxide Manganous bicarbonate Manganous sulfate Monochloramine Potassium bicarbonate Potassium permanganate Muriatic acid Copperas Iron sulfate Iron chloride Blue vitriol HTH Slaked Lime Unslaked (Quicklime) Gypsum Activated Carbon Limestone Bentonite Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OCl)2 . 5H2O NHCl2 FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(HCO3)2 Fe(OH)3 FeSO4.

Chemical Name Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorsilicate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium Metaphosphate Sodium phosphate Sodium sulfate Sulfuric acid Common Name Soda ash Salt Chemical Formula Na2CO3 NaCl NaClO2 NaF Na2SiF6 Lye Hexametaphosphate Disodium phosphate NaOH NaOCl NaPO3 Na3PO4 Na2SO4 H2SO4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 204 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

(+4). +3. +6 -1. +5 -2. -1.Number Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Rubidium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Valence (-1). +4. (+3). +2 (+1). +5. +5 0 +1 +2 +3 (+2). (+2). +4 +2. +4 -3. +2. (+7). +1. +4 (+2). +3. +3. +5 -2 -1. +2. +4 -3. +4. (+4) +1. (+2). +2. (+5). +3. +3 (+2). +4. (+6). (+4). +6 +2. (+1). (+4). +1. (+3). +3. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +2. (+4). (+6). (+3). -2. (+4). (+3) (+1). (+2). +6 +6 (+2). +3. +3. +4. (+3). +6 -1. +2. +4. +8 (+2). +1. +3. +5 (+2). (+2). +3 -4. +4. +3. +4. +5 -2. +4. (+6) +2. (+6) +1. +1 0 +1 +2 -3. +7 +2. (+3) +2 (+2). (+2). +3. +3. (+1) 0 +1 +2 +3 -4. +3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 205 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +4 -3. (+3). (+2). +3. (+4) (+1). +5 +2. +2. (+6) +2.

+3 (+2).. +2 +1. +6 -1. +1. (+2). Lange (Ed. +3 (+2). +8 (+1). +3 +1. +6. (+4). +4 (-3). +2. +5 (+2). (+3). +4. +5 -2. (+3). +6 Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. (+5). +3 +2. Handbook Publishers. (+2). (+1). +4. (+3). +3 +3 +4 (+3). +2. +4. 1952. +3. +2. +3. +3. (+2). (+4). +4 -3. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +3. (+3). +3. Norbert A. +6 (+1). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 206 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium +2. +4 +3 +3. +6 (-1). +3. +4. 8th Ed.). (+5). +6 +1. Inc. +4 +3 (+2). +4. +7 (+2). (+4). +4 +3 +3 +3 (+2). (+5). +5. (+4). (+5) (-2). (+2). +4. (+4). +3 +3 +3. +6. +4. (+6) ? 0 ? +2 +3 +4 +5 (+2). (+2).

Common Used Products Chemical Name acetone acid of sugar alcohol. alum chrome. yellow copperas cream of tartar crocus powder emery powder Epsom salts ethanol fluorspar formalin French chalk galena Glauber's salt gypsum hydrocyanic acid hypo (photography) lime dimethyl ketone oxalic acid ethyl alcohol methyl alcohol aluminum potassium sulfate aluminum oxide sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide nitrohydrochloric acid nitric acid ammonia in alcohol magnesium silicate acetylsalicylic acid sodium bicarbonate isoamyl acetate benzene mercuric chloride cupric oxide graphite (carbon) chlorinated lime copper sulfate copper sulfate sodium borate sulfur aqueous sodium chloride solution antimony trichloride anhydrous stannic chloride mercury chloride phenol carbon dioxide potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium nitrate chromic potassium sulfate lead (VI) chromate ferrous sulfate potassium bitartrate ferric oxide impure aluminum oxide magnesium sulfate ethyl alcohol natural calcium fluoride aqueous formaldehyde solution natural magnesium silicate natural lead sulfide sodium sulfate natural calcium sulfate hydrogen cynanide sodium thiosulfate solution calcium oxide Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 207 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . grain alcohol. wood alum alumina antichlor aqua ammonia aqua regia aqua fortis aromatic spirit of ammonia asbestos aspirin baking soda banana oil (artificial) benzol bichloride of mercury black copper oxide black lead bleaching powder blue vitriol bluestone borax brimstone brine butter of antimony butter of tin calomel carbolic acid carbonic acid gas caustic potash caustic soda chalk Chile saltpeter chrome.

jeweler's rubbing alcohol sal ammoniac sal soda salt. table talc or talcum vinegar vitamin C washing soda water glass Chemical Name aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide silver nitrate magnesium oxide mercurous oxide methyl alcohol methyl alcohol hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid methyl salicylate copper acetoarsenite powdered calcium carbonate isoamyl acetate potassium carbonate calcium sulfate graphite potassium carbonate potassium hydroxide hydrogen cyanide tetrasodium pyrophosphate calcium oxide mercury lead tetraoxide potassium sodium tartrate ferric oxide isopropyl alcohol ammonium chloride sodium carbonate sodium chloride potassium binoxalate potassium carbonate potassium nitrate silicon dioxide sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium silicate ammonium hydroxide solution sucrose magnesium silicate impure dilute acetic acid ascorbic acid sodium carbonate sodium silicate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 208 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . black methanol methylated spirits muriatic acid oil of vitriol oil of wintergreen (artificial) Paris green Paris white pear oil (artificial) pearl ash plaster of Paris plumbago potash potassa Prussic acid pyro quicklime quicksilver red lead Rochelle salt rouge.Common Used Products limewater lunar caustic magnesia mercury oxide. table salt of lemon salt of tartar saltpeter silica soda ash soda lye soluble glass spirit of hartshorn sugar.

13 Feet of Water = 1 Inch of Mercury 454 Grams = 1Pound 1 Gallon of Water = 8. Ft.34 Percent Efficiency = In – Out X 100 In TEMPERATURE: 0 0 F = (0C X 9/5) + 32 C = (0F .14 X Diameter General POUNDS = Concentration (mg/L) X Flow (MG) X 8.1 mg/L = 1 Grain/Gallon 1% = 10. (A) X Volume (A) = Conc.746 kW = 1 Horsepower LENGTH 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5280 Feet = 1 Mile AREA 144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 43.) = Length X Width Volume (cu.7 Pounds = 1 Cubic Foot Dimensions SQUARE: Area (sq.) = 3.433 PSI 1.Math Conversion Factors 1 PSI = 2.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) X Depth (ft) SPHERE: (3.560 Square Feet – 1 Acre VOLUME 1000 Milliliters = 1 Liter 3.31 Feet of Water 1 Foot of Water = .55 Cubic Feet per Second = 1 MGD 60 Seconds = 1 Minute 1440 Minutes = 1 Day . (B) X Volume (B) FLOW RATE (Q): Q = A X V (Quantity = Area X Velocity) FLOW RATE (gpm): Flow Rate (gpm) = 2.34 lbs/gallon 1 mg/L = 1 PPM 17.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) CYLINDER: Volume (Cu.785 Liters = 1Gallon 231 Cubic Inches = 1 Gallon 7.14) (Diameter)3 (6) Circumference = 3. in)2 (Distance. in) Height.) = 3.000 mg/L 694 Gallons per Minute = MGD 1.83 (Diameter.ft) = Length (ft) X Width (ft) X Height (ft) CIRCLE: Area (sq. in % SLOPE = Rise (feet) X 100 Run (feet) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 209 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ft. ft.48 Gallons = 1 Cubic Foot 64.32) X 5/9 CONCENTRATION: Conc.

12 (Mg. gal) (Strength 2.%) STRENGTH (%) (Volume 1. mg/L) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 210 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . MEAN OR AVERAGE = Sum of the Values Number of Values TOTAL HEAD (ft) = Suction Lift (ft) X Discharge Head (ft) SURFACE LOADING RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gal/min/sq.) X Diameter (in) VELOCITY = Distance (ft) Time (Sec) WATER HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 BRAKE HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Efficiency MOTOR HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Eff.ft) Surface Area (sq.ACTUAL LEAKAGE = Leak Rate (GPD) Length (mi. mg/L) Mg HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 4. gal) + (Volume 2.000 Number of hours worked per year DETENTION TIME (hrs) = Volume of Basin (gals) X 24 hrs Flow (GPD) BY-PASS WATER (gpd) = Total Flow (GPD) X Plant Effluent Hardness (gpg) Filtered Hardness (gpg) Hardness HARDNESS (mg/L as CaCO3) = A (mls of titrant) X 1000 Mls of Sample Ca HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 2.000. ft) MIXTURE = (Volume 1. X Motor Eff. gal) FLUORIDE ION PURITY = (Molecular weight of Fluoride) (100%) (%) Molecular weight of Chemical INJURY FREQUENCY RATE = (Number of Injuries) 1.5 X (Ca. gal) (Strength 1. %) + (Volume 2.

785 (1/gallon) 1000 (mg/g) X 454 (g/lb.) X Removal Capacity HARDNESS TO GRAIN/GALLON = Hardness (mg/L) X gr./gal 17.) DESIRED PAC = Volume (MG) X Dose (mg/L) X 8. ft Flow. ft. ft) 2.000 (mg/L) Mls of Sample EXCHANGE CAPACITY (grains) = Resin Volume (cu.1 mg/L LANGELIER INDEX = pH ./MG) 1 MG PAC (lbs. ft. ft Distance. GPM 193.) C Factor Slope = Energy Loss.) + Water (lbs.54 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 211 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .) BACKWASH PUMPING RATE = Filter Area (sq. ft) Surface Area (sq.) Dry Polymer (lbs. ft) (gpm) FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft) Filter Area (sq.63 (Slope) 0.34 (lbs.75 (Diameter. ft) X Backwash Rate (gpm/sq.ALKALINITY-TOTAL = Mls of Titrant X Normality X 50.pHs Chemical Addition CHEMICAL FEED RATE = Chemical Feed (ml/min) (gpm) 3785 ml/gal CHLORINE DOSE (mg/L) = Chlorine Demand (mg/L) + Chlorine Residual (mg/L) POLYMER % = Dry Polymer (lbs.) Filtration FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq./gal) = PAC (mg/L) X 3. ft.

Basic Principles of Water Treatment. Colorado. ed. Tall Oaks Publishing Inc. References Water Treatment. 1996. Morelli. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 212 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Littleton.D. C. Second Edition Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations.We have over 40 other continuing education correspondence courses available.

com. please visit www. You can also find complete assistance under the Assistance Page. the types of source water that is available. we expect that water to be clean and tasty too. life would not survive. please email all concerns and the completed manual to info@tlch2o. Not only do we expect water to flow. Please include your name and address on your manual and make copy for yourself. when we turn on the water faucet. I would prefer that you write out your own answer on the provided manual. Without it. irrigate. We use water to drink. and how we mimic the purification processes by the use of mechanical and chemical applications. Living in the United States.ABCTLC. we expect water to flow. but if you are unable to do so. You will have 90 days from receipt of this manual to complete in order to receive your Professional Development Hours (PDHs) or Continuing Education Unit (CEU). we turn on the faucet and use the water without thinking about the miraculous trip that each drop of water has taken to get to that faucet. Large raw water impoundment Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 213 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . type out your own answer key. If you should need any assistance. bathe and have fun in.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. In this course. you will learn how the water has made a trip through the hydrologic cycle.Water Treatment Assignment The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. A score of 70 % is necessary to pass this course. So often. Introduction Water is an integral part of life.

ABCTLC. B. please visit www. These processes are nature’s way of purifying the water. Give a brief definition of the listed components of the water cycle. instead the water cycles from one place to another. it goes through many processes. C. Runoff: 3.The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. The water that you drank today most likely has been drunk before many years ago. The Hydrologic Cycle The water on the planet today is the same water that has been on the planet since the beginning. Infiltration: 4. Another term used for plants giving off moisture would be: Condensation Precipitation Percolation Transpiration Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 214 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . D. The planet never gets any new water. 1. Evaporation: 6. A.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. Percolation: 5. As the water cycles. Precipitation: 2.

As water moves over or below the earth surface the quality of the water is classified as the following EXCEPT for: A. we will focus on two categories of source water. Biological C. they need to know the source of your problem so they can properly treat it. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 215 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Physical B. False 9. In the space provided below. Chemical D.7. True B. Ground Water and Surface Water. A. A porous material just above the water table describes this source to be surface water. The hydrological cycle shows several attributes of the earth purifying and moving water. 8. The same is true when treating water. Radiological E. Evolutional 10. There are three basic types of water rights. To simplify this. list the physical characteristics of water. they are: Source of Water When you go see your doctor due to illness.

Managing Water Quality at the Source 11. In this lesson, you will focus on surface water and the different factors that affect the quality of the water. Many populations have depended on lakes as a source of impounded domestic water supplies. As population increases, list below brief examples of how the supplies are being used?

12. Several common water quality problems in domestic water supply reservoirs may be related to algae blooms. Which of the following summarizes the problems that can occur? A. Taste and odor problems B. Short filter runs at the plant do to clogging C. Increased pH D. Dissolved oxygen depletion E. All of the above Define the following terms: 13. Anaerobic:

14. Aerobic:

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15. During the winter months, which condition is most likely to occur do to cold water conditions on the bottom of the lake? A. Anaerobic B. Aerobic 16. The presence of hydrogen sulfide will produce which type of odor: A. Earthy B. Fishy C. Rotten egg D. Roses 17. What is the definition for Oxidation?

18. What does MCL stand for? A. Maximum Containment Level B. Minimum Contaminant Level C. Maximum Can-drink Level D. Maximum Contaminant Level 19. Which Federal Act would you find the MCL for drinking water? A. SDWA B. OSHA C. NEPDES D. CWA 20. Lakes and reservoirs have intake-outlet structures. In the space provided below, list types of structures and/or screens.

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Coagulation and Flocculation 21. Surface water for domestic use will have some form of impurities. It can be in the form of INORGANIC materials or ORGANIC materials. Given the following illustrations, determine if they are Inorganic or Organic. A. Salt is ____ B. Oxygen is ____ C. Dirt is ____ D. Tree leaves are ____ 22. Which statement describes COLLOIDAL matter? A. Solids that sink to the bottom of a lake B. Solids that are invisible C. Solids that float to the top D. Solids that are very small and repel each other 23. The purpose of using the Coagulation and Flocculation process is to remove the particulate impurities in the water. Which of the two would you use the addition of chemicals? A. Coagulation B. Flocculation 24. What is the purpose of flash mixing? A. Using lightning to shock the water B. To mix the chemical slowly C. To mix the chemical in the water rapidly to prevent clumps D. None of the above 25. List four primary coagulants used in water treatment. A. B. C. D.

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26. Which type of laboratory analysis best simulates the plant process to determine the coagulant dosage? A. Temperature B. pH C. Turbidity D. Jar Test E. Alkalinity 27. Flocculation and Flash Mixing are the same process. A. True B. False 28. Flocculation is a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable floc particles. A. True B. False 29. What is the advantage of minimizing chemical coagulant doses? A. Less sludge is produced and chemical cost are reduced B. Shorter settling times C. Shorter filter runs D. Big clumps floating to the top 30. What is short-circuiting?

Small water treatment package plant

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32. 34. C. The same happens to the impurities we coagulated and flocculated. 33. A. Depending on the quality of the source water. B. C. D. B. It gives us a fancy word for RAIN. What is the definition for Detention Time? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 220 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . B. The impurities precipitate and settle to the bottom. A cloud forms and rain begins to FALL towards the earth. List possible shapes for a sedimentation basin. some plants have Pre-Sedimentation.Sedimentation We used the term PRECIPITATION in the hydrological cycle. Give two reasons for this. 31. A. A. This is done in SEDIMENTATION basins. List some sedimentation basin components.

Failure to properly maintain the sludge discharge line B. It will increase C.35. Sludge concentration is too high D. It will remain the same B. This stuff belongs at the wastewater plant Vertical Turbine Pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 221 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It will decrease D. Sludge concentration is too low C. what will happen to the detention time? A. If a sedimentation basin sludge depth increases. None of the above 36. What does frequent clogging of the sludge discharge line indicate? A.

All of the above 39. D. The more uniform the media. Biological forms D. at least once per day. Colloids C. Like a coffee filter that keeps the grounds out of the pot. Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis. False 42.Filtration Filtration is the last attempt in removing particulate impurities from the water. Silts and clay B. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 222 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . What is the major difference between a Direct Filtration Plant and a Conventional Plant? 38. B. A. A. 37. the faster the head loss buildup. 40. True B. Floc E. False 41. Direct filtration and Conventional. True B. C. List four desirable characteristics of filter media. The filtration process removes which type of particles? A. A. There are to classifications of filtration plants. A. True B. In the treatment plant we use a mechanical straining for removal.

GPM B. list three types: A. What does S. C. 46. stand for? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 223 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . MGD D.43.T. MGD/sq ft 44. GPM/sq ft C. Give a brief description of a DECLINING-RATE filter. How are filter production rates measured? A.R.W. Filter media provides several characteristics. 45. B.

True B. Turbidity 50. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 224 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Disinfection 47. Hepatitis B C. THM's D. When the temperature increases. False 53. A. Shingella B. False 51. 49. A. A. None of the above 48. the pressure of the chlorine gas inside a chlorine container will decrease. True B. What does organic matter form when it reacts with chlorine? A. True B. Nitrates C. Moisture in a chlorination system will combine with the chlorine gas and cause corrosion. False 54. You can use regular pipe fittings when making connections with chlorine containers. A. True B. Which of the following pathogens are waterborne diseases? A. Hypochlorite compounds tend to lower the pH of the water being disinfected. B. Giardia lamblia D. A. Floc B. A. False 52. Always work in pairs when looking and repairing chlorine leaks. True B. Both A & C E. List three benefits of prechlorination. C.

Rate of chloramine formation C. The warmer the water the less dissipation rate of chlorine to the atmosphere C. What does the product of C x T provide a measure of? A. Threat of THM formation 59. Iron B. When a chlorine leak exist.55. The warmer the water. Ammonia C. Which of the following chemical must be present for a breakpoint chlorination curve to develop when chlorine is added to water? A. Level of disinfectant intensity B. False 56. Degree of pathogenic inactivation D. use water to dilute it. the longer contact time needed 57. A. Manganese D. The higher the temperature the easier to disinfect the water D. What formula would you use to calculate the chlorine feed in pounds per day? Chlorine Gas Windsock Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 225 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Organic matter 58. True B. How do water temperature conditions influence the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant? A. The lower the water temperature the easier to disinfect the water B.

62. D. A. B. G. Give a brief description for the use of a fusible plug in a steel cylinder.60. H. E. 61. List eight parts that are used for a chlorinator. F. C. What is the maximum rate of chlorine removal in a 150 pound cylinder? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 226 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Acid corrosion of joints B.How are probes used in the disinfection process? A.63. Gas pressure to high D. They quickly measure and record chlorine residual E. They accurately measure chlorine dosage B. Back pressure C. Missing gasket 64. What is the most probable cause of leaking joints in gas chlorinator systems? A. All of the above Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 227 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . They provide a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant D. They measure the liquid chlorine remaining in a chlorine container C.

You will not receive your answer key back. you will receive a certificate for 10 Contact Hours. Temperature E. Lack of oxygen D. pH is low C.00 renewal fee. Which of the following factors influence chlorine disinfection? A. If you successfully pass this course. Microorganisms B. Why will the engines of emergency vehicles quit operating in the vicinity of a large chlorine leak? A. Reducing agents D.65. Make a copy of all of your work. pH C. I would prefer that the completed booklet or a typed page is mailed back to TLC. You have 90 days to successfully complete this course or you will have to pay a $25. All the above 66. Corrosion damage from chlorine B. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 228 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Too far gone to look back and see why When you are finished. 10 PDHs or 1 CEU or 10 Training Credits. Please make a copy for yourself.

Please rate the difficulty of the testing process. Please rate the difficulty of your course.Please mail this with your final exam WATER TREATMENT COURSE CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSE CARD DATE:________________ NAME:_________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY ______________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________ E-MAIL_________________________________PHONE_______________________ PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER OF THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER IN THE AREA BELOW. ______________________________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 229 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . What would you do to improve the Course? ______________________________________________________________________ Any other concerns or comments. Very Similar 0 1 2 3 4 5 Very Different 4. 1. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 Very Difficult Very Difficult 2. How did you hear about this Course?__________________________________ 5. Please rate the subject matter on the exam to your actual field or work. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 3.

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