10 PDH's, 10 Training Hours or 1 CEU upon completion

Copyright Notice ©2006 Technical Learning College (TLC) No part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without TLC’s prior written approval. Permission has been sought for all images and text where we believe copyright exists and where the copyright holder is traceable and contactable. All material that is not credited or acknowledged is the copyright of Technical Learning College. This information is intended for educational purposes only. Most unaccredited photographs have been taken by TLC instructors or TLC students. We will be pleased to hear from any copyright holder and will make good on your work if any unintentional copyright infringements were made as soon as these issues are brought to the editor's attention. Every possible effort is made to ensure that all information provided in this course is accurate. All written, graphic, photographic or other material is provided for information only. Therefore, Technical Learning College accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the application or misuse of any information included herein. Requests for permission to make copies should be made to the following address: TLC P.O. Box 420 Payson, AZ 85547 Information in this document is subject to change without notice. TLC is not liable for errors or omissions appearing in this document.

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Special State Approval Information
This course is approved for 10 contact hours/10 PDHS/1 CEU in most States. There is a 40 hour version of this course. It is called Water Treatment Fundamentals and can be found at www.ABCTLC.com.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 10 CEHs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 10 PDHs. California Department of Health Services acceptance, 10 contact hours. Colorado, #06-OW-0029, 1 TUs in Water and Distribution. Georgia, 6 Continuing Education Points, # CE-6-106-TLC-013108-1814. Hawaii Department of Health approval, Public Water System Operators. 1.0 CEU. Indiana, Water Approval PWSTO1-1912, 10 Contact Hours. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Water approval, 10 continuing Education Training Contact Hours. Kentucky, DOW course #ALT-1913 - 10 hours for water operators only. Missouri, Water Approval # 0127336, 10 Renewal Hours, Wastewater 4 Renewal Hours New York Dept. of Health, 10 contact hours. Ohio EPA, Course #D096, Approved for Drinking Water for 10.0 contact hours. Expires 6/26/2009. Oregon, OESAC approval #884, 1.20 CEUs in Drinking Water, and 0.4 CEUs in Wastewater. Expires 12/17/2006. Pennsylvania DEP, 10 hours in Water # 681. Rhode Island, 10 contact hours. Tennessee, Water and Wastewater Certification Board, Approval #R02048, 10 Water Treatment Credit Hours. Utah Department of Environmental Quality requires special form from TLC. Washington WETRC approved 1 CEU. Wyoming DEQ, #373.00 for levels II, III, &IV. 10 Contact Hours “CREDIT is entered into a certified operator’s training record based on the CERTIFICATE NUMBER they list on the roster. FAILURE to provide a certification number or proving an incorrect number may result in no credit given.”

Check with your State to see if this course is accepted for CEU credit.

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Jar Testing
The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. What do these conditions include? A simulation of a water treatment plant’s flash mixing process. Under normal plant conditions a flow is 3.0 MGD and a one-minute fast mixing in the jar test is adequate. If the plant flow increases to 4.0 MGD, how long of fast mix is needed in the jar test? Less than one minute is necessary.

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Course Description
Water Treatment CEU Course
Water Distribution, Well Drillers, Pump Installers, Water Treatment Operators. The target audience for this course is the person interested in working in a water treatment or distribution facility and/or wishing to maintain CEUs for certification license or to learn how to do the job safely and effectively, and/or to meet education needs for promotion. This short CEU course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection and distribution making sure that it meets federal compliance. This course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection of the water that meets federal compliance. Task Analysis and Training Needs Assessments have been conducted to determine or set Needs-To-Know for this course. The following is a listing of some of those who have conducted extensive valid studies from which TLC has based this program upon: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the American Boards of Certification (ABC).

Course Goals
I. The Water Hydrological Cycle A. Terminology. B. Define Water’s Characteristics. II. Source of Water and Quality A. Define Ground water. B. Define Surface water. C. Define Quality Characteristics and Terms. III. Physical Processes A. Define Process Objectives. B. Define Concepts and MCLs. C. Define Terminology. D. Define Plant Layout. IV. Sedimentation and Related Processes A. Define Grit Chambers. B. Define Plain Sedimentation. C. Define Coagulation and Flocculation. 1. Chemical. 2. Process design. D. Define Thickening. E. Define Dewatering. F. Define Drying. G. Define Sludge Recovery and Transport. V. Define Filtration and other Treatment Techniques A. Process descriptions. 1. Functions. 2. Structure. 3. Operation. 4. Application. VI. Define Chlorination, Disinfection and Bacteria Testing.

CEU Course Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the water hydrologic cycle. Describe the source of water and the types of water quality issues. Describe the objectives of physical process of water treatment. Define terminology associated with physical processing of water. Describe the layout of physical processing facilities in water treatment plants. Describe the function, structure, operation, and application of racks, bars, and screens.

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7. 8. 9. 10.

Describe the coagulation and flocculation treatment processes. Describe sedimentation processes. Describe the filtration process. Describe the disinfection process.

Knowledge Obtained by this CEU Course Knowledge of chemical feeders, including startup/shutdown, calibration of feeder and calculation of dosage. 30 Minutes Knowledge of coagulation/flocculation systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of baffle, stationary, and mechanical systems. 20 Minutes Knowledge of sedimentation/clarification systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of sedimentation basin, solids-contact, and sludge depth determination. 25 Minutes Knowledge of granular activated carbon filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of deep-bed monomedia filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of multi-media gravity filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of membrane filtrations systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for operating conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of measurement techniques for expansion of backwash and depth of filter media. 15 Minutes Knowledge of alarm testing of disinfection systems. 5 Minutes Knowledge of operation and calibration of chemical feed pumps, e.g., hypochlorinators, chlorine systems, aqueous ammonia feeders, etc. 50 Minutes Knowledge of calculation of disinfectant dosage, including when to add disinfectant. 25 Minutes Knowledge of gas chlorinator operation, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 50 Minutes Knowledge of gas ammoniator systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 5 Minutes Knowledge of ozonators, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 35 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control solid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control liquid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of the chemistry of lime, caustic, bicarbonate, phosphates, silicates, and acids interacting with processed water. 40 Minutes Knowledge of stabilization reaction basins and correcting for abnormal conditions. 15 Minutes. Knowledge of electrical cathodic protections devices, including calibration. 10 Minutes Knowledge of calibration of flow meters, in-line turbidmeters, in-line chorine analyzers, and in-line pH meters. 10 Minutes Knowledge of programming alarms, autodialers, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes Knowledge of operation of auto shutdown systems, signal generators, signal receivers, signal transmitters, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes EPA Operator Rules, Security information and OSHA rule information. 210 Minutes.

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Other Areas Covered Intake Pretreatment Chemical Feed Chemical Mixing/Rapid Mix Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation/Clarification Filtration Disinfection Fluoridation Storage Softening Corrosion Control Sludge Disposal Recirculation Systems Instrumentation Maintenance Plumbing/Cross-Connections Laboratory Procedures Perform Specific Tests Operate Moving Equipment Management/Supervision/Reporting Specific Course Goals and Timed Outcomes (Beta Testing ) Eleven students were tested and the average time necessary to complete each task was recorded as the stated in the above objectives and timed outcome section. In the above timed outcome section area, the tasks were measured using times spent on each specific objective goal and final assignment grading of 70% and higher. Sixteen students were given a task assignment survey in which to track their times on the above learning objectives (course content) and utilized an essay style answer sheet to complete their final assignment. All students were given 30 days to complete this assignment and survey. September 2000 Beta Testing Group Statistics Sixteen students were selected for this assignment. All the students held water distribution or water treatment operator certification positions. None of the test group received credit for their assignment. Three students failed the final examination. Three students did not complete the reading assignment. The average times were based upon the outcome of eleven students. Prerequisites None Course Procedures for Registration and Support All of Technical Learning College correspondence courses have complete registration and support services offered. Delivery of services will include, e-mail, web site, telephone, fax and mail support. TLC will attempt immediate and prompt service. When a student registers for a distance or correspondence course, he/she is assigned a start date and an end date. It is the student's responsibility to note dates for assignments and keep up with the course work. If a student falls behind, he/she must contact TLC and request an end date extension in order to complete the course. It is the prerogative of TLC to decide whether to grant the request. All students will be tracked by their social security number or a unique number will be assigned to the student. Instructions for Written Assignments The Water Treatment correspondence course uses a multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank answer key. TLC would prefer that the answers are typed and e-mailed to, info@tlch2o.com. If you are unable to do so, please write inside the booklet and make a copy for yourself and mail me the completed manual. There are a total of 66 questions in this course.

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You can find course assistance on the website under the Assignment Page, under the Course Assistance button. Feedback Mechanism (examination procedures) Each student will receive a feedback form as part of their study packet. You will be able to find this form in the rear of the course or lesson. Security and Integrity All students are required to do their own work. All lesson sheets and final exams are not returned to the student to discourage sharing of answers. Any fraud or deceit and the student will forfeit all fees and the appropriate agency will be notified. Grading Criteria TLC will offer the student either pass/fail or a standard letter grading assignment. If TLC is not notified, you will only receive a pass/fail notice. (Certificate) Recommended Texts The Water Treatment course can be completed without any other text but you may use either a copy of WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION VOLUME ONE AND TWO - Office of Water Programs, California State University Sacramento or WATER TREATMENT - American Water Works Association to assist in completion or understanding of the assignment. Recordkeeping and Reporting Practices TLC will keep all student records for a minimum of seven years. It is your responsibility to give the completion certificate to the appropriate agencies. We will send the required information to Texas, Indiana and Pennsylvania for your certificate renewals. ADA Compliance TLC will make reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Students should notify TLC and their instructors of any special needs. Course content may vary from this outline to meet the needs of this particular group. Mission Statement Our only product is educational service. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible education service possible. TLC will attempt to make your learning experience an enjoyable educational opportunity.

What are a couple of corrosive substances may be found in a laboratory? Hydrochloric and Sulfuric acids HCL & H2SO4

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To provide a forum in which students can exchange experiences and ideas related to environmental education. and to maintain an environment that nurtures academic and personal growth. To provide a forum for the collection and dissemination of current information related to environmental education. To provide opportunities for TLC students to learn and practice environmental educational skills with members of the community for the purpose of sharing diverse perspectives and experience. Water Operator’s Lab Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 9 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To provide TLC students opportunities to apply and understand the theory and skills needed for operator certification.Educational Mission The educational mission of TLC is: To provide TLC students with comprehensive and ongoing training in the theory and skills needed for the environmental education field.

Final Sedimentation Basin Pre-Sedimentation Clarifier Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 10 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Please circle which certification you are applying the course CEU’s. please write your customer#_________________ Referral’s Name_____________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 11 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .com 3 digit code on back of card _____ American Express Visa or MasterCard #__________________________________Exp. Water Treatment Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Groundwater Degree Program Other ___________________________ Technical Learning College P.O.Contact Hour CEU/PDH Training Registration Water Treatment CEU Course Course Price $50. Box 420. Date_________ If you’ve paid on the Internet. AZ 85547-0420 ℡Toll Free (866) 557-1746℡ (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 info@tlch2o.00 Start and Finish Dates:_________________________You will have 90 days from this date in order to complete this course Name______________________________________Signature____________________ (This will appear on your certificate as above) Address:________________________________________________________________ City______________________________State________Zip___________Email________ Phone: Home ( )_______________Work ( )_____________Fax ( )_____________ Social Security___________________________ Your State may require this information. Operator ID# ________________________________Expiration Date____________ Class/Grade__________________________________ Your certificate will be mailed to you in about two weeks. Payson.

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Index New EPA Rules 15 Microbes 18 Radionuclides 19 Inorganic Contaminants 20 Volatile Organic Contaminants 21 Primary Drinking Water Requirements 23 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations 29 SDWA Terms 31 Groundwater and Wells 35 Water Sources 37 Source Water Quality 39 Water Treatment 42 Conventional Treatment 49 Rapid Sand Filtration 51 Backwash Rule 57 Algae 59 Waterborne Pathogens 61 Protozoan Diseases 64 Waterborne Diseases 66 Jar Testing 69 Periodic Chart 79 pH 81 Water Disinfectants 82 Chlorine Section 83 DPD Residual Method 97 Amperometric Titration 98 Chemistry Chlorination 99 Chlorinator Parts 108 Chlorine Dioxide 115 Bacteriological Monitor 127 HPC 133 Total Coliforms 136 Fluoride 137 Water Quality 141 Activated Carbon 147 Corrosion Control 148 Cathodic Protection 149 Alkalinity 151 Water Storage 153 Cross-Connections 155 Centrifugal Pumps 157 Hard Water 163 Water Softening 166 Split Case Centrifugal Pump Vertical Turbine Pumps Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 13 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

01 Eye/nose irritation. stomach Water additive used to discomfort.81 MRDL=0.81 Anemia. anemia control microbes MRDL=4. stomach Water additive used to discomfort control microbes Water additive used to control microbes MRDLG=0. infants & young children: nervous system effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 14 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .01 Eye/nose irritation.Membrane Filtration Processes Reverse Osmosis Ozone Ultraviolet Radiation DBP Removal Chart Glossary 185 Conversion Factor 209 Assignment 213 Customer Survey 229 169 173 180 181 183 Control Room Disinfectants Contaminant MRDL1 (mg/L)2 MRDL1 (mg/L)2 Potential Health Effects from Sources of Contaminant Ingestion of Water in Drinking Water Chloramines (as Cl2) Chlorine (as Cl2) Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2) MRDLG=41 MRDLG=41 MRDL=4.

although it can also come from industrial sources. including Cryptosporidium. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 15 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . For most people in the U. and disinfection byproducts. minerals. they release arsenic into water supplies.. ordering that it fall to 10 ppb by 2006.New EPA Water Rules Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. After adopting 10ppb as the new standard for arsenic in drinking water. The rule is intended to provide EPA with information on chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with chemicals already present in source water (disinfection byproducts (DBPs)). EPA revised the standard from 50 parts per billion (ppb).gov/safewater/arsenic.epa. ICR EPA has collected data required by the Information Collection Rule (ICR) to support future regulation of microbial contaminants. and engineering data to control these contaminants. an EPA standard limits the amount of arsenic in drinking water. they are exposed to arsenic. To protect human health. disinfectants. In October 2001. EPA decided to review the decision to ensure that the final standard was based on sound science and accurate estimates of costs and benefits. disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). When people either drink this water or eat animals and plants that drink it.S. eating and drinking are the most common ways that people are exposed to arsenic. and soil erode. EPA decided to move forward with implementing the 10ppb standard for arsenic in drinking water. Studies have linked long-term exposure of arsenic in drinking water to a variety of cancers in humans. More information on the rulemaking process and the costs and benefits of setting the arsenic limit in drinking water at 10ppb can be found at www.html. Drinking water microbial and disinfection byproduct information collected for the ICR is now available in EPA's Envirofacts Warehouse. When rocks. In January 2001.

and bromoform.000 people under the Total Trihalomethane Rule finalized by the EPA in 1979. The regulated haloacetic acids.e.0 parts per million (ppm) Currently trihalomethanes are regulated at a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion for water systems serving over 10. dichloroacetic acid. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. trichloroacetic acid. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate HAA5 at 60 parts per billion annual average. known as HAA5.. and dibromoacetic acid. The Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule standards became effective for trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts listed above in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. decaying vegetation) present in the source water. monobromoacetic acid.Disinfection Byproduct Regulations In December 1998. Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) are a group of chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. dibromochloromethane. bromodichloromethane. The EPA has established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate bromate at annual average of 10 parts per billion in drinking water. and chlorite. including trihalomethanes. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water. The trihalomethanes are chloroform. Those standards became effective in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water public water systems. are: monochloroacetic acid. Different disinfectants produce different types or amounts of disinfection byproducts. The EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate total trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a maximum allowable annual average level of 80 parts per billion. Disinfection byproducts are formed when disinfectants used in water treatment plants react with bromide and/or natural organic matter (i. Disinfection byproducts for which regulations have been established have been identified in drinking water. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. bromate. This standard will replace the current standard of a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 16 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the EPA established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule that requires public water systems to use treatment measures to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and to meet the following specific standards: Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic acids (HAA5) Bromate Chlorite 80 parts per billion (ppb) 60 ppb 10 ppb 1. The standard became effective for the first time in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water systems. haloacetic acids.

000 people. the rule requires that a public water system. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems back in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. The EPA is also planning to develop other rules to further control pathogens. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems comply with Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule.This standard became effective for large public water systems by December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground public water systems back in December 2003.99%. respectively. for systems serving fewer than 10. The Surface Water Treatment Rule specifies treatment criteria to assure that these performance requirements are met. The EPA established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for all public water systems and a 99% removal requirement for Cryptosporidium in filtered public water systems that serve at least 10. Turbidity is an indicator of the physical removal of particulates.9% and 99. they include turbidity limits. The EPA has promulgating a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 17 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chlorite is a byproduct formed when chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect water. Microbial Regulations One of the key regulations developed and implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to counter pathogens in drinking water is the Surface Water Treatment Rule. have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least 99. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems lower disinfection byproduct levels to comply with the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate chlorite at a monthly average level of 1 part per million in drinking water. using surface water (or ground water under the direct influence of surface water) as its source.000 people. This is to improve physical removal of Cryptosporidium. disinfectant residual. The Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule was established in December 1998 to control Cryptosporidium. The new rule will tighten turbidity standards by December 2001. including pathogens. Among its provisions. and disinfectant contact time conditions.

a mild gastrointestinal disease. headaches. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. or other symptoms. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. diarrhea. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 18 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . cramps. vomiting. Often referred to as HPC. However. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e. However. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. pathogens. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including nonpathogens. such as diarrhea. It causes cryptosporidiosis. and opportunistic pathogens.g. The above photo is of a SimPlate for HPC multi-dose used for the quantification of HPC in water. The EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium.Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. and cramps). nausea. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects.

Combined Radium 226/228. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources. a carrier gas transports them through a separation column and into a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) where individual components are identified. Operation A sample is placed into a heated injection port. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation.Radionuclides Alpha emitters. As the organics are driven off by heating. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer. and in the air in your home. such as wells. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Beta/photon emitters. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 19 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Gas Chromatograph (GC) Separates vaporized sample into individual components.

see the EPA’s lead in your drinking water fact sheet.7. including pesticides & herbicides 2. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Synthetic Organic Contaminants.8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 20 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .3. including pain and tenderness of the bones). For advice on avoiding lead. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the EPA's standard over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system. The EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride.Inorganic Contaminants (IOC) Antimony Asbestos Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Thallium Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic. Dental fluorosis. Fluoride. This problem occurs only in developing teeth. The EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis. before they erupt from the gums.4. may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth.5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2.4-D 2. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks. Lead typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings. in its moderate or severe forms.

thin bottles with the septum tops.2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethylene 1.1-Dichloroethylene cis-1.1.2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Toluene Vinyl Chloride Xylenes Common water sampling bottles VOC bottles are the smaller.1.2-Dichloroethylene trans-1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 21 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2-Dicholoroethylene Dichloromethane 1.1.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC) Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.-Trichloroethane 1.2.

Giardia Cryptosporidium Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 22 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories 4. 0. erosion of natural deposits Decay of asbestos cement in water mains. solder Discharge from semiconductor manufacturing. ceramics. TT Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage. strong teeth. 6 3. physical or mental plumbing systems. erosion of natural deposits. erosion of natural deposits. herbicides. petroleum refining. Gastrointestinal distress. discharge from teeth. erosion of 015. discharge from metal refineries. TT6 development.2 4. erosion of natural deposits Discharge of drilling wastes. decrease in blood glucose Skin damage.3 Cyanide (as free cyanide) Fluoride 0. aerospace.0 Bone disease (pain and Water additive which promotes tenderness of the bones).006 0.005 Kidney damage Chromium (total) 0. discharge from metal refineries. fertilizer and aluminum factories Action Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household Level=0.National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Inorganic Chemicals Antimony Arsenic MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Increase in blood cholesterol. electronics. wood preservatives.006 none5 0.1 Copper 1.004 Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps Increase in blood pressure Intestinal lesions Cadmium 0. discharge from electrical. animal feed additives.005 0. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories. high blood pressure Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 23 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . natural deposits Adults: Kidney problems. circulatory system problems.0 Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis Action Short term exposure: Level=1. erosion of natural Children may get mottled deposits. runoff from waste batteries and paints Discharge from steel and pulp mills. and defense industries Corrosion of galvanized pipes. increased risk of cancer Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Discharge from petroleum refineries.1 0.2 Nerve damage or thyroid problems Lead zero Discharge from steel/metal factories.010 Asbestos (fiber >10 micrometers) Barium Beryllium 7 million 7 MFL fibers per Liter 2 2 0. leaching from wood preservatives 0. erosion of natural deposits Corrosion of household plumbing systems. Those with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor if their water systems exceed the copper action level.004 0. fire retardants.

or liver problems Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 24 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0005 0. glass.002 Kidney damage Erosion of natural deposits. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months .002 0.Inorganic Mercury 0. circulatory problems Hair loss. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. sewage. Hair or fingernail loss. discharge from electronics. runoff from landfills and cropland Runoff from fertilizer use. discharge from refineries and factories. erosion of natural deposits. leaching from septic tanks. changes in blood.life threatening without immediate medical attention. and pharmaceutical companies Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen) 10 10 Nitrite (measured as 1 Nitrogen) 1 Selenium Thallium 0.05 0. kidney.05 0. sewage. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from petroleum refineries. intestine. discharge from mines Leaching from ore-processing sites. leaching from septic tanks.002 "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . erosion of natural deposits Runoff from fertilizer use.life threatening without immediate medical attention. numbness in fingers or toes.

1 0. increased risk of cancer Reproductive difficulties.005 0. increased risk of cancer Eye. kidney.007 Discharger from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Kidney.002 0.005 0. liver.003 zero zero 0. changes in blood chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems.07 0. kidney or spleen Discharge from industrial damage.4 0.007 0.005 0.6 0.4 0. increased risk of cancer Problems with blood or nervous system.2-Dichloroethane 1-1Dichloroethylene cis-1. kidney or spleen problems.2 zero TT 7 0. increased risk Discharge from pharmaceutical of cancer and chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories General toxic effects or Leaching from PVC plumbing reproductive difficulties systems. discharge from chemical factories Reproductive difficulties.075 0.1 0.005 0. liver.2Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1-2Dichloropropane Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Nervous system or blood problems. decrease in blood platelets. anemia. pineapples. and orchards Liver. increased risk of cancer Liver or nervous system problems.075 zero 0.002 0.2 0.07 0.1 zero zero 0. liver.007 0. liver Discharge from rubber and problems. 2Dichloroethylene trans-1. leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Residue of banned termiticide zero zero 0.6 0.4-D Dalapon 1. reproductive difficulties Anemia.Organic Chemicals Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Carbofuran Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene 2. reproductive difficulties.04 zero zero 0.007 Di(2zero ethylhexyl)phthalate Dinoseb 0.07 0. cotton. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Discharge from factories.04 .2-Dibromo-3chloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.006 0. Liver problems. increased risk of cancer Cardiovascular system problems. or adrenal gland Runoff from herbicide used on problems row crops Minor kidney changes Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Reproductive difficulties.1 0.0002 0. Runoff/leaching from soil increased risk of cancer fumigant used on soybeans.0002 0.07 0.005 0. increased risk of chemical factories cancer Reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 25 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or circulatory Discharge from industrial system problems chemical factories Anemia.003 0.

discharge of waste chemicals Heptachlor epoxide zero Hexachlorobenzene zero Hexachlorocyclopen 0. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Changes in adrenal glands Liver.1 0.001 0.1 0. reproductive difficulties.00005 0.05 0. added to water during treatment process Discharge from petroleum refineries Discharge from petroleum refineries Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned termiticide Breakdown of hepatachlor Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Discharge from chemical factories Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle.0002 Methoxychlor Oxamyl (Vydate) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 0.3.0002 0.7 zero Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion.4.8TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethelyne dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor zero 0.1Trichloroethane 1 none5 zero 0. reproductive difficulties.10 0. reproductive or nervous system difficulties. increased risk of cancer Kidney problems. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems.000000 Reproductive difficulties.002 zero 0.0005 Cataracts Stomach and intestinal problems Nervous system effects Stomach problems. or thyroid problems.4Trichlorobenzene 1.5 0.7 0. vegetables. liver.7. thymus gland problems.1 0. and tomatoes Runoff from landfills.04 0. alfalfa.02 0. kidney. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Stomach problems.004 0.2 zero Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Styrene zero 0.07 0. reproductive difficulties Liver damage. or circulatory problems 0.02 0.2 0. leaching from landfills Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Discharge from petroleum factories Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Residue of banned herbicide Discharge from textile finishing factories Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 26 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0004 0.1 0.7 0.005 1 0.1. or liver problems Liver.05 tadiene Lindane 0. livestock Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples.07 0. nervous system. discharge from chemical factories Runoff from herbicide use Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned insecticide Discharge from industrial chemical factories. lumber. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Problems with blood Liver.5-TP (Silvex) 1.002 TT7 0. reproductive difficulties.05 0.5 0.004 0.20 Discharge from wood preserving factories Herbicide runoff Herbicide runoff Discharge from rubber and plastic factories. increased risk of cancer Liver damage.001 0.2 Tetrachloroethylene zero Toluene Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Toxaphene 2. potatoes.04 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney or stomach problems Liver or kidney problems Reproductive difficulties Slight nervous system effects Skin changes.0002 0. kidney or central nervous system problems.05 0. 03 increased risk of cancer 0.2.7 zero 0. gardens Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits. increased risk of cancer Nervous system.Dioxin (2. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems. increased risk of cancer Kidney. and circulatory problems Liver problems. immune deficiencies. kidney.003 0.

discharge from plastic factories Discharge from petroleum factories. but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms.002 10 Liver.1.005 0. Coli) N/A Turbidity Viruses (enteric) zero TT8 Human and animal fecal waste Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 27 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . kidney.003 zero zero 10 0.005 0. Legionnaire's Disease.2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) 0. or immune system problems Liver problems.1. commonly known as pneumonia Used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria 10 may be present Turbidity has no health effects but can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth.0%9 TT8 Found naturally in water. multiplies in heating systems Human and animal fecal waste Soil runoff Total Coliforms zero (including fecal coliform and E. a gastroenteric disease HPC has no health effects. increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer Nervous system damage Discharge from industrial chemical factories Discharge from petroleum refineries Leaching from PVC pipes. It may indicate the presence of microbes. discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides Beta particles and photon emitters MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Decay of natural and manmade deposits Erosion of natural deposits none 5 Gross alpha particle none5 activity Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined) none5 4 Increased risk of cancer millirems per year 15 Increased risk of cancer picocurie s per Liter (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L Increased risk of cancer Erosion of natural deposits MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 Microorganisms (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Giardiasis. Gastroenteric disease n/a Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Human and animal fecal waste Giardia lamblia Heterotrophic plate count zero N/A TT 8 TT8 Legionella zero TT8 5.

Cholera Legionella Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 28 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

5-8.5 0. Contaminant Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Fluoride Foaming Agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc Secondary Standard 0.05 to 0. states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. However.10 mg/L 250 mg/L 500 mg/L 5 mg/L Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 29 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .5 mg/L 0.2 mg/L 250 mg/L 15 (color units) 1. or color) in drinking water.05 mg/L 3 threshold odor number 6.3 mg/L 0.0 mg/L 0.0 mg/L noncorrosive 2. The EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply. odor.National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste.

which triggers water systems into taking treatment steps if exceeded in more than 10% of tap water samples. the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified. MCLGs are nonenforceable public health goals.015mg/L.The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. Legionella will also be controlled. and for lead is 0. Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea. there is no MCLG for this contaminant. 10 Fecal coliform and E.3 mg/L.99% killed/inactivated • Legionella: No limit. in writing. as follows: • Acrylamide = 0. There cannot be any fecal coliforms. systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0. The margins of safety in MCLGs ensure that exceeding the MCL slightly does not pose significant risk to public health. 2 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) .9% killed/inactivated Viruses: 99. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 30 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and which allows for a proper margin of safety.Notes 1 Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) .The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. or other symptoms. 3 Treatment Technique . 7 Each water system must certify. for copper is 1.0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms. headaches. • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU). and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Giardia lamblia: 99. 9 No more than 5. no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive).05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent) • Epichlorohydrin = 0.An enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. nausea. but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are inactivated.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems. 6 Lead and copper are regulated in a Treatment Technique which requires systems to take tap water samples at sites with lead pipes or copper pipes that have lead solder and/or are served by lead service lines. 4 Units are in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month. Therefore. 5 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. cramps. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human animal wastes.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent) 8 The Surface Water Treatment Rule requires systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water. • HPC: NO more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter. MCLs are enforceable standards. The action level.

and as necessary. A rule under development covering wells not included in Class I. vomiting." MCLs are enforceable standards. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF). or other exposure routes. ". Under section 1452 of the SDWA. person-to-person contact. describing sources within the source water protection area. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea. fatigue. II. and verifying accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. abdominal pain. targeting likely sources for further investigation. Contamination Source Inventory. MCLGs are non-enforceable public health goals. and cramps. The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents of the area served by the system or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea." Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Rule. Exposure Contact between a person and a chemical. and other activities to encourage public water system compliance and protection of public health. . exposure from person-to-person contact. III or IV in which nonhazardous fluids are injected into or above underground sources of drinking water. and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults. source water protection. Giardia lamblia A protozoan. an MCL is defined as "the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. . but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people. the statute reads.Safe Drinking Water Act Terms Community Water System (CWS). Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person. and which allows for an adequate margin of safety. and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. associated with the disease giardiasis. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 31 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The process of identifying and inventorying contaminant sources within delineated source water protection areas through recording existing data. Cryptosporidium A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. Under section 107 of the SDWA Amendments of 1996. including surface water systems. collecting and interpreting new information on existing or potential sources through surveys. the EPA awards capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance drinking water system infrastructure improvements. Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR). In the SDWA. ground water systems. to enhance operations and management of drinking water systems. the Administrator shall also promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems.

As radionuclides decay.1. State has adopted rules at least as stringent as federal regulations and has been granted primary enforcement responsibility. which results from interferences in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Turbidity is the cloudiness in water. Risk The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals. A public water system that is not a community water system. Phase I Contaminants The Phase I Rule became effective on January 9. Radiation can cause adverse health effects. In order for there to be risk. gallons per capita per day (gpcd). Primacy State. so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water. pesticides. or blue baby syndrome. (NTU) A unit of measure used to describe the turbidity of water.1-dichloroethylene. they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. Organics Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. 2-trichlorethane. Carbon Tetrachloride. para-dichlorobenzene. SDWA . 1. trichloroethylene. and others. 1. there must be hazard and there must be exposure. or VOC Rule. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobanemia. Non-Community water systems to monitor for and. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting the national drinking water regulations while individual states are responsible for ensuring that public water systems under their jurisdiction are complying with the regulations. The 8 VOCs regulated under this rule are: Benzene. State that has the responsibility for ensuring a law is implemented. The Safe Drinking Water Act was first passed in 1974 and established the basic requirements under which the nation’s public water supplies were regulated. The SDWA was amended in 1986 and again in 1996.Nephelolometric Turbidity Units. such as cancer. Nitrates Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges. generally used in expressions of water use. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons. set water quality standards for 8 VOCs and required all community and Non-Transient. and 1. There are two types of NCWSs: transient and non-transient. treat their supplies for these chemicals. Non-Community Water System (NCWS). Per capita Per person. also called the Volatile Organic Chemical Rule.2-dichlorothane. if necessary.The Safe Drinking Water Act. Point-of-Entry Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home. Radionuclides Elements that undergo a process of natural decay. and has the authority to enforce the law and related regulations. 1989. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 32 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Point-of-Use Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment. This rule. vinyl chloride.

Significant Potential Source of Contamination. churches. A state program implemented in accordance with the statutory language at section 1454 of the SDWA to establish local voluntary incentive-based partnerships for SWP and remediation. or produces chemicals or elements. Source Water Protection Area (SWPA). territories) the flexibility to design and implement approaches to manage the use of certain pesticides to protect ground water. States must inventory sources of contamination to the extent they have the technology and resources to complete an inventory for a Source Water Protection Area delineated as described in the guidance. Transient non-community systems typically are restaurants. A treatment technique is an enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. etc. and promulgated filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface water sources or by ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water. State Management Plan (SMP) Program. whether the source is ground water or surface water or both.g. A topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a tributary of a stream. with a clear understanding of where the significant potential sources of contamination are located. factories. uses. Sub watershed. State Source Water Petition Program.NCWS). Water systems that are non-community systems: transient systems serve 25 non-resident persons per day for 6 months or less per year. Treatment Technique A specific treatment method required by the EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. Susceptibility Analysis. viruses and Legionella. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). The rule specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia. the EPA can instead specify a treatment technique. and that has the potential to release contaminants identified in a state program (contaminants with MCLs plus any others a state considers a health threat) within a source water protection area in an amount which could contribute significantly to the concentration of the contaminants in the source waters of the public water supply. The area delineated by the state for a PWS or including numerous PWSs. All information sources may be used. The surface area above a sole source aquifer and its recharge area. A facility or activity that stores. Non-Community Water Systems (T/NT. large stores. Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) Designation. Transient/Non-Transient. This analysis will assist the state in determining which potential sources of contamination are "significant. An analysis to determine. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL. treatment. The regulations also specify water quality. and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided. etc. Non-transient systems regularly serve at least 25 of the same non-resident persons per day for more than 6 months per year. offices. as part of the state SWAP approved by the EPA under section 1453 of the SDWA. the susceptibility of the public water systems in the source water protection area to contamination from these sources. particularly previous Federal and state inventories of sources. hotels. tribes and U. These systems typically are schools. states.S. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 33 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A state management plan under FIFRA required by the EPA to allow states (e." To the Extent Practical.

The program applies to injection well owners and operators on Federal facilities. supplying a PWS. Native American lands. Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. A watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. and on all U. Toxicity The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it. Watershed Approach. land and territories. The program is designed to prevent underground injection which endangers drinking water sources. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA). through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water well or well field.Total Coliform Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. from which overland flow drains to the intake. A topographic boundary area that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a stream. taking into consideration both ground and surface water flow. Watershed.S. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 34 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .The surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field. Watershed Area. A topographic area that is within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking water intake.

In some places. Groundwater is withdrawn from wells to provide water for everything from drinking water for the home and business. to water to irrigate crops to industrial processing water. Well with a mineral oil sealed vertical turbine pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 35 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . where groundwater has dissolved limestone to form caverns and large openings. When water is pumped from the ground. Groundwater flows slowly through water-bearing formations (aquifers) at different rates. Wells can be tested to see what chemicals may be present in dangerous quantities. Contaminated wells used for drinking water are especially dangerous. Toxic material spilled or dumped near a well can leach into the aquifer and contaminate the groundwater drawn from that well. its rate of flow can be relatively fast but this is exceptional.Groundwater and Wells A well can be easily contaminated if it is not properly constructed or if toxic materials are released into the well. the dynamics of groundwater flow change in response to this withdrawal.

In this case. rises higher than the top of the aquifer because of confining pressure. rivers. The level below which all the spaces are filled with water is called the water table. Porous media such as sandstone may become so highly cemented or recrystalized that all of the original space is filled. Some aquifers. Fractured aquifers are rocks in which the groundwater moves through cracks. it does not always mirror the flow of water on the surface. joints or fractures in otherwise solid rock. for instance. and water in this saturated zone is called groundwater. or sometimes artesian aquifers. but here the cracks and fractures may be enlarged by solution. A well in such an aquifer is called an artesian well. Groundwater flow in the aquifers underlying surface drainage basins. The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone. The piezometric surface is the level to which the water in an artesian aquifer will rise. Most of the aquifers of importance to us are unconsolidated porous media such as sand and gravel. Limestones are often fractured aquifers. If the water level rises above the ground surface a flowing artesian well occurs. Limestone terrain where solution has been very active is termed karst. Examples of fractured aquifers include granite and basalt. Water in this zone is called soil moisture. and eventually drains into streams. groundwater may move in different directions below the ground than the water flowing on the surface. lakes and the oceans. Like surface water. the rock is no longer a porous medium. However. Unconfined aquifers are those that are bounded by the water table. The water in these wells. Here the spaces in the rock and soil contain both air and water. These are called confined aquifers. but the spaces are not large enough to permit free movement of water. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone. has many spaces between its grains. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 36 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . forming large channels or even caverns. lie beneath layers of impermeable materials. groundwater flows toward. Some very porous materials are not permeable. Therefore. Groundwater usually flows downhill with the slope of the water table.Many terms are used to describe the nature and extent of the groundwater resource. however. however. Clay. if it contains cracks it can still act as a fractured aquifer.

As it becomes rain or snow it may be polluted with organisms. Once the precipitation begins water is no longer in its purest form. snow. 4. Evaporation: The process by which the water or other liquids become a gas. 6. and inorganic compounds. Infiltration: The gradual flow or movement of water into and through the pores of the soil. organic compounds. Precipitation: The process by which atmospheric moisture falls on to the land or water surface as rain. 2.Water Sources Before we discuss the types of treatment it is easier to first understand how the source of water arrives. Water will be collected as surface supplies or circulate to form in the ground. Condensation: The collection of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 37 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Because of this. Runoff: Water that drains from a saturated or impermeable surface into stream channels or other surface water areas. 5. Transpiration: Moisture that will come from plants as a byproduct of photosynthesis. Most lakes and rivers are formed this way. 3. Water Cycle Terms 1. hail or other forms of moisture. we must treat the water for human consumption.

depending on its source. Some are present due to the treatment processes which are used make the water suitable for drinking and cooking. Most of these substances are of natural origin and are picked up as water passes round the water cycle. These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide. Your water will normally contain chlorine and varying amounts of dissolved minerals including calcium. it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see. Aluminium Aluminium salts are added during water treatment to remove color and suspended solids. nitrates. when you think about where your drinking water comes from. people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. chlorides. Other times. drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. As with surface water. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources. and reservoirs. constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. Permanent hardness is unaffected by heating. but the entire watershed. wild animals and people. industry. insecticides and herbicides although the maximum amounts of all these substances are strictly limited by the regulations. or may span the borders of many states. lake. aluminium. Water Hardness There are two types of hardness: temporary and permanent. they come from farm animals. magnesium and sodium. it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water. Temporary hardness comes out of the water when it's heated and is deposited as scale and fur on kettles. coffee makers and taps and appears as a scum or film on tea and coffee. They are very resistant to normal disinfection processes but can be removed by advanced filtration processes installed in water treatment works. rivers. leisure facilities and gardens to control weeds and insect pests and may enter the water cycle in many ways. The pipework (including the service pipe) within the boundary of the property is the responsibility of the owner of the property. Lead Lead does not usually occur naturally in water supplies but is derived from lead distribution and domestic pipework and fittings.Where Does Drinking Water Come From? A clean. or reservoir. such as lakes. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river. many older properties still have lead service pipes and internal lead pipework. These are usually referred to as 'contaminants'. Cysts are rarely present in the public water supply. not the water supplier. Your annual drinking water quality report will tell you where your water supplier gets your water. Although water suppliers have removed most of the original lead piping from the mains distribution system. Cysts These are associated with the reproductive stages of parasitic micro-organisms (protozoans) which can cause acute diarrhea type illnesses. The water will also contain a relatively low level of bacteria which is not generally a risk to health Insecticides and herbicides (sometimes referred to as pesticides) Are widely used in agriculture. In either case. sulphates and bicarbonates. It is also not uncommon to find traces of iron. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 38 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . copper. In rural areas. manganese. Particles and rust These come from the gradual breakdown of the lining of concrete or iron mains water pipes or from sediment which has accumulated over the years and is disturbed in some way. Sometimes these sources are close to the community.

pesticides. metals. it takes only a very small amount of some chemicals in drinking water to raise health concerns.). stormwater runoff. auto repair shops. Wellhead Protection Wellhead protection refers to programs designed to maintain the quality of groundwater used as public drinking water sources. Groundwater originates as precipitation that sinks into the ground. Groundwater moves from areas where the water table is high to where the water table is low.). Wellhead Protection Sequence A) Build a community-wide planning team.. it lowers the water table in the immediate vicinity of the well. More than 90 percent of the world's total supply of drinkable water is groundwater.Source Water Quality Groundwater Groundwater contributes most of all of the water that is derived from wells or springs. for example less than 50-75 feet. arsenic. It occurs in the natural open spaces (e.g. but it is not readily accessible or extractable everywhere. at the surface or below it. Although it is common practice to associate contamination with highly visible features such as landfills. If the downward percolating precipitation encounters any source of contamination. Consequently. Some of this water percolates down to the water table (shallowest surface of the groundwater) and recharges the aquifer. fuels. the recharge area is often the immediate vicinity around the well or "wellhead. the water may dissolve some of that contaminant and carry it to the aquifer. fractures or pore spaces between grains) in sediments and rocks below the surface. photo processing labs. by managing the land uses around the wellfield. D) Create a management plan for the protection zone. Groundwater is distributed fairly evenly throughout the crust of the earth. etc. For example. viruses. will contaminate approximately 292 million gallons of water. dry cleaners. Contaminants can be conveniently lumped into three categories: microorganisms (bacteria. The theory is that management of land use around the well. The concept usually includes several stages. B) Delineate geologically the protection zone. will help to minimize damage to subsurface water supplies by spills or improper use of chemicals. pesticides applied to highway right-of-ways. For shallow wells. beauty shops. a common solvent. When a well is pumping. one gallon of pure trichloroethylene. Importantly. C) Perform a contaminant use inventory. etc. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 39 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . lawn and garden chemicals. inorganic chemicals (nitrate. etc. gas stations. E) Plan for the future." Some wells are recharged in areas that may be a great distance from the well itself. Giardia. industry or agriculture. increasing the tendency for water to move towards the well. medical institutions. such as septic systems. a contaminant may enter the aquifer some distance upgradient from you and still move towards your well. and over water moving (underground) toward the well.) and organic chemicals (solvents. potential contaminants are widespread and often come from common everyday activities as well. etc.

What’s the difference between lakes and reservoirs? Reservoirs are lakes with man-made dams. and some will collect as runoff to form streams and rivers that will then flow into the ocean. the rotten egg smell. odor. and carbon dioxide will change because of biological activities. The discharge from industry could increase volatile organic compounds. The consumer will become sick or complain about hydrogen sulfide odors. This could be associated with atomic energy. turbidity. Surface Water Some of the rainwater will be immediately impounded in lakes and reservoirs. Quality of Water Here are the different classifications or the way water characteristics change as it passes on the surface and below the ground it would be in four categories: Physical characteristics such as taste. suspended solids. Riparian: Water rights because property is adjacent to a river or surface water. Prescriptive: Rights based upon legal prescription or long use or custom. metals. sulfides or acids. Depending on the region. Runoff could produce mud. temperature. Surface water is usually contaminated and unsafe to drink. temperature. and non metals such as fluoride. Changes in the dissolved oxygen. This will also interact with the chemical composition of the water.Water Rights Appropriative: Acquired water rights for exclusive use. The consumer relates it to scaling of faucets or staining. Water is known as the universal solvent because most substances that come in contact with it will dissolve. Biological characteristics are the presence of living or dead organisms. some lakes and rivers receive discharge from sewer facilities or defective septic tanks. and human and animal refuse. leaves. Chemical characteristics are the elements found that are considered alkali. Radiological characteristics are the result of water coming in contact with radioactive materials. Some lakes and reservoirs may experience seasonal turnover. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 40 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . this is how the consumer judges how well the provider is treating the water. decayed vegetation. algae. and turbidity.

This creates aerobic conditions that supply fish with oxygen. Total Trihalomethanes. The ecological balance in lakes and reservoirs plays a natural part in the purification and sustaining the life of the lake. The type of algae determines the problem it will cause for instance slime. Most systems no longer use Chlorine because it reacts with the organics in the water to form Trihalomethanes. color. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 41 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. color. Another aspect of quality control is aquatic plants. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. operators have used Potassium Permanganate. For example algae and rooted aquatic plants are essential in the food chain of fish and birds. and toxicity. corrosion. Algae can be controlled by using chemicals such as copper sulfate. Algae growth is the result of photosynthesis. kidneys. source water may have several restrictions of use as part of a Water Shed Management Plan. and filter clogging is due to algae. or industrial and wastewater discharge.Managing Water Quality at the Source Depending on the region. Depending on the pH(Power of Hydrogen) and alkalinity of the water will determine how these chemicals will react. The lack of dissolved oxygen in water is known as anaerobic conditions. Most treatment plant upsets such as taste and odor. Too much algae will imbalance the lake and this will result to fish kill. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC or GAC) and Chlorine. With out sun light. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. Certain vegetation removes the excess nutrients that would promote the growth of algae. Algae growth is supplied by the energy of the sun. as algae absorb this energy it converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. discharge or runoff from agriculture. or central nervous systems. Depending on federal regulations and the amount of copper found natural in water. In some areas it may be restricted from recreational use. the algae would consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

fluoride. These include regulatory requirements. Common surface water contaminants include turbidity. or being heated in the sun or by dipping a heated iron into it. radium. microbiological contaminants (Giardia. odor. or it may be purified by filtration through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. characteristics of the raw water.Water Treatment For thousands of years.C.. When selecting among the different treatment options. “Impure water should be purified by being boiled over a fire. reduce health risks. people have treated water intended for drinking to remove particles of solid matter. Large surface water impound Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 42 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the water supplier must consider a number of factors. and improve aesthetic qualities such as appearance. medical lore of India advised.” The treatment needs of a water system are likely to differ depending on whether the system uses a groundwater or surface water source. color. Groundwater contaminants include naturally occurring inorganic chemicals (such as arsenic. viruses and bacteria) and low levels of a large number of organic chemicals. and taste. operating requirements and future needs of the service area. cost. As early as 2000 B. configuration of the existing system. radon and nitrate) and a number of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that have recently been detected in localized areas.

The spacing of the horizontal bars will rank the size. this will cause problems to the treatment plants pumps and equipment. The best way to protect the plant is screening. sand and rocks. Bar screens are made of straight steel bars at the intake of the plant. Both require manual cleaning. weeds. Wire mesh screens are woven stainless steel material and the opening of the fabric is narrow. Mechanical bar screen Non-automated bar screen 43 . leaves. and trash. Mechanical bar screens very in size and use some type of raking mechanism that travels horizontally down the bars to scrap the debris off.Preliminary Treatment Most lakes and reservoirs are not free of logs. If not removed. The type of screening used depends on the raw water and the size of intake. gravel. sticks. tree limbs.

This will damage plant equipment and pipes. Most are designed with scrapers on the bottom to move the settled sludge to one or more hoppers at the influent end of the tank. Sedimentation basins are also used after the flocculation process. Most designs will have baffles to prevent short-circuiting and scum from entering the effluent. Clarifiers Let’s first look at the components of a rectangular clarifier. This is generally done with clarifiers shaped in either rectangular or round shapes. The most common is a chain and flight collector. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 44 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It could have a screw conveyor or traveling bridge used to collect the sludge. sand and grit are still present.Pre-Sedimentation Once the water passes the bar screens.

Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 45 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a shear pin is used. As the flights travel across the bottom of the clarifier. The motor shaft is connected through a gear reducer to a shaft which turns the drive chain.Flights and Chains The most important thing to consider is the sludge and scum collection mechanism. They move the settled sludge to the hopper in the clarifier for return and they also remove the scum from the surface of the clarifier. This means that the gear would simply slide around the shaft and movement of the drive chain would stop. To prevent damage do to overloads. the “flights and chains”. Remember that the gear moves the drive chain. wearing shoes are used to protect the flights. The shafts can be located overhead or below. Some clarifiers may not have scum removal equipment so the configuration of the shaft may very. The flights are usually wood or nonmetallic flights mounted on parallel chains. The shoes are usually metal and travel across a metal track. The shear pin holds the gear solidly on the shaft so that no slippage occurs. If a heavy load is put on the sludge collector system then the shear pin should break. The drive chain turns the drive sprockets and the head shafts.

Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 46 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

the sludge collector mechanism. The major mechanic parts of the clarifier are the drive unit. and the scum removal system. The diagram below shows a typical circular clarifier. Scrapers The most common type has a center pier or column. Circular clarifier and collector mechanism Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 47 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Clarifiers In some circular or square tanks rotating scrapers are used.

Backwashing filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 48 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

within the filter. each of different size and density. That allows suspended particles to clump together to form more easily filtered particles. not in just the top few inches. A depth filter has four layers of filtration media. Operating beyond this pressure drop increases the chance of fouling . The down flow rinse settles the bed before the filter returns to service. Alum combines with alkalinity in the raw water to form a white precipitate that neutralizes suspended particles' electrical charge and forms a base for coagulating those particles. Since the sand grains all have about the same density. at about 14 gpm per square foot (34m/hr) of filter bed area that lasts about 10 minutes.10 psi (34 to 68 kPa) from the beginning of the cycle. the pressure drop through the filter increases. coarse material lies at the top of the filter bed. That allows a depth filter to run substantially longer and use less backwash water than a traditional sand filter. filtration occurs only within the first few inches of the finer grains at the top of the bed. The media become progressively finer and denser in the lower layers. Traditional filter systems use graded silica sand filter media. The conventional process uses alum (aluminum sulfate) and cationic polymer to neutralize the charge. Traditional treatments rely on expensive. As a result. As suspended particles accumulate in a filter bed. construction-intensive processes with lengthy times.Conventional Treatment Improving the clarity of surface water has always presented a challenge because source quality varies. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 49 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Suspended particles carry an electrical charge which causes them to repel one another. Conventional technology uses a 30 to 50 mg/L alum dosage to form a large floc that requires extensive retention time to permit settling. Fast rinse lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. Larger suspended particles are removed by the upper layers while smaller particles are removed in the lower layers.called "mud-balling" . Turbidity washes out of the filter bed as the filter media particles scour one another. larger grains lay toward the bottom of the filter bed and finer grains lay at the top of the filter bed. the filter should be reconditioned. The reconditioning cycle consists of an up flow backwash followed by a down flow rinse. Backwash is an up flow operation. When the pressure difference between filter inlet and outlet increases by 5 . Particles are trapped throughout the bed. Light.

filtered water clarity improvements in the range of 93 to 95% are achievable. In addition to the conventional filtration processes. by 90% compared with filtration alone. Suspended particles are usually electrically charged. allowing the particles to cling to one another and to the filter media. If an operator is present to make adjustments for variations in the raw water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 50 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . mounted on skids. particularly when turbidity includes fine colloidal particles. Feeding chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate). ferric chloride. but without the construction costs and space requirements associated with separately constructed sedimentation basins. Small water treatment package plant Coagulation. Flocculation and Filtration all with in a 20 foot area Package Plants Representing a slight modification of conventional filtration technology. or a cationic polymer neutralizes the charge. Chemical pretreatment may increase filtered water clarity. measured in NTU. package plants are usually built in a factory. These are appropriate for small community systems where full water treatment is desired. and transported virtually assembled to the operation site.Chemical pretreatment is often used to enhance filter performance. filter beds. package plants are found as two types: tubetype clarifiers and adsorption clarifiers. etc. clear wells.

this is the most prevalent form of water treatment technology in use today. Coagulation is the process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. Therefore. their charge per volume is significant. Other coagulants are called "cationic polymers".Rapid Sand Filtration Also known as rapid-sand filtration. Aluminum Sulfate is also excellent for removing nutrients such as phosphorous in wastewater treatment. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate is a 48. This is primarily due to a negative charge on the surface of the particles. the chemically treated water is sent into a basin where the suspended particles can collide. But since colloidal particles are so small. Hence. Gentle agitation of the water and appropriate detention times (the length of time water remains in the basin) help facilitate this process.86% solution. When solid matter is too small to be removed by a depth filter. In this process. the fine particles must be coagulated. as follows: Coagulation At the Water Treatment Plant. form a larger particle. Aluminum Sulfate is the most widely used coagulant in water treatment. commonly called alum. which allows the particles to come together. and in the process. All matter has a residual surface charge to a certain degree. The alum and the water are mixed rapidly by the flash mixer. agglomerate (stick together). removal of these particulates by conventional coagulation and filtration is a major component of effective treatment for the removal of pathogens. Coagulant chemicals are required since colloidal particles by themselves have tendency to stay suspended in water and not settle out. Large microorganisms including algae and amoebic cysts are readily removed by coagulation and filtration. new chemicals have been developed which combine the properties of alum-type coagulants and cationic polymers. Flocculation The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses which can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. More than 98% of poliovirus type 1 was removed by conventional coagulation and filtration. which follows the rapid mixing. This is achieved through the use of coagulant chemicals. Coagulant chemicals such as "alum" (aluminum sulphate) work by neutralizing the negative charge. and will usually be chosen by the engineer designing the water treatment system. is added to the water in the "flash mix" to cause microscopic impurities in the water to clump together. This filtration process employs a combination of physical and chemical processes in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. Coagulation is necessary to meet the current regulations for almost all potable water plants using surface water. The resulting larger particles will be removed by filtration. Which chemical is used depends on the application. Bacterial removals of 99% are also achievable. Several recent studies have shown that bacteria and viral agents are attached to organic and inorganic particulates. which can be thought of as positively charged strings that attract the particles to them. or "stuck together" to form larger particles which can be filtered. aluminum sulfate. and they stay suspended in water. and form heavier particles called “floc”. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 51 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the like charges on the particles repel each other. As well.

Filters for suspended particle removal can also be made of graded sand. silica sand. Provides an equalization basin which evens out fluctuations in concentrations of suspended solids. garnet and gravel. screens of various materials. Filters are available in several ratings depending on the size of particles to be removed. can settle out by gravity. described earlier." As these floc particles mix in the water. The most widely used are rapid-sand filters in tanks. some plants have pre-sedimentation. Cartridge filters made of fabric. Sludge Zone D. and fabrics. A. the particles combine to form a sludge that is later removed from the bottom of the basin. Once settled. gravity holds the material in place and the flow is downwards. Circular Basins C. To allow larger particles time to settle in a reservoir or lake (sand. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 52 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . dissolved organics. Filtration A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. During sedimentation. odor. will also remove turbidity. or plastic material are also common and are often much smaller and cheaper and are disposable. Sedimentation Basin Zones A. but would not be recommended for that purpose only. bacteria and other microorganisms are caught in the floc structure. Double deck Basins Sedimentation The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. a sedimentation step may be used. The water flows by gravity through large filters of anthracite coal. Activated carbon filters. heavy silt) reducing solid removal loads. granular synthetic material. including flocculated particles. The rate of filtration can be adjusted to meet water consumption needs. B. The floc particles are removed in these filters. Settling Zone C. In these units. The filter is periodically cleaned by a reversal of flow and the discharge of back flushed water into a drain. the velocity of the water is decreased so that the suspended material. taste and color. Inlet Zone B. Pre-Sedimentation Depending on the quality of the source water. Following flocculation. paper. Outlet Zone Shapes for a Sedimentation Basin A.The water is slowly mixed in contact chambers allowing the coagulated particles to become larger and stronger and is now called "floc. Square Basins D. Rectangular Basins B.

With most of the larger particles settled out, the water now goes to the filtration process. At a rate of between 2 and 10 gpm per square foot, the water is filtered through an approximate 36" bed of graded sand. Anthracite coal or activated carbon may also be included in the sand to improve the filtration process, especially for the removal of organic contaminants, taste, and odor problems. The filtration process removes the following types of particles Silts and clay Colloids Biological forms Floc Four desirable characteristics of filter media A. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) B. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) C. Hard and durable D. Free of impurities and is insoluble in water Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis, at least once per day. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The more uniform the media, the slower head loss buildup. All the water treatment plants that use surface water are governed by the U.S. EPA’s Surface Water Treatment Rules or SWTR. Direct Filtration Plant vs. Conventional Plant The only difference is that the sedimentation process or step is omitted from the Direct Filtration plant. Declining Rate Filters The flow rate will vary with head loss. Each filter operates at the same rate, but can have a variable water level. This system requires an effluent control structure (weir) to provide adequate media submergence. Detention Time Is the actual time required for a small amount of water to pass through a sedimentation basin at a given rate of flow, or the calculated time required for a small amount of liquid to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. Detention Time = (Basin Volume, Gallons) (24 Hours/day) Flow, Gallons/day Disinfection Chlorine is added to the water at the flash mix for pre-disinfection. The chlorine kills or inactivates harmful microorganisms. Chlorine is added again after filtration for post-disinfection.

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Jar Testing (More information later in manual)
Jar testing traditionally has been done on a routine basis in most water treatment plants to control the coagulant dose. Much more information, however, can be obtained with only a small modification in the conventional method of jar testing. It is the quickest and most economical way to obtain good reliable data on the many variables which affect the treatment process. These include: 1. Determination of most effective coagulant. 2. Determination of optimum coagulation pH for the various coagulants. 3. Evaluation of most effective polymers. 4. Optimum point of application of polymers in treatment train. 5. Optimum sequence of application of coagulants, polymers and pH adjustment chemicals. 6. Best flocculation time. pH Expression of a basic or acid condition of a liquid. The range is from 0-14, zero being the most acid and 14 being the most alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Most natural water has a pH between 6.0 and 8.5. Caustic (NaOH) also called Sodium Hydroxide is a strong chemical used in the treatment process to neutralize acidity, increase alkalinity or raise the pH value. Polymer A type of chemical when combined with other types of coagulants aid in binding small suspended particles to larger particles to help in the settling and filtering processes. Post Chlorine Where the water is chlorinated to make sure to hold a residual in the distribution system. Pre Chlorine Where the raw water is dosed with a large concentration of chlorine. Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine before the filtration process will help: A. Control algae and slime growth B. Control mud ball formation C. Improve coagulation D. Precipate iron Raw Turbidity The turbidity of the water coming to the treatment plant from the raw water source. Settled Solids Solids that have been removed from the raw water by the coagulation and settling processes. Hydrofluosilicic Acid (H2SiF6) a clear, fuming corrosive liquid with a pH ranging from 1 to 1.5. Used in water treatment to fluoridate drinking water.

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Corrosion Control The pH of the water is adjusted with sodium carbonate, commonly called soda ash. Soda ash is fed into the water after filtration. Zinc Orthophosphate A chemical used to coat the pipes in the distribution system to inhibit corrosion. Taste and Odor Control Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is occasionally added for taste and odor control. PAC is added to the flash mix. Water Quality Water testing is conducted throughout the treatment process. Items like turbidity, pH and chlorine residual are monitored and recorded continuously. Some items are tested several times per day, some once per quarter and others once per year. Sampling Collect the water sample at least 6 inches under the surface by plunging the container mouth down into the water and turning the mouth towards the current by dragging the container slowly horizontal. Care should be taken not to disturb the bottom of the water source or along the sides so as not to stir up any settled solids. This would create erroneous errors. Chemical Feed and Rapid Mix Chemicals are added to the water in order to improve the subsequent treatment processes. These may include pH adjusters and coagulants. Coagulants are chemicals, such as alum, that neutralize positive or negative charges on small particles, allowing them to stick together and form larger particles that are more easily removed by sedimentation (settling) or filtration. A variety of devices, such as baffles, static mixers, impellers, and in-line sprays can be used to mix the water and distribute the chemicals evenly. Short Circuiting Short Circuiting is a condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the water travels faster than the rest of the flowing water. This is usually undesirable since it may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times in comparison with the presumed detention times. Tube Settlers This modification of the conventional process contains many metal “tubes” that are placed in the sedimentation basin, or clarifier. These tubes are approximately 1 inch deep and 36 inches long, split-hexagonal shape, and installed at an angle or 60 degrees or less. These tubes provide for a very large surface area upon which particles may settle as the water flows upwards. The slope of the tubes facilitates gravity settling of the solids to the bottom of the basin, where they can be collected and removed. The large surface settling area also means that adequate clarification can be obtained with detention times of 15 minutes or less. As with conventional treatment, this sedimentation step is followed by filtration through mixed media.

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Adsorption Clarifiers: The concept of the adsorption clarifier package plant was developed in the early 1980’s. This technology uses an up flow clarifier with low-density plastic bead media, usually held in place by a screen. This adsorption media is designed to enhance the sedimentation/ clarification process by combining flocculation and sedimentation into one step. In this step, turbidity is reduced by adsorption of the coagulated and flocculated solids onto the adsorption media and onto the solids already adsorbed onto the media. Air scouring cleans adsorption clarifiers followed by water flushing. Cleaning of this type of clarifier is initiated more often than filter backwashing because the clarifier removes more solids. As with the tube-settler type of package plant, the sedimentation/ clarification process is followed by mixed-media filtration and disinfection to complete the water treatment. Clearwell: The final step in the conventional filtration process, the clear well provides temporary storage for the treated water. The two main purposes for this storage are to have filtered water available for backwashing the filter, and to provide detention time (or contact time) for the chlorine (or other disinfectant) to kill any microorganisms that may remain in the water.

Public education is key to a water treatment facility’s image. This is a difficult balance with new security rules that are in place since 9/11.

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(928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675

The LT1FBR proposal builds on those standards by extending the requirements to small systems. The EPA has set enforceable drinking water treatment requirements to reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreaks. The 1996 Amendments also require the EPA to promulgate a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (for systems serving less than 10. and headaches and fatigue.000 were hospitalized. The EPA has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants is a health concern. The filter backwash requirements will reduce the potential risks associated with recycling contaminants removed during the filtration process. possibly jaundice. What will the LT1FBR require? The LT1FBR provisions will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water systems. 2000 ((1412(b)(2)(C)) and also required the EPA to “promulgate a regulation to govern the recycling of filter backwash water within the treatment process of a public water system” by August. More than 4. Treatment technologies such as filtration and disinfection can remove or inactivate microbiological contaminants. Cryptosporidiosis may manifest itself as a severe infection that can last several weeks and may cause the death of individuals with compromised immune systems. The current proposed rule includes provisions addressing both of these requirements. This rule will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water.EPA Filter Backwash Rule The U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Filter Backwash Rule (LT1FBR) to increase protection of finished drinking water supplies from contamination by Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens.000 people in Milwaukee to experience intestinal illness. The IESWTR set the first drinking water standards to control Cryptosporidium in large water systems. Background The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires the EPA to set enforceable standards to protect public health from contaminants which may occur in drinking water. Physical removal is critical to the control of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to standard disinfection practice. If finished water supplies contain microbiological contaminants.000 people) by November. and at least 50 deaths were attributed to the cryptosporidiosis outbreak. This rule also establishes filter backwash requirements for certain public water systems of all sizes. LT1 Provisions . disease outbreaks may result.000 people each.S. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea. 2000 ((1412(b)(14)).500 small water systems which serve fewer than 10. and fall into the three following categories: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 57 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 people. nausea.Apply to systems serving fewer than 10. cramps. The 1996 Amendments to SDWA require The EPA to promulgate an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (announced in December 1998). Cryptosporidium caused over 400. by establishing filtration and monitoring requirements for systems serving more than 10. This rule proposes to extend protections against Cryptosporidium and other disease-causing microbes to the 11.000 people annually. In 1993.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 58 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . FBR Provisions . • Conventional systems that practice direct recycle. thickener supernatant. and • Unfiltered systems must comply with updated watershed control requirements that add Cryptosporidium as a pathogen of concern. gauges and pumps. and/or liquids from dewatering process within the treatment process must perform a one month. The self assessment requires hydraulic flow monitoring and that certain data be reported to the State. one-time recycle self assessment. Under the filtration basins are tunnels and complex machinery. Disinfection Benchmarking • Public water systems will be required to develop a disinfection profile unless they perform applicability monitoring which demonstrates their disinfection byproduct levels are less than 80% of the maximum contaminant levels. which may require that modifications to recycle practice be made. • Direct filtration systems recycling to the treatment process must provide detailed recycle treatment information to the State. • If a system considers making a significant change to their disinfection practice they must develop a disinfection benchmark and receive State approval for implementing the change. and. and recycle spent filter backwash water. which may require modifications to recycle practice.Turbidity • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with specific combined filter effluent turbidity requirements. and liquids from dewatering process prior to the point of primary coagulant addition unless the State specifies an alternative location. employ 20 or fewer filters to meet production requirements during a selected month. • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with individual filter turbidity requirements. Other Requirements • Finished water reservoirs for which construction begins after the effective date of the rule must be covered. be made to protect public health. thickener supernatant.Apply to all systems which recycle regardless of population served: • Recycle systems will be required to return spent filter backwash water.

but some are differentiated for reproduction and for other functions. is a green alga. under certain conditions.Protoctista are pretty much all microscopic organisms.seaweeds and kelp -. or in a branching thallus form (e. Kelps. as is the green film found on the bark of trees.g.Types of Algae The simplest algae are single cells (e. the diatoms). a green slime found in stagnant water.g.. the green color of the chlorophyll is masked by the presence of other pigments. Fucus). the more complex forms consist of many cells grouped in a spherical colony (e. accumulation of floating green algae on the surface of stagnant or slowly moving waters. One of the commonest forms is Spirogyra.g. The green algae include most of the freshwater forms. may attain a length of more than 200 ft (61 m). Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able.g. With the exception of the larger Algae -. in a ribbonlike filament (e. to ingest food in an animal like manner. Blue-green algae have been grouped with other prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera and renamed cyanobacteria. Volvox). the largest algae..000 species) and various Plankton Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 59 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 10. The more complex brown algae and red algae are chiefly saltwater forms. such as ponds and reservoirs. Green Algae (Gamophyta & Chlorophyta) 7000 species Red Algae (Rhodophyta) 4000 species such as this Coralline Alga (Calliarthron tuberculosum) Other species include Diatoms (Bacillariophyta. Pond scum... The pond scum. The cells of the colonies are generally similar. Spirogyra).

Major Algae Groups Blue-green algae are the slimy stuff. Euglenoids are green or brown and swim with their flagellum. They are microscopic and single celled. too. Euglenoids are microscopic and single celled. Green algae are the most common algae in ponds and can be multicellular. they are bacteria. Green algae cells have nuclei and the pigment is distinct. Dinoflagellates have a flagella and can swim in open waters. Blue-green algae are not actually algae. Diatoms look like two shells that fit together. They are easy to spot because of their red eye. They are microscopic and single celled Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 60 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Its cells lack nuclei and its pigment is scattered.

The individual who eats fecescontaminated food may become infected and ill. It is interesting to note the majority of foodborne diseases occur in the home. generally a few days to two weeks. Day care centers are another common source for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. other methods exist for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. Human or animal wastes in watersheds. The foodborne route is one of the more common methods. In addition to water. Most pathogens are generally associated with diseases that cause intestinal illness and affect people in a relatively short amount of time.Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria. or feces-to-mouth. These particles. not restaurants. he or she must take that pathogen in through the mouth. then put their fingers in a friend’s mouth or Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 61 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . route. may remain in the water and be passed to humans or animals unless adequately treated. infected children in diapers may get feces on their fingers. Pathogens may get into water and spread when infected humans or animals pass the bacteria. They can cause illness through exposure to small quantities of contaminated water or food or from direct contact with infected people or animals. failing septic systems. viruses and protozoa in their stool. failing sewage treatment plants or cross-connections of water lines with sewage lines provide the potential for contaminating water with pathogens. Only proper treatment will ensure eliminating the spread of disease. For another person to become infected. Influenza virus and tuberculosis bacteria are spread by secretions that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. containing pathogens. viruses and protozoan that cause disease are known as pathogens. How Diseases are Transmitted Cryptosporidium Pathogens that may cause waterborne outbreaks through drinking water have one thing in common: they are spread by the fecal-oral. A frequent source is a food handler who does not wash his hands after a bowel movement and then handles food with “unclean” hands. Waterborne pathogens are different from other types of pathogens such as the viruses that cause influenza (the flu) or the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. Here. dispersed and diluted into microscopic particles. The water may not appear to be contaminated because feces has been broken up.

Shigellosis. All bacteria in water are readily killed or inactivated with chlorine or other disinfectants. others. are other bacterial diseases that can be transmitted through water. yet is accepted by the general public. Symptoms begin three to five days after exposure. The pathogens must survive in the water. A susceptible person must drink the water that contains the pathogen. influenza is an upper respiratory illness and rarely has diarrhea associated with it. The feces must contain pathogens (disease-causing bacteria. Some pathogens will survive for only a short time in water.” Technically. malaise. no disease will result. stomach flu is a misleading description for foodborne or waterborne illnesses. viruses or protozoa).” Medical treatment generally is not prescribed for campylobacteriosis because recovery is usually rapid. This contamination may be of human or animal origin. These organisms are also an important cause of “travelers’ diarrhea. fever. The water is either not treated or inadequately treated for the pathogens present. Coli Bacteria Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 62 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The general public and some of the medical community usually refer to diarrhea symptoms as “stomach flu. The pathogens in the water must enter the water system’s intake and in numbers sufficient to infect people. Illness (disease) will occur.handle toys that other children put into their mouths. Salmonellosis. Bacterial Diseases Campylobacteriosis is the most common diarrhea illness caused by bacteria. The illness is frequently over within two to five days and usually lasts no more than 10 days. you may want to think twice about what you’ve digested within the past few days. Yersiniosis. the transmission of disease will be prevented. If the human or animal source is not infected with a pathogen. such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium. This chain lists the events that must occur for the transmission of disease via drinking water. Legionellosis. especially chicken and unpasteurized milk as well as unchlorinated water. So the next time you get the stomach flu. nausea and vomiting. may survive for months. This depends on the temperature of the water and the length of time the pathogens are in the water. Cholera. therefore. By breaking the chain at any point. Campylobacteriosis outbreaks have most often been associated with food. E. Other symptoms include abdominal pain. Chain of Transmission Water is contaminated with feces.

food contaminated by infected food handlers. Hepatitis A outbreaks have been related to fecally contaminated water. The disease varies in severity from a mild illness lasting one to two weeks. nausea and abdominal discomfort. polio and viral gastroenteritis (Norwalk agent) are other viral diseases that can be transmitted through water. The onset is usually abrupt with fever. to a severely disabling disease lasting several months (rare). followed within a few days by jaundice. and raw or undercooked mollusks harvested from contaminated waters. including sandwiches and salads that are not cooked or are handled after cooking. malaise. Aseptic meningitis. loss of appetite. Most viruses in drinking water can be inactivated by chlorine or other disinfectants. Norwalk Agent Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 63 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Viral-Caused Diseases Hepatitis A is an example of a common viral disease that may be transmitted through water. The incubation period is 15-50 days and averages 28-30 days.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 64 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . anorexia. abdominal cramps. fever. Waterborne outbreaks in the United States occur most often in communities receiving their drinking water from streams or rivers without adequate disinfection or a filtration system.” The cyst can survive in the environment for long periods of time and be extremely resistant to conventional disinfectants such as chlorine. They invade and inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. The organism. Giardiasis is a commonly reported protozoan-caused disease. Giardiasis occurs worldwide. with a protective cell wall. Drugs are available for treatment but these are not 100% effective. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea. has been responsible for more community-wide outbreaks of disease in the U. nausea and vomiting occur less often. Symptoms usually come and go. with an average of about seven days. The incubation period is 1-12 days. and end in fewer than 30 days in most cases. The incubation period is 5-25 days or longer. Many infections are asymptomatic (no symptoms). which may be profuse and watery. called a “cyst. It has also been referred to as “backpacker’s disease” and “beaver fever” because of the many cases reported among hikers and others who consume untreated surface water. Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is an example of a protozoan disease that is common worldwide but was only recently recognized as causing human disease. Some parasites enter the environment in a dormant form. Effective filtration treatment is therefore critical to removing these organisms from water sources.S.Protozoan Caused Diseases Protozoan pathogens are larger than bacteria and viruses but still microscopic. bloating. with an average of 7-10 days. frequent loose and pale greasy stools. Giardia lamblia. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea. fatigue and weight loss. than any other pathogen. General malaise. The diarrhea is associated with cramping abdominal pain.

There is no specific treatment for Cryptosporidium infections.Cryptosporidium organisms have been identified in human fecal specimens from more than 50 countries on six continents. operating and maintaining the system at a high level on a continuing basis is critical to prevent disease. even life threatening illness. self-limiting disease. operated and maintained public water systems becomes obvious. the potential risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is real. and the same routes of transmission. with the exception of hepatitis A. For those operating systems that currently provide adequate source protection and treatment. the goal of treatment must clearly be to produce drinking water that is as pathogen-free as possible at all times. fecal-oral. being either foodborne or waterborne. For those who operate water systems with inadequate source protection or treatment facilities. They also have the same mode of transmission. on occasion. All these diseases. they can cause serious. the importance of properly constructed. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 65 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . have one symptom in common: diarrhea. Although most pathogens cause mild. either by person-to-person or animal-to-person. By understanding the nature of waterborne diseases. whether through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. Particularly vulnerable are persons with weak immune systems such as those with HIV infections or cancer. While water treatment cannot achieve sterile water (no microorganisms). The mode of transmission is fecal-oral.

lasts up to four months Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Human feces Mild diarrhea. and general weakness — lasts one week to months Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Animal or human feces Diarrhea. (also. shellfish grown Yellowed skin.E. high temperature— sometimes fatal Shigellosis Shigella (bacterium) Human feces Diarrhea Cholera Vibrio choleras (bacterium) Human feces. cramps. (protozoan) extra intestinal infection Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (protozoan) Animal or human feces Diarrhea. Coli O157 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 66 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Diarrhea or vomiting children) Norwalk-like viruses Human feces. enlarged spleen. urine Inflamed intestine. lives in polluted waters fever. dysentery. shellfish Diarrhea and vomiting lives in polluted waters) Salmonellosis Salmonella (bacterium) Animal or human feces Diarrhea or vomiting Escherichia coli-. coli organisms Typhoid Salmonella typhi (bacterium) Human feces. (also.Waterborne Diseases Name Causative organism Source of organism Disease Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus ( lives mostly in young Human feces. stomach pain — lasts (protozoan) days to weeks E. vomiting. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Human feces. mineral loss — high mortality. enlarged liver. weight loss. abdominal pain — low mortality. severe diarrhea. nausea. rapid lives in many coastal waters) dehydration. shellfish Vomiting. coli O1 57:H7 (bacterium) Human feces Symptoms vary with type caused gastroenteritis Other E.

line breaks or incidents that might allow ingress of microbial contamination. Naegleria fowleri is a free living amoeba which is common in the environment and grows optimally at temperatures of 35 to 45 degrees C.000 residents in the rapidly growing town are served by private water companies which mainly rely on groundwater sources. who identified the amoeba in a patient who had died from meningitis. Some of these companies chlorinate their groundwater supplies and some do not. however the Glendale boy frequently visited his grandparents' home a few blocks from the other boy's residence in Peoria. Schools and restaurants in the suspect area were also closed.000 consumers were warned not to use unboiled tap water for drinking.000 residents receive chlorinated drinking water from the municipal supply. Exposure to the organism is believed to be relatively common but infections resulting in illness are rare. Health authorities then began investigating possible common sources of Naegleria exposure including drinking water. spas and fountains. bathtubs.000 of Peoria's 120. About 100. pools.Health Stream Article . cooking or bathing. although periodic chlorination has been used after new connections. They attended separate schools. a boil water notice was issued and 6. Tests by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have detected N. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 67 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Issue 28 December 2002 Naegleria Deaths In Arizona Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. Supply to the affected area was switched to a chlorinated surface water source. and a flushing program with hyperchlorinated water was carried out to remove possible contamination from the water distribution system. Both boys became ill on 9 October and died a few days later on 12 and 13 October respectively. an Australian pathologist. and residents were advised to drain and clean spas and hyperchlorinate swimming pools. some four miles away. This supply was taken off-line on 3 November. One of the victims lived in Peoria and the other in the neighboring town of Glendale. The disease was first described in 1965 by Dr Malcolm Fowler. fowleri in three samples: · one pre-chlorination water sample from a municipal well that was routinely chlorinated · one tank water sample from the suspect unchlorinated groundwater system · the refrigerator filter from the home of the grandparents of one of the boys The chlorinated well is believed unlikely to be the source of infection as chlorination is effective in killing N. As Arizona state law prevents counties from supplying water to areas outside the incorporated municipal zones. The suspect water supply is drawn from a deep aquifer and is not routinely chlorinated. the remaining 20. The source of the infections has not been positively established but suspicion has fallen on a small unchlorinated ground water supply operated by a private company. This supply is predominantly drawn from surface water sources but is supplemented by groundwater in times of high demand. fowleri.

N. irritability. Prior to the incidents in Peoria. Plans are also underway to install a continuous chlorination plant on the groundwater supply. and N. high pitched crying and convulsions. In early studies. People with immune deficiencies may also be more prone to infection. providing conditions where water is forced into the nose at pressure. fowleri in the water supply pipelines. with only four survivors known among about 100 cases in the US since 1965. vomiting. and spread to the meninges (the membrane surrounding the brain) and often to the brain tissue itself. The involvement of tap water supplies was first documented in South Australia. Similar symptoms also occur in viral and bacterial forms of meningitis which are much more common than the amoebic form. and the infection cannot be transmitted from person to person. a semiporous barrier. Tap water may also have been the primary source of infections attributed to swimming pools in these towns. fowleri meningitis are associated with swimming in natural surface freshwater bodies. fowleri has been detected in water supplies in each of these states as well as the Northern Territory. fowleri meningitis are fatal. but had intra-nasal exposure to tap water through inhaling or squirting water into the nose. Cases are often reported to be associated with jumping or falling into the water. Cases of disease have also been recorded in Western Australia. transmission by contaminated dust was suspected as an infection route but this has since been discounted as the organism does not survive desiccation. where a number of cases occurred in the 1960s and 70s in several towns served by unchlorinated surface water delivered through long above-ground pipelines. Warm water conditions and the absence of free chlorine may then allow it to proliferate in the system. The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 68 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cases of disease have also been associated with swimming pools where disinfection levels were inadequate. The cribiform plate is more permeable in children. confusion. and inhalation of tap water from surface water supplies that have been subject to high temperatures. and infection occurs through introduction of the organism into the nasal cavities. Local health authorities in Arizona are continuing their investigation into the two deaths with assistance from CDC personnel.Most reported cases of N. fowleri infections had not been reported to be associated with groundwater supplies. The incidence of disease was greatly reduced by introduction of reliable chlorination facilities along the above-ground pipelines and introduction of chloramination in the 1980s led to virtual elimination of N. However as the organism may be found in moist soil. and concluded that the high water temperatures reached in summer provided a suitable environment for growth of the organism. fowleri meningitis causes non-specific symptoms such as fever. N. and some residents have called for the municipality to purchase the private water company and take over its operations. Most cases of N. making them more susceptible to infection than adults. The amoeba may then penetrate the cribiform plate. Queensland and New South Wales. it is feasible that the amoeba may penetrate poorly constructed bores or be introduced by occasional contamination events.fowleri from the water supplies. Investigators found N. drowsiness. About half of the cases in the state did not have a recent history of freshwater swimming.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 69 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Terms Flocculation . It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. cost of production. and hardness reduction. Scope 1. to determine the proper coagulant dosage. then simulate this during the jar test. length of settling time and floc development. operate the jar test to simulate conditions in YOUR plant. Finished water quality. Again.A chemical technique directed toward destabilization of colloidal particles. 1. Before you start The jar test. associated with its use. Take time to observe what happens to the raw water in your plant after the chemicals have been added. followed by gravity settling. continues to be one of the most effective tools available to surface water plant operators. starting the test at high rpm would provide misleading results. 1. Because the jar test is intended to simulate conditions in your plant. all depend on the proper application of chemicals to the raw water entering the treatment plant. Turbidity . The procedure may be used to evaluate color.2 The practice provides a systematic evaluation of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process. as with any coagulant test. THE RPM OF THE STIRRER AND THE MINUTES TO COMPLETE THE TEST DEPEND ON CONDITIONS IN YOUR PLANT. for instance. your plant does not have a static or flash mixer. if any. colloidal.The Jar Test Jar testing.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns. turbidity. This rule applies to flocculator speed. will only provide accurate results when properly performed.1 This practice covers a general procedure for the evaluation of a treatment to reduce dissolved. and nonsettleable matter from water by chemical coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation . 1. suspended.Agglomeration of particles into groups thereby increasing the effective diameter. length of filter runs and overall filter life.A measure of the presence of suspended solid material. If. developing the proper procedure is very important.

When two or more nonpolar molecules. in other words somehow make them “stick” together. thereby increasing there size and mass. somehow have them come together (conglomerate). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 70 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . are in close proximity the nucleus of each atom will weakly attract electrons in the counter atom resulting. The two primary forces that control whether or not colloidal particles will agglomerate are: Repulsive Force An electrostatic force called the “Zeta Potential” - 4π q d ζ = D Where: ζ = Zeta Potential q = charge per unit area of the particle d = thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface through which the charge is effective D = dielectric constant of the liquid Attractive Force Force due to van der Waals forces van der Waals forces are weak forces based on a polar characteristic induced by neighboring molecules. in an unsymmetrical arrangement of the nucleus. decay of this force occurs exponentially with distance. The most important factor(s) contributing to the stability of colloidal particles is not their mass. This force. therefore making them very difficult to remove. but their surface properties. H2. These particles are the primary contributors to the turbidity of the raw water causing it to be “cloudy”. Ar. As can clearly be seen from this relationship.Turbidity Particles less about 1 to 10 µm in diameter (primarily colloidal particles) will not settle out by gravitational forces. is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance (1/d6) between the particles. This idea can be better understood by relating the colloidal particles large surface area to their small volume (S/V) ratio resulting from their very small size. such as He. van der Waals force. at least momentarily. In order to remove these small particles we must either filter the water or somehow incorporate gravitational forces such that these particles will settle out. In order to have gravity affect these particles we must somehow make them larger.

Al(OH)2+.5. flocculation follows coagulation. Al(OH)21+ etc). By introducing aluminum (Al3+) into the water in the form of Alum (Al2(SO4)3•nH20) we can accomplish the supercharging of the water. Units . thereby displacing the water layer surrounding the charged particle momentarily. Theses complexes are charged highly positive.7. During the flocculation process the particles join together to form flocs. i. By “pushing” (adding energy) the particles together we can aid in the flocculation process forming larger flocs. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 71 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If to much alum is added then the opposite effect occurs. 3.) Secchi Disk . How to Treat Turbidity Supercharge the water supply . and the particles restabilize.e. The particles are then able to get close enough together for van der Waals forces to take over and the particles begin to flocculate. the faster they will settle within a clarifier.e. The photomultiplier tube converts the light energy into an electrical signal.0 .) Turbidimeter . The final key to obtaining good flocs is the added energy put into the system by way of rotating paddles in the flocculator tanks.a black and white disk divided like a pie in 4 quadrants about 6" in diameter. During the coagulation process charged hydroxy-metallic complexes are formed momentarily (i. It important to understand that too much energy. A sensitive photomultiplier tube at a 90o angle from the incident light beam detects the light scattered by the particles in the sample. This is the coagulation part of the coagulation/flocculation process. Ferrous Sulfate works well in through a range of pH values. This upset decreases the distance “d” in-turn decreasing the Zeta potential.) Jackson Candle Test 2. therefore upsetting the stable negative charge of the target particles. Alum works best in the pH range of natural waters.5. down to pH 4. the larger the flocs. we can upset the charge effect of the particle enough to reduce the Zeta potential (repulsive force) thereby allowing van der Waals forces (attractive forces) to take over.Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) or Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU). The chemical reaction continues until the aluminum ions (Al+3) reach their final form. 4. and settle out (note – the flocculated particles settle out separately from the precipitated Al(OH)3 (s)). would cause the particles to shear (breakup).Light is passed through a sample.5 to 9. which is amplified and displayed on the instrument. rotating the paddles too fast. Other chemical coagulants used are Ferric Chloride and Ferrous Sulfate. 5. Ferric Chloride works best at lower pH values. thereby reducing the size of the particles and would therefore increase the settling time in the clarifier. the particles form sub complexes with the Al+3 and gain a positive charge about them.By supercharging the water supply momentarily with a positive charge.Ways to Measure Turbidity 1. Al(OH)3 (s).5.

1 N solution of NaOH (buffer). 4) Measure the temperature and conductivity. 2) Make up a 0. 5) Measure the initial pH 6) Add alum and NaOH solutions in equal portions as specified by instructor.3H 2O + 6CO2 (3) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. off.3H 2O (4) Apparatus 1) Jar Test Apparatus 2) 6 1500 mL Beakers 3) pH meter 4) Pipettes 5) Conductivity Meter 6) Turbidimeter Procedure 1) Make up a 10-g/L solution of alum. Be careful not to disturb the flocs that have settled.3H 2O + 6H 2O → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 14. (Na+1 = 23 mg/mmol.1 minute (100 rpm) b. slow mix .3H 2O + 6Na(HCO3 ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14. settling . H+ = 1 mg/mmol) 3) Fill each of the six 1500 mL beakers with one-liter of river water. rapid mix . O-2 = 16 mg/mmol. 9) Measure final pH Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 72 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Take the sample from the center.Key Equations Al 2 (SO 4 )3 • 14.3H 2O + 6Na(OH ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.15 minutes (20 rpm) c.30 minutes 8) Measure final turbidity.3H 2O + 3H 2SO 4 (2) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. 7) Mixing protocol: a. about 2" down for each one liter sample.

1 N Beaker Alum (ml) Buffer (ml) Alum .Information to be Recorded Initial Turbidity = ? NTU .g/L Turbidity (NTU) pH-Before Buffer pH-After Temp. oC Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 73 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0.

Different Types of Chemical Storage Tanks found in Water Treatment Facilities Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 74 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Dilution technique ("make down") is especially critical. add 2 mL of neat product to bottle. inject 2 mL of neat polymer into vortex. Mix for 20 seconds. 3.0% solution. Allow dilute polymer to age for at least 20 minutes. 10cc). Prepare 0. 5. Emulsion polymers (Prepare 1. Required equipment: 250 mL bottles with lids. Solution polymers and Inorganics (Prepare a 1. 5. High speed hand mixer (for emulsion polymers). 6. Add 180 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. 250 and 500 mL beakers. 8. prior to activation. Add 180 mL to 250 mL bottle. 4. Water (it is recommended that the makedown water from the plant be used). 3. Prepare 0. Add 20 mL of 1. 5cc. 6. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 75 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 3. Add 198 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. since it involves compactly coiled large molecules in emulsions.) 1. but preferably overnight.0% solution. Using a syringe. Using a syringe. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Shake vigorously for at least 1 minute. 7. Add 198 mL of water to a beaker. If the following procedures are not followed. Graduated cylinder (100 mL).) 1. 4.Preparing Polymers for the Jar Test A successful Jar Test is very reliant upon the proper preparation of the polymers being tested. Do not exceed 20 seconds! 5.1% solution. 7. 2.1% solution. 2. Add 20 mL of 1 % solution. 4. 2. 6.0% polymer solution. 1. Insert Braun mixer into water and begin mixing. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. The polymer must be uncoiled to provide maximum contact with the colloidal particles to be flocculated. Syringes (1cc. the Jar Test results will be very unreliable.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 76 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions.

which develop on the surface waters and on beds of lakes and rivers under certain conditions of temperature and chemical composition.Potassium Permanganate Jar Test Potassium Permanganate has been used for a number of years in both water & wastewater treatment. it changes color from purple to yellow or brown.20 no pink 4 1.25 no pink 5 1.. Each 5 ml of the test stock solution added to a 2000 ml sample equals 1 mg/l. KMn04 is a strong oxidizer which can be used to destroy many organic compounds of both the natural and man made origin. KMn04 is also used to oxidize iron. Jar Testing Example If you have a six position stirrer: Using a graduated cylinder.25 0.50 0. or the reaction may continue in the system and the same conditions as exist with naturally occurring manganese may cause staining of the plumbing fixtures. The final product formed is manganese dioxide (Mn02) an insoluble precipitate that can be removed by sedimentation and filtration.50 0. I must caution you that all KMn04 applied must be converted to manganese dioxide (Mn02) form prior to filtration. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 77 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This may cause the customer to find pink tap water. (Test Stock Solution) 4 ml strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 ml distilled water. coagulant. Jar # KMn04 ml KMn04 mg/l Color 1 0.00 0. Stock Solutions (Strong Stock Solution) 5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 ml distilled water. Do not add carbon or chlorine. manganese and sulfide compounds and other taste and odor producing substances usually due to the presence of very small quantities of secretions given off by microscopic algae.75 0.10 no pink 2 0.etc.30 pink 6 1.35 pink Stir the beakers to simulate the turbulence where the KMn04 is to be added and observe the color change.75 0.15 no pink 3 1. Dose each beaker to simulate plant practices in pre-treatment. If it is not all converted and is still purple or pink it will pass through the filter into the clearwell or distribution system. measure 2000 ml of the sample to be tested into each of the six beakers. dose each beaker with the test stock solution in the following manner. pH adjustment. As the permanganate ion is reduced during its reaction with compounds that it oxidizes. KMn04 must be used with caution as this material produces an intense purple color when mixed with water. Using a graduated pipette.

3 mg/l.2 mg/l Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l. The manganese concentration is 1. When applying potassium permanganate to raw water. mg/l = 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 78 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0(Manganese.6(0.4 mg/l Kmn04 Dose. mg/l) = 0. mg/l = 0. mg/l = 0. If the sample remains pink. The end point has been reached when a pink color is observed and remains for at least 10 minutes.0(1. KMn04 used as a disinfectant in pre-treatment could help control the formation of trihalomethanes by allowing chlorine to be added later in the treatment process or after filtration. permanganate generally reacts more quickly at pH levels above 7. KMn04 Dose. care must be taken not to bring pink water to the filter unless you have "greensand". mg/l Manganese. the actual dose may be higher.0(Manganese.4 mg/l) + 2.5 ml/ 0.4 of iron. To calculate the dosage of KMn04 for iron and manganese removal here is the formula to use. oxidation is complete.64 mg/l Note: The calculated 2. With proper application. If the sample turns brown there is iron or manganese remaining in the finished water.6(iron. Jar testing should be done to determine the required dose. If the first jar test does not produce the correct color change. mg/l) + 2. continue with increased dosages. As well as being a strong oxidizer for iron and manganese.25 ml of the test stock solution to 1000 ml finished water.0. Its usefulness also extends to algae control as well as many taste odor problems.64 mg/l KMn04 dose is the minimum dose. mg/l) Example: Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l for a water with 0.2 mg/l) = 2. Therefore. In the preceding table a pink color first developed in beaker #5 which had been dosed with 1. Quick Test A quick way to check the success of a KMn04 application is by adding 1. indicating the presence of oxidized iron and or manganese. the sample will turn varying shades of brown. potassium permanganate is an extremely useful chemical treatment. Samples which retain a brown or yellow color indicate that the oxidation process is incomplete and will require a higher dosage of KMn04. mg/l = 1.As the iron and manganese begin to oxidize. mg/l) + 2. Known Unknown Iron.6(Iron. Also.2 mg/l. KMn04 Dose. This dose assumes there are no oxidizable compounds in the raw water.

Li.) All the metals are grouped together on the left side of the periodic table. shiny solids and good conductors of heat and electricity) softer than most familiar metals. (The groups are numbered I to VIII from left to right. can be cut with a knife Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 79 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .How is the Periodic Table Organized? The periodic table is organized with eight principal vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. and the periods are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom. and all the nonmetals are grouped together on the right side of the periodic table. What are the Eight Groups of the Periodic Table? Group I: Alkali Metals . Fr known as alkai metals most reactive of the metals react with all nonmetals except the noble gases contain typical physical properties of metals (ex. Semimetals are found in between the metals and nonmetals. Rb. Na. Cs. K.

all the others are metals Group IV: C. Cl. Te. At very reactive nonmetals Group VIII: Noble Gases-He. In. Kr. Sr. Xe. liquids. Tl boron is a semimetal. Ga. or solids at room temperature Poor conductors of heat Are insulators-very poor conductors of electricity Do not have a high reflectivity or a shiny metallic appearance In solid form generally brittle and fracture easily under stress Do not exhibit photoelectric or thermionic effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 80 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ar. Ba. Pb carbon is a nonmetal.Group II: Alkaline Earth Metals-Be. Mg. Al. sulfur. Ra known as alkaline earth metals react with nonmetals. S. P. Sb. but more slowly than the Group I metals solids at room temperature have typical metallic properties harder than the Group I metals higher melting points than the Group I metals Group III: B. bismuth is a metal Group VI: O. Rn very unreactive Properties of Metals Solids at room temperature Conduct heat very well Have electrical conductivities that increase with decreasing temperature Have a high flexibility and a shiny metallic luster Are malleable-can be beaten out into sheets or foils Are ductile-can be pulled into thin wires without breaking Emit electrons when they are exposed to radiation of sufficiently high energy or when They are heated (known as photoelectric effect and thermionic effect) Properties of Nonmetals May be gases. arsenic and antimony are semimetals. and selenium are nonmetals. Se. Sn. tin and lead are metals Group V: N. Si. silicon and germanium are semimetals. Br. Ca. tellurium and polonium are semimetals Group VII: Halogens-F. Bi nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. As. Ne. Po oxygen. Ge. I.

A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. A difference of 2 units. Normal rain has a pH of 5. The acidity of a water sample is measured on a pH scale. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 81 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. Because the scale is logarithmic. and so on. a difference of one pH unit represents a tenfold change. the acidity of a sample with a pH of 5 is ten times greater than that of a sample with a pH of 6.6 – slightly acidic because of the carbon dioxide picked up in the earth's atmosphere by the rain.The pH Scale pH: A measure of the acidity of water. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. 7. would mean that the acidity is one hundred times greater. The acidity increases from neutral toward 0. represents the neutral point. This scale ranges from 0 (maximum acidity) to 14 (maximum alkalinity). For example. from 6 to 4. The middle of the scale. pH = (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity).

Chlorine Dioxide Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. Total Trihalomethanes Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Chlorite Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. Haloacetic Acids Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 82 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . You will see an increase of these technologies in the near future. your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. Bromate Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people may experience anemia. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard. and Ultraviolet light. Chloramine Some people who use drinking water containing chloramines well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. or central nervous systems. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard. kidneys. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. Disinfectant alternatives will include Ozone. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort or anemia. Especially after heavy rainstorms. Some people may experience anemia.Modern Water Treatment Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. Chlorine Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 83 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Never place water on a leaking metal cylinder. The water will help create acid which will make the leak larger. and the bottom lines are for extracting the Cl2 liquid.Chlorine Section 2 Ton Cylinders The top lines are for extracting the gas.

150 Pound Chlorine Cylinder Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 84 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29.6 degrees C (-30. and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride. Contact between chlorine and many combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water. Vapor density: 2. potassium. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid. Evaporation rate: Data not available.800 mm Hg 7.8 degrees F) 6. Molecular weight: 70. turpentine. Special precautions: Chlorine will attack some forms of plastics.41 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 6. hydrocarbons. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 85 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and chlorides. Odor thresholds ranging from 0. 8. Incompatibilities: Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures with chlorine.86 atm 4. Melting point: -101 degrees C (-149. and coatings. boron.Chlorine * Formula: Cl(2) * Structure: Not applicable. DOT label: Poison gas Appearance and odor Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. and silicon should be avoided.: FO2100000 3. soluble in alkalies. CAS No. alcohols. 4. carbon disulfide. * Synonyms: Bertholite.9 2. iodine. and finely divided metals may cause fires and explosions. bismuth. Hazardous decomposition products: None reported. molecular chlorine Identifiers 1. 3. acetylene. Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture. Contact between chlorine and arsenic.5 5. activated carbon. ammonia. and water.2 degrees F) or at high pressures.08 to part per million (ppm) parts of air have been reported. 2. glycerol. alcohols.28 degrees F) 3. oxomonosilane. propylene. hydrogen. Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F): 4.: 7782-50-5 2. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): -34. rubber. Conditions contributing to instability: Cylinders of chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures. Prolonged exposures may result in olfactory fatigue. RTECS No. steam. hydrazine. Chlorine in solution forms a corrosive material. Chemical and Physical Properties Physical data 1. reducing agents. methane. Reactivity 1. Specific gravity (liquid): 1. calcium. DOT UN: 1017 20 4. and sulfur).

mucous membrane and skin irritation [NIOSH 1992]. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level [29 CFR 1910. * Rationale for Limits The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of severe eye. * ACGIH TLV The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned chlorine a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0. Table Z-1]. Fires involving chlorine should be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible. use water spray or fog. p. however.contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving chlorine. Contain and let large fires involving chlorine burn. 2. If this is not possible. cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out.5 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1 ppm (3 mg/m(3))[NIOSH 1992]. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering. The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 0 (no fire hazard) to chlorine. withdraw from the area and let the fire burn. * NIOSH REL The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 86 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Autoignition temperature: Not applicable.Flammability Chlorine is a non-combustible gas.0 ppm (2. Flash point: Not applicable. 4. most combustible materials will burn in chlorine. If fire must be fought.5 ppm (1. Stay away from the ends of containers. Flammable limits in air: Not applicable. Exposures at the STEL concentration should not be repeated more than four times a day and should be separated by intervals of at least 60 minutes [ACGIH 1994. For a massive fire in a cargo area. The ACGIH limits are based on the risk of eye and mucous membrane irritation [ACGIH 1991. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. 1. 254]. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self. Exposure Limits * OSHA PEL The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. if this is impossible.9 mg/m(3)) for periods not to exceed 15 minutes. do not use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Keep unnecessary people away. isolate the hazard area and deny entry. 3. Extinguishant: For small fires use water only. 15].1000. Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely.5 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1. p.

The organic matter and other substances that are present. at the turn of the century. For example. including the season and the source of the water.. The Principal Trihalomethanes are: Chloroform. some of which are effective killing agents. or plumbing errors. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 87 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . because organic matter concentrations are generally low in these sources. One especially important feature of disinfection using chlorine is the ease of overdosing to create a "residual" concentration. This residual concentration of chlorine provides some degree of protection right to the water faucet. Living cells react with chlorine and reduce its concentration while they die. convert to chlorinated derivatives. and OCl¯ is called free available chlorine. drinking water supplies are the trihalomethanes (THMs). reaction kinetics complicates interpretation of chlorination data. Health Effects Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of THMs have shown increased incidences of cancer. and that which is bound but still effective is combined chlorine.5 ppm. With free available chlorine. The most common chlorination by-products found in U. such as cholera and typhoid fever. most of our drinking water supplies are free of the micro-organisms — viruses. Chlorine present as Cl. The amount of THMs formed in drinking water can be influenced by a number of factors. HOCl. particularly chlorination. Because chlorinated organic compounds are less effective. There may be breaks in water mains. chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. The correct excess is obtained in a method called "Break Point Chlorination ".S. loss of pressure that permits an inward leak. Also. There is a constant danger that safe water leaving the treatment plant may become contaminated later.1 to 0. This is largely due to the introduction of water treatment. The opposite — high organic matter concentrations and high THM levels — is true when rivers or other surface waters are used as the source of the drinking water. Other less common chlorination by-products includes the haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles. bacteria and protozoa — that cause serious and life-threatening diseases. several studies of cancer incidence in human populations have reported associations between long-term exposure to high levels of chlorination by-products and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. There will be no chlorine residual unless there is an excess over the amount that reacts with the organic matter present. Chlorine By-Products Chlorination by-products are the chemicals formed when the chlorine used to kill diseasecausing micro-organisms reacts with naturally occurring organic matter (e. decay products of vegetation) in the water. THM concentrations are generally lower in winter than in summer. THM levels are also low when wells or large lakes are used as the drinking water source. a typical residual is 2 ppm for combined chlorine.g. bromodichloromethane. because concentrations of natural organic matter are lower and less chlorine is required to disinfect at colder temperatures. A particularly important group of compounds with combined chlorine is the chloramines formed by reactions with ammonia. However.Chlorine (DDBP) Today. a typical residual is from 0.

Possible relationships between exposure to high levels of THMs and adverse reproductive effects in humans have also been examined recently. In a California study.For instance. Chlorine storage room. pregnant women who consumed large amounts of tap water containing elevated levels of THMs were found to have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The available studies on health effects do not provide conclusive proof of a relationship between exposure to THMs and cancer or reproductive effects. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 88 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .products other than THMs. a recent study conducted in the Great Lakes basin reported an increased risk of bladder and possibly colon cancer in people who drank chlorinated surface water for 35 years or more. notice the vents at the bottom and top. but indicate the need for further research to confirm their results and to assess the potential health effects of chlorination by. The bottom vent will allow the gas to ventilate because Cl2 gas is heavier than air.

When used with modern water filtration practices.g. Assessments of the health risks from these and other chlorine-based disinfectants and chlorination by-products are currently under way. Modifying water treatment facilities to use ozone can be expensive. but it forms chlorate and chlorite. and. Chlorine Piping and chlorine cylinder yoke Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 89 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chloramines are weaker disinfectants than chlorine. and ozone treatment can create other undesirable by-products that may be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. chlorine continues to be the choice of water treatment experts.Risks and Benefits of Chlorine Current evidence indicates that the benefits of chlorinating our drinking water — reduced incidence of water-borne diseases — are much greater than the risks of health effects from THMs. This ensures that the water remains free of microbial contamination on its journey from the treatment plant to the consumer’s tap. Examples of other disinfectants include chloramines and chlorine dioxide. It is extremely important that water treatment plants ensure that methods used to control chlorination by-products do not compromise the effectiveness of water disinfection. A third option is removal of the by-products by adsorption on activated carbon beds. most importantly. chlorine is effective against virtually all infective agents — bacteria. so that small amounts of chlorine or other disinfectants must be added to the water to ensure continued disinfection as the water is piped to the consumer’s tap.. small amounts of chlorine remain in the water and continue to disinfect throughout the distribution system. especially against viruses and protozoa. A number of cities use ozone to disinfect their source water and to reduce THM formation. viruses and protozoa. It is easy to apply. Although other disinfectants are available. however. the preferred method of controlling chlorination by-products is removal of the naturally occurring organic matter from the source water so it cannot react with the chlorine to form by-products. Although ozone is a highly effective disinfectant. as such. In general. bromate). THM levels may also be reduced through the replacement of chlorine with alternative disinfectants. Chlorine dioxide can be an effective disinfectant. can be useful for preventing re-growth of microbial pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. compounds whose toxicity has not yet been fully determined. it breaks down quickly. they are very persistent and.

but 9. A 1983 study of pulmonary function at low concentrations of chlorine exposure also found transient decreases in pulmonary function at the 1. pneumonia. Effects on Humans: Severe acute effects of chlorine exposure in humans have been well documented since World War I when chlorine gas was used as a chemical warfare agent.4 percent had abnormal EKGs compared to 8. 21 had TWAs above 0. and lungs in experimental animals. However. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 90 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Exposures of 1. There has been one confirmed case of myasthenia gravis associated with chlorine exposure [NLM 1995].5 ppm [ACGIH 1991]. In 1981. The lowest lethal concentration reported is 430 ppm for 30 minutes [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. and pulmonary edema. opacification of the cornea. exposures to 50 ppm are dangerous. Summary of toxicology 1.Health Hazard Information Routes of Exposure Exposure to chlorine can occur through inhalation. Exposure to 15 ppm causes throat irritation. Effects on Animals: Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes.0 ppm exposure level. Six of 14 subjects exposed to 1. lung congestion.52 ppm.2 percent in the control group.0 ppm exposure level [ACGIH 1991]. Other severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks.5 ppm exposure concentration. The 1 hour LC(50) is 239 ppm in rats and 137 ppm in mice ()[Sax and Lewis 1989]. Responses for sensations of itching or burning of the nose and eyes. and exposures to 1000 ppm can be fatal. All but six workers had exposures below 1 ppm. No evidence of permanent lung damage was found. 2. Earlier literature reported that exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints. Acne (chloracne) is not unusual among persons exposed to low concentrations of chlorine for long periods of time. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and susceptibility to tuberculosis among chronically-exposed workers. but not at the 0. Chlorine injected into the anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes resulted in severe damage with inflammation.0 ppm for 4. skin. mucous membranes. which was associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. a study was published involving 29 subjects exposed to chlorine concentrations up to 2. The incidence of fatigue was greater among those exposed above 0. corrosion of the teeth. A study of workers exposed to chlorine for an average of 10. even if exposure is brief [Sax and Lewis 1989. ingestion. and injury to the lens [Grant 1986]. These exposures have caused death. and bronchitis [Hathaway et al.9 years was published in 1970. and general discomfort were not severe. and eye or skin contact [Genium 1992].0 ppm for 8 hours produced statistically significant changes in pulmonary function that were not observed at a 0. 1991].and 8-hour periods. Tooth enamel damage may also occur [Parmeggiani 1983]. but were perceptible. Animals surviving sublethal inhalation exposures for 15 to 193 days showed marked emphysema.0 ppm for 8 hours showed increased mucous secretions from the nose and in the hypopharynx. atrophy of the iris.5 ppm level [ACGIH 1991]. especially at the 1. Clayton and Clayton 1982]. many of these effects are not confirmed in recent studies and are of very dubious significance [ACGIH 1991]. pleurisy.

violent coughing. headache. are as follows: Process enclosure Local exhaust ventilation General dilution ventilation Personal protective equipment. Use as a fluxing.g. and extraction agent in metallurgy. and fruit. cosmetics. choking. nose. acute tracheobronchitis. sneezing. resins. Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 CFR. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 91 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . purification. general excitement. use in the processing of meat. the location and proper use of emergency equipment. use in the manufacture of chlorinated lime. laryngeal edema. cleaning powders. and throat irritation. elastomers. and as a disinfectant in laundries. Exposure Sources and Control Methods The following operations may involve chlorine and lead to worker exposures to this substance: The Manufacture and Transportation of Chlorine Use as a chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis. sore throat. use to shrink-proof wool. Use in the paper and pulp. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye. and in the manufacture of rocket fuel. coughing. and in sewage. and bleaching cellulose. Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes [Genium 1992]. adhesives.1200]). dizziness. nausea. 2. and textile industries for bleaching cellulose for artificial fibers. lubricants. Use as a bacteriostat. pesticides. swimming pools. Use as bleaching and cleaning agents. fish. and restlessness. use in detinning and dezincing iron. in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. vegetables. chemical pneumonia. All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures. Methods that are effective in controlling worker exposures to chlorine.Signs and Symptoms of Exposure 1. tooth enamel corrosion. cleaning dairy equipment. vomiting. odor control. dishwashers. Emergency Medical Procedures: [NIOSH to supply] Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e. depending on the feasibility of implementation. and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations. refrigerants. Higher concentrations causes difficulty in breathing.. excessive salivation. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to low levels of chlorine gas can result in a dermatitis known as chloracne. Use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. hemoptysis and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis [Genium 1992]. in special batteries containing lithium or zinc. and in hydraulic fluids. severe chest pain. and demulsifier in treatment of drinking water. flameproofing. cyanosis. those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. disinfectant. automotive antifreeze and antiknock compounds. polymers (synthetic rubber and plastics).

oil.) away from the leak. 3. Chlorine Storage Chlorine should be stored in a cool. 2. finely divided metals. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. moisture. methane. New York. Alden JL. 5. NY: McGraw-Hill. glycerol. hydrogen sulfide and water. Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. bismuth. oxomonosilane. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 92 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . New York. and physical damage. Kane JM [1982]. acetylene.1200]. reducing agents. NY: Industrial Press. and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures for handling compressed corrosive gases. Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers. Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk. move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. ammonia. silicon. Use water spray to reduce vapors. IL: National Safety Council. Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. cylinders. Keep all combustibles (wood. do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: 1. well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. alcohols. Scheff PA [1987]. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. boron. Wadden RA. persons not wearing protective equipment and fullyencapsulating. Remove all sources of heat and ignition. 3. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather. 2. All pipes and containment used for chlorine service should be regularly inspected and tested. hydrogen. extreme temperatures changes. Empty containers of chlorine should have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately. steam. Spills and Leaks In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine. Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. if not. Inc. propylene. potassium. 4. Plog BA [1988]. vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. etc. and they should be stored separately from flammable gases and vapors. Cincinnati. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Burton DJ [1986]. dry. hydrazine. iodine. arsenic. 6. 7. and sulfur). 21st ed. hydrocarbons. Chicago. activated carbon. paper.Good Sources of Information about Control Methods are as Follows: 1. calcium. Design of industrial ventilation systems. Notify safety personnel. ACGIH [1992]. 5. Cincinnati. 4. carbon disulfide. and water. turpentine. combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products.

Reportable Quantity Requirements for Hazardous Releases A hazardous substance release is defined by the EPA as any spilling. corrosivity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 93 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .40].]. State. and hazardous waste management may change over time. Notify the community emergency coordinator of the local emergency planning committee (or relevant local emergency response personnel) of any area likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. emptying. employers are required to do the following: Notify the National Response Center immediately at (800) or at (202) 426-2675 in Washington.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to the EPA reporting the amount of chlorine emitted or released from their facility annually. Notify the emergency response commission of the State likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. escaping.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year or otherwise use 10. [40 CFR 302. D. leaching. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24-hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility. Emergency Planning Requirements Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 100 pounds or more of chlorine must comply with the EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.C.30]. leaking. reactivity. employers are required to notify the proper Federal.S.21-261.24.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372. pouring. dumping. or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.6]. Community Right-to-Know Requirements Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25. reportable quantities of hazardous releases. and local authorities [40 CFR The Reportable Quantity of Chlorine is 10 Pounds.Special Requirements The U. community right-to-know. the EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. discharging.40]. Hazardous Waste Management Requirements EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability. emitting. injecting. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available. or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning. pumping.

area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington. relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance.C.5 million tons and over 1 million containers of chlorine are shipped in the U. 1843 were exposed to chlorine gas.). transport. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 94 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .S. Department of Transportation. and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal. employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington. and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations.Although chlorine is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA. Approximately 10. D. each year.552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I.C. Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres. Of the 70. In addition. The U. the EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above. Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline. To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets the EPA regulatory requirements. France in 1915. D.S. Chlorine Gas Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract. the EPA.

when mixed with ammonia. Because its density is greater than that of air. It is a respiratory irritant. The predominant targets of the acid are the epithelia of the ocular conjunctivae and upper respiratory mucus membranes. however. Chlorine gas is stored in vented rooms that have panic bar equipped doors. The cylinders on the right contain chlorine gas. The odor threshold for chlorine is approximately 0. The intermediate water solubility of chlorine accounts for its effect on the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract. causing it to remain near ground level and increasing exposure time.3-0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 95 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . chloramines decompose to ammonia and hypochlorous acid or hydrochloric acid. Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow. The chains are used to prevent the tanks from falling over. Hypochlorous acid may account for the toxicity of elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid to the human body. this idea is now controversial. Early Response to Chlorine Gas Chlorine gas. and from the generation of free oxygen radicals. Although the idea that chlorine causes direct tissue damage by generating free oxygen radicals was once accepted. (3) water content of the tissues exposed.Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas at standard temperature and pressure. The cylinders are on a scale that operators use to measure the amount used each day. Hypochlorous acid is also highly water soluble with an injury pattern similar to hydrochloric acid. from reactions with tissue water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Mechanism of Activity The mechanisms of the above biological activity are poorly understood and the predominant anatomic site of injury may vary. Just a few breaths of it are fatal. The gas comes out of the cylinder through a gas regulator. and it burns the skin. reacts to form chloramine gas. the density of the gas is greater than that of air. Cl2 gas does not occur naturally. and (4) individual susceptibility. distinguishing toxic air levels from permissible air levels may be difficult until irritative symptoms are present. noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes. In addition. In the presence of water. Solubility Effects Hydrochloric acid is highly soluble in water. although Chlorine can be found in a number of compounds. the gas settles low to the ground. Operators have the equipment necessary to reduce the impact of a gas leak. depending on the chemical species produced.5 parts per million (ppm). but rely on trained emergency response teams to contain leaks. Cellular injury is believed to result from the oxidation of functional groups in cell components. The early response to chlorine exposure depends on the (1) concentration of chlorine gas. (2) duration of exposure. It is extremely reactive with most elements.

manifested as hypoxia.Immediate Effects The immediate effects of chlorine gas toxicity include acute inflammation of the conjunctivae. multiple pulmonary thromboses. They include severe pulmonary edema. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is thought to occur when there is a loss of pulmonary capillary integrity. and bronchi. The hallmark of pulmonary injury associated with chlorine toxicity is pulmonary edema. hyaline membrane formation. Pathological Findings Pathologic findings are nonspecific. pneumonia. resulting in pulmonary congestion. pharynx. Plasma exudation results in filling the alveoli with edema fluid. Chlorine Wrenches and Fusible Plugs Simple Chlorine Field Test Kit Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 96 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . trachea. larynx. Irritation of the airway mucosa leads to local edema secondary to active arterial and capillary hyperemia. nose. and ulcerative tracheobronchitis.

Measuring Chlorine Residual Chlorine residual is the amount of chlorine remaining in water that can be used for disinfection. You can measure what chlorine levels are being found in your system (especially at the far ends).) Chlorine test kits are very useful in adjusting the chlorine dose you apply. A convenient.Using DPD Method for Chlorine Residuals N. Free chlorine residuals need to be checked and recorded daily. (Make sure you buy a test kit using the DPD method. These results should be kept on file for a health or regulatory agency inspection during a regular field visit. N – diethyl-p-phenylenediame Small portable chlorine measuring kit. The redder the mixture the “hotter” or stronger the chlorine in solution. simple and inexpensive way to measure chlorine residual is to use a small portable kit with pre-measured packets of chemicals that are added to water. The most accurate method for determining chlorine residuals to use the laboratory ampermetric titration method. and not the outdated orthotolodine method. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 97 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

A secondary benefit. With ammonia. Chlorine applied to water in its molecular or hypochlorite form initially undergoes hydrolysis to form free chlorine consisting of aqueous molecular chlorine. sulfide. Combined chlorine in water supplies may be formed in the treatment of raw waters containing ammonia or by the addition of ammonia or ammonium salts. normally contain only combined chlorine. particularly in treating drinking water. Free chlorine reacts readily with ammonia and certain nitrogenous compounds to form combined chlorine. • Back titration: USEPA-accepted method for total chlorine in wastewater. The presence and concentrations of these combined forms depend chiefly on pH. manganese. More a laboratory assistant than an instrument. • Accurate. hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion will predominate. is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the reaction of chlorine with ammonia. Chlorinated wastewater effluents. and hypochlorite ion. as well as certain chlorinated industrial effluents. absolute chlorine demand. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia. Historically the principal analytical problem has been to distinguish between free and combined forms of chlorine. calculation. and reaction time. temperature. initial chlorine-to-nitrogen ratio. real-time graphs. benchtop chlorine-measurement system that does it all: calibration.and temperature-dependent. Chlorination may produce adverse effects. At the pH of most waters. graphic print output. The relative proportion of these free chlorine forms is pH. all automatically. it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination. titration. chlorine reacts to form the chloramines: monochloramine. Hach’s AutoCAT 9000™ Automatic Titrator is the newest solution to hit the disinfection industry – a comprehensive. To fulfill the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimize any adverse effects. dichloramine. and some organic substances. yet convenient: the easiest way to complete ppb-level amperometric titration. iron. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 98 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Amperometric Titration The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms.or amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. Potentially carcinogenic chloro-organic compounds such as chloroform may be formed. Both free and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously. • Forward titration: USEPA-accepted methods for free and total chlorine and chlorine dioxide with chlorite. even electrode cleaning. and nitrogen trichloride. hypochlorous acid. the AutoCAT 9000 gives you: • High throughput: performs the titration and calculates concentration. Taste and odor characteristics of phenols and other organic compounds present in a water supply may be intensified.

both positive ions and negative ions. He. involves partial oxidation of the methane. F. You can see column one. each having one electron. CH4 + 2 Cl --> CH3Cl + HCl. here. Li. in barium chloride ( BaCl2) the oxidation number of barium is +2 and of chlorine is -1. K etc. Column 18. Be. What you need to memorize is the table of common ions. Ca2+. Oxidation The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance. thus the iron becomes positively charged (is oxidized) by loss of two electrons while the copper receives the two electrons and becomes neutral (is reduced). halogen addition to a double bond is regarded as an oxidation.e. column 2. Ar. etc. and is dependent on its place within the periodic table. there are 18 columns. Cl. Oxidation Number The number of electrons that must be added to or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form. Li+. H. I. These all become ions as H+. Kr are inert gases. let us look at some common ions. K+. Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s. Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state. This is chemical A + chemical B. For example. become ions Be2+. The next column. ionize to a negative F-. a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen. I-. Reaction of a hydrocarbon with a halogen. Have a look at the “periodic table of the elements”. Now. Ca etc. Br. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 99 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Oxidation States and Balancing of Equations Before we breakdown Chlorine and other chemicals. i. Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation. when two hydrogen atoms. Beginning The common chemical equation could be A + B --> C + D. Na.. Ne. as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s. for example. the two reacting chemicals will go to products C + D etc. Cl-. Br-. etc. etc. Electrons may also be displaced within the molecule without being completely transferred away from it. Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions). but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred. and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent. two electrons (negative charges) are transferred from the iron atom to the copper atom. let’s start with this review of basic chemical equations. Mg2+. Mg. Column 17. cupric ion is the oxidizing agent in the reaction: Fe (metal) + Cu++ --> Fe++ + Cu (metal). It is arranged in columns of elements. An ion is the reactive state of the chemical.Chemical Equations.

--> Na2S2O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 100 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . For example: Na+ + OH.--> H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) 2Na+ + S2O32.--> NaOH (sodium hydroxide) Na+ + Cl.--> NaCl (salt) 3H+ + PO43. This is the start of our chemical reactions. and vice versa.Table of Common Ions Positive Ions Valency 1 lithium sodium potassium silver hydronium (or hydrogen) ammonium copper I mercury I Negative Ions Valency 1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate bicarbonate bisulphate nitrite chlorate permanganate hypochlorite dihydrogen phosphate F - Valency 2 Li+ Na+ K+ Ag+ H3O+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Hg+ magnesium calcium strontium barium copper II lead II zinc manganese II iron II tin II Valency 2 oxide sulfide carbonate sulfate sulfite dichromate chromate oxalate thiosulfate tetrathionate monohydrogen phosphate Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Cu2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Mn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Valency 3 aluminum iron III chromium Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+ Valency 3 O 2- phosphate PO43- ClBr IOHNO3HCO3HSO4NO2ClO3MnO4OClH2PO4- S2CO32SO42SO32Cr2O7CrO42C2O42S2O32S4O62HPO42- Positive ions will react with negative ions.

--> AlSO4 (incorrect) Al3+ + SO42. in front of the other ion. so we have to ensure that the “ion” is bracketed. and SO42-.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Put the three from the Al in front of the SO42. Remember to encase the SO4 in brackets. it will react with many negatively charged ions. So.--> Al2(SO4)3. Another example: Al3+ + SO42. becomes 3Cl-. Al3+ + Cl.= 6-. to balance the number of chlorine’s (Cl-) required. SO42-. as a whole number. what you are doing is balancing the charges (+) or (-) to make them zero. Now to check. You simply place the valency of one ion. OH-. Then on the right hand side of the equation. and balance them. On the right hand side of the equation. Why? Because we are dealing with the sulfate ion.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) 2Al3+ + 3SO42. this same number (now in front of each ion on the left side of the equation). the number is transferred to after the relevant ion. an ion like PO43.in front of the Al3+. Equation becomes: 2Al3+ + 3SO42. in front of the other ion. Let us again look at: Al3+ + SO42.charged (not just the O4). and 3 times 2. For example. Cl3. and vice versa. PO43-. and equal amounts of negative ions. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 101 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .charge on the phosphate. to the other ion. examples: Cl-. and it is this ion that is 2.(phosphate will require an ion of 3+ or an ion of one (+) (but needs three of these) to neutralize the 3. However. When the left hand side of the equation is written. is placed after each “ion” entity. aluminum exists in its ionic state as Al3+. Al3+ the 3 goes in front of the SO42. in this case Cl-. SO42-. the 2 goes in front of the Al3+ to become 2Al3+. the number 3 is placed in front of the ion concerned. the 2 times 3+ = 6+.--> AlCl (incorrect) Al3+ + 3Cl. that if an ion of one (+). Let us do these examples.and the 2 from the SO42.You will see from these examples. That is. reacts with an ion of one (-) then the equation is balanced. We have equal amounts of positive ions. where the ions have become a compound (a chemical compound).--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Let me give you an easy way of balancing: Al is 3+ SO4 is 2Simply transpose the number of positives (or negatives) for each ion. by placing this value of one ion. or cancel each other out.has one negative (-) It will require 3 negative charges to cancel out the 3 positive charges on the aluminum ( Al3+).as 3SO42-.--> AlCl3 (correct) How did we work this out? Al3+ has three positives (3+) Cl.

the equation became 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. I therefore have 2H3 reacting with 3(OH)2. this gave us HCl. Originally the one positive canceled the one negative. because at the moment the Na+ is tied to the OH-. We have equal amounts of all atoms each side of the equation.--> 6H2O The full equation is now balanced and is: 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H2O I have purposely split the equation into segments of reactions.--> Mg3(PO4)2 Therefore. Once you get the idea of equations you will not need this step.+ 3H+PO43.because we need it in ionic form. ( because we originally had (OH)2 attached to the Mg.Another example: NaOH + HCl --> ? Na is Na+.+ H+OHSomething More Difficult: Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 --> ? (equation on left not balanced) Mg2+ 2OH. and then placing this number after each ion on the right side of the equation) What is left is the H+ from the H3PO4 and this will react with a negative ion. we only have the OH. so this gave us NaOH. The balancing of equations is simple. so let us rewrite the equation in ionic form. The equation becomes: 6H+ + 6OH. So: H+ + OH. as 6H+ + 6OH. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 102 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .--> H2O (water). and placing it in front of each ion. OH is OH-. and H3 attached to the PO4. This will have to be the chlorine. The Mg2+ needs to react with a negatively charged ion. HCl is H+ + Cl -. Reaction is going to be the Na+ reacting with a negatively charged ion. so the equation is balanced. so: 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. I must have required 3Mg(OH)2 to begin with. this will be the PO43-. The complete reaction can be written: NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O. 6H+ + 6OH.--> ? (equation on left not balanced). or Na+OH. You need to learn the valency of the common ions (see tables).--> Na+Cl.from the Mg(OH)2 left for it to react with.--> Mg3(PO4)2 (Remember the swapping of the positive or negative charges on the ions in the left side of the equation.+ H+Cl. We have to write this.from the NaOH.--> NaCl The H+ from the HCl will react with a negative (-) ion this will be the OH. This is showing you which ions are reacting with each other. Cl-.--> 6H2O Where did I get the 6 from? When I balanced the Mg2+ with the PO43-. So: Na+ + Cl. and 2H3PO4. on the left side of the equation.

now reads 3OH-. positives versus negatives. all numbers in front of each ion on the left hand side of the equation are placed after each same ion on the right side of the equation. Al3+ (the 1 is never written in chemistry equations). and the same number of ions or atoms each side of the equation.in front of the Al3+. Take my earlier hint. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 103 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . place the 1 from the hydroxyl OH. each side of the equation.--> Al(OH)3 The 3 is simply written in front of the OH-. or positives. place the 3 from the Al3+ in front of the OH-. temperature and pH measuring equipment. Al3+ + 3OH. a recognized ion. (3 positive charges) reacts with another ion. You have to have the same number of negatives. as in 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> ? Conductivity.The rest is pure mathematics. Brackets are used in the right side of the equation because the result is a compound. If one ion. Brackets are also used for compounds (reactants) in the left side of equations. example Al3+.(one negative ion) then we require 2 more negatively charged ions (in this case OH-) to counteract the 3 positive charges the Al3+ contains. On the right hand side of the equation. example OH. now stays the same. you are balancing valency charges. there are no brackets placed around the OH-.

Do you have an eye wash and emergency shower? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 104 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Also notice that this picture is the only eye wash station that we found during our inspection of 10 different facilities. Notice the five gallon bucket of motor oil in the bottom picture. but these are one ton cylinders.Hard to tell.

. Naturally. The amount of hypochlorous acid depends on the pH and temperature of the water. When any of these is added to water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 105 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the measured amount of chlorine in the water should be the same as the amount added. Types of Residual If water were pure. the ratio of hypochlorous acid increases.): HOCI H + + OCI – Also expressed HOCI → H + + OCI – (hypochlorous acid) (hydrogen) (hypochlorite ion) The hypochlorite ion is a much weaker disinfecting agent than hypochlorous acid. But water is not 100% pure. When a chlorine residual test is taken.Chemistry of Chlorination Chlorine can be added as sodium hypochlorite. Under normal water conditions. There are always other substances (interfering agents) such as iron. Total chlorine residual = free + combined chlorine residual. hypochlorous acid will also chemically react and break down into a hypochlorite ion (OCl . higher water temperatures and a lower pH are more conducive to chlorine disinfection. This is called the chlorine demand. once chlorine molecules are combined with these interfering agents they are not capable of disinfection. All other things being equal. pathogenic organisms are actually harder to kill. Although the ratio of hypochlorous acid is greater at lower temperatures. etc. chemical reactions occur as these equations show: Cl 2 + H 2 O → HOCI + HCI (chlorine gas) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (hydrochloric acid) CaOCI + H 2 O → 2HOCI + Ca(OH) (calcium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (calcium hydroxide) NaOCI + H 2 O → HOCI + Na(OH) (sodium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (sodium hydroxide) All three forms of chlorine produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when added to water. As the temperature is decreased. about 100 times less effective. manganese. Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid but a strong disinfecting agent. Total residual is all chlorine that is available for disinfection. turbidity. total and combined chlorine are related. Temperature plays a small part in the acid ratio. It is free chlorine that is much more effective as a disinfecting agent. either a total or a free chlorine residual can be read. Let’s now look at how pH and temperature affect the ratio of hypochlorous acid to hypochlorite ions. calcium hypochlorite or chlorine gas. which will combine chemically with the chlorine. So let’s look now at how free.

Break-point chlorination is where the chlorine demand has been satisfied. Use of the "CT" disinfection concept is recommended to demonstrate satisfactory treatment. The residual is measured at the end of the process. 1 Ton and 150 pound cylinders. The 1 ton is on a scale. Residual Concentration/Contact Time (CT) Requirements Disinfection to eliminate fecal and coliform bacteria may not be sufficient to adequately reduce pathogens such as Giardia or viruses to desired levels. any additional chlorine will be considered free chlorine. most water regulating agencies will require that your daily chlorine residual readings be of free chlorine residual. as developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Register. 1989). The CT concept. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) The effective reduction in pathogens can be calculated by reference to standard tables of required CTs.Free chlorine residual is a much stronger disinfecting agent. 40 CFR. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 106 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Parts 141 and 142. June 29. since monitoring for very low levels of pathogens in treated water is analytically very difficult. and the contact time used is the T10 of the process unit (time for 10% of the water to pass). uses the combination of disinfectant residual concentration (mg/L) and the effective disinfection contact time (in minutes) to measure effective pathogen reduction. Therefore.

5-log > 100 cysts/100 L > 5-log *Use geometric means of data to determine raw water Giardia levels for compliance. temperature and the disinfectant used. or by using the lowest CT value if it is calculated more frequently.Required Giardia/Virus Reduction All surface water treatment systems shall ensure a minimum reduction in pathogen levels: 3-log reduction in Giardia.000 L (equivalent to 1 in 10. and disinfectant residual.1 Level of Giardia Reduction Raw Water Giardia Levels* Recommended Giardia Log Reduction < 1 cyst/100 L 3-log 1 cyst/100 L . Results shall be reported as a reduction Ratio.4-log 10 cysts/100 L .1.0 to be acceptable.000 risk of infection per person per year). and a finished water goal of 1 cyst/100. temperature. Reduction Ratio = CT actual : CT required Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 107 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and 4-log reduction in viruses. Required CT Value Required CT values are dependent on pH. Calculation and Reporting of CT Data Disinfection CT values shall be calculated daily using either the maximum hourly flow and the disinfectant residual at the same time. Higher raw water contamination levels may require greater removals as shown on Table 4. along with the appropriate pH. The tables attached to Appendices A and B shall be used to determine the required CT.100 cysts/100 L 4-log .10 cysts/100 L 3-log . TABLE 4. residual concentration. These requirements are based on unpolluted raw water sources with Giardia levels of = 1 cyst/100 L. The reduction Ratio must be greater than 1. Actual CT values are then compared to required CT values. Users may also calculate and record actual log reductions.

E. G. C. This metal plug will melt at 158 to 165o F. F. D. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 108 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . H.Chlorinator Parts A. B. Ejector Check Valve Assembly Rate Valve Diaphragm Assembly Interconnection Manifold Rotometer Tube and Float Pressure Gauge Gas Supply Chlorine measurement devices or Rotometers Safety Information: There is a fusible plug on every chlorine tank. This is to prevent a build-up of excessive pressure and the possibility of cylinder rupture due to fire or high temperatures.

it is permissible to use hypochlorite with positive displacement pumping. For new and upgraded facilities. vent line should be run in such a manner that moisture collecting traps are avoided. chlorine gas vacuum lines should be run as close to the point of solution application as possible. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 109 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Injectors should be located to minimize the length of pressurized chlorine solution lines. In the automatic residual controlled system. As an alternative to chlorine gas. may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. Vacuum regulators shall also be located inside the chlorine room. or compound loop controlled. In the compound loop control system. standby chlorination equipment having the capacity to replace the largest unit shall be provided. The chlorinator. In addition. For uninterrupted chlorination. the chlorine feeder is used in conjunction with a chlorine residual analyzer which controls the feed rate of the chlorine feeders to maintain a particular residual in the treated water.Chlorination Equipment Requirements For all water treatment facilities. from the chlorine room. Capacity The chlorinator shall have the capacity to dose enough chlorine to overcome the demand and maintain the required concentration of the "free" or "combined" chlorine. or automatic residual controlled. The vacuum regulating valve(s) shall have positive shutdown in the event of a break in the downstream vacuum lines. A manual chlorine feed system may be installed for groundwater systems with constant flow rates. A gas pressure relief system shall be included in the gas vacuum line between the vacuum regulator(s) and the chlorinator(s) to ensure that pressurized chlorine gas does not enter the gas vacuum lines leaving the chlorine room. chlorine gas under pressure shall not be permitted outside the chlorine room. the equipment adjusts the chlorine feed rate automatically in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant pre-established dosage for all rates of flow. which is the mechanical gas proportioning equipment. Anti-siphon valves shall be incorporated in the pump heads or in the discharge piping. gas chlorinators shall be equipped with an automatic changeover system. spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators. A chlorine room is where chlorine gas cylinders and/or ton containers are stored. In the automatic proportional controlled system. Methods of Control Chlorine feed system shall be automatic proportional controlled. The gas pressure relief system shall vent pressurized gas to the atmosphere at a location that is not hazardous to plant personnel. the feed rate of the chlorinator is controlled by a flow proportional signal and a residual analyzer signal to maintain particular chlorine residual in the water. Standby Provision As a safeguard against malfunction and/or shut-down.

eye protection.Selection of Respiratory Protective Equipment.g. You can use a spray solution of Ammonia or a rag soaked with Ammonia to detect a small Cl2 leak. the ammonia will create a white colored smoke. If there is a leak. the chlorine gas leakage shall be contained within the chlorine room itself in order to facilitate a proper method of clean-up.Weigh Scales Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all plants using chlorine gas to permit an accurate reading of total daily weight of chlorine used. a platform scale shall be provided. Tag the cylinder ”empty” and store upright and chained. Ton containers may not be stacked. As a minimum. At large plants. Consideration should also be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where such cylinders are in use. gloves. Chlorine Leak Detection Automatic chlorine leak detection and related alarm equipment shall be installed at all water treatment plants using chlorine gas. Leak detection shall be provided for the chlorine rooms. Scales shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Leak detection equipment shall not automatically activate the chlorine room ventilation system in such a manner as to discharge chlorine gas. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 110 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . safety shower. protective clothing. Chlorine leak detection equipment should be connected to a remote audible and visual alarm system and checked on a regular basis to verify proper operation. General Safety Regulation . Equipment shall be in close proximity to the access door(s) of the chlorine room.. Safety Equipment The facility shall be provided with personnel safety equipment including the following: Respiratory equipment. Securing Cylinders All chlorine cylinders shall be securely positioned to safeguard against movement. eyewash. cylinder and/or ton repair kits. floor area less than 3m2). scales of the recording and indicating type are recommended. Chlorine leak detection equipment may not be required for very small chlorine rooms with an exterior door (e. Respiratory equipment shall be provided which has been approved under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. During an emergency if the chlorine room is unoccupied.

Windows should be at least 0. Ventilation Gas chlorine rooms shall have entirely separate exhaust ventilation systems capable of delivering one (1) complete air change per minute during periods of chlorine room occupancy only. and a clear wire-reinforced glass window shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the operator to inspect from the outside of the room. Storage of Chlorine Cylinders If necessary. The chlorine gas storage room shall have provision for ventilation at thirty air changes per hour. The vents to the outside shall have insect screens. entry into the chlorine rooms may be through a vestibule from outside. The hot water heating system for the building will negate the need for a separate heating system for the chlorine room. if forced air system is used to heat the building. well illuminated. There should also be a 'panic bar' on the inside of the chlorine room door for emergency exit. the gas cylinders and/or the ton containers up to the vacuum regulators shall be housed in a gas-tight. Heating Chlorine rooms shall have separate heating systems. Scrubbers For facilities located within residential or densely populated areas. In very large facilities. and be made of clear wire reinforced glass. Viewing glass windows and panic button on the inside of door should also be provided.Chlorine Room Design Requirements Where gas chlorination is practiced. Visual inspection of the chlorination equipment from inside may be provided by the installation of glass window(s) in the walls of the chlorine room. and corrosion resistant and mechanically ventilated enclosure. The air outlet from the room shall be 150 mm above the floor and the point of discharge located to preclude contamination of air inlets to buildings or areas used by people. The chlorine room shall be located at the ground floor level.20 m2 in area. Separate switches for fans and lights shall be outside the room at all entrance or viewing points. Cylinders or containers shall be protected to ensure that the chlorine maintains its gaseous state when entering the chlorinator. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 111 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Air inlets should be louvered near the ceiling. a separate storage room may be provided to simply store the chlorine gas cylinders. Access All access to the chlorine room shall only be from the exterior of the building. and arranged to prevent the uncontrolled release of spilled gas. The heat should be controlled at approximately 15oC. consideration shall be given to provide scrubbers for the chlorine room. The chlorinator may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. The chlorine cylinder storage room shall have access either to the chlorine room or from the plant exterior. the air being of such temperature as to not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. with no connection to the line.

5 mg/L. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Their demand for chlorine must be satisfied before chlorine becomes available to accomplish disinfection. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 112 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These side reactions complicate the use of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. Also. Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. what should the concentration of a free chlorine residual be in a clear well or distribution reservoir? 0. True or False.Chlorine Demand Chlorine combines with a wide variety of materials. True How does one determine the ambient temperature in a chlorine room? Use a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. Even brief exposure to 1.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. Chlorine Questions and Answer Review Downstream from the point of post chlorination. How is the effectiveness of disinfection determined? From the results of coliform testing. How often should chlorine storage ventilation equipment be checked? Daily.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal.

chlorite and chlorate) during periods of extreme variations in the raw water supply. the preferred method of generation is to entrain chlorine gas into a packed reaction chamber with a 25% aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (NaClO2).5 mg/L.30 mg/L during normal operation or 0. Chlorine dioxide provides good Giardia and virus protection but its use is limited by the restriction on the maximum residual of 0. when fed in excess of stoichiometric amount needed. Where chlorine dioxide is approved for use as an oxidant. Any installed ozonation system must include adequate ozone leak detection alarm systems. and an ozone offgas destruction system. It is best utilized as a stable distribution system disinfectant. the ammonia residuals in the finished water. Ozone does not produce chlorinated byproducts (such as trihalomethanes) but it may cause an increase in such byproduct formation if it is fed ahead of free chlorine. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide may be used for either taste and odor control or as a pre-disinfectant. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 113 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Alternate Disinfectants Chloramine Chloramine is a very weak disinfectant for Giardia and virus reduction. an accurate T10 value must be obtained for the contact chamber. Ozone CT values must be determined for the ozone basin alone. Ozone may also be used as an oxidant for removal of taste and odor or may be applied as a predisinfectant. Ozone does not provide a system residual and should be used as a primary disinfectant only in conjunction with free and/or combined chlorine. Total residual oxidants (including chlorine dioxide and chlorite. This limits usable residuals of chlorine dioxide at the end of a process unit to less than 0. ketones or carboxylic acids. residual levels measured through the chamber and an average ozone residual calculated. Warning: Dry sodium chlorite is explosive and can cause fires in feed equipment if leaking solutions or spills are allowed to dry out. should be limited to inhibit growth of nitrifying bacteria. Ozone Ozone is a very effective disinfectant for both Giardia and viruses. but excluding chlorate) shall not exceed 0. In the production of chloramines.5 mg/L ClO2/chlorite/chlorate allowed in finished water.50 mg/L (including chlorine dioxide. it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with a stronger disinfectant. ozone may also produce its own oxygenated byproducts such as aldehydes.

19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Colorimetric Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method II (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Low Level Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) 4500-Cl G Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl H Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl I Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 18th. only) Included in Standard Methods 4500-ClO2 E Included in Standard Methods Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 114 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Ferrous Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by Iodometric Electrode Technique (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed.D 4500-Cl D Chlorine Residual by Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) 4500-Cl. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 C Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th & 19th Ed. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 D Chlorine Dioxide by the DPD Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Included in Standard Methods Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method I Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl E Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl F Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn.Additional Drinking Water Methods (non EPA) for Chemical Parameters Method Method Focus - Title Order Number Source 4500-Cl B Chloride by Silver Nitrate Titration Chloride by Potentiometric Method Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

The following are the common analytical methods for chlorine dioxide: DPD glycine Method Type: Colorimetric Chlorophenol Red Colorimetric Direct Absorbance Colorimetric Iodometric Titration Titrametric Amperometric Titration Titrametric How It Works Glycine removes Cl2. These titrations are repeated on the sparged sample. Two aliquots are taken one is sparged with N2 to remove ClO2. the color allowed to reform and the titration continued. The degree of bleaching is proportional to the concentration of ClO2. turbidity Simple > 1 ppm < 1ppm Interferences None Oxidizers Complexity Equipment Required EPA Status Simple Moderate Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter Not approved Yes Moderate Titration equipment High Amperometric Titrator Approved Not approved Marginal Not approved Yes Approved Recommendation Marginal Marginal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 115 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0 ppm.5 to 5. new methods that are specific for chlorine dioxide are being developed. Oxidizers 0. The pH is lower to 2. whose intensity is proportional to the ClO2 concentration. Range 0. The direct measurement of ClO2 is determined between 350 and 450 nM.Chlorine Dioxide Methods Most tests for chlorine dioxide rely upon its oxidizing properties. Consequently. ClO2 forms a pink color. ClO2 bleaches chlorophenol red indicator.0 ppm 100 to 1000 ppm Color. In addition. numerous test kits are readily available that can be adapted to measure chlorine dioxide. KI is added to the other sample at pH7 and titrated to a colorless endpoint.1 to 1.

Always follow your manufacturer’s instructions. On a 1 or 2 ton cylinder. Here are several safety precautions when using chlorine gas. dichloramine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 116 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and skin blisters. and trichloramine are also known as Combined Available Chlorine.is the hypochlorite ion and the both of these two species are known as free available chlorine. secure position with proper signage. The connection from a chlorine cylinder to a chlorinator should be replaced by using a new. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Cl is the elemental symbol and Cl2 is the chemical formula. pneumonia. It can be readily compressed into a clear.200 pound chlorine cylinder: Secure each cylinder in an upright position. and a strong oxidizer. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level. the OCL. sneezing. In addition to protective clothing and goggles. Here are several symptoms of chlorine exposure. be sure that no one enters the leak area without adequate self-contained breathing equipment. Solid Chlorine is about 1. Never store near heat. A yellowish green. headaches and dizziness. nausea and vomiting.5 times heavier than air. Yoke-type connectors should be used on a chlorine cylinder's valve assuming that the threads on the valve may be worn. Burning of eyes. When chlorine gas is added to water.5 times heavier than water and gaseous chlorine is about 2. choking. Chlorine is added to the effluent before the contact chamber (before the clear well) for complete mixing. chlorine gas should be used only in a well ventilated area so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate. Approved method for storing a 150 . In water treatment. approved gasket on the connector.000 PPM The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. fatal pulmonary edema. One reason for not adding it directly to the chamber is that the chamber has very little mixing due to low velocities. Hypochlorous acid is the most germicidal of the chlorine compounds with the possible exception of chlorine dioxide. Always store the empty in an upright.+ HOCl. attach the protective bonnet over the valve and firmly secure each cylinder. Cl2 + NH4. Monochloramine. * OSHA PEL 1 PPM . the chlorine pressure reducing valve should be located downstream of the evaporator when using an evaporator. Emergency procedures in the case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. Notify local emergency response team. warn and evacuate people in adjacent areas. Atomic number of Chlorine is 17. it rapidly hydrolyzes. and mouth. a noncombustible gas. amber-colored liquid. nose. coughing.IDLH 10 PPM and Fatal Exposure Limit 1. The chemical equations best describes this reaction is Cl2 + H2O --> H+ + Cl. * IDLH 10 PPM Physical and chemical properties of chlorine.Chlorine Exposure Limits This information is necessary to pass your certification exam. HOCl and OCl-. This is the liquid chlorine supply line and it is going to be made into Chlorine gas. A little Cl2 will corrode the teeth and then progress to throat cancer. they are the two main chemical species formed by chlorine in water and they known by collectively as hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion.

The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e. used. and cleaning. sleeves. However. and (4) during emergencies. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to chlorine. respirator fit testing. In addition. Personal Protective Equipment Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected. some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Material is estimated (but not tested) to provide at least four hours of protection.g.. degradation may occur. and regular respirator maintenance. at a minimum.g. The resistance of various materials to permeation by both chlorine liquid and chlorine gas is shown below: Material Breakthrough Time (hr) Chlorine Liquid Responder Chlorine gas butyl rubber neoprene Teflon viton saranex barricade chemrel responder trellchem HPS nitrile rubber H (PE/EVAL) polyethylene polyvinyl chloride. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 117 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Respiratory Protection Section Conditions for Respirator Use Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. gloves. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve chlorine. (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels. complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910. Respiratory Protection Program Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that. (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures. Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. butyl) produced by different manufacturers. periodic workplace monitoring. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Such a program must include respirator selection. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e. To evaluate the use of these PPE materials with chlorine.134]. inspection. the regular training of personnel. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed. users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations.. consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a]. the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users. Not recommended. an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator. and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with chlorine.

or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes. workers should wear work uniforms. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments. In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e. aprons. encapsulating suits). coveralls. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk. minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent. Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness. or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day.g.Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long. Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation.. SCBA Fit Test Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 118 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. caustic.

• Temperature of the solution. light and minor reduction in pH. some users of gas have chosen to seek alternative forms of disinfectants for their water and wastewater treatment plants. There are Three Ways in Which NaOCl Solutions Degrade • Chlorate-forming reaction due to age. set of equipment installation configurations and operating conditions. temperature. • Chlorine-producing reaction when solution pH falls below 6. • Exposure of the solution to sunlight. One of these alternative forms is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 119 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . copper or nickel. it degrades over time. • pH solution. The handling and storage of NaOCl presents the plant with a new and sometimes unfamiliar. • Oxygen-producing reaction that occurs when metals. such as iron. There are Many Factors that Effect the Stability of a NaOCl Solution • Initial solution strength.Recommendations for Preparing/Handling/Feeding Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions As a result of the pressures brought to bear by Health and Safety requirements. or metal oxides are brought into contact with the solution. As NaOCl is relatively unstable. Product Stability The oxidizing nature of this substance means that it should be handled with extreme care. This is often purchased commercially at 10 to 15% strength.

If you see a greasy slime or growth. iron bacteria are probably present. iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (as well as other bacteria) can exist naturally in groundwater.01 mg/L dissolved iron and a temperature range of 5 to 15°C. Iron bacteria aggravate the problem by creating an environment that encourages the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the well. However. Note: All iron staining problems are not necessarily caused by iron bacteria. bacteria growth will coat the inside of the well casing. Rotten Egg Odor Sulfate-reducing bacteria can cause a rotten egg odor in water. Sulfate-reducing bacteria prefer to live underneath the slime layer that the iron bacteria form. They include: Slime growth Rotten egg odor Increased staining. To thrive. Although not a cause of health problems in humans. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. but the most common are iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Many types of bacteria can contaminate wells.Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock chlorination is a relatively inexpensive and straightforward procedure used to control bacteria in water wells. A well creates a direct path for oxygen to travel into the ground where it would not normally exist. the water flowing in will also bring in nutrients that enhance bacterial growth. Slime Growth The easiest way to check a well and water system for iron bacteria is to examine the inside surface of the toilet flush tank. Some iron bacteria use dissolved iron in the water as a food source. Iron bacteria leave this slimy by-product on almost every surface the water is in contact with. iron bacteria require 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 120 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The iron naturally present in the water can be the cause. water piping and pumping equipment. When a well is pumped.5-4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. as little as 0. creating problems such as: Reduced well yield Restricted water flow in distribution lines Staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Plugging of water treatment equipment “Rotten egg” odor. Ideal Conditions for Iron Bacteria Water wells provide ideal conditions for iron bacteria. Signs of Iron and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria There are a number of signs that indicate the presence of iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 121 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the entire system (from the water-bearing formation. shock chlorination must disinfect the following: The entire well depth The formation around the bottom of the well The pressure system Some water treatment equipment The distribution system. To be effective. resulting in a “rotten egg” or sulfur odor in the water. Others produce small amounts of sulfuric acid which can corrode the well casing and pumping equipment. through the wellbore and the distribution system) is exposed to water which has a concentration of chlorine strong enough to kill iron and sulfate reducing bacteria. To accomplish this. To be effective. Checklist to Determine an Iron or Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Problem Greasy slime on inside surface of toilet flush tank Increased red staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Sulfur odor Reduced well yield Restricted water flow Mixing a Chlorine Solution Add a half gallon of bleach to a clean pail with about 3 gallons of water. The last two problems can be signs of other problems as well. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock Chlorination Method Shock chlorination is used to control iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria and to eliminate fecal coliform bacteria in a water system. a large volume of super chlorinated water is siphoned down the well to displace all the water in the well and some of the water in the formation around the well. For wells greater than 100 feet deep or with a larger casing diameter. Increased Staining Problems Iron bacteria can concentrate iron in water sources with low iron content. Effectiveness of Shock Chlorination With shock chlorination. It can create a staining problem where one never existed before or make an iron staining problem worse as time goes by. increase the amount of bleach proportionately. If you have a dug well with a diameter greater than 18 inches. Please note that many dug wells are difficult or impossible to disinfect due t o their unsanitary construction. use 2 to 4 gallons of bleach added directly to the well. The first three are very specific problems related to these bacteria. This is generally sufficient to disinfect a 4 inch diameter well 100 feet deep or less. Use the following checklist to determine if you have an iron or sulfate-reducing bacteria problem.Some of these bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product. Bacteria collect in the pore spaces of the formation and on the casing or screened surface of the well. you must use enough chlorine to disinfect the entire cased section of the well and adjacent water-bearing formation.

extra 1000 L 3.9 . To control the iron bacteria.36 . Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Casing Diameter Volume of Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite L needed L need Dry weight1 Water needed per 1 ft. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate your well. When pumping out the chlorinated solution. the pump may have to be removed and chemical solutions added to the well and vigorous agitation carried out using special equipment.The procedure described below does not completely eliminate iron bacteria from the water system. Caution: If your well is low yielding or tends to pump any silt or sand.095 .0 . (30 cm) of water in the casing of water of water of water (in) (mm) (gal.042 7. This is to dislodge and remove the bacterial slime. it may be necessary to use a stronger chlorine solution.4 10. The recommended amount of water to use is twice the volume of water present in the well casing. subtract the non-pumping water level from the total depth of the well. you must be very careful using the following procedure because over pumping may damage the well.8 1. before you notice a significant improvement in the water.16 27.6 8 (200) 4.1 . monitor the water discharge for sediment. but it will hold it in check.091 15. (30 cm) per 1 ft. (30 cm) per 1 ft.3 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal.7 . (30 cm) per 1 ft. You might also consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean and flush the well before chlorinating in order to remove any buildup on the casing. A clean galvanized stock tank or pickup truck box lined with a 4 mil thick plastic sheet is suitable.74 127 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal.2 19. applied two or three times.2 6 (150) 2. To measure how much water is in the casing. extra 1000 L 1. Store sufficient water to meet farm and family needs for 8 to 48 hours. Shock Chlorination Procedure for Small Drilled Wells A modified procedure is also provided for large diameter wells.) (L) (L) (L) (g) 4 (100) 1. you may have to repeat the procedure each spring and fall as a regular maintenance procedure. This should be done by a drilling contractor.7 286 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 122 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . See the example below. In more severe cases. If your well has never been shock chlorinated or has not been done for some time.21 .1 5. Pump the recommended amount of water (see Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM) into clean storage.

Caution: Chlorine is corrosive and can even be deadly. and you are using 12% industrial sodium hypochlorite. Well pits are no longer legal to construct. = 9. Consult your water treatment equipment supplier to find out if any part of your water treatment system should be bypassed. If your well is located in a pit. Backwash and regenerate any water treatment equipment. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Siphon this solution into the well.091 L per ft. Open an outside tap and allow the water to run until the chlorine odor is greatly reduced. Calculating Amount of Chlorine Example If your casing is 6 in. Flush the chlorine solution from the hot water heater and household distribution system. Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM. washing machine. of water in the casing. furnace humidifier) until the water coming out has a chlorine odor. If you have 100 ft. you will use 0. The small amount of chlorine in the distribution system will not harm the septic tank. The longer the contact time. Using Table 1. of water in casing = _______ L of chlorine. Mix the chlorine with the previously measured water to obtain a 1000 ppm chlorine solution. you must make sure there is proper ventilation during the chlorination procedure. Use a drilling contractor who has the proper equipment and experience to do the job safely. of water_______ x _______ ft. calculate the amount of chlorine you will need for your well.091 L x 100 ft. you will require . Open each hydrant and faucet in the distribution system (including all appliances that use water such as dishwasher. of water in the casing. the better the results. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution before placing it in the well.1 L of 12% chlorine. Allow the hot water tank to fill completely. to prevent damage. Since a dry chemical is being used. Calculate the amount of chlorine that is required. This will ensure all the plumbing fixtures are chlorinated.12% industrial sodium hypochlorite and 70% high test hypochlorite are available from: • Water treatment suppliers • Drilling contractor • Swimming pool maintenance suppliers • Dairy equipment suppliers • Some hardware stores. Make sure to direct the water away from sensitive plants or landscaping. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 123 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Leave the chlorine solution in the well and distribution system for 8 to 48 hours. Casing diameter_______ Chlorine strength_______ L needed per 1 ft.

x 7. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution prior to placing it in the well. This is dangerous. x 0. Modified Procedure for Large Diameter Wells Due to the large volume of water in many bored wells the above procedure can be impractical. Any floating debris should be removed from the well and the casing should be scrubbed or hosed to disturb the sludge buildup. x 1. Calculating Water and Chlorine Requirements for Shock Chlorination Complete the following table using your own figures to determine how much water and chlorine you need to shock chlorinate your well.2 gal. x 4. (30 cm) (in) (mm) in the casing of water of water of water 4 (100) _______ft. =_______ ________ft. consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean the well prior to chlorinating. x 0.8 L =________ _______ft. x 1.3 g =________ 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. x 0. (30 cm) per 1 ft. x 0.) Circulate chlorine added to the water in the well by hooking a garden hose up to an outside faucet and placing the other end back down the well.042 L =________ _______ft. needed per Dry weight 1 ft. x 0.36 L =________ _______ft. (30 cm) L per 1 ft. x 127 g =________ 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal.74 L =_________ ______ft.16 L =_________ ______ft.091 L =________ ______ft. =_______ ________ft.1 gal.If you have an old well that has not been routinely chlorinated. (Note that the 70% hypochlorite powder should be dissolved in water to form a solution before placing in the well. The chlorinated water is used to force some of the chlorine solution into the formation around the well. x 0.6 g =________ 8 (200) _______ft.21 L =________ _______ft. x 3. =_______ ________ft. x 27. Casing Volume of 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Diameter Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite Imperial gal. x 286 g =________ Since a dry chemical is being used. of stored water. x 15.095 L =________ _______ft. x 2. (1000 L) of water into a clean storage tank at the well head. A more practical way to shock chlorinate a bored well is to mix the recommended amount of chlorine right in the well. _______ft. Continue for at least 15 minutes.7 L =________ _______ft. _______ft. Pump 200 gal. Don't mix acids with chlorine.2 g =________ 6 (150) _______ft. x 1. Calculate the amount of chlorine you require per foot of water in the casing and add directly into the well.7 L =_________ ______ft.4 gal. Complete the procedure as described in Steps 5 to 9 for drilled wells. of water L per 1 ft. bleach and water solution prepared in Steps 1 and 2 into the well. This circulates the chlorinated water through the pressure system and back down the well. Mix 20 L of 5 1/4% domestic chlorine bleach (or 8 L of 12% bleach or 1.4 kg of 70% calcium hypochlorite) into the 200 gal. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate a large diameter bored well. Siphon the 200 gal. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 124 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . x 0.

" The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24 hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready to be used again. Simply pulling the pump out of the well. Keeping the plumbing system clean is an important part of maintaining a sanitary water supply. with over 70 percent containing coliform bacteria. Concentrations of chlorine ranging from 50 to 200 mg/1 are used in the shock chlorination process. and returning it to the well is enough to contaminate the well with bacteria. don't panic'! Bacterial contamination is very common. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 125 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A properly protected spring is developed underground and the water channeled to a sealed spring box. Spring water supplies are the most frequently contaminated. Although well pits were the common method of construction several years ago. setting it on the grass to work on it. Improving protection of a well or spring from the inflow of surface water is an important option to consider if the supply is contaminated with bacteria. A properly protected well is evidenced by the well casing extending above the surface of the ground and the ground sloping away from the well to prevent water from collecting around the casing. The procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine is called shock chlorination.What Should I do if my Well Water is Contaminated with Bacteria? First. they are no longer considered sanitary construction. Studies have found that over 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria. At no time should the water be exposed to the ground surface. Anytime work is performed on the plumbing or pump. the entire water system should be disinfected with chlorine. It is important to remember that the groundwater is not necessarily contaminated in these cases. This is 100 to 400 times the amount of chlorine found in "city water. rather the well is acting to funnel contaminants down into the groundwater.

Table 3 lists the amount of chlorine laundry bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) that is needed for wells.Periodic shock chlorination also may be effective in reducing an iron bacteria problem. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 126 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . it is better to use more chlorine than less. If in doubt. The amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined by the amount of water standing in the well.

coli is present. Colilert is easy to read. as positive coliform samples turn yellow. coli in water samples in 24 hours or less.Bacteriological Monitoring Section Colilert tests simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms and E. samples fluoresce under UV light. Simply add the Colilert reagent to the sample. and read results. and when E. incubate for 24 hours. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 127 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 128 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .SimPlate for HPC Multi Dose Method. The MPN values generated by the SimPlate for HPC method correlate with the Pour Plate method using Total Plate Count Agar incubated at 35o for 48 hours as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The number of fluorescing wells corresponds to a Most Probable Number (MPN) of total bacteria in the original sample. 19th Edition. IDEXX’s HPC method is used for the quantification of heterotrophic plate counts in water.

The routine microbiological analysis of your water is for coliform bacteria. often referred to as a Standard Sample. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 129 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Notice the custody seal on the bottle. Indicators in common use today for routine monitoring of drinking water include total coliforms. 100 mls. They are used to monitor for pathogens because of the difficulties in determining the presence of specific disease-causing microorganisms. coli). Fill the container and replace the top. Mailing bacteria samples is not recommended because laboratory analysis results are not as reliable. The presence of an indicator or pathogenic bacteria in your drinking water is an important health concern. Bacteria Sampling Water samples for bacteria tests must always be collected in a sterile container. Sterilize by spraying a 5% Clorox or alcohol solution or flaming the end of the tap with disposable butane lighter. Run the water for five minutes to clear the water lines and bring in fresh water. Standard Sample Coliform Bacteria Bac-T Bac-T Sample Bottle.Bacteriological Monitoring Most waterborne disease and illnesses have been related to the microbiological quality of drinking water. Check for a reddish-brown slime inside a toilet tank or where water stands for several days. Indicator bacteria are usually harmless. A water test is not needed for identification. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the testing laboratory within six hours (in an ice chest). Do not touch or contaminate the inside of the bottle or cap. Notice the white powder inside the bottle. a de-chlorination agent. Take the sample from an inside faucet with the aerator removed. Iron bacteria forms an obvious slime on the inside of pipes and fixtures. Indicator bacteria signal possible fecal contamination and therefore. That is Sodium Thiosulfate. Be careful not to wash-out this chemical while sampling. fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check the lab's schedule. The coliform bacteria group is used as an indicator organism to determine the biological quality of your water. the potential presence of pathogens. occur in high densities in their natural environment and are easily cultured in relatively simple bacteriological media. Carefully open the sample container and hold the outside of the cap.

and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Repeat: Samples collected following a ‘coliform present’ routine sample. Laboratory Procedures The laboratory may perform the total coliform analysis in one of four methods approved by the U. Noncommunity and nontransient. 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 130 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Routine Coliform Sampling The number of routine samples and frequency of collection for community public water systems is shown in Table 3-1. noncommunity water systems with less than 1. The number of repeat samples to be collected is based on the number of routine samples you normally collect. a product marketed as Colilert is the most common. However. If coliforms are present. 3. Collection should be in accordance with an approved sampling plan. The sample results will be reported by the laboratories as simply coliforms present or absent. coli and report their presence or absence. The three (3) types of samples are: 1.Coliform Bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. or 2. Examples would be a sample collected after repairs to the system and before it is placed back into operation or a sample collected at a wellhead prior to a disinfection injection point. Special: Samples collected for other reasons.S. It has more than 1.000 daily population and groundwater as a source will sample on a quarterly basis. Types of Water Samples It is important to properly identify the type of sample you are collecting. Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity public water systems will sample at the same frequency as a like sized community public water system if: 1. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. Please indicate in the space provided on the laboratory form the type of sample. the laboratory will analyze the sample further to determine if these are fecal coliforms or E. It serves 25 or more daily population and utilizes surface water as a source or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as its source. EPA and your local environmental or health division: Methods The MMO-MUG test.000 daily population and has ground water as a source. Routine: Samples collected on a routine basis to monitor for contamination.

000 120 220.001 to 70.000 240 Repeat Sampling Repeat sampling replaces the old check sampling with a more comprehensive procedure to try to identify problem areas in the system.501 to 12.001 to 220. b.700 7 6.No. if necessary.500 2 2.501-3. 3.000 25 25. Whenever a routine sample is total coliform or fecal coliform present a set of repeat samples must be collected within 24 hours after being notified by the laboratory.000 180 450. c.001 to 600.900 5 4.001 to 130.100 4 4.000 80 83.001 to 33. d.000 50 50.600 8 7.000 30 33.000 60 59. The original sampling location of the coliform present sample. The follow-up for repeat sampling is: 1.301 to 4.001 to 450.500 9 8.500 20 21. Elsewhere in the distribution system or at the wellhead.001 to 41.001 to 320.101 to 4.000 90 96.000 100 130.000 210 600.001-2. 5.300 3 3.601 to 8.901 to 17. the repeat samples must be collected from the same sampling location over a four-day period or on the same day.901 to 5. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 131 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .501 to 25. 4. 2.000 150 320. three (3) repeat samples must be collected.801 to 6. If the system has only one service connection.201 to 21.000 1 1.001 to 50.200 15 17. All repeat samples are included in the MCL compliance calculation. If a system which normally collects fewer than five (5) routine samples per month has a coliform present sample. 6. Within five (5) service connections upstream from the original sampling location.001 to 83. Repeat samples must be collected from: a.001 to 96. it must collect five (5) routine samples the following month or quarter regardless of whether an MCL violation occurred or if repeat sampling was coliform absent. For systems collecting two (2) or more routine samples per month.000 40 41.Samples per month up to 1.000 70 70.800 6 5.001 to 780.701 to 7.900 10 12. If only one routine sample per month or quarter is required.001 to 59. of Samples per System Population Persons served . four (4) repeat samples must be collected. Within five (5) service connections downstream from the original sampling location.

. 6. risk assessments and factors. There are two types of MCL violations for coliform bacteria. If you continuously chlorinate. Eliminate all of these connections or provide approved back flow prevention devices. These standards are known as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). If you plan to shock the entire system. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLS) State and federal laws establish standards for drinking water quality. After you have contacted an agency for assistance you will be instructed as to the proper repeat sampling procedures and possible corrective measures for solving the problem. This should be done anytime the bell is opened for repair (pump replacement. 4. Some examples of typical corrective measures to coliform problems are: 1.). Shock chlorination of a ground water well. Conduct a cross connection program to identify all connections with non-potable water sources. The MCLs are based on extensive research on toxicological properties of the contaminants. etc. The first is for total coliform. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. When a particular contaminant exceeds its MCL a potential health threat may occur. the second is an acute risk to health violation characterized by the confirmed presence of fecal coliform or E.coli. Conduct routine distribution line flushing. 5. short term (acute) exposure and long term (chronic) exposure.2 mg/l free chlorine) at all times in the distribution system.. You conduct the monitoring to make sure your water is in compliance with the MCL. Under normal circumstances when these standards are being met. Upgrade the wellhead area to meet current construction standards as set your state environmental or health agency. review your operation and be sure to maintain a detectable residual (0. Install blowoffs on all dead end lines. 2. 3. The recommended dose of 5% household bleach is 2 cups per 100 gallons of water in the well. This list provides some basic operation and maintenance procedures that could help eliminate potential bacteriological problems. calculate the total gallonage of storage and distribution. Perform routine cleaning of the storage system.Positive or Coliform Present Results What do you do when your sample is positive or coliform present? When you are notified of a positive test result you need to contact either the Drinking Water Program or your local county health department within 24 hours or by the next business day after the results are reported to you. the water is safe to drink with no threat to human health. Quebec Colony Counter Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 132 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The Drinking Water Program contracts with many of the local health departments to provide assistance to water systems. It is very important to initiate the repeat sampling immediately as the corrective measures will be based on those results.

Colonies may arise from pairs. *Duplicate samples Computing and Reporting: Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 133 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Pipet 0. submerged colonies often are slower growing and are difficult to transfer.formerly known as the standard plate count. 4. is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria and measuring changes during water treatment and distribution in water or in swimming pools.Count all colonies on selected plates promptly after incubation. and colony morphology easily can be discerned and compared to published descriptions.. Pour Plate Method The colonies produced are relatively small and compact. starting with the highest dilution. Spread Plate Method All colonies are on the agar surface where they can be distinguished readily from particles and bubbles. then cool for about 20 minutes. Methods There are three methods for standard plate count: 1. 6. 3. Membrane Filter Method This method permits testing large volumes of volume of low-turbidity water and is the method of choice for lowcount waters. chains.Distribute inoculum over surface of the medium using a sterile bent glass rod. all of which are included in the term "colony-forming units" (CFU). let medium solidify.Heterotrophic Plate Count Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) --. consider only plates having 30 to 300 colonies in determining the plate count. 3.1 ml of each dilution onto surface of pre-dried plate. 2. On the other hand. 5. showing less tendency to encroach on each other than those produced by surface growth.Incubate plates at 35oC for 48h. Colonies can be transferred quickly. clusters.Pour approximately 15 ml of medium in each Petri dish.Boil mixture of nutrient agar and nutrient broth for 15 minutes. 2. Material i ) Apparatus Glass rod Erlenmeyer flask Graduated Cylinder Pipet Petri dish Incubator ii ) Reagent and sample Reagent-grade water Nutrient agar Sample Procedure* 1. or single cells.

pour 15 mL of R2A agar into sterile 100 x 15 Petri dishes.5 g of soluble starch. dilution.5 g of proteose peptone No. The Heterotrophic Plate Count provides a technique to quantify the bacteriological activity of a sample. Pre-dry plates inverted so that there is a 2 to 3 g water loss overnight with the lids on.5 g of glucose.1 mL. Prepare at least duplicate plates for each volume of sample or dilution examined. Adjust pH to 7. autotrophic organisms use inorganic carbon sources. 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 134 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Pipet: Glass. Sterilize before using. Thoroughly mix all samples by rapidly making about 25 complete up-and-down movements. 0. The R2A agar provides a medium that will support a large variety of heterotrophic bacteria. Heat to dissolve agar and sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes. report the count as less than 1/actual volume of sample in dish estimated CFU/ml.5 mL sample onto surface of pre-dried agar plate.2 with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate before adding agar. Sample Preparation: Mark each plate with sample type.5 g of yeast extract. After an incubation period. Heterotrophic Plate Count (Spread Plate Method) Heterotrophic organisms utilize organic compounds as their carbon source (food or substrate). use the plate(s) having a count nearest 300 colonies. 0. let agar solidify. In contrast. 0. c) Avoid creating fictitious precision and accuracy when computing CFU by recording only the first two left-hand digits.1 or 0. Minimize time plate remains uncovered. Laboratory Equipment: 100 x 15 Petri Dishes Turntable Glass Rods: Bend fire polished glass rod 45 degrees about 40 mm from one end. 0.3 g of sodium pyruvate. b) If plates from all dilutions of any sample have no colony. and 15. date and any other information before sample application. Pipet 0. 0. Sterilize before using. 1.05 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. a)If there is no plate with 30 to 300 colonies. 0. 2) Ethanol: As needed for flame sterilization. Preparation of Spread Plates: Immediately after agar sterilization. Sample Application: Uncover pre-dried agar plate.CFU/ml = colonies counted / actual volume of sample in dish.3 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate.5 g of casamino acids.0 g of agar to 1 L. Use pre-dried plates immediately or store up to two weeks in sealed plastic bags at 4 degrees C. 3. and one or more plates have more than 300 colonies. a bacteriological colony count provides an estimate of the concentration of heterotrophs in the sample of interest. Quebec Colony Counter Hand Tally Counter Reagents: 1) R2A Agar: Dissolve and dilute 0.

which plates meet these criteria. Report the number of colony forming units (CFU) found on each plate. use the plate(s) with a count closest to 300. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the sample volume put on that plate (remember to account for any dilution of that sample. promptly count all colonies on the plates. 3. uncover plate and place on Quebec colony counter. Counting and Recording: After incubation period. If no sample produces a plate with a count in this range. comment on the general accuracy of this analytical technique and the factors that affect its accuracy and or applicability. regardless of size. Incubate at 28 degrees C for 7 days. Put cover back on Petri dish and invert for duration of incubation time. comment on your final results for each sample type as well as the quality of your application of this analysis technique. The aim of diluting samples is to produce a plate having 30 to 300 colonies. Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: CFU mL = colonies counted actual volume of sample in dish.1 mL of a 100:1 and 10000:1 dilution of a sample both turned up with no colonies formed. Assignment: 1. mL Colonies Counted per plate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 135 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . use your calculated results to report the CFU per mL for each sample. In the conclusion of your lab report. Example: if 0. Feel free to justify your comments using statistical analysis. mL To report counts on a plate with no colonies. Based on these criteria. The final reported result for the sample is <1000 CFU per mL. Using a sterile bent glass rod. Calculate the CFU per mL for each plate. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the largest sample volume used. 2. distribute the sample over surface of the medium by rotating the dish by hand on a turntable.001 mL (0. To count. Data Table for Samples Sample ID Volume of Sample.) If plates of all dilutions for a sample have no colonies. Let the sample be absorbed completely into the medium before incubating.1 mL divided by 100). Use hand tally counter to maintain count. Count all colonies on the plate.Record Volume of Sample Used. the reported result would be <1 divided by the largest sample volume 0. Remove Petri dishes from incubator for counting. Also.

This will inform users when there is a problem with the system and give them information. Certain language maybe mandatory for both these violations and is included in your state drinking water rule. 2. coli present. coli are present in the distribution system. Any outbreak of waterborne disease. Public Notice A public notice is required to be issued by a water system whenever it fails to comply with an applicable MCL or treatment technique or fails to comply with the requirements of any scheduled variance or permit. For systems which collect 40 or more samples per month. This type of contamination can pose an immediate threat to human health and notice must be given as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours after notification from your laboratory of the test results. Any violation of the MCL for total coliforms. 2. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. Acute Risk to Health (Fecal Coliforms and E. the second positive result (repeat or routine) in a month or quarter results in an MCL violation. be issued properly and in a timely manner and contain certain mandatory language. For systems which collect fewer than 40 samples per month. Violation of the MCL for nitrate. A routine analysis shows total coliform present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates fecal coliform or E. Check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. The timing and place of posting of the public notice depends on whether an acute risk is present to users. In other words. The following are acute violations: 1. Each public notice must contain certain information. A routine analysis shows total and fecal coliform or E. when fecal coliforms or E. no more than five (5) percent may be Positive. An acute health risk violation requires the water system to provide public notice via radio and television stations in the area. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 136 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . depending on your water system type and state rule. A public notice is also required whenever a water system fails to comply with its monitoring and/or reporting requirements or testing procedure. coli present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates total coliform present. Coli) An acute risk to human health violation occurs if either one of the following happen: 1. as defined by the rules. no more than one sample per month may be positive.Total Coliforms This MCL is based on the presence of total coliforms and compliance is on a monthly or quarterly basis. 3.

a suitable weighing mechanism shall be provided to check the daily amount of chemical feed. The weight of the daily amount of fluoride fed to water shall be accurately determined. positive anti-siphon breakers other than valves shall be provided. and at all times shall be capable of maintaining a rate of feed within 5% of the rate at which the machine is set.Fluoride Some water providers will add Fluoride to the water to help prevent cavities in children. 7. Where a dry feeder of the volumetric or gravimetric type is used. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 137 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 10. 6. The fluoride solution should be added to the water supply at a point where the fluoride will not be removed by any following treatment processes and where it will be mixed with the water. 2. Feeders shall be provided with anti-siphon valves on the discharge side. Solution feeders shall be of the positive displacement type and constructed of material compatible with the fluoride solution being fed. 3. 4. Vacuum dust filters shall be installed with the hoppers to prevent dust from rising into the room when the hopper is filled. and be capable of feeding over the entire pumpage range of the plant. Too much Fluoride will mottle the teeth. All equipment shall be sized such that it will be operated in the 20 to 80 percent range of the scale. Wherever possible. The construction material of the dissolving chamber and associated piping shall be compatible with the fluoride solution to be fed. The following chemical feed practices apply: 1. and. Dissolving chambers are required for use with dry feeders. Alarm signals are recommended to detect faulty operation of equipment. A "day tank" capable of holding a 24 hour supply of solution should be provided. 8. 11. 9. Hoppers should be designed to hold a 24 hour supply of the fluoride compound and designed such that the dust hazard to operators is minimized. It is undesirable to inject the fluoride compound or solution directly on-line unless there are provisions for adequate mixing. 5. and the dissolving chambers shall be designed such that at the required rate of feed of the chemical the solution strength will not be greater than 1/4 of that of a saturated solution at the temperature of the dissolving water. Chemical Feed The equipment used for feeding the fluoride to water shall be accurately calibrated before being placed in operation.

the daily reading of the water meter which controls the fluoridation equipment or that which determines the amount of water to which the fluoride is added. 3. and (ii) raw water being analyzed at least once a week. 6. weekly samples of raw and treated water for a period of not less than four consecutive weeks. 4. Chemical Storage and Ventilation The fluoride chemicals shall be stored separately from other chemicals. with the frequency of measurement as follows: (i) treated water being analyzed continuously or once daily. Alternate Compounds Any one of the following fluoride compounds may be used: 1. whereby the feed rate is controlled by a flow proportional signal and residual analyzer signal to maintain a constant residual. whereby the fluoride feed rate is automatically adjusted in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant preestablished dosage for all rates of flow. Sampling In keeping the fluoride records. or compound loop controlled. or. EPA may require other information that is deemed necessary.Metering Metering of the total water to be fluoridated shall be provided. In addition to the reports required. On new installations or during start-ups of existing installations. or (2) automatic/ residual controlled. 2. Hydrofluosilicic acid. Record of Performance Accurate daily records shall be kept. 2. if using bagged chemical. the daily weight of the fluoride compound fed to the water. 3. the daily weight of fluoride compound in stock. the following sampling procedures are required: 1. 3. Control of the feed rate shall be automatic/ proportional controlled. and. 2. A sample of raw water and a sample of treated water shall be forwarded to an approved independent laboratory for fluoride analysis once a month. to allow circulation of air and to keep the containers off the floor. Sodium fluoride. Sodium silicofluoride. kept relatively dry. Other fluoride compounds may be used if approved by the EPA. and provided with pallets. the daily volume of water fluoridated. 5. whereby a continuous automatic fluoride analyzer determines the residual fluoride level and adjusts the rate of feed accordingly. These records shall include: 1. the fluoride content of the raw and fluoridated water determined by laboratory analysis. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 138 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and the storage area shall be marked "FLUORIDE CHEMICALS ONLY". The storage area should be in close proximity to the feeder. and the operation of the feeding equipment is to be controlled. the daily weight of fluoride compound in the feeder.

This shall be done either by use of day tanks or containers. and all areas and appliances shall be kept clean and free of dust. boots. and. 3. Wet or damp cleaning methods shall be employed wherever practicable. Chemical respirators. At all installations.Safety The following safety procedures shall be maintained: 1. over-riding flow switches. shall be inspected periodically and maintained in good operating condition. 8. sizing of pump and feeders. anti-siphon devices. 6. chemical safety face shields. Personal protective equipment shall be used during the clean-up. but shall be placed in operation immediately after the repair or replacement is complete. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 139 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Repair and Maintenance Upon notifying the appropriate local board of health. 4. determining the length and duration of impulses. Individual dust respirators. all equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and stored in an area free of fluoride dusts. All equipment shall be maintained at a high standard of efficiency. All protective devices. Rubber articles shall be washed in water. and hands shall be washed after the equipment is stored. chemical safety goggles and acid proof aprons shall be worn where acids are handled. rubber gloves. Records shall be maintained and submitted during the period that the equipment is not in operation. rubber gloves. 2. a fluoridation program may be discontinued when necessary to repair or replace equipment. Safety features shall also be provided to prevent spills and overflows. 5. safety features are to be considered and the necessary controls built into the installation to prevent an overdose of fluoride in the water. and protective clothing shall be worn by all personnel when handling or being exposed to the fluoride dust. whether for routine or emergency use. 7. After use. or other similar safety devices. and appropriate covers shall be maintained over all fluoride solutions.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 140 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

the water supplier—at least in customers’ eyes—is usually “guilty until proven innocent. where Gary A. the suspended matter customers complain about is particulate in form. illuminate the particulates from above with a fiber-optic light. 29. Enough particulate matter can usually be captured with a water sample of approximately 250 mL. larger volumes will need to be filtered. ←Granular Rust Under a microscope. When samples have low turbidity. No. For optimum observation. which can be stored in a Plexiglas Petri dish. Particulates can also accumulate in the toilet tank. by permission. Vol. Although particles can come from cold or hot water systems. The most important step in solving a particulate complaint is to collect as much suspect material as possible. magnification to identify matter on the membrane filter disk. Burlingame Jameel Rahman is a retired analytical chemist supervisor for the Materials Testing Laboratory at the Philadelphia Water Department. preferably 75×. A 0. Reprinted from Opflow. Almost every water utility employee responsible for solving customer problems has fielded a complaint about particles in a bathtub or faucet aerator. Copyright 2003. Contact Burlingame at gary.” The Philadelphia Water Department has standardized procedures in place that can identify offending materials and help pinpoint their source.45 µm filter can be used if the water’s colloidal matter doesn’t clog the filter before enough particulate material is collected for analysis. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 141 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .burlingame@phila.Water Quality What’s That Stuff in the Tap Water? by Jameel Rahman and Gary A. Use a zoom microscope with at least 40×. water distribution systems.gov or (215) 685-1417. and water treatment. Particulate matter can be extracted from water samples by using nitrocellulose membrane filters. examine the particulate matter captured on a filter. Burlingame is the supervisor of water quality and research. American Water Works Association. household plumbing. making sure it represents the customer’s actual concern. Sometimes enough material for analysis can be collected from faucet aerators. Collecting and Identifying Particulates Typically. A container may be left with the customer for sample collection during normal tap use. 2 (February 2003).

They can be colorful but usually appear translucent to whitish. Usually. and do not smear the filter disk with black when a drop of toluene is applied. are present in single strands. a rubber gasket. indicating a common source. or solubility in a solvent. Fibers used in apparel are round. Disintegrated plastic particulates are usually white. Plastic burns with a smoke. may have smooth facets with sharp edges. If pressed with a needle.Some particulates can be identified by their appearance and. such as carbon dioxide from scale particulates or marble. large. such as pump packing. If these tests still fail to identify the debris. Heat Identification Activated carbon particulates are black and usually coated with debris. Relatively large amounts of similar particulates often indicate a problem within a plumbing system. but fibers found in water typically have a strip shape. such as softness. You will need to understand the common soil minerals in your area to identify them. and may be present in large numbers. sometimes. Glass chips are transparent. 10 per filter. remove sufficient particulates from the disk and further identify them by IR. Remove a few particulates and burn them. stickiness. Most often they are polypropylene plastic. several. With fine-tipped tweezers. or numerous. can be observed under the microscope. or further delineation is required. and often are visible to the unaided eye. which display a shiny luster under reflected light. use infrared spectroscopy (IR). used in gaskets. Disintegrated rubber gasket particulates are usually black. relatively large. Pick up a few particulates on the tip of a wetted platinum wire and burn them in the blue part of a Bunsen burner flame. by touching them with a sharp needle and observing their physical properties. They can show porosity but appear dull compared to anthracite particulates. or a corroding component of the plumbing system. found in all colors and with a characteristic wrinkled strip shape. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 142 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Usually the source of such particulates is disintegrating plastic. Mica particulates have a characteristic platelet shape and shine under reflected light. Visual Identification Sand particulates have a characteristic vitreous appearance and irregular shape with smooth facets. Pick up a few particulates and burn them in a Bunsen burner flame. fibers are not present in large numbers — at most. Often these particulates are ethylene-propylene-diene monomer. Particulates can be quantified as few. and may be colorful. A characteristic evolution of a gas. perform simple chemical tests on the filter. Color formed by chemical reactions can be seen by the unaided eye. Man-made fibers. have significant length. Identify them further by IR. If particulates cannot be identified by their appearance. AC particulates will burn instantaneously with a glitter and no visible smoke or residue. they flex. rubber burns with a black smoke.

If tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form under the microscope. Patina is hydrated basic copper carbonate and has a greenish color. the presence of patina is indicated.Acid Identification Rust particulates are usually abundant and are easy to identify with their typically brown and rough irregular shapes.8 buffer solution by dissolving 1. add a drop of (1+1) HCl from a Pasture pipette. To confirm rust. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 143 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Add a drop of 2 percent solution of potassium thiocyanate on the yellow area where HCl was added. Remove a few particulates and place them in the cavity of a spot. Large particulates may have yellow and black streaks or inclusions.8 tartrate-buffer solution followed by a drop of 0. while fine rust particulates form a uniform brown film on the filter disk. and can be easily pulverized. add a drop of (1+1) hydrochloric acid (500 mL of 11.5 g of tartaric acid in 100 mL of distilled water. Yellow staining indicates the presence of ferric chloride. they are relatively large in size compared to most other particulates on the filter disk. add a drop of pH 2. Scales can form in water heaters. These irregularly shaped particulates result from corrosion of copper and copper alloys. dissolve 0. lead solder is present.2 percent solution of freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate.5N hydrochloric acid [HCl] solution plus 500 mL of distilled water) to the filter. Appearance of a blue precipitate or blue color confirms the presence of patina particulates. Rust particulates will interfere with this test if it is performed on the rust-coated filter. To prepare the sodium rhodizonate reagent.test plate. Large Rust Particles Lead solder particulates are gray and may have a whitish coating. Prepare a pH 2. Brick-red staining confirms the presence of potassium ferrithiocyanate. are usually brittle. Calcium carbonate can develop as a white scale through evaporation of hard water or can occur as a particulate of limestone or calcite. If lead particulates are suspected.2 g of rhodizonic acid disodium salt in 100 mL of distilled water. Often. To confirm their presence.9 g of sodium bitartrate and 1. If the particulates turn scarlet red. Add a drop of (1+1) HCl followed by a drop of ammonia.

calcium sulfate. organic materials are identified by scanning a pellet or a film of the sample cast on a KBr plate. or phosphates. Inorganic compounds include calcium carbonate. Atoms in a molecule are in constant motion. These particulates can be removed from the filter disk and burned in a crucible. and polyethylene. but their stickiness and extreme softness differentiates them from other black particulates. Touch the particulates with a needle in the area where toluene was added. To differentiate between various black particulates. Add a drop of HCl (1+1) on the particulates and observe the evolution of carbon dioxide under the microscope. If the disk becomes smeared with black around the particulates. Let the toluene evaporate or use an oven to expedite drying. The brisk evolution of gas confirms the presence of carbonates. They are soft and sticky when touched with a needle and can be smeared easily on the disk. Add a drop of toluene. Each compound has a unique infrared absorption spectrum. metal oxides. Solvent Identification Asphalt pipe-coating compounds are black. barium sulfate. the particulates are classified as pipe-coating of an asphaltic nature. they should no longer be sticky and may behave like a black powder. and various compounds can be identified by comparing absorption band positions in the IR spectrum of an unknown compound to band positions of known compounds. Infrared Spectroscopy When particulates cannot be completely identified by the above means. use IR to identify organic and inorganic materials. polyvinyl chloride. silicates. Particulates are removed with fine-tipped tweezers one by one from the filter disk and transferred to a small vial for dissolving in a solvent or to a small agate mortar for grinding and mixing with KBr for making a potassium bromide (KBr) pellet. They are usually present as tiny heaps on the filter disk because of their softness and hydrophobic nature. but various types of plastics can occur in water systems. changing bond angles by bending and bond lengths by stretching. Inorganic materials are identified by IR scanning of the KBr pellet of the sample alone. add a drop of toluene or chloroform to the filter disk under the microscope. Anthracite. and 10 mg of sample is all that is commonly needed to produce a good infrared absorption spectrum. and rubber particulates are insoluble in the solvents used. All greases may not behave this way. Visually. and with the aid of heat.Limestone can come from water treatment processes. lead carbonate. IR can differentiate between plastic materials. they will leave a solid residue. you might suspect a particulate is plastic in nature. The usually brittle plastic fragments can be powdered easily. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 144 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Anthracite particulates appear shiny compared with other black particulates and do not smear the filter disk if a drop of toluene is applied. including polypropylene. Grease particulates are black and may be shiny. When portions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by such vibrations. an IR absorption band spectrum appears. grease will dissolve and a black color will spread around the particulates. Among these motions only certain vibrations absorb infrared radiation of specific energy. activated carbon. which an infrared spectrometer records.

and copper and silicate particulates. The only common source for this plastic was found to be the dip tubes in residential gas hot-water heaters (see Opflow. a plastic not used in the distribution system. Philadelphia was in a good position to explain the situation to customers because our procedure was already in place for testing and characterizing particulates. hydrated aluminum oxide can occur as white slurry and be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry after dissolving in mineral acids. During the late 1990s. manganese dioxides. Standard Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses available in most full-service water testing laboratories can be used to identify particulates when sufficient material is available. and scan the pellet. When this issue made the TV news. If soluble. can be identified by common chemical analyses. try dissolving the sample in this solvent first. prompting water heater manufacturers to give rebates to customers for dip-tube replacements. Similarly. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the particulates to be polypropylene. A variety of materials. granules of lead solder can also be analyzed by wet chemical or instrumental methods. customers in Philadelphia and across the country complained about white particulates clogging faucet aerators. aluminum oxides. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 145 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . calcium carbonates. it can be analyzed for various elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. cast a film of the sample on a KBr plate and scan it. the sample is identified by manual means or a computer search of a commercially available online IR library. For example.Zeolite Particles from a Water Softener Most plastics are readily soluble in hot o-dichlorobenzene. Eventually. make a KBr pellet. evaporate the solvent completely and transfer the particulates to an agate mortar. After a sample is dissolved in a mineral acid. December 1998). including iron oxides. After obtaining a reasonably strong infrared spectrogram. If the sample is insoluble. the dip-tube manufacturer admitted to changing materials to a less-durable plastic.

Dip Tube Particles Table 1.45 µm Particulate > 1.0 µm but > 0. mica From Customer Plumbing From Water Supplier Piping X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 2. Potential sources for particulate matter found in tap water Particulate Activated carbon fines Asphaltic lining fragments Backfill sand Calcium carbonate scale X Cast iron rust Cement lining fragments Copper fragments X Glass chips Greases and lubricants X Lead fragments X Manganese dioxide deposits Man-made fibers On-site treatment device media Plastic fragments X Rubber gasket fragments X Soil minerals.0 µm Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 146 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Suspended matter classified by size Soluble < 0.45 µm Colloidal < 1.

Advantages of PAC are that it can be used on a short-term or emergency basis with conventional treatment. GAC can be used as a replacement for existing media (such as sand) in a conventional filter or it can be used in a separate contactor such as a vertical steel pressure vessel used to hold the activated carbon bed. because GAC is essentially an equilibrium process. creating a vast network of pores with a very large internal surface area. adsorbed contaminants. Also. The disinfection process must be carefully monitored in order to avoid this problem. raw water with frequently changing contaminant levels can result in treated water of unpredictable quality. Several operational and maintenance factors affect the performance of granular activated carbon. does not encourage microbial growth and has relatively small capital costs. The addition of PAC can improve the organic removal effectiveness of conventional treatment processes and also remove tastes and odors. depending on the concentration of the contaminants. the surface of the pores in the GAC can no longer adsorb contaminants and the carbon must be replaced. Activated carbon is carbon that has been exposed to very high temperature. a process in which dissolved contaminants adhere to the surface of the carbon particles. or slough off. PAC is normally applied to the water in a slurry and then filtered out. creates no headloss. Excessive bacterial growth may cause clogging and higher bacterial counts in the treated water.Granular Activated Carbon / Powdered Activated Carbon Along with aeration. After a period of a few months or years. PCBs. A significant drop in the contaminant level in influent water can cause a GAC filter to desorb. Powdered activated carbon consists of finely ground particles and exhibits the same adsorptive properties as the granular form. Bacterial growth on the carbon is another potential problem. solvents. It removes contaminants through adsorption. Contaminants in the water can occupy adsorption sites. whether or not they are targeted for removal. granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are suitable treatments for removal of organic contaminants such as VOCs. It is also somewhat ineffective in removing natural organic matter due to the competition from other contaminants for surface adsorption and the limited contact time between the water and the carbon. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 147 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . one gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to that of a football field. adsorbed contaminants can be replaced by other contaminants with which GAC has a greater affinity so their presence might interfere with removal of contaminants of concern. herbicides and pesticides. As a result. The main disadvantage is that some contaminants require large doses of PAC for removal.

Lead. resulting in disagreeable tastes. Also.Corrosion Control Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance by chemical action. Long-term measures for addressing lead and other corrosion by-products include pH and alkalinity adjustment. lead is the corrosion product of greatest concern. all discussed below. zinc. such as silver-tin and antimony-tin is a key factor in lead corrosion control. as hot water tends to leach lead more readily than cold. and cathodic protection. Therefore. slimes and further corrosion. the simplest short-term or immediate measure that can be taken to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water is to let the water run for two to three minutes before each use. Drinking water contaminated with certain metals (such as lead and cadmium) can harm human health. The EPA has banned the use of lead solders. Using lead-free solders. corrosion inhibitors. drinking water should not be taken from the hot water tap. In the past. cadmium. Because it is widespread and highly toxic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 148 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . odors. copper and iron might be found in water when metals in water distribution systems corrode. The highest level of lead in consumers’ tap water will be found in water that has been standing in the pipes after periods of nonuse (overnight or longer). coatings and linings. Corrosion also reduces the useful life of water distribution systems and can promote the growth of microorganisms. solder used in plumbing has been 50% tin and 50% lead. This is because standing water tends to leach lead or copper out of the metals in the distribution system more readily than does moving water. fluxes and pipes in the installation or repair of any public water system.

Metallic structures. cathodes. a rectifier and the soil. The direct current then flows from the anode through the soil to the piping system. soil or seawater can be subject to corrosive attack and accelerated deterioration. An asphalt coating is not considered a suitable dielectric coating. or graphite. components and equipment exposed to aqueous environments. The direct current is then sent through an insulated copper wire to anodes that are buried in the soil near the piping system. if proper considerations are not given. the system is protected while the attached anode is “sacrificed. Ceramic anodes are not consumed. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 149 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . high silicon cast iron. which acts as the cathode. Thus. Therefore.” Sacrificial anodes can be attached to existing piping system or coated steel for a pre-engineered Cathodic protection system. Typical anode materials are ceramic. premature failure. it is often necessary to utilize either impressed current or sacrificial anode cathodic protection (CP) in combination with coatings as a means of suppressing the natural degradation phenomenon to provide a long and useful service life. Because these anodes are more active.Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection protects steel from corrosion which is the natural electrochemical process that results in the deterioration of a material because of its reaction with its environment. corrosion takes place only at the anodes and not at the piping system. where as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes partially dissolve each year and must be replaced over time. The rectifier converts the alternating current to direct current. the corrosive current will exit from them rather than the piping system. problems can arise which can produce unexpected. However. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the piping system. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the system. There are Two Types of Cathodic Protection: Ø Sacrificial Anodes (Galvanic Systems) Ù Impressed (Induced) Current Systems How Does Cathodic Protection Work ? Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal more electrically active than the steel piping system. Impressed or Induced Current Systems An impressed current Cathodic protection system consists of anodes. As a result of the electrochemical properties of the impressed current Cathodic protection system. and back to the rectifier through another insulated copper wire.

Does not involve maintenance work 3. Installation is simple 5. 2.. The driving voltage is small and therefore the anodes have to be fitted close to the structure or on the structure. Needs no external power source. this system offers freedom of installation design and location 2. graphite anodes or lead silver alloy anodes. etc. 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 150 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 6. Possibility of over protection should be avoided as it will affect the life of the paint.C. It can be high silicon chromium cast iron anodes. Advantages 1. These anodes are made of materials such as magnesium. Initial investments are higher and can pay off only in long run and economic only for large structures 5. If carefully designed it can render protection for anticipated period. The sacrificial anodes are connected directly to the structure. The anodes have to be distributed all over the structure (as throwing power is lower) and therefore have design limitations in certain applications. source. supply for a long times allows structure to corrode again. Reversal of anode cathode connection at D. source will be harmful as structure will dissolve anodic 3. Shut down of D. Since the driving voltage is large. 2. 4. aluminum or zinc which are anodic with respect to the protected structure. Advantages 1. protection current cannot be altered or increased as may be needed in case of cathode area extension (unprotected) or foreign structure interference (physical contact). 6. Impressed Current System The impressed current anode system on the other hand has several advantages over the sacrificial anode systems. Any foreign structure coming within this field will cause interference problem. Variations in protection current requirements can be adjusted to some extend (to be incorporated at design stage) Disadvantages 1. Power cost must be incorporated in all economic consideration. In this system the protection current is "Forced" through the environment to the structure (cathode) by means of an external D. 3. a metal or alloy reacting more vigorously than that corroding specimen.Sacrificial Anode System In this system. acts as an anode and the corroding structure as a whole is rendered Cathodic. Once designed and installed. Obviously we need some material to function as anodes. Fewer anodes can protect large structure 3. Needs trained staff for maintenance of units and for monitoring 4. thereby increasing the weight or load on the structure.C.C. 7. Does not involve expensive accessories like rectifier unit. Economical for small structures Disadvantages 1.

0 can be associated with pitting corrosion. Generally. The phosphates used as corrosion inhibitors include polyphosphates. they are often used in boilers of steam heating systems. These chemicals have proven successful in reducing corrosion in many water systems.5 and 8. Generally. essentially baking soda). For this reason. effectively reduce iron corrosion at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/l. Sodium silicates are particularly effective for systems with high water velocities. sodium silicates and mixtures of phosphates and silicates.4. to maintain pH at a level that will control corrosion but not conflict with optimum pH levels for disinfection and control of disinfection by-products. However. Corrosion Inhibitors Inhibitors reduce corrosion by forming protective coatings on pipes. Glassy phosphate has an appearance of broken glass and can cut the operator. Chemicals commonly used for pH and alkalinity adjustment are hydrated lime (CaOH2 or calcium hydroxide). Sodium silicates have been used for over 50 years to inhibit corrosion. while pHs between 6. orthophosphates. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in water. however. glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates. caustic soda (NaOH or sodium hydroxide). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 151 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Typical coating maintenance doses range from 2 to 12 mg/1.0 to reduce the availability of hydrogen ions as electron receptors. They offer advantages in hot water systems because of their chemical stability. pH is not the only factor in the corrosion equation. water pH less than 6.Alkalinity and pH Adjustment Adjusting pH and alkalinity is the most common corrosion control method because it is simple and inexpensive. Glassy phosphates. Care must be taken. such as sodium hexametaphosphate. low hardness. The most common corrosion inhibitors are inorganic phosphates. alkalinity is a measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids. an increase in pH and alkalinity can decrease corrosion rates and help form a protective layer of scale on corrodible pipe material. low alkalinity and a pH of less than 8. The effectiveness depends on the water pH and carbonate concentration. In some cases. Some studies have suggested that systems using only pH to control corrosion should maintain a pH of at least 9. zinc is added in conjunction with orthophosphates or polyphosphates.5 is associated with uniform corrosion. and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. carbonate and alkalinity levels affect corrosion as well. soda ash (Na2CO3 or sodium carbonate).

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 152 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

shape. Something has to give. elevated tanks and reservoirs. and maybe even several. Since height is everything. often times. trapping the kinetic energy of moving water within the confined space of a piping system. If you turn the tap off more slowly. where it has lots of gravitational potential energy. it's your pipe fittings. A Surge tank should not be used for water storage. building a cylindrical water tower is inefficient. You should hear a bang. Distribution operators are aware of this phenomenon! It's called WATER HAMMER. Just the name alone can give you an idea of its purpose. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 153 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . seeking a point of release. it puts most of its water high up. such as a water distribution system. such as standpipes.When released in a confined space. Try it at home . and application. These shock waves can create a turbulence that travels at the speed of sound. There are different types that are used in the water distribution systems.ENERGY . but the surge doesn't always find this release quickly enough. Most of the water is then near the ground. This banging can be heard as water hammer. The release the surge usually finds is an elevated tank. By making the tower wider near the top. These tanks serve multiple purposes in the distribution system. hydropneumatic tanks and surge tanks. or pumps are opened and closed quickly.Water Storage Section Water storage facilities and tanks vary in size. as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually. then turn it off very quickly. valves. • • • SURGE tanks RESERVOIRS ELEVATED tanks Water towers and Standpipes Surge Tanks What really causes water main breaks . The goal of the water tower or standpipe is to store water high in the air. The shock waves created when hydrants.turn on your tap. it should stay quiet. This stored energy can be converted to pressure potential energy or kinetic energy for delivery to homes.

Normal day for a Distribution Worker after a Water Hammer broke a water main. Aren’t you glad to work in a nice plant? This is a good reason never to complain. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 154 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Backflow is the waste water that enters potable water lines through a cross connection. Backflow. Such pressure drops can cause siphoning of waste water or other fluids into the potable water line. Backflow from cross connections can cause serious illness. This can happen when a water main breaks or when a fire hydrant is used. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 155 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . you will attain an understanding of the mechanisms by which water flow. Hopefully.Cross-Connections. This condition can force waste water or other fluids back into the potable water line. A large Fireline RP backflow Preventer • • Backpressure occurs when water pressure in a building or fixture is greater than the water pressure in the water supply. biofilms and pathogens interact in pipes and service reservoirs to affect health-related and aesthetic dimensions of water quality at consumer's taps. The water may drain from a building back to the potable water line. Common causes of backpressure involve connecting plumbing to a pump or to steam and/or air pressure. The nonpotable water line may contain waste water or other liquids that are not safe to drink. Backsiphonage and Backpressure • Cross connection occurs when a potable water line and a nonpotable water line connect. Backsiphonage occurs when a water main or a plumbing system in a building lose water pressure. Substantial changes in water quality can occur as drinking water is transported through a distribution system from the point of major treatment and/or disinfection to consumer's taps.

Common Cross-Connections Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 156 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

A multistage pump has two or more impellers housed together in one casing. the casing wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. For example. Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. each impeller acts separately. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring. Closed impellers have side walls that extend from the eye to the outer edge of the vane tips. Recirculating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing. they may be either SINGLE STAGE or MULTISTAGE. In this type of pump. depending upon the position of the pump shaft. This arrangement is called series staging. discharging to the suction of the next stage impeller. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. Centrifugal pumps are also classified as HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL. During pump operation. The single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from one side only. to lubricate the packing. a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. Seal piping leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. Open impellers do not have these side walls. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump. and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. A single-stage pump has only one impeller. As a rule.Centrifugal Pump Section Centrifugal pumps may be classified in several ways. The impellers used on centrifugal pumps may be classified as SINGLE SUCTION or DOUBLE SUCTION. Impellers are also classified as CLOSED or OPEN. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 157 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from two directions. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 158 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (3) excessive discharge pressure. (4) excessive suction lift. Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system. a bent shaft. such as worn wearing rings. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. stuffing box packing. as an Operator. (8) ruptured suction line. Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1. (3) insufficient pump speed. Pump Troubleshooting Some of the operating troubles you. (2) air or gas in the liquid being pumped. impellers. (5) clogged impeller passages. (7) clogged suction screen (if used). the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. (2) air leakage into the stuffing boxes in pumps operating at less than atmospheric pressure. together with the probable causes are discussed in the following paragraphs. worn wearing rings. or sleeves. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient pump speed.Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. (5) insufficient liquid on the suction side. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient priming. 2. (3) mechanical defects. or (8) mechanical defects. or (9) loss of suction pressure. such as might be caused by a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line. such as worn wearing rings. (2) insufficient speed of the pump. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. or (4) reversed rotation of the impeller (3-phase electric motor-driven pumps). The basic causes may be (1) operation of the pump to excess capacity and insufficient discharge pressure. the trouble will probably be indicated by overheating of the motor. (4) excessive suction lift. excessively tight stuffing box packing. If a pump WORKS FOR A WHILE AND THEN FAILS TO DELIVER LIQUID. or (5) excessive heat in the liquid being pumped. may encounter with centrifugal pumps. This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. Leakoff causes two types of seal leakage: a. (4) insufficient liquid on the suction side. or sleeves. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation. Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water. or (3) misalignment. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. If a motor-driven centrifugal pump DRAWS TOO MUCH POWER. (2) too high viscosity or specific gravity of the liquid being pumped. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. (6) the wrong direction of rotation (this may occur after motor overhaul). b. impellers. Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leakoff on idle (vertical) pumps. stuffing box packing. If a pump DOES NOT DEVELOP DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. (2) air leakage in the stuffing boxes. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings. (6) clogged impeller passages. (3) clogged water seal passages. Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. If a centrifugal pump DOES NOT DELIVER ANY LIQUID. If a centrifugal pump delivers some liquid but operates at INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY. (7) excessive discharge pressure. or other mechanical defects.

Some of the most common corrective maintenance actions that you may be required to perform are discussed in the following sections. If the packing is allowed to dry out. make certain the shaft or sleeve is smooth when the packing is removed from a gland. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing. eroded. proceed as follows: 1. Restart the pump. You may then begin to adjust the packing gland. the suction line may be clogged. Pack the box loosely. Open the discharge valve to “load” the pump. start the pump. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. Shut the pump discharge valve. Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration. (3) a clogged. Rapid wear of the packing will be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 159 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Prime the pump (fill casing with the liquid being pumped) and be sure that all air is expelled through the air cocks on the pump casing. it will score the shaft. If the pump is electrically driven. If the shaft is rough. 6. If it is very rough. YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. condition of the shaft sleeve. If any of these conditions exist. be sure the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. as well as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure. or otherwise unbalanced impeller. Secure the pump. be sure there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box or seal. When operating a centrifugal pump. or an impeller may be broken. it will have to be renewed. maintained and operated. It is also possible that air is being drawn into the suction line or into the casing. or has deep ridges in it. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer to make it fit. stop the pump and continue troubleshooting according to the technical manual for that unit. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. When replacing packing.VIBRATION of a centrifugal pump is often caused by (1) misalignment. 4. 5. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing. and set up the packing gland lightly. particularly in pumps that handle hot or volatile liquids. Repacking Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. it should be sent to the machine shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. Open all valves in the pump suction line. or (4) lack of rigidity in the foundation. centrifugal pumps are usually trouble-free. 3. and hours in use. 2. (2) a bent shaft. If the pump fails to build up pressure when the discharge valve is opened and the pump comes up to normal operating speed. such as the type of pump. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. Maintenance of Centrifugal Pumps When properly installed. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the packing gland for the desired amount of leak-off. Next. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell. be sure the pump is rotating in the correct direction. If the discharge pressure is not normal when the pump is up to its proper speed.

Mechanical shaft seals serve to ensure that position liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. they are simply replaced. Most water service pumps use a carbon material for one of the seal faces and ceramic (tungsten carbide) for the other. When the seals wear out. Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps that operate in closed systems (such as fuel service and air-conditioning. chilled-water. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. Mechanical Seal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 160 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts.Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments. Do not touch a new seal on the sealing face because body acid and grease or dirt will cause the seal to pit prematurely and leak. Mechanical shaft seals must not be positioned by setscrews. Shaft sleeves are chamfered (beveled) on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage. Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on rotary and positive-displacement pumps. it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves. They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. The type of material used for the seal faces will depend upon the service of the pump. You should replace a mechanical seal whenever the seal is removed from the shaft for any reason or whenever leakage causes undesirable effects on equipment or surrounding spaces. If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked). check it regularly to make certain that sufficient flow is maintained. Once you have the desired leak-off. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts. and various cooling systems).

Multi-stage Bowl Assemblies Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 161 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Common Elements of Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical Turbine Pump Being Removed (notice line shaft) Closed Pump Impeller Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 162 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Ion exchange processes can typically be used for direct treatment of groundwater. They all work on the principle of vaporizing water and then condensing the vapor. Diet should be rich in electrolytes as the aggressive nature of distilled water can "leech" electrolytes from the body. and effects of hard water and the hard water treatment or softening process that remove the hardness-causing minerals. This process will provide softened water at the lowest cost. the process normally must be preceded by conventional treatment. but those that are move volatile are often vaporized and condensed with the product water. This process has the advantages of a considerably lower initial cost and ease of use by small systems or by large systems at multiple locations. some of which impart a quality known as hardness. It has no taste. The other commonly used method of softening involves the ion exchange process. It is considered "dead" water because the process removes all extra oxygen and energy. so long as turbidity and iron levels are not excessive. In this document we will discusses the occurrence. and freezing. it is generally applicable only to medium. In the process. The precipitation process most frequently used is generally known as the lime process or lime soda process. Softening can also be accomplished using membrane technology. metals. electrodialysis. For treatment of surface water. and that the power cost for operation will be substantially higher than the operating cost of other types of treatment devices. The principal disadvantage is that operating costs are considerably higher. distillation.or large-size water systems where all treatment can be accomplished at a central location. membrane methods seem to have the greatest potential. Consumers frequently complain about problems attributes to hard water. The principal problem with a distiller are that a small unit can produce only 2-3 gal (7. Of these. asbestos fibers. such as the formation of scale in cooking utensils and hot water heaters. Some organic chemicals are also removed. Water Distillers have a high energy cost (approximately 20-30 cents per gallon). minerals. It is still second only to reverse osmosis water for health. Distillers are effective in killing all microorganisms.5 -11 Lt) a day. Distillers Various sizes of distillers are available for home use. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 163 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . dissolved solids such as salt. and other particles are removed. Because of the special facilities required and the complexity of the process.Hard Water Section Water contains various amounts of dissolved minerals. Lime softening can be used for treatment of either groundwater or surface water sources. They must be carbon filtered before and/or after to remove volatile chemicals.

Expressing Hardness Concentration Water hardness is generally expressed as a concentration of calcium carbonate. Magnesium is dissolved as water passes over and through dolomite and other magnesium-bearing minerals. are usually present in large enough concentrations to contribute significantly to the total hardness. We will show two different classifications of the relative harness of water: Comparative classifications of water for softness and hardness Classification Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard * Per Sawyer (1960) + Per Briggs and Ficke (1977) mg/L as CaCO3 * 0 – 75 75 – 150 150 – 300 Over 300 mg/L as CaCO3+ 0 – 60 61 – 120 121 – 180 Over 180 Source: Adapted from sawyer 1960 and Briggs and Ficke 1977. however. Because groundwater is in contact with these formations for a longer period of time than surface water. Strontium. in terms of milligrams per liter as CaCO3. The degree of hardness that consumer consider objectionable will vary. and is also a function of the contact time between water and limestone deposits. depending on other qualities of the water and on the hardness to which they have become accustomed. (positive ions having valence of 2). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 164 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . aluminum. Calcium and magnesium are normally the only significant minerals that cause harness. The calcium-magnesium distinction is based on the minerals involved. regardless of the salts associated with it. Types of Hardness Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods: calcium versus magnesium hardness and carbonate versus non-carbonate hardness. calcium chloride (CaCl2). The principal chemicals that cause water hardness are calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). This is due to different geologic formations. so it is generally assumed that Total harness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness The carbonate-noncarbonate distinction. metallic cations. barium. Likewise. Hardness caused by calcium is called calcium hardness. iron. hardness caused by magnesium is called magnesium hardness. is based on hardness from either the bicarbonate salts of calcium or the normal salts of calcium and magnesium involved in causing water hardness. divalent. Water hardness varies considerably in different geographic areas of the contiguous 48 states. and others. groundwater is normally harder than surface water.Occurrence of Hard Water Hard water is caused by soluble. which include calcium sulfate (CaSO4).

A coating of only 0. calcium chloride. which are calcium bicarbonate. Scale that forms on the inside of water pipes will eventually reduce the flow capacity or possibly block it entirely. When hard water is heated. Left to dry on the surface of glassware and plumbing fixtures. Because it can be removed by heating. Noncarbonate hardness is a measure of calcium and magnesium salts other than carbonate and bicarbonate salts. Effect on Soap The historical objection to hardness has been its effect on soap.04 in. Hardness ions form precipitates with soap. Calcium and magnesium combined with carbonate (CO3) also contribute to carbonate hardness. (1 mm) of scale on the heating surfaces of a hot water heater creates an insulation effect that will increase heating costs by about 10 percent. although it is a very rare condition. Bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium then settle out of the water to form calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates. Although modern detergents counteract many of the problems of hard water. In particular. Scale that forms within appliances and water meters causes wear on moving parts. and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). as well as reduced efficiency in washing and laundering. Ca(HCO3)2. faucets. when the magnesium hardness is more than about 40 mg/l (as CaCO3). scale forms much faster. many customers prefer softer water. which causes a variety of problems.” such as the familiar bathtub ring. it is sometimes called “Permanent hardness. carbonate hardness is sometimes called “Temporary hardness. and sink tops. These salts ate calcium sulfate. Calcium and magnesium combined with nitrate may also contribute to noncarbonate hardness. Causing unsightly “curd. usually calcium carbonate. carbon dioxide (CO2) is driven off. These precipitates form the familiar chalky deposits on teapots. For carbonate and noncarbonate hardness.” Because noncarbonated hardness cannot be removed or precipitated by prolonged boiling. magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). hard water leaves unsightly white scale known as water spots. synthetic detergents have been developed and are now used almost exclusively for washing clothes and dishes. magnesium hydroxide scale will deposit in hot water heaters that are operated at normal temperature of 140-150oF (60-66oC). including showers doors. These detergents have additives known as sequestering agents that “tie up” the hardness ions so that they cannot form the troublesome precipitates. Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness When hard water is boiled. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 165 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Carbonate hardness is caused primarily by the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. To counteract these problems.” Objections to Hard Water Scale Formation Hard water forms scale. and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2.

the water filters through minerals called zeolites. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit connected into the water supply line. It forms scale in pipes. Water softening units also remove iron.Water Softening Is a method of removing from water the minerals that make it hard. semi-automatic. After household softeners become exhausted. soda ash and lime are added to the water in amounts determined by chemical tests. In the ion exchange process. pending the results of studies on how people are affected by the consumption of the added sodium in softened water. prohibit or restrict the use of ion exchange equipment on drinking water. and high levels can clog pipes. and other equipment in which it is used. Hard water does not dissolve soap readily. boilers. Some cities and towns. Calcium and magnesium in water create hard water. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. Softeners are automatic. the sodium ions in the zeolite are exchanged for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. The most common way to soften household water is to use a water softener. a strong solution of sodium chloride (salt) is passed through the filter to replace the sodium that has been lost. The principal methods of softening water are the lime soda process and the ion exchange process. and the water is softened. You may want to consider installing a separate faucet for unsoftened water for drinking and cooking. however. Softeners may also be safely used to remove up to about 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved iron if the water softener is rated for that amount of iron removal. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 166 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These chemicals combine with the calcium and magnesium in the water to make insoluble compounds that settle to the bottom of the water tank. In the lime soda process. or manual. The use of two exchange materials makes it possible to remove both metal and acid ions from water. As the water passes through the filter.

A water softener contains resin beads which hold electrically charged ions. Regeneration is usually started by a preset time clock. As a rule. Typical Water Softener Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 167 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . there are companies that provide a water softening service. Semi automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration. For a monthly fee the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing. they need to be recharged. calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to the charged resin beads. brining and rinsing. you should check your water softener once a week to be sure the salt level is always at least one quarter full. It's the resulting removal of calcium and magnesium ions that produces "soft water. Sodium ions from the water softening salt reactivate the resin beads so they can continue to do their job. Without sufficient softening salt. it must be recharged. Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically. a green-sand filter is a better method. When hard water passes through the softener. The principle behind water softening is really just simple chemistry.Using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised. When the resin beads in your softener become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. In many areas. your water softener is less efficient. When the resin is filled to capacity. some units are started by water use meters or hardness detectors." The diagram shows the exchange that takes place during the water softening process.

Nollet’s First Osmosis Machine Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 168 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

more stringent regulations. but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that membranes were produced that could be used for what is known as reverse osmosis. Since that time. membrane technology enables some water systems having contaminated water sources to meet new. This was the discovery of osmosis. Description of Membrane Filtration Processes In the simplest membrane processes. large molecules or ions are held back or rejected. In particular. removal of dissolved inorganic and organic chemicals. water is forced through a porous membrane under pressure while suspended solids. the French physicist Nollet first noted that water would diffuse through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. and removal of the fine solids. There is great potential for the continuing wide use of membrane filtration processes in potable water treatment.Membrane Filtration Processes In 1748. such as brackish groundwater. it can also allow secondary sources. scientists have attempted to develop membrane that would be useful in industrial processes. continual improvements and new developments have been made in membrane technology. resulting in ever-increasing uses in many industries. water softening. a process in which water from a dilute solution will naturally pass through a porous membrane into a concentrate solution. Types of Membrane Filtration Processes The two general classes of membrane processes. especially as technology improves and costs are reduced. water is forced to move through a membrane from a concentrate solution to a dilute solution. to be used. Over the years. In potable water treatment. membranes have been used for desalinization. based on the driving force used to make the process work. In some cases. are: • Pressure-driven processes • Electric-driven processes Pressure-Driven Processes The four general membrane processes that operate by applying pressure to the raw water are: • Microfiltration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 169 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In reverse osmosis.

especially for small particles that could contain bacterial and protozoan life. These RO membranes have very low MWC pore size that can reject ions at very high rates.1 µm. Traditionally. this size is relatively large compared with the other membrane filtration processes. This weight is called the molecular weight cutoff (MWC) of the membrane. and radionuclides and microorganisms. which are called high-molecular-weight materials. the process has also been used as a pretreatment for other membrane processes. Water from this process is very pure due to the high reject rates. Nanofiltration Nanofiltration (NF) is a process using a membrane that will reject even smaller molecules that UF. it can be used effectively for removal of most organic chemicals. The RO also works with most organic chemicals. or the problem substances can be removed more economically using other processes. in recent years. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 170 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This was done to improve filtering efficiency.Microfiltration Microfiltration (MF) is a process in which water is forced under pressure through a porous membrane. This process has not been generally applicable to drinking water treatment because it either does not remove substances that require removal from potable water. However. including chloride and sodium. The process has been use primarily in the water industry for desalinization of seawater because the capital and operating costs are competitive with other processes for this service. In particular. RO membranes are susceptible to clogging or binding unless the water being processed is already quite clean. NF operates with less pressure that reverse osmosis and is still able to remove a significant proportion of inorganic and organic molecules. Membranes with a pore size of 0. Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane process that has the highest rejection capability of all the membrane processes. microfiltration has been proposed as a filtering method for particles resulting from the direct filtration process. This capability will undoubtedly increase the use of NF for potable water treatment. The current primary use of MF is by industries to remove very fine particles from process water. The formed particles were then removed by rapid sand filters. this direct filtration process has used the injection of coagulants such as alum or polymers into the raw water stream to remove turbidity such as clay or silts. Although UF does not generally work well for removal of salt or dissolved solids. Industrial water uses such as semiconductor manufacturing is also utilizes the RO process. The smaller pore size is designed to remove colloids and substances that have larger molecules. such as in electronic manufacturing. UF membranes can be designed to pass material that weighs less than or equal to a certain molecular weight. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is a process that uses a membrane with a pore size generally below 0. The process has been used primarily for water softening and reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS). In addition.45 µm are normally used. RO is discussed in more detail later.

These processes are • Electrodialysis • Electrodialysis reversal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 171 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Membrane Configurations Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Plate and Frame Tubular Electric-Driven Processes There are two membrane processes that purify a water stream by using an electric current to move ions across a membrane.

except that the polarity of the direct current is periodically reversed. The reversal in polarity reverses the flow of ions between demineralizing compartments. EDR can often be used with little or no pretreatment of feedwater to prevent fouling. The current carries the ions through a membrane from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated one. So far.Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is a process in which ions are transferred through a membrane as a result of direct electric current applied to the solution. Electrodialysis Reversal Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a process similar to ED. As a result. Carbon Vessels used to remove tastes and odors from water. ED and EDR have been used at only a few locations for drinking water treatment. which provides automatic flushing of scale-forming materials from the membrane surface. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 172 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

2500 kg/m.passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a relatively dilute solution toward a more concentrated solution. incoming water is pressurized with a pump to 200 .400 psi (1380 . called osmotic pressure.2760 kPa) depending on the RO system model. This flow produces a measurable pressure. RO Skid After filtration to remove suspended particles. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 173 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . either as a sheet or fine hollow fibers. removes up to 98% of dissolved minerals. or RO. in this case . If pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution. A portion of the water (permeate) diffuses through the membrane leaving dissolved salts and other contaminants behind with the remaining water where they are sent to drain as waste (concentrate). This process. This exceeds the water's osmotic pressure.in the case of sea water. The membrane must be physically strong enough to stand up to high osmotic pressure . called reverse osmosis. and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter. The membrane is constructed into a cartridge called a reverse osmosis module.water. water flows through the membrane from the more concentrated solution toward the dilute solution. and if that pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure.Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a liquid . Most membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film. RO produces high quality water at low cost compared to other purifications processes.

The semi-permeable membrane is so designated because it permits certain elements to pass through. In living things. The elements that pass through include water. and a container or transport mechanism of some type. Because reverse osmosis is the principal membrane filtration process used in water treatment. and as permeate quality requirements become more demanding. separated by a semi-permeable membrane. This pressure differential is determined by the total dissolved solids content of the saline solution or contaminated solution on one side of the membrane. The component parts include a pure or relatively pure water solution and a saline or contaminated water solution. In osmosis. To understand Reverse Osmosis. the need for pretreatment increases as systems become larger and operate at higher pressures. in that the molecular weight of the element affects the osmotic pressure. The dissolved solids are usually further restricted based on their respective electrical charge. It also affects the module's life because many water-borne contaminants can deposit on the membrane and foul it. at which point osmosis ceases. naturally occurring in living things. The higher the content of dissolved solids. the higher the osmotic pressure. it is described here in greater detail. while blocking others. Each element that may be dissolved in the solution contributes to the osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring. usually smaller molecules of dissolved solids. one must begin by understanding the process of osmosis. Generally. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 174 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and most gases.Pretreatment is important because it influences permeate quality and quantity. osmosis is frequently seen. which occurs in nature. the pure solution passes through the membrane until the osmotic pressure becomes equalized.

Meanwhile. Thus when water penetrates or permeates though the membrane. Seawater at 36. thus keeping the membrane surface clean and functional. called the product or permeate tube. and wound around this tube are one or more "envelopes" of membrane material. and to permit the flow of raw water to pass along the length of the membrane. The microporous support layer is cast on sheets of paper-like material that are made from synthetic fibers such as polyester. In order to transform this process into one that purifies water. higher molecular weights result in higher osmotic pressures. The membrane material itself is a special thin film composite (TFC) polyamide material. This design enabled the engineers to construct a membrane element that could contain a generous amount of membrane area in a small package. and becomes the product or result of the purification process. This concentrated raw water is called the reject stream or concentrate stream. The permeate or product water is collected from the end of each membrane element. Each sheet of membrane material is inspected at special light tables to ensure the quality of the membrane coating. thicker cast layer of Polysulfone. This is important. The concentrate.000 PPM typically has an osmotic pressure of about 376 PSI (26. when sufficient flows are maintained. impedes or even prevents the purification process. U. Additionally. colloidal. it gets more and more concentrated. opening at the permeate tube. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 175 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This permits flows and pressures to be developed to the point that ample processed or purified water is produced. Common tap water as found in most areas may have an osmotic pressure of about 10 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch). Thus. including brackish water and seawater.75 Bar). The design features a perforated tube in the center of the element. approximate osmotic pressures are usually sufficient to design a system. and fueled by U. cast in a microscopically thin layer on another.68 Bar. One of the membrane designs was the spiral wound membrane element. around the spiral and collects in the permeate tube. and suitable synthetic membrane materials would have to be developed. as the raw water flows along the "brine channel" or coarse medium provided to facilitate good flow characteristics. as buildup on the membrane surface. a pressure of 10 PSI would have to be applied to the saline solution. bacteriological or mineralogical fouling. usable membrane materials and designs resulted. Hence the formula for calculating osmotic pressure is very complex.S. Government funding. ways of configuring the membranes would have to be engineered to handle a continuous flow of raw and processed water without clogging or scaling the membrane material. called fouling. called the microporous support layer. osmosis would have to be reversed. Each envelope is sealed at the incoming and exiting edge. serves to carry away the impurities removed by the membrane. Several decades ago. It may also be called brine if it is coming from a salt water source. These ideas were crystallized. aided by a fine mesh called the permeate channel. before being assembled into the spiral wound element design. However.S. it travels. a pressure of 376 PSI would have to be applied to the seawater side of the membrane. or about 1.Generally. Government scientists had the idea that the principles of osmosis could be harnessed to purify water from various sources. to reach the point at which osmosis stops for tap water. and to stop osmosis in seawater. while keeping the membrane surface relatively free from particulate. and manufactured to the required tolerances.

Of course. There are many considerations when designing R/O systems that competent engineers are aware of. These include optimum flows and pressures. or prevented from passing through the membrane. starting with seawater of 36. In general. The rejection rate is the percentage of dissolved solids rejected. the osmotic pressure must be exceeded. flux (permeate flow) increases. and membrane fouling. as the raw water is processed. Reverse Osmosis (R/O) systems are designed for raw water temperatures of 25° C (77° F). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 176 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the inverse occurs. membrane age. and so forth. The affect of temperature is that with higher temperatures. raw water TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). Or if operating pressures do not increase. while operating pressures increase. Typically. Higher temperatures or lower temperatures can be accommodated with appropriate adjustments in the system design. and to produce a reasonable amount of purified water.To achieve Reverse Osmosis. and operating pressure required is lower. the concentrations of TDS increase as it passes along the membrane’s length. Thus with seawater osmotic pressure of 376 PSI. while high rejection membranes under the same conditions produce drinking water TDS of below 300 PPM.000 PPM. prefiltration and other pretreatment considerations. optimum recovery rates (the percentage of permeate from a given stream of raw water). With lower temperatures. Hence product water from a source containing 10. standard rejection membranes produce permeate below 500 PPM. a membrane with a rejection rate of 99% (usually based on Na (Sodium)) will allow only 1% of the concentration of dissolved solids to pass through into the permeate. Membranes are available in "standard rejection" or "high rejection" models for seawater and brackish water. in that salt passage decreases (reducing the TDS in the permeate or product water). Factors that affect the pressure required include raw water temperature. the osmotic pressure is generally doubled. a typical system operating pressure is about 800 PSI. and usually multiple membranes are employed. the salt passage increases. For example. then the amount of permeate or product water is reduced.000 PPM would have 100 PPM remaining. with each membrane in series seeing progressively higher dissolved solids levels.

various gauges and flow meters. a membrane array including one or more membranes installed in one or more pressure tubes (also called pressure vessels. Ultra-Violet (U-V). tailored to the application. pH adjustment. relief valve(s) and/or safety pressure switches. R/O pressure vessels. R/O systems typically have the following components: A supply pump or pressurized raw water supply. a pressure regulating valve. Usually the last stage would be 5m or smaller. including multi-media filtration and one or more stages of cartridge filtration. to provide sufficient protection for the membranes. Post treatment should usually include a form of sterilization such as Chlorine. or Ozone. Packaged skid with instrumentation. and softening unit. well designed systems employ multiple stages of prefiltration. sized and driven appropriately for the flow and pressure required. and possibly some form of post treatment. or similar). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 177 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . chemical injection of one or more pretreatment agents may be added. Often. a pressure pump suited to the application. Other types of post treatment may include carbon filters. or mineral injection for some applications. Bromine. UV. prefiltration in one or more stages.Membrane systems in general cannot handle the typical load of particulate contaminants without prefiltration.

sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane. the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. while rejecting the contaminants that remain. multiple pressure gauges to indicate the pressure before and after each filtration device and the system operation pressure in the membrane loop. the more likely it will be rejected. Such a system may be built right into the R/O system or may be provided as an attachment for use as required. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place. However. allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable. sugars. are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. resulting in stable. long lived membrane elements. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years. Advancements have been made in membrane technology. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria. The higher the pressure. preferably both before and after the membrane array. a reject. Component parts have been improved as well. reducing maintenance and down time. salts. commonly known as a "Clean In Place" (CIP) system. also known as hyperfiltration. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge. The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane. and hence its use has become more and more widespread. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color. taste or properties of the fluid. R/O Systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane. such as organics. Reverse Osmosis delivers product water or permeate having essentially the same temperature as the raw water source (an increase of 1° C or 1. while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. For these and other reasons. R/O is usually the preferred method of desalination today. particles. systems installed in critical applications should be equipped with a permeate or product flow meter. the larger the driving force. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. and the most common force is pressure from a pump. The larger the charge and the larger the particle. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as cross-flow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 178 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Clean-In-Place Some very low cost R/O systems may dispense with most of the controls and instruments. concentrate or brine flow meter. proteins. Reverse Osmosis has proved to be the most reliable and cost effective method of desalinating water. dyes. Another feature found in better systems is a provision to clean the membranes in place. further extending membrane life and improving performance. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream.8° F may occur due to pumping and friction in the piping). is the finest filtration known. This is more desirable than the hot water produced by evaporation technologies. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases. and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. such as salts. Reverse osmosis. Energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies.

dissolved solids. herbicides. fluoride. calcium. insecticides. sodium. parasites. chlorine and THM's. odor. A Reverse Osmosis System removes virtually all: bad taste. bacteria. heavy metals. Common packaged filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 179 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . phosphates. cadmium.Reverse Osmosis. organic compounds. turbidity. lead. nitrates. cysts. magnesium. aluminum. It is the best tasting because it is oxygen-rich. detergents. pesticides. inorganic minerals. virus. arsenic. produces pure water that is clearly the body's choice for optimal health. radioactivity and asbestos. sulfates. carbon and/or carbon block technology. when properly configured with sediment.

Oxygen tank is necessary to generate O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 180 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ozone is obtained by passing a flow or air of oxygen between two electrodes that are subjected to an alternating current in the order of 10.000 volts. in the order of 0. temperature. Further. O3 → O2 + O It is the nascent oxygen that produces the high oxidation and disinfections. Each water has its own ozone demand. Ozone acts as a complete disinfectant. and pH of the water are factors to be determined.Ozone Ozone (O3) is probably the strongest oxidizing agent available for water treatment. 3O2 + electrical discharge → 2O3 Liquid ozone is very unstable and can readily explode. or of THM and other inorganics. In use. and even sterilization.000 to 20. iron. and while it may destroy some THMs. It has a self-policing pungent odor similar to that sometimes noticed during and after heavy electrical storms. because of the possibility of formation of other carcinogens (such as aldehydes or phthalates) it falls into the same category as other disinfectants in that it can produce DBPs. it is not shipped and must be manufactured on-site. As a result. and manganese. Contact time. Ozone is a light blue gas at room temperature. ozone breaks down into oxygen and nascent oxygen. is has no found much application in the United States. it may produce other when followed by chlorination.0 ppm. Ozone is not practical for complete removal of chlorine or chloramines. odor. It does not form chloramines or THMs.5 ppm to 5. Although it is widely used throughout the world. taste. and will remove practically all color. It is an excellent aid to the flocculation and coagulation process.

The UV lamp that can be used for the disinfection of water depends upon the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp to produce the ultraviolet energy. The lamp is placed inside a quartz tube. In this way the microorganisms spend maximum time and contact with the outside of the quartz tube and the source of the UV rays. Ordinary glass cannot be used since it will absorb the UV rays. too much will cause sunburn. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 181 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and the water is in contact with the outside of the quartz tube. allowing all of the rays to reach the water. A mercury vapor lamp is one in which an electric arc is passed through an inert gas. Further. the units are designed so that the contact or retention time of the water in the unit is not less than 15 seconds. depending upon the quantity of water to be treated. As water enters the sterilizer. Quartz is used in this case since practically none of the UV rays are absorbed by the quartz. The water flow around the quartz tube. A sun lamp.Ultraviolet Radiation The enormous temperatures on the sun create ultraviolet (UV) rays in great amounts.0 gpm for each inch of the lamp. it is given a tangential flow pattern so that the water spins over and around the quartz sleeves. for example. This radiation can be artificially produced by sending strong electric currents thorough various substances. leaving little for disinfection. Of course. This in turn will vaporize the mercury contained in the lamp. The lamp itself does not come intro contact water. The basic design flow of water of certain UV units is in the order of 2. and this radiation is so powerful that all life on earth would be destroyed if these ray were not scattered by the atmosphere and filtered out by the layers of ozone gas that float some 20 miles above the earth. sends out UV rays that when properly controlled result in a suntan. and it is a result of this vaporization that UV rays are produced. The UV sterilizer will consist of a various number of lamps and tubes.

Most manufacturers claim that the UV lamps have a life of about 7. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 182 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The UV manufacturer will of course stipulate which pretreatment may be necessary. These are conditions that must be met. and odor. and it is safe to use. Alone. The germicidal effect of UV is thought to be associated with its absorption by various organic components essential to the cell’s functioning. manganese. taste. iron. and with it own alarm that will be activated when the penetration drops to a present level. Ultraviolet radiation is an excellent disinfectant that is highly effective against viruses. Each lamp is outfitted with its own photoelectric cell. and sulfates affect absorption of the ultraviolet ray. It is used to remove traces of ozone and chloramines from the finished water. and it does not form THMs. and yeasts. the water to be disinfected must be clean. although a water may appear to be clear. and free of any suspended solids. but in combination with ozone. The lamp must be replaced when it loses about 40% to 50% of its UV output. Also.500 hours. in any installation this is determined by means of a photoelectric cell and a meter that shows the output of the lamp. such substances as excesses of chlorides. These parameters will probably require at least filtration of one type or another. it is said to be effective in the removal of THM precursors and THMs. molds. which is about 1 year’s time. bicarbonates. UV radiation will not remove precursors. It adds no chemicals to the water. For effective use of ultraviolet. The water must also be colorless and must be free of any colloids. it leaves no residual.

GAC or combinations of others processes. GAC-UV GAC GAC UV? Use of Fe2+ in coagulation. controlled coagulation. RO. reverse osmosis. aeration. ionexchange GAC GAC Chloramine (NHxCly) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) Permanganate (KMnO4) Ozone (O3) Ultraviolet (UV) The table indicates that most of the disinfectants will leave a by-product that is or would possibly be inimical to health. resins. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 183 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Removal of Disinfection By-products Disinfectant Chlorine (HOCl) Disinfectant Byproduct Trialomethane (THM) Chloramine Chlorophenol Probably no THM Others? Chlorites Chlorates No THMs Aldehydes. Carboxylics. research to date indicates that this removal can be attained through the application of controlled chlorination plus coagulation and filtration. aeration. This may aid with a decision as to whether or not precursors should be removed before these disinfectants are added to water. If it is decided that removal of precursors is needed. nanofiltration. Phthalates None known Disinfectant By-product Removal Granular Activated Carbon (GAC).

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 184 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

other than chlorination (halogens) . 10 ppm: Is the IDLH for Cl2 gas according to the NIOSH manual.2 mg/L: Should be the target value for the free chlorine residual in the distribution system. Electron is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Ammonia: A chemical made with Nitrogen and Hydrogen and used with chlorine to disinfect water. Backflow 12 inches: Is the required distance above ground that a double check backflow or RP assembly needs to be installed. ultraviolet radiation. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. gases. There is limited experience and scientific knowledge about the by-products and risks associated with the use of alternatives. Is a permeable layer of the subsurface that allows the movement of groundwater. This is normally an undesirable effect. Minimum 1 inch or twice the diameter whatever is greater. 0. for an example. Backflow: A double check valve backflow assembly provides effective protection from both backpressure and backsiphonage of pollution only. Acid Rain: Acid rain a result of airborne pollutants. Needs to be tested on an annual basis. Air Gap: A physical separation space that is present between the discharge vessel and the receiving vessel. To reverse the natural and normal directional flow of a liquid. Acid: Slowly add the acid to water while stirring. e. Continuous positive pressure in a distribution system is essential for preventing a backflow event. Acid and a Base is Mixed: When an acid and a base are mixed an explosive reaction occurs and decomposition products are created under certain conditions. ozone. Activated Charcoal: Is a treatment technique that is not included in the grading of a water facility. Backsiphonage Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 185 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The difference between a reduced pressure principle backflow device and a double check backflow device is that RP has a relief valve. As: Is the chemical symbol of Arsenic. Air Gap or Vacuum Breaker: A potable water line should be equipped with an air gap or vacuum breaker when connected to a chemical feeder for fluoride. Atom: The general definition of an ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge. An operator must ensure when installing a pressure vacuum breaker backflow device that it must be at least 12 inches about the highest downstream outlet. This is different than 12 inches above the ground. Air Hood: Is the most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes. Absence of Oxygen: The complete absence of oxygen in water described as Anaerobic. needs to be installed 12 inches above the ground.used to treat water. Most of these problems are associated with Reduction in the stratified waters. gases. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. An operator should not mix acid and water or acid to a strong base.1 year is the maximum time period between having a backflow device tested by a certified backflow tester.Water Treatment Glossary Excellent operator certification study tool. It is a cationic polymer. Accuracy: Is how closely an instrument measures the true or actual value. gases. See Cross-connection control. and chloramine. chlorine dioxide. Anaerobic conditions: When anaerobic conditions exist in either the metalimnion or hypolimnion of a stratified lake or reservoir. or substances to flow back into the distribution system. Backflow or Cross-connection Failure: Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. water quality problems may make the water unappealing for domestic use without costly water treatment procedures. Most ammonia in water is present as the ammonium ion rather than as ammonia. Aluminum Sulfate: Is the chemical name for Alum. Alternative Disinfectants: Disinfectants .g. Aquifer: An underground geologic formation capable of storing significant amounts of water. Backflow: The definition of ‘backflow ’is a reverse flow condition that causes water or mixtures of water and other liquids. Anaerobic: An abnormal condition in which color and odor problems are most likely to occur. The molecular formula of Alum is Al2(SO4)3~14H2O. the unnatural act of reversing the normal direction of the flow of liquid. Backflow Prevention: To stop or prevent the occurrence of. a kitchen faucet.

it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller. and a residual is difficult to obtain. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Shigella. CaOCl2. Bacteria are found everywhere. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause disease in normal.condition usually causes reduced pressure or negative pressure on the service or supply side. Ceiling Area: The specific gravity of ammonia gas is 0. Calcium. Equipment that utilizes water for cooling. Examples include. Caustic Soda: Also known as sodium hydroxide and is used to raise pH. This chemical causes skin burns on contact. e. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide: Chemicals that are responsible for the alkalinity of water. Bromine: Has a limited use for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Ca: Is the chemical symbol for calcium. Cl2 gas will settle on the floor. lubrication. Humans would be unable to live without the bacteria that inhabit the intestines and assist in digesting food. Buffer: Chemical that resists pH change. usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels. including on and in the human body. Backsiphonage: A liquid substance that is carried over a higher point. Battery: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. Bacillus. It is the method by which the liquid substance may be forced by excess pressure over or into a higher point. Calcium Hardness: A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. this gas will accumulate first at the ceiling are. Breakpoint Chlorination: The process of chlorinating the water with significant quantities of chlorine to oxidize all contaminants and organic wastes and leave all remaining chlorine as free chlorine. Salmonella. sodium bicarbonate. However minimum positive pressure must be maintained in mains to protect against backflow or backsiphonage from cross-connections.g. Capillary Fringe: The material immediately above the water table may contain water by capillary pressure in the small void spaces. and Iron: Are the three elements that cause hardness in water. Backwash: A surface wash system should be activated prior to the start of the backwash. Vibri Cholera and Cholera. Cathodic Protection: An operator should protect against corrosion of the anode and/or the cathode by painting the copper cathode. Cadmium: A contaminant that is usually not found naturally in water or in very small amounts. Back-up Disinfection units: If a chlorination system goes out of operation you are required to have back-up. washing or as a solvent always susceptible to a crossconnection. Carbon Dioxide Gas: The pH will decrease and alkalinity will change as measured by the Langelier index after pumping carbon dioxide gas into water. Carbonate. Centrifugal Force: That force when a ball is whirled on a string pulls the ball outward. one-celled animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. Magnesium. On a centrifugal pump. Backwashing: Backwash the filters more frequently can be used to increase water production if an increase in raw water turbidity and coagulation feed rate creates additional loading on the filter. Bromine: This chemical disinfectant has been used only on a very limited scale for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. This is one of the chemical disinfectants (HALOGEN) that kills bacteria and algae. Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because the bacteria may cause red water and slime. Benching: A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps. healthy humans.4H2O: Is the molecular formula of Calcium hypochlorite. Calcium Ion: Is divalent because it has a valence of +2. Bypass Valve: Is the name of a type of valve that reduces the differential pressure across a closed disk making the main valve easier to open and close. Bacteria: Are small. Minimum water pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate customer service during peak flow periods. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 186 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If released. Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection interrupts corrosion by supplying an electrical current to overcome the corrosion-producing mechanism. Cathodic Protection: Guards against stray current corrosion.60.

Chlorination: The process in water treatment of adding chlorine (gas or solid hypochlorite) for purposes of disinfection. or chronic lung conditions. the chemical reaction rate also decreases. Chloramines are not effective as disinfectants and are responsible for eye and skin irritation as well as strong chlorine odors (also known as Combined Chlorine).1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. Cl2 Cylinder is Increased: If the temperature of a full Cl2 cylinder is increased by 50o F or 30o C. Chlorine gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to chlorine. Chlorine is very effective against algae. CL2 10 mg/L: Small water storage tanks are commonly disinfected with a solution containing a Cl2 concentration of 50 mg/L. constriction of the chest. throat cancer will occur. Also known as chlorine residual. Chlorine: Is a chemical used to disinfect water.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. Chlorine is extremely reactive. As little as 2. Cl2 Expands in Volume: Happens to Cl2 when the temperature of a Cl2 cylinder increases. metered. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. The chlorine gas is controlled. Chlorine is added to swimming pools to keep the water safe for swimming. or massive pulmonary edema. Also. CL2 Free Concentration: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. and when it comes in contact with microorganisms in water killing them. but less than 0. Some public water system’s drinking water treatment plants use chlorine in a gas form because of the large volumes required. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Check Valve: It allows water to flow in only one direction. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant.2 mg/L: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. and edema of the lungs. The opposite is true for when the temperature increases. bronchitis. Chemical Oxidizer: KMnO4 is used for taste and odor control because it is a strong oxidizer which eliminates many organic compounds. CL2 Chronic Exposure Corrosion of the Teeth: May occur due to chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas.Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing. Protozoa are removed from drinking water by filtration. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of chlorine gas in air. After 24 hours the minimum Cl2 concentration should be 10 mg/L. bacteria and viruses. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 187 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chelation: A chemical process used to control scale formation in which a chelating agent "captures" scale-causing ions and holds them in solution. Chlorine. reflex spasm in the larynx. Populations at special risk from chlorine exposure are individuals with pulmonary disease. introduced into a stream of injector water and then conducted as a solution to the point of application. This creates a persistent disinfectant residual called chloramines. The amount of chlorine available for sanitization after the chlorine demand has been met.2 mg/l CL2 Gas Exposure: Chlorine gas causes suffocation. CL2 0. Cl2 Demand: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. After long exposure. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. what should be the minimum concentration of free chlorine residual in the distribution system? 0. CL2 A Fusible Plug: Is considered a safety device on a Cl2 cylinder. Protozoa are resistant to chlorine because they have thick coats. Chlorine is available as solid tablets for swimming pools. breathing problems. Free: Chlorine available to kill bacteria or algae. when the temperature decreases.5 mg per liter (approximately 0. a rupture may occur.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. Chlorine Demand: Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. Chemical Reaction Rate: In general. tightness in the throat. Death is possible from asphyxia. the minimum concentration of free Cl2 residual in the distribution system. having an inlet and a discharge connection. Chloramination: Treating drinking water by applying chlorine before or after ammonia. shock. Chlorine Feeding: Chlorine may be delivered by vacuum-controlled solution feed chlorinators. Chloramines: A group of chlorine and ammonia compounds formed when chlorine combines with organic wastes in the water.

CL2: A burning sensation in the eyes and throat: Is the most likely type of symptom one could expect upon exposure to a very small percentage of Cl2 in the air. the concentration of a free Cl2 residual should be 0. CL2: Store an empty Cl2 cylinder upright. Cl2 Gas will Accumulate: If a Cl2 leak occurs. CL2: If an operator places water on a leaking Cl2 cylinder. CL2: Cl2 as with H2S gas produces olfactory fatigue. Normal breathing will cause coughing. Chlorine gas causes suffocation. CL2: The effectiveness of disinfection determined from the results of coliform testing. CL2: After Cl2 gas is manufactured.5 mg/L in a clear well or distribution reservoir. CL2: Chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas may cause corrosion of the teeth. CL2 Gaskets: Replace according to manufacturers recommendations should be done with the gaskets when making a new connection on a chlorine feed system. As little as 2. CL2: Breakpoint chlorination means adding Cl2 to the water until the Cl2 demand is satisfied. CL2: As soon as CL2 gas enters the throat area. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 188 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .CL2 Gas IDLH: As soon as Cl2 gas enters the throat area. The victim must attempt to get out of the area of the leak. it primarily transported and packaged as a liquefied gas under pressure in steel containers. the Cl2 gas will accumulate on the floor. CL2: Free available Cl2 is very effective in killing bacteria.01 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. CL2: A device that has a transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball and is often used to measure the rate of a gas or liquid is called a Rotameter. and tap the valve gently with your hand. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this areaNature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. CL2: Of an operator cannot open the valve on a Cl2 cylinder because it is too tight. At this point. and Tantalum. constriction of the chest. but less than 0. tagged as empty. tightness in the throat.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal. CL2: 200 mg/l is a generally acceptable concentration of Cl2 solution that should be prepared to wash the inside of a storage facility. proceeding upwind. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: Before entering a Cl2 room to check on a leak don a self-contained breathing apparatus and check to see that the ventilation system is working.5 mg per liter in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. CL2: Cl2 gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to Cl2. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. CL2: Cl2 gas is highly corrosive in moist conditions. proceeding upwind. CL2: 17 is the atomic number of Cl2. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. corrosion will occur and the leak will get larger. CL2 Gas Safety: Gas leak is the primary safety concern when using chlorine gas as opposed to calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. Platinum. Normal breathing will cause coughing. first loosen the packing gland around the valve. CL2: Determine the ambient temperature in a Cl2 room by using a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. CL2: The Cl2 storage ventilation equipment be checked on a daily basis. CL2: Even brief exposure to 1. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. CL2: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. and edema of the lungs. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of Cl2 gas in air. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this area—nature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. the victim must attempt to do two things: get out of the area of the leak. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and concentration of the disinfectant residual. CL2: Cl2 combines with water to form both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. Be sure that no one enters the leak area without an adequate self-contained breathing apparatus. The only metals that are TOTALLY inert to moist Cl2 gas are Gold. CL2: Cl2 gas should only be used under a fume hood. CL2: Downstream from the point of post chlorination.

or dangerous to employees. Contamination: To make something bad. A clear well or a plant storage reservoir is usually filled when demand is low. Colloidal Suspensions: Because both iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen to form insoluble compounds they are not found in high concentrations in waters containing dissolved oxygen except as colloidal suspensions of the oxide. is that the ejector draws in additional water for dilution of the hypochlorinate solution. CL2: Where other factors are constant. which are unsanitary. Each compliance cycle consists of 3 compliance periods. A noncombustible gas. the organic material decomposes releasing heat very rapidly. Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences. Condensation: Is the process called that changes water vapor to tiny droplets or ice crystals. and a strong oxidizer. Compliance Cycle: A 9-calendar year time-frame during which a public water system is required to monitor. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill = C x T. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. pH and Low Turbidity: Are factors which are important in providing good disinfection using chlorine. amber colored liquid. Colorimetric Measurement: A means of measuring and unknown chemical concentration in water by measuring a sample's color intensity.5 times heavier than air. Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions. CL2: The purpose of the ejector on a hypochlorinator. which is at a level that may have an adverse effect on public health. CL2: The water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). CL2: The physical and chemical properties of Cl2 are: A yellowish green. Compliance Period: A 3-calendar year time-frame within a compliance cycle. the scale or meter should be read at the same time each day. CL2: When Cl2 is inhaled in high concentrations it causes emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels. Contact Time. Coliform bacteria are present in high numbers in animal feces. Composite Sample: Is a water sample that is a combination of a group of samples collected at various intervals during the day. A positive sample is a bad thing and indicates that you have bacteria contamination. CL2: When hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. ClO2: Is the molecular formula of Chlorine dioxide. Coagulation: The best pH range for coagulation is between a pH of 5 and 7. Coliform Bacteria: Are bacteria that are normally found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. biological. CL2: The purpose of an evaporator is to convert liquid Cl2 to gaseous Cl2 for use by gas chlorinators. or radiological substance or matter in water. Contact Time: If the water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). also known as chloramines. To reduce the quality of the Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 189 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To pollute or infect something. CL2: The fusible plug on a 150-pound Cl2 cylinder is designed to soften and melt at high temperatures.5 times heavier than water and gaseous Cl2 is about 2. chemical. The operator needs to increase the detention time to maintain good disinfection of the water. and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. Allow a longer contact time to maintain good disinfection of the water. Cl2 is about 1.CL2: The first step when removing a hypochlorinator from service is to turn off the water supply pump. Clear Well: Is a large underground storage facility sometimes made of concrete. hazardous. They are an indicator of potential contamination of water. Can be readily compressed into a clear. and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. Adequate and appropriate disinfection effectively destroys coliform bacteria. Combined Chlorine: The reaction product of chlorine with ammonia or other pollutants. CL2: When determining a Cl2 use rate. Contains the Element Carbon: Is a simple definition of an organic compound. Mixing is an important part of the coagulation process you want to complete the coagulation process as quickly as possible. Coliform Testing: The effectiveness of disinfection is usually determined by Coliform bacteria testing. CL2: The purpose of the bottom valve on a 1-ton Cl2 cylinder is to remove liquid Cl2. Contaminant: Any natural or man-made physical.

For example. Disinfect: To kill and inhibit growth of harmful bacterial and viruses in drinking water. viruses. This container should contain a desiccant. Detection Lag: Is the period of time between the moment of change in a chlorinator control system and the moment when the change is sensed by the chlorine residual indicator. protozoa. Corrosion: Is the gradual decomposition or destruction of a material as it chemically reacts with water and is often referred to as corrosion. Reverse Osmosis and Freezing: Processes can be used to remove minerals from the water. Corrosion is caused by improperly balanced water or excessive water velocity through piping or heat exchangers. Coupon: A coupon placed to measure corrosion damage in the water mains.g. the mixing of good water with a polluting substance like a chemical substance. Control Taste and Odor Problems: KMnO4 Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer is commonly used to control taste and odor problems. resistant to chlorine disinfection. CWS: Community Water System. Distillation. Distribution 8 inches: The minimum pipe diameter for a dead end line exceeding 2. Decibels: Is the unit of measurement for sound. Demineralization Process: Mineral concentration of the feed water is the most important consideration in the selection of a demineralization process. Direct Current: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. Cross-contamination: The mixing of two unlike qualities of water. Dental Caries Prevention in Children: Is the main reason that fluoride is added to a water supply. Diatomaceous Earth: Is a fine silica material containing the skeletal remains of algae. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system.000 feet in length should be 8 inches. soil) present in raw water during the water treatment process. Disinfectant Residual: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and disinfectant residual. Desiccant: When shutting down equipment which may be damaged by moisture. Corrosivity: The Langelier Index measures corrosivity. Depolarization: Is the removal of hydrogen from a cathode. The effectiveness of disinfection determined by the results of coliform testing. and/or remove pathogenic bacteria.potable (drinking) water and create an actual hazard to the water supply by poisoning or through spread of diseases. Cryptosporidium: A disease-causing parasite. The EPA has determined that these DBPs can cause cancer. Types of source water are required by law to treat water using filtration and disinfection are groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. leaves. Dangerous Chemicals: The most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes is to work under an air hood. It may be found in fecal matter or contaminated drinking water. Disinfection: The treatment of water to inactivate. Decomposition of Organic Material: The decomposition of organic material in water produces taste and odors. Disinfection by-products (DBPs): The products created due to the reaction of chlorine with organic materials (e. Copper: Is the chemical name for the symbol Cu. Dissolved Oxygen: Can be added to zones within a lake or reservoir that would normally become anaerobic during periods of thermal stratification. Surface water sources. Cross-connection: A physical connection between a public water system and any source of water or other substance that may lead to contamination of the water provided by the public water system through backflow.The removal of metal from copper. Acid feed is the most common method of scale control in a membrane demineralization treatment system. the unit may be protected by sealing it in a tight container. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 190 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Detention Time: The minimum detention time range recommended for flocculation is 5 – 20 minutes for direct filtration and up to 30 minutes for conventional filtration. and other parasites. Decompose: To decay or rot. destroy. other metal surfaces and concrete surfaces in a destructive manner.

adsorption. Emergency Response Team: Get out of the area and notify your local emergency response team is the first should be done first in case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. For water quality analyses purposes. municipal water. Finished Water: Treated drinking water that meets minimum state and federal drinking water regulations. Demineralization is primarily used to remove total dissolved solids from industrial wastewater. Floc Shearing: Is likely to happen to large floc particles when they reach the flocculation process. Faucet with an Aerator: When collecting a water sample from a distribution system. odor. These are considered evidence of water contamination. Fecal Coliform: A group of bacteria that may indicate the presence of human or animal fecal matter in water.Double Suction Pump: One advantage of a double suction pump is a reduction in the thrust load that the bearings must carry. A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. Electron: Is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Coli. Filtration: A series of processes that physically removes particles from water. Effectiveness of the Chlorine Decreases: Will occur during disinfection in source water with excessive turbidity. Electrical: If grease comes in contact with the winding of a motor the winding insulation may deteriorate. sedimentation. If the motor does not start. F: Is the chemical symbol of Fluorine. Turbidity and Temperature. Flood Rim: The point of an object where the water would run over the edge of something and begin to cause a flood. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 191 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and biological action treatment methods are filtration processes that involves a number of interrelated removal mechanisms. Sedimentation. Direct filtration method is similar to conventional except that the sedimentation step is omitted. To become a new public water system. Slow sand filtration process does not require pretreatment. Elementary Business Plan: Technical Capacity. Electrical: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. has a flow of 0. Enhanced Coagulation: The process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. a virus that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This type of filtration medium is only used for water with low turbidity. Escherichia coli : Is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine. Indicator organisms may be accompanied by pathogens. a faucet with an aerator should not be used as a sample location. then tries to start the motor again. An operator waits for the overload to cool. Electricity: Rubber may be used to prevent the flow of electricity through a wire. Eccentric Valve: The plug on an eccentric valve contacts the valve seat when the valve is closed. Enterovirus: A virus whose presence may indicate contaminated water. dissolved organics. Managerial Capacity. an owner shall file an elementary business plan for review and approval by the Department. Dry Acid: A granular chemical used to lower pH and or total alkalinity. E. flocculation. and is simple to operate and maintain. Flocculation Basin: Is a compartmentalized basin with a reduction of speed in each compartment. and seawater. Electrical: An operator using a voltage meter to test electrical equipment should first. Electrical Resistance: Resistance of electrical equipment is affected by many variables including the thickness of the insulation and its total mass area. make sure the main switch is off and the voltage tester is rated to handle the voltage expected in the circuit. the operator should first check the fuse. and Financial Capacity make up the elementary business plan. Electrical Problem: Moisture will cause the deterioration of oil in a transformer. Effectiveness of Chlorination: The factors which influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most are pH. Filter Clogging: An inability to meet demand may occur when filters are clogging.1 gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area. This set-up or basin will give the best overall results. Filtration Methods: The conventional type of water treatment filtration method includes coagulation. but do not necessarily cause disease themselves. it is considered an indicator organism. and filtration. Diatomaceous earth method uses a thin layer of fine siliceous material on a porous plate. taste and color. Flocculation: The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses that can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated.

Fluoride: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. There are various types of heads of water depending upon what is being measured. A snap shot of a certain location and time. Flux: The term flux describes the rate of water flow through a semipermeable membrane. Headworks: The facility at the "head" of the water source where water is first treated and routed into the distribution system. The water flux decreases through a semipermeable membrane means that the mineral concentration of the water is increasing. Giardia Lamblia: A pathogenic parasite. Formation of Tubercles: This condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Grab Sample: Is a type of sample that should be collected to analyze for coliform bacteria. Hazards of Polymers: Slippery and difficult to clean-up are the most common hazards associated with the use of polymers in a water treatment plant. These are the substances is most commonly used to furnish fluoride ions to water: Sodium fluoride. Gate Valve: Is the most common type of valve used in isolating a small or medium sized section of a distribution system and is the only linear valve used in water distribution.31 feet of water or 1 foot of head equals about a half a pound of pressure or . Health Advisory: An EPA document that provides guidance and information on contaminants that can affect human health and that may occur in drinking water. valves. Gt : Represents (Detention time) x (mixing intensity) in flocculation. H2SO4: Is the molecular formula of Sulfuric acid. Frequency must a Remote Operator inspect a Grade 1 or grade 2 Water Treatment Plant: Monthly or as necessary a remote operator inspect a grade 1 or grade 2 water treatment plant or distribution system that produces and distributes groundwater. 1 PSI = 2. Hard Water: Hard water causes a buildup of scale in household hot water heaters.Graphic Information System: Detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes. Fluoride Feeding System: Always review fluoride feeding system designs and specifications to determine whether locations for monitoring readouts and dosage controls are convenient to the operation center and easy to read and correct. The most important safety considerations to know about fluoride chemicals is that all fluoride chemicals are extremely corrosive. chlorine is used in the form of free chlorine or as hypochlorite ion. or Typhoid: Are diseases that may be transmitted through the contamination of a water supply but not AIDS. This is called Mottling. Hepatitis. Globe Valve: The main difference between a globe valve and a gate valve is that a globe valve is designed as a controlling device. but which EPA does not currently regulate in drinking water. a free chlorine residual of at least 10 mg/L should be maintained in the clear well or distribution reservoir immediately downstream from the point of post-chlorination. GIS . Good Contact Time.433 PSI. which may be found in. And is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 192 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Free Chlorine Residual: Regardless of whether pre-chloration is practiced or not. pH and Temperature. This chemical must not be overfed due to a possible exposure to a high concentration of the chemical. Hertz: Is the term is used to describe the frequency of cycles in an alternating current (AC) circuit. Static (water at rest) and Residual (water at flow conditions). Giardiasis. Free Chlorine: In disinfection. and manholes within geographic areas with the use of satellites. Head: The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water. Heat Damage to Air Compressor: An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. pH and Low Turbidity: These are factors that are important in providing good disinfection when using chlorine. Sodium silicofluoride and Hydrofluosilicic acid. Free Chlorine Residual gives the best Disinfection: Is the reason for chlorinating past the breakpoint is to provide protection in case of backflow.Flow must be Measured: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located in a central location. contaminated water. All the other valves are in the rotary classification. It is the creation of mounds of rust inside the water lines.

Kill=C x T: Where other factors are constant. These contaminants are naturally-occurring in some water. Hydrogen Sulfide or Chlorine: These chemicals can cause olfactory fatigue. but can also get into water through farming. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 193 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The water is becoming corrosive in the distribution system causing rusty water if the Langelier index indicates that the pH has decreased from the equilibrium point. The presence of iron and manganese in water promote the growth of Iron bacteria. the movement of water. Iron and Manganese in water may be detected by observing the color of the of the filter media. there will be black stains on the walls below the water level and a black coating over the top portion of the sand filter bed. EPA has set legal limits on 15 inorganic contaminants. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill=C x T. Maintaining a free chlorine residual and regular flushing of water mains may control the growth of iron bacteria in a water distribution system. Kinetic Energy: The ability of an object to do work by virtue of its motion. nitrates. The hardness of the source water affects the amount of water an ion exchange softener may treat before the bed requires regeneration. and other human activities. Infectious Pathogens/Microbes/Germs: Are considered disease-producing bacteria. A Langelier index of zero indicates perfect water balance (i. pathogens. If the raw water is pre-chlorinated. Iron and Manganese: In water can be usually detected by observing the color of the inside walls of filters and the filter media.. Langelier Index: Is a measurement of Corrosivity. Intake Facilities: One of the more important considerations in the construction of intake facilities is the ease of operation and maintenance over the expected lifetime of the facility. High Turbidity Causing an Increased Chlorine Demand: May occur or be caused by the inadequate disinfection of water. Hydrochloric and Hypochlorous Acids: Are the compounds that are formed in water when chlorine gas is introduced. or allowing only with great difficulty. and opportunistic pathogens. and asbestos. Hypochlorous and Hydrochloric Acids: Chlorine combines with water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. and pH at a given temperature. Every intake structure must be constructed with consideration for operator safety and for cathodic protection. When iron or manganese reacts with dissolved oxygen (DO) insoluble compound are formed. Impeller: A rotating set of vanes designed to impart rotation to a mass fluid. Only when a water sample has been acidified then you can perform the analysis beyond the 48 hour holding time. Iron Bacteria: Perhaps the most troublesome consequence of iron and manganese in the water is they promote the growth of a group of microorganism known as Iron Bacteria. neither corroding nor scaling). Hypochlorite and Organic Material: Heat and a possible fire may happen when hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. iron and manganese exist in an oxidized state and normally precipitate into the reservoir bottom sediments. chemical manufacturing. Impervious: Not allowing. viruses and other microorganisms. HOCL and HCL or free available chlorine. Inorganic Contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals. Hydrophobic: Does not mix readily with water. Initial monitoring year: An initial monitoring year is the calendar year designated by the Department within a compliance period in which a public water system conducts initial monitoring at a point of entry.e. The energy terms that are used to describe the operation of a pump are pressure and head. total alkalinity. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. HF: Is the molecular formula of Hydrofluoric acid.Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including non-pathogens. Insoluble Compounds: Are types of compounds cannot be dissolved. Iron Fouling: You should look for an orange color on the resin and backwash water when checking an ion exchange unit for iron fouling Iron: The elements iron and manganese are undesirable in water because they cause stains and promote the growth of iron bacteria. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. When significant levels of dissolved oxygen are present. Mathematically derived factor obtained from the values of calcium hardness. Often referred to as HPC.

When an operator adds lime to water. Held in place with spring pressure. to the pH of the water is raised to 11. The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. Magnetic Starter: Is a type of motor starter should be used in an integrated circuit to control flow automatically. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The maximum allowable level of a contaminant that federal or state regulations allow in a public water system. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health. If the MCL is exceeded. Usually made of two flat surfaces. the water system must treat the water so that it meets the MCL. An operator waits for the overload to cool. and the goal is not legally enforceable. the key to the lock-out device the key should be held by the person who is working on the equipment. Lime: Is a chemical that may be added to water to reduce the corrosivity. Mottling: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. In a lime softening process. MCL for Turbidity: Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Microbe. Lead and Copper: Initial tap water monitoring for lead and copper must be conducted during 2 consecutive 6-month periods. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 194 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Moisture: If a material is hygroscopic it must it be protected from water. Motor 3600 rpms: Is the maximum synchronous speed of an electric motor that has a frequency of 60 Hz. simple. Magnesium Hardness: Measure of the magnesium salts dissolved in water – it is not a factor in water balance. one of which rotates on the shaft. The tag is an identification device and the lock is a physical restraint. LOTO: In a good lock-out/tag out program. if a piece of equipment is locked out. single-celled form of life. mg/L: Milligrams per liter. Lime Soda Softening: In a lime soda softening process. The minimum hardness which can be achieved by the lime-soda ash process is 30 to 40 mg/L as calcium carbonate. Calcium and magnesium become less soluble. Microbial: Any minute. mL: milliliter Moisture and Potassium Permanganate: The combination of moisture and potassium permanganate produces heat. Mechanical Seal: A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. Lines: Lines in the distribution system should be flushed on a regular basis. Microbial Contaminants: Microscopic organisms present in untreated water that can cause waterborne diseases. Methane: Is classified as an organic compound. Motor Overload Control: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. Measure Corrosion Damage: A coupon is a strip of metal and is placed to measure corrosion damage in the distribution system in a water main. Megger: Is used to test the insulation resistance on a motor. excess lime is frequently added to remove Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate. And a possible result of over greasing a bearing is that there will be extreme friction in the bearing chamber. An MCL for turbidity was established by the EPA because turbidity does not allow for proper disinfection. If the motor does not start. This goal is not always economically or technologically feasible.300 persons and 50. The hardness due to noncarbonate hardness is most likely to determine the choice between lime softening and ion exchange to remove hardness. M-Endo Broth: The media shall be brought to the boiling point when preparing M-Endo broth to be used in the membrane filter test for total coliform. especially one that causes disease. The flushing should be done at night and the water pressure in the distribution system must be at least 25 PSI.000 or fewer persons.Leaching: A chemical reaction between water and metals that allows for removal of soluble materials. Medium Water System: More than 3. A possible cause for a mechanical noise coming from a motor is there is an unbalance of a rotating mechanical part. Motor: If a motor is rated for 10 amps the overload relays that should be used are 10 to 11 amps. then tries to start the motor again. the operator should check first the Motor overload control.0. Microbiological: Is a type of analysis in which a composite sample unacceptable.

factories. Powdered activated carbon may be used with some success in removing the precursors of THMs Packing: Material. snubbers and an air cushion chamber are examples of surging and overrange protection devices. Capacity Development Requirements for a New Public Water System. Muriatic Acid: An acid used to reduce pH and alkalinity. or NH4Cl2: These chemicals may be used as alternative disinfectants. Non-Transient. Some examples are schools. Non-point source pollution: Air pollution may leave contaminants on highway surfaces. Overrange Protection Devices: Mechanical dampers. Also used to separate combined chlorine and convert it into free chlorine. 1999 must comply with Article 6. leading to trihalomethane formation. Powdered activated carbon. NTNCWS: Non-transient non-community water system. Nitrate and nitrite are prohibited: The Department will not grant a nitrate or nitrite waiver. Jar tests and threshold odor number testing determines the appli-cation rate for powdered activated carbon. NH3: Is the molecular formula of Ammonia. NO3-: Is the molecular formula of the Nitrate ion. Non-carbonate Hardness: Is the portion of the total hardness in excess of the alkalinity. or PAC. ClO2. Oligotrophic: A reservoir that is nutrient-poor and contains little plant or animal life. NH4+: Is the molecular formula of the Ammonium ion. upon combination with chlorine. Powered activated carbon frequently used for taste and odor control because PAC is non-specific and removes a broad range of compounds. Over time. Nitrates may also occur naturally in some waters. Ozone. Also used to remove stain and scale. Osmosis: Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semi permeable membrane from a low concentration solute to a high concentration solute to satisfy the pressure differences caused by the solute. placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control the leakage from the stuffing box. nitrates can accumulate in aquifers and contaminate groundwater. Ozone does not provide a Residual in the Distribution System: One of the major drawbacks to using ozone as a disinfectant. New Public Water System: Community water systems and non-transient non-community water systems that begin operations on or after October 1. office buildings. Organic Precursors: Natural or man-made compounds with chemical structures based upon carbon that. Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Are pairs of elements and major plant nutrients that cause algae to grow. and hospitals which have their own water systems. Notification and Safety of the Public: Is the most important concern to an owner/operator if a toxic substance contaminates a drinking water. commonly used for in a water treatment plant for taste and odor control. NaOH: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hydroxide. One precautions should be taken in storing PAC is that bags of carbon should not be stored near bags of HTH. Normality: It is the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. Chlorine Dioxide or Chloramine O3. Oxygen Deficient Environment: Name one of the most dangerous threats to an operator upon entering a manhole. NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit): A measure of the clarity or cloudiness of water. NaOCl: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hypochlorite. usually of woven fiber. Noncarbonate Ions: Water contains Noncarbonate ions if it cannot be softened to a desired level through the use of lime only. Non-Community Water System: A water system which supplies water to 25 or more of the same people at least six months per year in places other than their residences.MSDS: Is a safety document must an employer provide to an operator upon request. Oxidizing: The process of breaking down organic wastes into simpler elemental forms or by products. PAC: A disadvantage of using PAC is it is very abrasive and requires careful maintenance of equipment. Removes tastes and odors by adsorption only. Mud Balls in Filter Media: Is a possible result of an ineffective or inadequate filter backwash. O3: Is the molecular formula of ozone. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 195 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This nonpoint source pollution adversely impacts reservoir water and groundwater quality. Nitrates: A dissolved form of nitrogen found in fertilizers and sewage by-products that may leach into groundwater and other water sources.

The pH where the Langelier Index equals zero. pH Temperature and Chlorine dosage are the factors that influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most. An operator should calibrate the instrument with a known buffer solution before using a pH meter. Perikinesis: Is the aggregation resulting from random thermal motion of fluid molecules. Bellows gauge and Diaphragm are commonly used to measure pressure in waterworks systems. Pressure: A Bellows-type sensor reacts to a change in pressure. Pressure Measurement: Bourdon tube. The others drink water from private wells. Stop something before it happens. Prevention: To take action. virus or parasite that causes or is capable of causing disease. See Contaminated. Peak Demand: The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant. There are more than 170. regulators (which are a type of valve). Alkalinity and pH tell an operator with regards to coagulation how to determine the best chemical coagulant to be used. Rinse the electrodes with distilled water should be done with the electrodes after measuring the pH of a sample with a pH meter. The notice advises consumers what precautions. and hydroxide can be based on the P and T alkalinity measurement. Phosphate. pCi/L: Picocuries per liter. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. they should take to protect their health. rivers and other sources to about 250 million Americans. Pollution: To make something unclean or impure. Pneumatic systems are not reliable over transmission lines greater than 1000 feet: Is the primary characteristic which limits the use of a pneumatic data transmission system. Public Notification: An advisory that EPA requires a water system to distribute to affected consumers when the system has violated MCLs or other regulations. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. PPM: Abbreviation for parts per million. valves.000 PWSs providing water from wells. Pump 5. Potential Energy: The energy that a body has by virtue of its position or state enabling it to do work. Pump Discharge Valve Off: Is when should a reciprocating pump or piston pump not be operated. There are differing standards for PWSs of different sizes and types. Pump: A key and a tight fit is the common method used to secure an impeller to the shaft on doublesuction pump. etc. Pipeline Appurtenance: Pressure reducers. Permeate: Is the term for water which has passed through the membrane of a reverse osmosis unit. bends. at a particular temperature. Non-Potable: A liquid or water that is not approved for drinking. A mechanical seal is the best seal to use for a pump operating under high suction head Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 196 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and Organic Nitrogen: Nutrients in a domestic water supply reservoir may cause water quality problems if they occur in moderate or large quantities. The definition of an acidic solution is a solution that contains a significant number of H+ ions. Polyphosphates: Are chemicals that may be added to remove low levels of iron and manganese. pH of Saturation: The ideal pH for perfect water balance in relation to a particular total alkalinity level and a particular calcium hardness level. Pathogens may contaminate water and cause waterborne disease. Public Water System (PWS): Any water system which provides water to at least 25 people for at least 60 days annually. if any. carbonate. A curie is the amount of radiation released by a set amount of a certain compound. Neutron. Pb: Is the chemical symbol of Lead. Pressure Head: The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure. Nitrate.000 hours: Is the typical operating life of a mechanical seal. Potable: Good water which is safe for drinking or cooking purposes. Pollution: The duration of exposure to the contaminant affects the dose of a toxic contaminant in a water supply. Point of Entry: POE. Phenolphthalein /Total Alkalinity: The relationship between the alkalinity constituents bicarbonate. Electron: Are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom.000 to 20.Pathogens: Disease-causing pathogens. pH (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity): A measure of the acidity of water. Pre-chlorination: The addition of chlorine to the water prior to any other plant treatment processes. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. A picocurie is one quadrillionth of a curie. pumping station or distribution system. waterborne pathogens A pathogen is a bacterium. Proton.

PWS: 3 types of public water systems. Rotameter: Is the name of transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball is often used to measure the rate of flow of a gas or liquid. An on-site review of the water sources. EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water. Ladders and climbing devices by inspected by a qualified individual once a year. Centrifugal pumps do not generate suction unless the impeller is submerged in water. Salts are Absent: Is a strange characteristic that is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere. facilities. Depending on the regulation. or destroy a person’s skin or eyes and can be either acidic or basic. The viscosity decreases with most lubricants as the temperature increases. An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. burn. operation. Reagent: A substance used in a chemical reaction to measure. Runoff: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of natural processes of runoff. The importance of a detailed sanitary survey of a new water source can not be overemphasized.. or from the taps of selected consumers. Continuous leakage from a mechanical seal on a pump indicates that the mechanical seal needs to be replaced. it is generally considered to be unsafe to drink. The purpose of the foot valve on a pump is that it keeps the air relief opened. an “Underground Service Alert” center should be contacted to assist in determining the location of all underground utilities in the work area. pipes). detect. Sand. Community water system. Sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. Cavitation is caused by a suction line may be clogged or is above the water line. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 197 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . non-transient non-community water system. Before beginning an excavation. Sanitary Survey: Persons trained in public health engineering and the epidemiology of waterborne diseases should conduct the sanitary survey. The main purpose of the wear rings in a centrifugal double suction pump is that the wear rings maintain a flow restriction between the impeller discharge and suction areas. Safe Yield: A possible consequence when the “safe yield” of a well is exceeded and water continues to be pumped from a well is land subsidence around the well will occur. Anthracite and Garnet: Mixed media filters are composed of these three materials. from water leaving the treatment facility. or produce other substances Red Water and Slime: Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because of red water and slime complaints. Raw Water: Water that has not been treated in any way. If a pump is located above the level of water a foot valve must be provided on the suction piping to hold the prime. and maintenance of a public water systems for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the facilities for producing and distributing safe drinking water. Corrosive-This type of chemical classification may weaken. chemical feeder. examine. Rules: The objective of a vulnerability assessment is to determine weakness in the distribution or water system. A reciprocating pump or piston pump should not be operated with the discharge valve in the closed position.e. transient non community water system. equipment. What is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation? The lubricating oil tends to break down quickly requiring frequent replacement. Two pumps of the same size can be operated alternately to equalize wear and distribute lubricant in bearings. Safety Statements: A supervisor should warn an operator about the presence of a confined space by clearly posting the appropriate signage at all entries to a confined space. Recorder: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located anywhere in the plant where a flow must be measured and in a central location. Residual Disinfection/Protection: A required level of disinfectant that remains in treated water to ensure disinfection protection and prevent recontamination throughout the distribution system (i. Safety: 2 Feet: The distance from the edge of a hole must you place the spoil from an excavation. A possible cause of a scored shaft sleeve is that the packing has broken down or the packing is too tight or over tightened. valve. and other devices. The purpose of a non-regulatory sanitary survey is to identify possible biological and chemical pollutants which might affect a water supply. The correct order for placing shorting equipment in a trench is starting at the top move to the bottom of the trench and reverse to remove it. One disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is that it is not selfpriming. Relay Logic: Is the name of a popular method of automatically controlling a pump. Reservoir: An impoundment used to store water.conditions.

or conditioned to decrease the volume of sludge. Sedimentation: The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. Softening: The process that removes the ions which cause hardness in water. SOC: A common way for a synthetic organic chemical such as dioxin to be introduced to a surface water supply is from an industrial discharge. Shroud: The front and/or back of an impeller. Softening Water: When the water has a low alkalinity it is advantageous to use soda ash instead of caustic soda for softening water. Some times we call these quarter-sections. Ridding a water of organic waste through oxidization by the addition of significant quantities of a halogen. Sectional Map: Is the name of a map that provides detailed drawings of the distribution system’s zones. Solar Drying Beds or Lagoons: Are shallow. and type of coagulant used are the most important factors which determine the amount of sludge produced in a treatment of water. Liquid. a by-product chlorine generation and often used to raise pH. Saturation Index: See Langelier's Index. If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. kills algae and oxidizes organic matter. Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda. appliances. portable power tools and in homes. Turbidity of source water. Scroll and Basket: Are the two basic types of centrifuges used in water treatment. SCADA: A remote method of monitoring pumps and equipment. Vapor: 3 forms of matter. Sodium Bisulfate: Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity (dry acid). Overfeeding must be prevented to protect public health when using a fluoridation system. 130 degrees F is the maximum temperature that transmitting equipment is able to with stand. or color) of drinking water. Sodium Bicarbonate: Commonly used to increase alkalinity of water and stabilize pH. Saturator: A device which produces a fluoride solution for the fluoride process. Sedimentation Basin: This location is where the thickest and greatest concentration of sludge will be found. thickened. odor. Chemical often used to soften water. Twice a year sedimentation tanks should be drained and cleaned if the sludge buildup interferes with the treatment process.300 or fewer persons. Sensor: A float and cable system are commonly found instruments that may be used as a sensor to control the level of liquid in a tank or basin. Solar Drying Beds. small-volume storage pond where sludge is concentrated and stored for an extended periods. Sludge Basins: After cleaning sludge basins and before returning the tanks into service the tanks should be inspected. Soda Ash: Chemical used to raise pH and total alkalinity (sodium carbonate). The regular use of stain prevention chemicals can prevent scale. Centrifuges and Filter Presses: Are procedures used in the dewatering of sludge. the result of unbalanced water. Shock: Also known as superchlorination or break point chlorination. dosage. small motors. Scale is caused by high calcium hardness and/or high pH. Crystal-grade types of sodium fluoride should be fed with a saturator. Sludge Reduction: Organic polymers are used to reduce the quantity of sludge. Single Phase Power: Is the type of power is used for lighting systems. Split Flow Control System: This type of control system is to control the flow to each filter influent which is divided by a weir. Small Water System: 3.Sanitizer: A disinfectant or chemical which disinfects (kills bacteria). Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Non-enforceable federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. SPADNS: The lab reagent called SPADNS solution is used in performing the Fluoride test. repaired if necessary. Scale: Crust of calcium carbonate. Hard insoluble minerals deposited (usually calcium bicarbonate) which forms on pool and spa surfaces and clog filters. and disinfected. heaters and pumps. agricultural drainage. If a plant produces a large volume of sludge. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 198 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the sludge could be dewatered. Solid. or a spill.

TDS-Total Dissolved Solids: is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular. the chemical reaction rate decreases also. Demineralization may be necessary in a treatment process if the water has a very high value Total Dissolved Solids. The rate decreases: In general. Conditioning. a grab sample.g. Surface Water: Water that is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. Three-phase Motor: The incoming leads for a three-phase motor all have power. Time for Turbidity Breakthrough and Maximum Head Loss: Are the two factors which determine whether or not a change in filter media size should be made. Sterilized Glassware: Is the only type of glassware that should be used in testing for coliform bacteria. A stoneline or benchmark. Sum of all the Atomic Weights of the Elements in a Molecule: Is the molecular weight of a compound. Storage Tanks: Three types of water usage that determine the volume of a storage tank are fire suppression storage. a sample should be filtered before being poured into an evaporating dish and dried. when the temperature decreases. although TDS is generally considered not as a primary pollutant (e. and Dewatering: Are common processes that are utilized to reduce the volume of sludge. When determining the total dissolved solids. Anaerobic water undesirable for drinking water purposes because of color and odor problems are more likely to occur under these conditions. Generally.Spray Bottle of Ammonia: An operator should use ammonia to test for a chlorine leak around a valve or pipe. Supernatant: Is the liquid layer which forms above the sludge in a settling basin. streams. since salinity comprises some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. Generally the operational definition is that the solids (often abbreviated TDS) must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve size of two micrometres. equalization storage. trichloroethylene: A solvent and degreaser used for many purposes. Total dissolved solids are normally only discussed for freshwater systems. rivers and lakes. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 199 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Telemetering: The use of a transmission line with remote signaling to monitor a pumping station or motors. Spring Pressure: Is what maintains contact between the two surfaces of a mechanical seal. lakes. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects). Tapping Valve: Is the name of the valve that is specifically designed for connecting a new water main to an existing main that is under pressure. Susceptibility Waiver: A waiver that is granted based upon the results of a vulnerability assessment. generally. Can be used to accomplish accurate and reliable remote monitoring and control over a long distribution system. Standpipe: A water tank that is taller than it is wide. Surface Water Sources: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of Runoff. but it is rather used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants. This process is ideal as long as the water does not contain a large amount of TDS. Temperature: This test should be performed immediately in the field. Stuffing Box: That portion of the pump that houses the packing or mechanical seal. Three-Phase Pumps: Large three-phase pumps employs the use of a magnetic starter. TCE. and emergency storage. Taste and Odors: The primary purpose to use potassium permanganate in water treatment is to control taste and odors. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams. rivers. a water storage tank’s interior coating (paint) protect the interior about 3-5 years. ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. Titration: Method of testing by adding a reagent of known strength to a water sample until a specific color change indicates the completion of the reaction. You will see white smoke if there is a leak. TDS: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. it is a common groundwater contaminant. Equalization storage is the volume of water needed to supply the system for periods when demand exceeds supply. Thickening. Taste and Odor Problems in the Water: May happen if sludge and other debris are allowed to accumulate in a water treatment plant. for example dry cleaning. Stationing: The word stationing on a plan drawing refers to a representation of a location from a starting point or reference. Sulfate: Will readily dissolve in water to form an anion.

e. Turbidimeter is best suited to perform this measurement. Vane: That portion of an impeller that throws the water toward the volute. An MCL for turbidity established by the EPA because turbidity interferes with disinfection. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. Trihalomethanes (THM): Four separate compounds including chloroform. A measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): The accumulated total of all solids that might be dissolved in water. See Disinfectant Byproducts. Tubercles are formed due to joining dissimilar metals. Turbidity Interferes with Disinfection: The primary reason turbidity of water be minimized. Venturi: If water flows through a pipeline at a high velocity. Like iron to copper pipe. High levels of turbidity may interfere with proper water treatment and monitoring. dibromochloromethane. Tubercles: The creation of this condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Environmental Protection Agency: In the United States. Total Alkalinity: A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water that indicates its buffering ability. Velocities can be increased to a point that a partial vacuum is created.0005 mg/L. Volatile Organic Chemical: VOC. the greater the resistance to pH change. measure of its resistance to a change in pH. Generally. the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies. Treated Water: Disinfected and/or filtered water served to water system customers. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of tiny particles. The most common class of disinfection by-products created when chemical disinfectants react with organic matter in water during the disinfection process. there will be a reduction in water treatment costs. causing electro-chemical reactions.Titration: Is the common method of standardization of a solution determination in the lab. this agency responsible for setting drinking water standards and for ensuring their enforcement. VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive: The longest term VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive is 9 years. and bromoform. They still must test their water for microbes and several chemicals. VOC’s: The reporting limit for all regulated VOC’s is 0. Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV): Is one of the most popular ways to compare filter runs. For a given quantity of flow. It must meet or surpass all drinking water standards to be considered safe to drink. dichlorobromom-ethane. the higher the total alkalinity. We have all seen these little rust mounds inside cast iron pipe. the temperature variation of a sample. Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Valve 20 or 30 Feet Per Inch: Is the typical scale of a Valve and Hydrant map using an intersection method of indexing. This technique is the best way to compare water treatment filter runs. Valves: A gate valve should be operated in any position between fully open and fully closed. the pressure in the pipeline is reduced.S. Turbidity: One physical characteristic of water. a scratched or unclean sample tube in the nephelometer and selecting an incorrect wavelength of a light path U. The following conditions may cause an inaccurate measure of turbidity. it is primarily transported in steel containers. Toxic substance contaminates a drinking water: Public Safety is the most important concern should an owner/operator allow a toxic substance to contaminate a drinking water. This characteristic of water changes the most rapidly after a heavy rainfall. Under Pressure in Steel Containers: After chlorine gas is manufactured. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. Non-Community Water System: A water system which provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. See TDS. Turbidimeter: Monitoring the filter effluent turbidity on a continuous basis with an in-line instrument is a recommended practice. Transient. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 200 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Velocity Head: The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system. i. Transient Non-community Water System: Is not required to sample for VOC’s. If high quality raw water is low in turbidity.

Water Level: The probe may be coated by calcium carbonate is a common problem with an electrical probe that is used to measure the level of water. protozoan. Water Meter: Head loss may occur with the use of a water meter. Displacement. Water Quality: Name the 4 broad categories of water quality. Source water monitoring for lead and copper be preformed when a public water system exceeds an action level for lead of copper. Water Vapor: A characteristic is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere is does not contain salts. Water Meter: A water meter that is removed from service for repair should be handled by sealing the meter to retain water. typhoid fever.. Waivers: Monitoring waivers for nitrate and nitrite are prohibited. Vulnerability Assessment: An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals.Voltage: 1. and furnish quality water to a community. gastroenteritis). or other microorganism. The land area from which water drains into a stream. or reservoir. Velocity. amoebic dysentery. bacterium.000 volts is the maximum number of volts that electrical equipment can be insulated with a lower limit of 1 megaohm. river. A positive bacteriological sample indicates the presence of bacteriological contamination. biological. cholera. Course Proctor Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 201 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . chemical. Volute: The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharge by the impeller. Jerry Durbin. Water Purveyor: The individuals or organization responsible to help provide. The three main classifications of water meters are Compound. Waterborne Diseases: A disease. Watershed: An area that drains all of its water to a particular water course or body of water. Water hammer exerts tremendous force on a system and can be highly destructive. Water Hammer: A surge in a pipeline resulting from the rapid increase or decrease in water flow. caused by a virus. Pathogens are disease causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses.g. capable of being transmitted by water (e. Physical. radiological. supply. Peak day demand is the greatest amount of water used for any one day in a calendar year.

Schenectady. 87-108. 6th ed. Clayton G.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. Proctor NH. Mansdorf SZ [1993]. Public Health Service. MD: National Library of Medicine. Clayton F [1981-1982]. Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service. Genium [1992]. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. American Thoracic Society. Hazardous substance fact sheet: Chlorine. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 941-947 Mickelsen RL. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Chlorine. Trenton. NIOSH [1992]. 87-116. 3rd ed. Public Health Service. Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. [1993]. 4th ed. Cincinnati. 3rd rev. Chern RT. Hall RC [1987]. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. ACGIH [1994].S. guide 20. Office of the Federal Register. Public Health Service. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Cincinnati. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Department of Transportation. 92-100. Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. Cincinnati. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control.S. Mickelsen RL. ed. DOT [1993]. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 53. Hathaway GJ. 73rd ed. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 445-447 NFPA [1986]. Cincinnati. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Hall RC. Bethesda. NIOSH respirator decision logic. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. ATS [1987]. Hughes JP. OH: U. NIOSH [1995]. Lide DR [1993]. Cincinnati. Grant WM [1986]. Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. NLM [1995]. Department of Health and Human Services. OH: U. IL: Charles C Thomas. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.S. Toxicology of the eye. DC: U. New York. Department of Health and Human Services. Forsberg K. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. OH: U.S. New York. New York. DC: U. NJDH [1992]. Washington. 1993 Emergency response guidebook. Technical Information Branch. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Boca Raton. NJ: New Jersey Department of Health. Code of Federal regulations. MA: National Fire Protection Association. Centers for Disease Control. Inc. Lewis RJ. 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control.References ACGIH [1991]. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. NIOSH [1994]. 3rd ed.S. Government Printing Office.S.1987 update. Quincy. Washington. New York. Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Department of Health and Human Services. Material safety data sheet No. Am Rev Respir Dis CFR. Cincinnati. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Myers JR [1991]. Springfield. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. OH: U. NIOSH [1987b]. ed. Cincinnati. OH: U. Centers for Disease Control. NIOSH [1987a]. NY: Genium Publishing Corporation. Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation. 94-113. Hazardous substances data bank: Chlorine. Department of Health and Human Services. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. and Fischman ML [1991]. 9th ed. Standardization of spirometry -. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. Research and Special Programs Administration. Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. FL: CRC Press. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 202 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 12th ed.

14(H2O) NH3 NH4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 203 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Common Water Treatment and Distribution Chemicals Chemical Name Common Name Chemical Formula Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Bentonitic clay Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Chlorine gas Chlorine Dioxide Copper sulfate Dichloramine Ferric chloride Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous bicarbonate Ferrous hydroxide Ferrous sulfate Hydrofluorsilicic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hypochlorus acid Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium dioxide Manganous bicarbonate Manganous sulfate Monochloramine Potassium bicarbonate Potassium permanganate Muriatic acid Copperas Iron sulfate Iron chloride Blue vitriol HTH Slaked Lime Unslaked (Quicklime) Gypsum Activated Carbon Limestone Bentonite Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OCl)2 .7H20 H2SiF6 HCl H2S HOCL Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 MgO2 Mn(HCO3)2 MnSO4 NH2Cl KHCO3 KMnO4 Alum. 5H2O NHCl2 FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(HCO3)2 Fe(OH)3 FeSO4. liquid Al(OH)3 AL2(SO4)3 . 4H2O Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 C CO2 H2CO3 Cl2 ClO2 CuSO4 .

Chemical Name Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorsilicate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium Metaphosphate Sodium phosphate Sodium sulfate Sulfuric acid Common Name Soda ash Salt Chemical Formula Na2CO3 NaCl NaClO2 NaF Na2SiF6 Lye Hexametaphosphate Disodium phosphate NaOH NaOCl NaPO3 Na3PO4 Na2SO4 H2SO4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 204 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

+3 -4. +5 (+2). (+1) 0 +1 +2 +3 -4. -1. +2. +4. (+3). +6 -1. +2 (+1). +1. (+4). +2. (+2). +1. +3. (+6) +2. +4 -3. (+3) +2 (+2). (+7).Number Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Rubidium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Valence (-1). (+4) +1. (+3). +4. +6 +6 (+2). +1. +4 -3. +4. (+2). +3. +5 +2. (+4). +3. (+4). +3. +3. +5 -2. +8 (+2). +5. (+2). (+2). +2. +3. +3. +4. (+3). +6 -1. +5 -2. +4. +3. +7 +2. (+4) (+1). +4. +4 -3. (+5). (+6). (+3) (+1). +5 0 +1 +2 +3 (+2). +2. +3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 205 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +4 (+2). +3. (+4). +4. +3. +2. +6 +2. +3 (+2). +4 +2. (+6) +1. +4. (+3). (+2). (+6). +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +2. (+6) +2. -2. +3. +5 -2 -1. (+2). (+1). (+3). +3. (+4). +1 0 +1 +2 -3.

+6 Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry.50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium +2. +4. +6 -1. +4 (-3). +2. (+3). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 206 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (+4). (+2).. (+4). +3 (+2). (+6) ? 0 ? +2 +3 +4 +5 (+2). +3. +3 +3 +4 (+3). +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +3. (+3). (+2). +6 (+1). (+1).). +4 -3. 1952. +8 (+1). (+4). (+5). +3 +2. +5. Lange (Ed. +3. Inc. +2. 8th Ed. +4. +3 +3 +3. +5 -2. Norbert A. +4. (+2). +4. (+5). +3. +6. +1. +4 +3 (+2). +4 +3 +3. +6 +1. +4. +3 (+2). +6 (-1). +2. +4. +3. +3 +1. +7 (+2). +5 (+2). (+4). (+4). +3. +2 +1. (+5) (-2). +6. (+2). +4 +3 +3 +3 (+2). (+3). +4. Handbook Publishers. (+3). (+2). (+5).

wood alum alumina antichlor aqua ammonia aqua regia aqua fortis aromatic spirit of ammonia asbestos aspirin baking soda banana oil (artificial) benzol bichloride of mercury black copper oxide black lead bleaching powder blue vitriol bluestone borax brimstone brine butter of antimony butter of tin calomel carbolic acid carbonic acid gas caustic potash caustic soda chalk Chile saltpeter chrome. yellow copperas cream of tartar crocus powder emery powder Epsom salts ethanol fluorspar formalin French chalk galena Glauber's salt gypsum hydrocyanic acid hypo (photography) lime dimethyl ketone oxalic acid ethyl alcohol methyl alcohol aluminum potassium sulfate aluminum oxide sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide nitrohydrochloric acid nitric acid ammonia in alcohol magnesium silicate acetylsalicylic acid sodium bicarbonate isoamyl acetate benzene mercuric chloride cupric oxide graphite (carbon) chlorinated lime copper sulfate copper sulfate sodium borate sulfur aqueous sodium chloride solution antimony trichloride anhydrous stannic chloride mercury chloride phenol carbon dioxide potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium nitrate chromic potassium sulfate lead (VI) chromate ferrous sulfate potassium bitartrate ferric oxide impure aluminum oxide magnesium sulfate ethyl alcohol natural calcium fluoride aqueous formaldehyde solution natural magnesium silicate natural lead sulfide sodium sulfate natural calcium sulfate hydrogen cynanide sodium thiosulfate solution calcium oxide Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 207 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Common Used Products Chemical Name acetone acid of sugar alcohol. grain alcohol. alum chrome.

jeweler's rubbing alcohol sal ammoniac sal soda salt. table talc or talcum vinegar vitamin C washing soda water glass Chemical Name aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide silver nitrate magnesium oxide mercurous oxide methyl alcohol methyl alcohol hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid methyl salicylate copper acetoarsenite powdered calcium carbonate isoamyl acetate potassium carbonate calcium sulfate graphite potassium carbonate potassium hydroxide hydrogen cyanide tetrasodium pyrophosphate calcium oxide mercury lead tetraoxide potassium sodium tartrate ferric oxide isopropyl alcohol ammonium chloride sodium carbonate sodium chloride potassium binoxalate potassium carbonate potassium nitrate silicon dioxide sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium silicate ammonium hydroxide solution sucrose magnesium silicate impure dilute acetic acid ascorbic acid sodium carbonate sodium silicate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 208 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . table salt of lemon salt of tartar saltpeter silica soda ash soda lye soluble glass spirit of hartshorn sugar.Common Used Products limewater lunar caustic magnesia mercury oxide. black methanol methylated spirits muriatic acid oil of vitriol oil of wintergreen (artificial) Paris green Paris white pear oil (artificial) pearl ash plaster of Paris plumbago potash potassa Prussic acid pyro quicklime quicksilver red lead Rochelle salt rouge.

83 (Diameter.) = Length X Width Volume (cu.) = 3.55 Cubic Feet per Second = 1 MGD 60 Seconds = 1 Minute 1440 Minutes = 1 Day .560 Square Feet – 1 Acre VOLUME 1000 Milliliters = 1 Liter 3.32) X 5/9 CONCENTRATION: Conc.000 mg/L 694 Gallons per Minute = MGD 1.14 X Diameter General POUNDS = Concentration (mg/L) X Flow (MG) X 8. (B) X Volume (B) FLOW RATE (Q): Q = A X V (Quantity = Area X Velocity) FLOW RATE (gpm): Flow Rate (gpm) = 2. ft. ft. in) Height. in)2 (Distance.785 Liters = 1Gallon 231 Cubic Inches = 1 Gallon 7. Ft.34 Percent Efficiency = In – Out X 100 In TEMPERATURE: 0 0 F = (0C X 9/5) + 32 C = (0F .13 Feet of Water = 1 Inch of Mercury 454 Grams = 1Pound 1 Gallon of Water = 8. (A) X Volume (A) = Conc.1 mg/L = 1 Grain/Gallon 1% = 10.7 Pounds = 1 Cubic Foot Dimensions SQUARE: Area (sq.Math Conversion Factors 1 PSI = 2.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) CYLINDER: Volume (Cu.31 Feet of Water 1 Foot of Water = .433 PSI 1.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) X Depth (ft) SPHERE: (3.746 kW = 1 Horsepower LENGTH 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5280 Feet = 1 Mile AREA 144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 43.ft) = Length (ft) X Width (ft) X Height (ft) CIRCLE: Area (sq.34 lbs/gallon 1 mg/L = 1 PPM 17.48 Gallons = 1 Cubic Foot 64. in % SLOPE = Rise (feet) X 100 Run (feet) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 209 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .14) (Diameter)3 (6) Circumference = 3.) = 3.

ft) Surface Area (sq. gal) (Strength 1. %) + (Volume 2. X Motor Eff. ft) MIXTURE = (Volume 1. mg/L) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 210 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000.ACTUAL LEAKAGE = Leak Rate (GPD) Length (mi. mg/L) Mg HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 4.) X Diameter (in) VELOCITY = Distance (ft) Time (Sec) WATER HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 BRAKE HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Efficiency MOTOR HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Eff.000 Number of hours worked per year DETENTION TIME (hrs) = Volume of Basin (gals) X 24 hrs Flow (GPD) BY-PASS WATER (gpd) = Total Flow (GPD) X Plant Effluent Hardness (gpg) Filtered Hardness (gpg) Hardness HARDNESS (mg/L as CaCO3) = A (mls of titrant) X 1000 Mls of Sample Ca HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 2. gal) (Strength 2. MEAN OR AVERAGE = Sum of the Values Number of Values TOTAL HEAD (ft) = Suction Lift (ft) X Discharge Head (ft) SURFACE LOADING RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gal/min/sq. gal) FLUORIDE ION PURITY = (Molecular weight of Fluoride) (100%) (%) Molecular weight of Chemical INJURY FREQUENCY RATE = (Number of Injuries) 1.%) STRENGTH (%) (Volume 1. gal) + (Volume 2.5 X (Ca.12 (Mg.

63 (Slope) 0.34 (lbs. ft.785 (1/gallon) 1000 (mg/g) X 454 (g/lb.ALKALINITY-TOTAL = Mls of Titrant X Normality X 50. ft) Surface Area (sq. GPM 193.000 (mg/L) Mls of Sample EXCHANGE CAPACITY (grains) = Resin Volume (cu.) + Water (lbs. ft. ft.) C Factor Slope = Energy Loss. ft) X Backwash Rate (gpm/sq./gal 17.54 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 211 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .75 (Diameter.pHs Chemical Addition CHEMICAL FEED RATE = Chemical Feed (ml/min) (gpm) 3785 ml/gal CHLORINE DOSE (mg/L) = Chlorine Demand (mg/L) + Chlorine Residual (mg/L) POLYMER % = Dry Polymer (lbs. ft Distance. ft) (gpm) FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq.) Filtration FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft Flow.1 mg/L LANGELIER INDEX = pH . ft) 2.) BACKWASH PUMPING RATE = Filter Area (sq.) X Removal Capacity HARDNESS TO GRAIN/GALLON = Hardness (mg/L) X gr./MG) 1 MG PAC (lbs.) Dry Polymer (lbs./gal) = PAC (mg/L) X 3.) DESIRED PAC = Volume (MG) X Dose (mg/L) X 8. ft) Filter Area (sq.

Tall Oaks Publishing Inc. ed. References Water Treatment. Second Edition Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 212 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Morelli.We have over 40 other continuing education correspondence courses available. Colorado. Littleton.D. 1996. Basic Principles of Water Treatment. C.

If you should need any assistance. but if you are unable to do so. life would not survive. we expect water to flow. type out your own answer key. please email all concerns and the completed manual to info@tlch2o. You can also find complete assistance under the Assistance Page.ABCTLC. I would prefer that you write out your own answer on the provided manual. So often. Living in the United States. Introduction Water is an integral part of life.Water Treatment Assignment The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience.com. Large raw water impoundment Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 213 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . when we turn on the water faucet. bathe and have fun in. and how we mimic the purification processes by the use of mechanical and chemical applications. we turn on the faucet and use the water without thinking about the miraculous trip that each drop of water has taken to get to that faucet.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. please visit www. Without it. Not only do we expect water to flow. In this course. you will learn how the water has made a trip through the hydrologic cycle. Please include your name and address on your manual and make copy for yourself. You will have 90 days from receipt of this manual to complete in order to receive your Professional Development Hours (PDHs) or Continuing Education Unit (CEU). irrigate. the types of source water that is available. We use water to drink. A score of 70 % is necessary to pass this course. we expect that water to be clean and tasty too.

please visit www. B. 1. As the water cycles.ABCTLC. Percolation: 5. it goes through many processes. Infiltration: 4. The planet never gets any new water. C.The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. instead the water cycles from one place to another. Give a brief definition of the listed components of the water cycle. D. A. Runoff: 3. The Hydrologic Cycle The water on the planet today is the same water that has been on the planet since the beginning. These processes are nature’s way of purifying the water.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. Precipitation: 2. Another term used for plants giving off moisture would be: Condensation Precipitation Percolation Transpiration Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 214 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Evaporation: 6. The water that you drank today most likely has been drunk before many years ago.

we will focus on two categories of source water.7. A porous material just above the water table describes this source to be surface water. A. As water moves over or below the earth surface the quality of the water is classified as the following EXCEPT for: A. True B. To simplify this. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 215 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Radiological E. The same is true when treating water. Chemical D. There are three basic types of water rights. they are: Source of Water When you go see your doctor due to illness. The hydrological cycle shows several attributes of the earth purifying and moving water. they need to know the source of your problem so they can properly treat it. Physical B. In the space provided below. False 9. Biological C. Ground Water and Surface Water. Evolutional 10. 8. list the physical characteristics of water.

Managing Water Quality at the Source 11. In this lesson, you will focus on surface water and the different factors that affect the quality of the water. Many populations have depended on lakes as a source of impounded domestic water supplies. As population increases, list below brief examples of how the supplies are being used?

12. Several common water quality problems in domestic water supply reservoirs may be related to algae blooms. Which of the following summarizes the problems that can occur? A. Taste and odor problems B. Short filter runs at the plant do to clogging C. Increased pH D. Dissolved oxygen depletion E. All of the above Define the following terms: 13. Anaerobic:

14. Aerobic:

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15. During the winter months, which condition is most likely to occur do to cold water conditions on the bottom of the lake? A. Anaerobic B. Aerobic 16. The presence of hydrogen sulfide will produce which type of odor: A. Earthy B. Fishy C. Rotten egg D. Roses 17. What is the definition for Oxidation?

18. What does MCL stand for? A. Maximum Containment Level B. Minimum Contaminant Level C. Maximum Can-drink Level D. Maximum Contaminant Level 19. Which Federal Act would you find the MCL for drinking water? A. SDWA B. OSHA C. NEPDES D. CWA 20. Lakes and reservoirs have intake-outlet structures. In the space provided below, list types of structures and/or screens.

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Coagulation and Flocculation 21. Surface water for domestic use will have some form of impurities. It can be in the form of INORGANIC materials or ORGANIC materials. Given the following illustrations, determine if they are Inorganic or Organic. A. Salt is ____ B. Oxygen is ____ C. Dirt is ____ D. Tree leaves are ____ 22. Which statement describes COLLOIDAL matter? A. Solids that sink to the bottom of a lake B. Solids that are invisible C. Solids that float to the top D. Solids that are very small and repel each other 23. The purpose of using the Coagulation and Flocculation process is to remove the particulate impurities in the water. Which of the two would you use the addition of chemicals? A. Coagulation B. Flocculation 24. What is the purpose of flash mixing? A. Using lightning to shock the water B. To mix the chemical slowly C. To mix the chemical in the water rapidly to prevent clumps D. None of the above 25. List four primary coagulants used in water treatment. A. B. C. D.

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26. Which type of laboratory analysis best simulates the plant process to determine the coagulant dosage? A. Temperature B. pH C. Turbidity D. Jar Test E. Alkalinity 27. Flocculation and Flash Mixing are the same process. A. True B. False 28. Flocculation is a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable floc particles. A. True B. False 29. What is the advantage of minimizing chemical coagulant doses? A. Less sludge is produced and chemical cost are reduced B. Shorter settling times C. Shorter filter runs D. Big clumps floating to the top 30. What is short-circuiting?

Small water treatment package plant

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C. The impurities precipitate and settle to the bottom. List some sedimentation basin components.Sedimentation We used the term PRECIPITATION in the hydrological cycle. What is the definition for Detention Time? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 220 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A. The same happens to the impurities we coagulated and flocculated. Depending on the quality of the source water. A. D. A. It gives us a fancy word for RAIN. A cloud forms and rain begins to FALL towards the earth. B. some plants have Pre-Sedimentation. B. This is done in SEDIMENTATION basins. 33. B. 32. 34. 31. List possible shapes for a sedimentation basin. C. Give two reasons for this.

It will remain the same B. What does frequent clogging of the sludge discharge line indicate? A. None of the above 36. This stuff belongs at the wastewater plant Vertical Turbine Pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 221 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If a sedimentation basin sludge depth increases. It will increase C. Sludge concentration is too low C. Sludge concentration is too high D. what will happen to the detention time? A. It will decrease D.35. Failure to properly maintain the sludge discharge line B.

37. Direct filtration and Conventional. False 42. List four desirable characteristics of filter media. True B. Like a coffee filter that keeps the grounds out of the pot. A. at least once per day. True B. A. The more uniform the media. True B. A. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 222 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . D. What is the major difference between a Direct Filtration Plant and a Conventional Plant? 38. A. All of the above 39. Biological forms D. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The filtration process removes which type of particles? A. Colloids C. In the treatment plant we use a mechanical straining for removal. Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis. B. 40. False 41. Silts and clay B. C. Floc E.Filtration Filtration is the last attempt in removing particulate impurities from the water. There are to classifications of filtration plants. the faster the head loss buildup.

46. What does S.43. C. stand for? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 223 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .T. 45. GPM/sq ft C. B. Give a brief description of a DECLINING-RATE filter. MGD D. Filter media provides several characteristics.R. GPM B. How are filter production rates measured? A.W. MGD/sq ft 44. list three types: A.

Floc B. C. Hepatitis B C. Always work in pairs when looking and repairing chlorine leaks. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 224 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A. THM's D. Moisture in a chlorination system will combine with the chlorine gas and cause corrosion. True B. 49. False 54. None of the above 48. Turbidity 50. True B. True B. List three benefits of prechlorination. Both A & C E. When the temperature increases. Shingella B. True B. A. What does organic matter form when it reacts with chlorine? A. False 51. You can use regular pipe fittings when making connections with chlorine containers. A. True B. Hypochlorite compounds tend to lower the pH of the water being disinfected. Which of the following pathogens are waterborne diseases? A. Giardia lamblia D. A. False 52. B. A. Nitrates C.Disinfection 47. A. the pressure of the chlorine gas inside a chlorine container will decrease. False 53.

How do water temperature conditions influence the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant? A. True B. use water to dilute it. A. Degree of pathogenic inactivation D. the longer contact time needed 57. Threat of THM formation 59. The warmer the water the less dissipation rate of chlorine to the atmosphere C. When a chlorine leak exist. Manganese D. The lower the water temperature the easier to disinfect the water B. False 56. Ammonia C. Rate of chloramine formation C. Organic matter 58. The warmer the water.55. What does the product of C x T provide a measure of? A. Iron B. Level of disinfectant intensity B. What formula would you use to calculate the chlorine feed in pounds per day? Chlorine Gas Windsock Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 225 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Which of the following chemical must be present for a breakpoint chlorination curve to develop when chlorine is added to water? A. The higher the temperature the easier to disinfect the water D.

B. What is the maximum rate of chlorine removal in a 150 pound cylinder? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 226 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 61. List eight parts that are used for a chlorinator. E. Give a brief description for the use of a fusible plug in a steel cylinder. 62. F.60. C. D. A. H. G.

Back pressure C. They accurately measure chlorine dosage B.63. They measure the liquid chlorine remaining in a chlorine container C. They quickly measure and record chlorine residual E.How are probes used in the disinfection process? A. They provide a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant D. All of the above Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 227 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Missing gasket 64. Gas pressure to high D. What is the most probable cause of leaking joints in gas chlorinator systems? A. Acid corrosion of joints B.

pH C. you will receive a certificate for 10 Contact Hours. Temperature E.00 renewal fee. You will not receive your answer key back. Corrosion damage from chlorine B. Make a copy of all of your work.65. Microorganisms B. Too far gone to look back and see why When you are finished. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 228 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Please make a copy for yourself. pH is low C. I would prefer that the completed booklet or a typed page is mailed back to TLC. All the above 66. Lack of oxygen D. You have 90 days to successfully complete this course or you will have to pay a $25. Why will the engines of emergency vehicles quit operating in the vicinity of a large chlorine leak? A. If you successfully pass this course. Which of the following factors influence chlorine disinfection? A. Reducing agents D. 10 PDHs or 1 CEU or 10 Training Credits.

1. Very Similar 0 1 2 3 4 5 Very Different 4.Please mail this with your final exam WATER TREATMENT COURSE CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSE CARD DATE:________________ NAME:_________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY ______________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________ E-MAIL_________________________________PHONE_______________________ PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER OF THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER IN THE AREA BELOW. What would you do to improve the Course? ______________________________________________________________________ Any other concerns or comments. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 Very Difficult Very Difficult 2. Please rate the difficulty of your course. ______________________________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 229 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . How did you hear about this Course?__________________________________ 5. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 3. Please rate the difficulty of the testing process. Please rate the subject matter on the exam to your actual field or work.

Large butterfly valve on a transmission line Water Intake Screen Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 230 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

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