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CONTINUING EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE
10 PDH's, 10 Training Hours or 1 CEU upon completion
Copyright Notice ©2006 Technical Learning College (TLC) No part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without TLC’s prior written approval. Permission has been sought for all images and text where we believe copyright exists and where the copyright holder is traceable and contactable. All material that is not credited or acknowledged is the copyright of Technical Learning College. This information is intended for educational purposes only. Most unaccredited photographs have been taken by TLC instructors or TLC students. We will be pleased to hear from any copyright holder and will make good on your work if any unintentional copyright infringements were made as soon as these issues are brought to the editor's attention. Every possible effort is made to ensure that all information provided in this course is accurate. All written, graphic, photographic or other material is provided for information only. Therefore, Technical Learning College accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the application or misuse of any information included herein. Requests for permission to make copies should be made to the following address: TLC P.O. Box 420 Payson, AZ 85547 Information in this document is subject to change without notice. TLC is not liable for errors or omissions appearing in this document.
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Special State Approval Information
This course is approved for 10 contact hours/10 PDHS/1 CEU in most States. There is a 40 hour version of this course. It is called Water Treatment Fundamentals and can be found at www.ABCTLC.com.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 10 CEHs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 10 PDHs. California Department of Health Services acceptance, 10 contact hours. Colorado, #06-OW-0029, 1 TUs in Water and Distribution. Georgia, 6 Continuing Education Points, # CE-6-106-TLC-013108-1814. Hawaii Department of Health approval, Public Water System Operators. 1.0 CEU. Indiana, Water Approval PWSTO1-1912, 10 Contact Hours. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Water approval, 10 continuing Education Training Contact Hours. Kentucky, DOW course #ALT-1913 - 10 hours for water operators only. Missouri, Water Approval # 0127336, 10 Renewal Hours, Wastewater 4 Renewal Hours New York Dept. of Health, 10 contact hours. Ohio EPA, Course #D096, Approved for Drinking Water for 10.0 contact hours. Expires 6/26/2009. Oregon, OESAC approval #884, 1.20 CEUs in Drinking Water, and 0.4 CEUs in Wastewater. Expires 12/17/2006. Pennsylvania DEP, 10 hours in Water # 681. Rhode Island, 10 contact hours. Tennessee, Water and Wastewater Certification Board, Approval #R02048, 10 Water Treatment Credit Hours. Utah Department of Environmental Quality requires special form from TLC. Washington WETRC approved 1 CEU. Wyoming DEQ, #373.00 for levels II, III, &IV. 10 Contact Hours “CREDIT is entered into a certified operator’s training record based on the CERTIFICATE NUMBER they list on the roster. FAILURE to provide a certification number or proving an incorrect number may result in no credit given.”
Check with your State to see if this course is accepted for CEU credit.
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The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. What do these conditions include? A simulation of a water treatment plant’s flash mixing process. Under normal plant conditions a flow is 3.0 MGD and a one-minute fast mixing in the jar test is adequate. If the plant flow increases to 4.0 MGD, how long of fast mix is needed in the jar test? Less than one minute is necessary.
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Water Treatment CEU Course
Water Distribution, Well Drillers, Pump Installers, Water Treatment Operators. The target audience for this course is the person interested in working in a water treatment or distribution facility and/or wishing to maintain CEUs for certification license or to learn how to do the job safely and effectively, and/or to meet education needs for promotion. This short CEU course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection and distribution making sure that it meets federal compliance. This course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection of the water that meets federal compliance. Task Analysis and Training Needs Assessments have been conducted to determine or set Needs-To-Know for this course. The following is a listing of some of those who have conducted extensive valid studies from which TLC has based this program upon: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the American Boards of Certification (ABC).
I. The Water Hydrological Cycle A. Terminology. B. Define Water’s Characteristics. II. Source of Water and Quality A. Define Ground water. B. Define Surface water. C. Define Quality Characteristics and Terms. III. Physical Processes A. Define Process Objectives. B. Define Concepts and MCLs. C. Define Terminology. D. Define Plant Layout. IV. Sedimentation and Related Processes A. Define Grit Chambers. B. Define Plain Sedimentation. C. Define Coagulation and Flocculation. 1. Chemical. 2. Process design. D. Define Thickening. E. Define Dewatering. F. Define Drying. G. Define Sludge Recovery and Transport. V. Define Filtration and other Treatment Techniques A. Process descriptions. 1. Functions. 2. Structure. 3. Operation. 4. Application. VI. Define Chlorination, Disinfection and Bacteria Testing.
CEU Course Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the water hydrologic cycle. Describe the source of water and the types of water quality issues. Describe the objectives of physical process of water treatment. Define terminology associated with physical processing of water. Describe the layout of physical processing facilities in water treatment plants. Describe the function, structure, operation, and application of racks, bars, and screens.
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7. 8. 9. 10.
Describe the coagulation and flocculation treatment processes. Describe sedimentation processes. Describe the filtration process. Describe the disinfection process.
Knowledge Obtained by this CEU Course Knowledge of chemical feeders, including startup/shutdown, calibration of feeder and calculation of dosage. 30 Minutes Knowledge of coagulation/flocculation systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of baffle, stationary, and mechanical systems. 20 Minutes Knowledge of sedimentation/clarification systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of sedimentation basin, solids-contact, and sludge depth determination. 25 Minutes Knowledge of granular activated carbon filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of deep-bed monomedia filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of multi-media gravity filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of membrane filtrations systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for operating conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of measurement techniques for expansion of backwash and depth of filter media. 15 Minutes Knowledge of alarm testing of disinfection systems. 5 Minutes Knowledge of operation and calibration of chemical feed pumps, e.g., hypochlorinators, chlorine systems, aqueous ammonia feeders, etc. 50 Minutes Knowledge of calculation of disinfectant dosage, including when to add disinfectant. 25 Minutes Knowledge of gas chlorinator operation, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 50 Minutes Knowledge of gas ammoniator systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 5 Minutes Knowledge of ozonators, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 35 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control solid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control liquid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of the chemistry of lime, caustic, bicarbonate, phosphates, silicates, and acids interacting with processed water. 40 Minutes Knowledge of stabilization reaction basins and correcting for abnormal conditions. 15 Minutes. Knowledge of electrical cathodic protections devices, including calibration. 10 Minutes Knowledge of calibration of flow meters, in-line turbidmeters, in-line chorine analyzers, and in-line pH meters. 10 Minutes Knowledge of programming alarms, autodialers, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes Knowledge of operation of auto shutdown systems, signal generators, signal receivers, signal transmitters, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes EPA Operator Rules, Security information and OSHA rule information. 210 Minutes.
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Other Areas Covered Intake Pretreatment Chemical Feed Chemical Mixing/Rapid Mix Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation/Clarification Filtration Disinfection Fluoridation Storage Softening Corrosion Control Sludge Disposal Recirculation Systems Instrumentation Maintenance Plumbing/Cross-Connections Laboratory Procedures Perform Specific Tests Operate Moving Equipment Management/Supervision/Reporting Specific Course Goals and Timed Outcomes (Beta Testing ) Eleven students were tested and the average time necessary to complete each task was recorded as the stated in the above objectives and timed outcome section. In the above timed outcome section area, the tasks were measured using times spent on each specific objective goal and final assignment grading of 70% and higher. Sixteen students were given a task assignment survey in which to track their times on the above learning objectives (course content) and utilized an essay style answer sheet to complete their final assignment. All students were given 30 days to complete this assignment and survey. September 2000 Beta Testing Group Statistics Sixteen students were selected for this assignment. All the students held water distribution or water treatment operator certification positions. None of the test group received credit for their assignment. Three students failed the final examination. Three students did not complete the reading assignment. The average times were based upon the outcome of eleven students. Prerequisites None Course Procedures for Registration and Support All of Technical Learning College correspondence courses have complete registration and support services offered. Delivery of services will include, e-mail, web site, telephone, fax and mail support. TLC will attempt immediate and prompt service. When a student registers for a distance or correspondence course, he/she is assigned a start date and an end date. It is the student's responsibility to note dates for assignments and keep up with the course work. If a student falls behind, he/she must contact TLC and request an end date extension in order to complete the course. It is the prerogative of TLC to decide whether to grant the request. All students will be tracked by their social security number or a unique number will be assigned to the student. Instructions for Written Assignments The Water Treatment correspondence course uses a multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank answer key. TLC would prefer that the answers are typed and e-mailed to, email@example.com. If you are unable to do so, please write inside the booklet and make a copy for yourself and mail me the completed manual. There are a total of 66 questions in this course.
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You can find course assistance on the website under the Assignment Page, under the Course Assistance button. Feedback Mechanism (examination procedures) Each student will receive a feedback form as part of their study packet. You will be able to find this form in the rear of the course or lesson. Security and Integrity All students are required to do their own work. All lesson sheets and final exams are not returned to the student to discourage sharing of answers. Any fraud or deceit and the student will forfeit all fees and the appropriate agency will be notified. Grading Criteria TLC will offer the student either pass/fail or a standard letter grading assignment. If TLC is not notified, you will only receive a pass/fail notice. (Certificate) Recommended Texts The Water Treatment course can be completed without any other text but you may use either a copy of WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION VOLUME ONE AND TWO - Office of Water Programs, California State University Sacramento or WATER TREATMENT - American Water Works Association to assist in completion or understanding of the assignment. Recordkeeping and Reporting Practices TLC will keep all student records for a minimum of seven years. It is your responsibility to give the completion certificate to the appropriate agencies. We will send the required information to Texas, Indiana and Pennsylvania for your certificate renewals. ADA Compliance TLC will make reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Students should notify TLC and their instructors of any special needs. Course content may vary from this outline to meet the needs of this particular group. Mission Statement Our only product is educational service. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible education service possible. TLC will attempt to make your learning experience an enjoyable educational opportunity.
What are a couple of corrosive substances may be found in a laboratory? Hydrochloric and Sulfuric acids HCL & H2SO4
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To provide TLC students opportunities to apply and understand the theory and skills needed for operator certification. and to maintain an environment that nurtures academic and personal growth. To provide a forum for the collection and dissemination of current information related to environmental education. To provide opportunities for TLC students to learn and practice environmental educational skills with members of the community for the purpose of sharing diverse perspectives and experience.Educational Mission The educational mission of TLC is: To provide TLC students with comprehensive and ongoing training in the theory and skills needed for the environmental education field. To provide a forum in which students can exchange experiences and ideas related to environmental education. Water Operator’s Lab Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 9 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Final Sedimentation Basin Pre-Sedimentation Clarifier Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 10 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Operator ID# ________________________________Expiration Date____________ Class/Grade__________________________________ Your certificate will be mailed to you in about two weeks.com 3 digit code on back of card _____ American Express Visa or MasterCard #__________________________________Exp.Contact Hour CEU/PDH Training Registration Water Treatment CEU Course Course Price $50.O. Water Treatment Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Groundwater Degree Program Other ___________________________ Technical Learning College P. please write your customer#_________________ Referral’s Name_____________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 11 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Box 420.00 Start and Finish Dates:_________________________You will have 90 days from this date in order to complete this course Name______________________________________Signature____________________ (This will appear on your certificate as above) Address:________________________________________________________________ City______________________________State________Zip___________Email________ Phone: Home ( )_______________Work ( )_____________Fax ( )_____________ Social Security___________________________ Your State may require this information. Payson. Date_________ If you’ve paid on the Internet. Please circle which certification you are applying the course CEU’s. AZ 85547-0420 ℡Toll Free (866) 557-1746℡ (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 info@tlch2o.
Solids Handling: Primary Return Water Clarifier and Centrifuge Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 12 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Index New EPA Rules 15 Microbes 18 Radionuclides 19 Inorganic Contaminants 20 Volatile Organic Contaminants 21 Primary Drinking Water Requirements 23 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations 29 SDWA Terms 31 Groundwater and Wells 35 Water Sources 37 Source Water Quality 39 Water Treatment 42 Conventional Treatment 49 Rapid Sand Filtration 51 Backwash Rule 57 Algae 59 Waterborne Pathogens 61 Protozoan Diseases 64 Waterborne Diseases 66 Jar Testing 69 Periodic Chart 79 pH 81 Water Disinfectants 82 Chlorine Section 83 DPD Residual Method 97 Amperometric Titration 98 Chemistry Chlorination 99 Chlorinator Parts 108 Chlorine Dioxide 115 Bacteriological Monitor 127 HPC 133 Total Coliforms 136 Fluoride 137 Water Quality 141 Activated Carbon 147 Corrosion Control 148 Cathodic Protection 149 Alkalinity 151 Water Storage 153 Cross-Connections 155 Centrifugal Pumps 157 Hard Water 163 Water Softening 166 Split Case Centrifugal Pump Vertical Turbine Pumps Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 13 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
01 Eye/nose irritation. anemia control microbes MRDL=4.81 Anemia.81 MRDL=0. stomach Water additive used to discomfort.Membrane Filtration Processes Reverse Osmosis Ozone Ultraviolet Radiation DBP Removal Chart Glossary 185 Conversion Factor 209 Assignment 213 Customer Survey 229 169 173 180 181 183 Control Room Disinfectants Contaminant MRDL1 (mg/L)2 MRDL1 (mg/L)2 Potential Health Effects from Sources of Contaminant Ingestion of Water in Drinking Water Chloramines (as Cl2) Chlorine (as Cl2) Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2) MRDLG=41 MRDLG=41 MRDL=4. infants & young children: nervous system effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 14 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .01 Eye/nose irritation. stomach Water additive used to discomfort control microbes Water additive used to control microbes MRDLG=0.
To protect human health. ICR EPA has collected data required by the Information Collection Rule (ICR) to support future regulation of microbial contaminants.html. although it can also come from industrial sources. and soil erode. When rocks. Studies have linked long-term exposure of arsenic in drinking water to a variety of cancers in humans. minerals.gov/safewater/arsenic. For most people in the U. eating and drinking are the most common ways that people are exposed to arsenic.S. and engineering data to control these contaminants. including Cryptosporidium. disinfectants. EPA decided to review the decision to ensure that the final standard was based on sound science and accurate estimates of costs and benefits. In January 2001. When people either drink this water or eat animals and plants that drink it. EPA decided to move forward with implementing the 10ppb standard for arsenic in drinking water. disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). In October 2001. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 15 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . More information on the rulemaking process and the costs and benefits of setting the arsenic limit in drinking water at 10ppb can be found at www. ordering that it fall to 10 ppb by 2006. The rule is intended to provide EPA with information on chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with chemicals already present in source water (disinfection byproducts (DBPs)).New EPA Water Rules Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. they are exposed to arsenic. and disinfection byproducts. an EPA standard limits the amount of arsenic in drinking water.epa. they release arsenic into water supplies. Drinking water microbial and disinfection byproduct information collected for the ICR is now available in EPA's Envirofacts Warehouse.. EPA revised the standard from 50 parts per billion (ppb). After adopting 10ppb as the new standard for arsenic in drinking water.
Disinfection Byproduct Regulations In December 1998. bromate. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate HAA5 at 60 parts per billion annual average. Different disinfectants produce different types or amounts of disinfection byproducts. dibromochloromethane. decaying vegetation) present in the source water. The regulated haloacetic acids. Those standards became effective in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water public water systems. The Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule standards became effective for trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts listed above in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. The standard became effective for the first time in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water systems. haloacetic acids. trichloroacetic acid. This standard will replace the current standard of a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. the EPA established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule that requires public water systems to use treatment measures to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and to meet the following specific standards: Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic acids (HAA5) Bromate Chlorite 80 parts per billion (ppb) 60 ppb 10 ppb 1. Disinfection byproducts are formed when disinfectants used in water treatment plants react with bromide and/or natural organic matter (i. and bromoform. Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) are a group of chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. and dibromoacetic acid. Disinfection byproducts for which regulations have been established have been identified in drinking water. monobromoacetic acid. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. and chlorite. The EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate total trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a maximum allowable annual average level of 80 parts per billion. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water. dichloroacetic acid.0 parts per million (ppm) Currently trihalomethanes are regulated at a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion for water systems serving over 10. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 16 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . including trihalomethanes. The trihalomethanes are chloroform.. The EPA has established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate bromate at annual average of 10 parts per billion in drinking water.000 people under the Total Trihalomethane Rule finalized by the EPA in 1979. are: monochloroacetic acid.e. bromodichloromethane. known as HAA5.
Among its provisions. Chlorite is a byproduct formed when chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect water. The Surface Water Treatment Rule specifies treatment criteria to assure that these performance requirements are met. including pathogens. and disinfectant contact time conditions. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems comply with Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. using surface water (or ground water under the direct influence of surface water) as its source.This standard became effective for large public water systems by December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground public water systems back in December 2003. respectively. the rule requires that a public water system.000 people. they include turbidity limits. The EPA has promulgating a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate chlorite at a monthly average level of 1 part per million in drinking water. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems lower disinfection byproduct levels to comply with the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems back in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. for systems serving fewer than 10.9% and 99.99%. The Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule was established in December 1998 to control Cryptosporidium. The new rule will tighten turbidity standards by December 2001. disinfectant residual. The EPA established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for all public water systems and a 99% removal requirement for Cryptosporidium in filtered public water systems that serve at least 10. Turbidity is an indicator of the physical removal of particulates. This is to improve physical removal of Cryptosporidium. Microbial Regulations One of the key regulations developed and implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to counter pathogens in drinking water is the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 17 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The EPA is also planning to develop other rules to further control pathogens. have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least 99.000 people.
diarrhea. The EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium. Often referred to as HPC. nausea. and opportunistic pathogens. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. However. vomiting. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. The above photo is of a SimPlate for HPC multi-dose used for the quantification of HPC in water. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including nonpathogens. However. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. headaches.Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects. cramps. It causes cryptosporidiosis. or other symptoms. pathogens. such as diarrhea. a mild gastrointestinal disease. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e.g. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 18 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and cramps). the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste.
Radionuclides Alpha emitters. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Combined Radium 226/228. Gas Chromatograph (GC) Separates vaporized sample into individual components. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. a carrier gas transports them through a separation column and into a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) where individual components are identified. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 19 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Operation A sample is placed into a heated injection port. such as wells. and in the air in your home. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Beta/photon emitters. As the organics are driven off by heating. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer.
7. Dental fluorosis. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health.3. in its moderate or severe forms. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks.4. Lead typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride. including pain and tenderness of the bones). see the EPA’s lead in your drinking water fact sheet. including pesticides & herbicides 2. This problem occurs only in developing teeth.5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2.8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 20 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Synthetic Organic Contaminants. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the EPA's standard over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system. The EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis. For advice on avoiding lead. before they erupt from the gums. The EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth.Inorganic Contaminants (IOC) Antimony Asbestos Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Thallium Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. Fluoride.4-D 2.
4-Trichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethylene 1.1-Dichloroethylene cis-1.-Trichloroethane 1.2-Dichloroethane 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 21 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC) Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1. thin bottles with the septum tops.1.1.2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Toluene Vinyl Chloride Xylenes Common water sampling bottles VOC bottles are the smaller.2.2-Dicholoroethylene Dichloromethane 1.2-Dichloroethylene trans-1.1.
Giardia Cryptosporidium Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 22 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
discharge from electrical. physical or mental plumbing systems.006 none5 0. erosion of natural deposits Corrosion of household plumbing systems. erosion of natural deposits.0 Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis Action Short term exposure: Level=1. wood preservatives. TT6 development.006 0. electronics. increased risk of cancer Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Discharge from petroleum refineries. natural deposits Adults: Kidney problems. solder Discharge from semiconductor manufacturing.1 0. herbicides. petroleum refining. erosion of natural deposits. discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories 4. strong teeth. aerospace. ceramics. erosion of natural Children may get mottled deposits. discharge from metal refineries. high blood pressure Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 23 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Gastrointestinal distress. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories.National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Inorganic Chemicals Antimony Arsenic MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Increase in blood cholesterol.005 0.004 Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps Increase in blood pressure Intestinal lesions Cadmium 0.010 Asbestos (fiber >10 micrometers) Barium Beryllium 7 million 7 MFL fibers per Liter 2 2 0. Those with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor if their water systems exceed the copper action level. 0. 6 3.1 Copper 1. decrease in blood glucose Skin damage.0 Bone disease (pain and Water additive which promotes tenderness of the bones).3 Cyanide (as free cyanide) Fluoride 0. animal feed additives. TT Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage. fertilizer and aluminum factories Action Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household Level=0. erosion of natural deposits Discharge of drilling wastes. circulatory system problems. erosion of 015.004 0. discharge from teeth.2 4.2 Nerve damage or thyroid problems Lead zero Discharge from steel/metal factories. runoff from waste batteries and paints Discharge from steel and pulp mills. leaching from wood preservatives 0.005 Kidney damage Chromium (total) 0. and defense industries Corrosion of galvanized pipes. fire retardants. discharge from metal refineries. erosion of natural deposits Decay of asbestos cement in water mains.
Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from petroleum refineries.002 0. and pharmaceutical companies Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen) 10 10 Nitrite (measured as 1 Nitrogen) 1 Selenium Thallium 0. leaching from septic tanks. sewage. erosion of natural deposits Runoff from fertilizer use. numbness in fingers or toes. intestine. leaching from septic tanks.05 0.Inorganic Mercury 0.002 Kidney damage Erosion of natural deposits.002 "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . circulatory problems Hair loss. erosion of natural deposits. sewage. discharge from electronics. changes in blood. kidney.05 0. Hair or fingernail loss. or liver problems Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 24 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . discharge from mines Leaching from ore-processing sites. "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months .0005 0. discharge from refineries and factories.life threatening without immediate medical attention. runoff from landfills and cropland Runoff from fertilizer use. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. glass.life threatening without immediate medical attention.
006 0.005 0.005 0.1 0.04 .075 0.2 0. leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Residue of banned termiticide zero zero 0. changes in blood chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems.07 0.075 zero 0.4 0. reproductive difficulties.2-Dibromo-3chloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1. discharge from chemical factories Reproductive difficulties.003 0.007 0. increased risk of cancer Eye. reproductive difficulties Anemia. decrease in blood platelets.4 0. increased risk of chemical factories cancer Reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 25 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or adrenal gland Runoff from herbicide used on problems row crops Minor kidney changes Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Reproductive difficulties.6 0.2Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1-2Dichloropropane Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Nervous system or blood problems.007 0. increased risk Discharge from pharmaceutical of cancer and chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories General toxic effects or Leaching from PVC plumbing reproductive difficulties systems.07 0. and orchards Liver.005 0.1 0. kidney.0002 0.04 zero zero 0. 2Dichloroethylene trans-1. increased risk of cancer Cardiovascular system problems.002 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Discharge from factories. cotton.2 zero TT 7 0. increased risk of cancer Problems with blood or nervous system. kidney or spleen Discharge from industrial damage.002 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or nervous system problems.007 Discharger from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Kidney. Runoff/leaching from soil increased risk of cancer fumigant used on soybeans.07 0. increased risk of cancer Reproductive difficulties.005 0. liver. liver Discharge from rubber and problems. Liver problems. kidney or spleen problems. pineapples.005 0.4-D Dalapon 1.Organic Chemicals Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Carbofuran Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene 2. anemia.1 zero zero 0.003 zero zero 0.07 0. liver.2-Dichloroethane 1-1Dichloroethylene cis-1.0002 0.1 0. or circulatory Discharge from industrial system problems chemical factories Anemia. liver.007 Di(2zero ethylhexyl)phthalate Dinoseb 0.6 0.
increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems. increased risk of cancer Liver damage. and tomatoes Runoff from landfills.7 0.5 0.4Trichlorobenzene 1.Dioxin (2.05 0. kidney.1 0. liver. reproductive difficulties Liver damage.0002 Methoxychlor Oxamyl (Vydate) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 0. potatoes.002 zero 0.05 tadiene Lindane 0.000000 Reproductive difficulties.2 0.02 0. reproductive difficulties.04 0.05 0.20 Discharge from wood preserving factories Herbicide runoff Herbicide runoff Discharge from rubber and plastic factories.07 0.3.5-TP (Silvex) 1. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Changes in adrenal glands Liver.2.7 zero 0.7 0. reproductive difficulties. and circulatory problems Liver problems.1Trichloroethane 1 none5 zero 0. 03 increased risk of cancer 0.1. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems.004 0.1 0. nervous system. discharge from chemical factories Runoff from herbicide use Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned insecticide Discharge from industrial chemical factories.005 1 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney or stomach problems Liver or kidney problems Reproductive difficulties Slight nervous system effects Skin changes.003 0.2 zero Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Styrene zero 0.05 0.1 0.002 TT7 0.2 Tetrachloroethylene zero Toluene Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Toxaphene 2. increased risk of cancer Kidney problems.5 0.02 0. gardens Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits. discharge of waste chemicals Heptachlor epoxide zero Hexachlorobenzene zero Hexachlorocyclopen 0.0002 0. leaching from landfills Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Discharge from petroleum factories Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Residue of banned herbicide Discharge from textile finishing factories Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 26 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . vegetables. or thyroid problems. added to water during treatment process Discharge from petroleum refineries Discharge from petroleum refineries Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned termiticide Breakdown of hepatachlor Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Discharge from chemical factories Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle. kidney or central nervous system problems. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Stomach problems.0002 0.8TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethelyne dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor zero 0. lumber.004 0. immune deficiencies.001 0.7. reproductive difficulties.07 0. thymus gland problems. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Problems with blood Liver. increased risk of cancer Nervous system. kidney. alfalfa.0004 0.7 zero Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion.1 0. or liver problems Liver.10 0.4. increased risk of cancer Kidney.0005 Cataracts Stomach and intestinal problems Nervous system effects Stomach problems. or circulatory problems 0. livestock Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples. reproductive or nervous system difficulties.00005 0.001 0.04 0.
Legionnaire's Disease. or immune system problems Liver problems.1.005 0.003 zero zero 10 0. Coli) N/A Turbidity Viruses (enteric) zero TT8 Human and animal fecal waste Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 27 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a gastroenteric disease HPC has no health effects.005 0. It may indicate the presence of microbes. discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides Beta particles and photon emitters MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Decay of natural and manmade deposits Erosion of natural deposits none 5 Gross alpha particle none5 activity Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined) none5 4 Increased risk of cancer millirems per year 15 Increased risk of cancer picocurie s per Liter (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L Increased risk of cancer Erosion of natural deposits MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 Microorganisms (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Giardiasis. but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms. commonly known as pneumonia Used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria 10 may be present Turbidity has no health effects but can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. kidney.002 10 Liver.1. Gastroenteric disease n/a Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Human and animal fecal waste Giardia lamblia Heterotrophic plate count zero N/A TT 8 TT8 Legionella zero TT8 5.0%9 TT8 Found naturally in water. increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer Nervous system damage Discharge from industrial chemical factories Discharge from petroleum refineries Leaching from PVC pipes.2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) 0. multiplies in heating systems Human and animal fecal waste Soil runoff Total Coliforms zero (including fecal coliform and E. discharge from plastic factories Discharge from petroleum factories.
Cholera Legionella Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 28 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
5 mg/L 0.National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. The EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply.5 0.2 mg/L 250 mg/L 15 (color units) 1. or color) in drinking water.3 mg/L 0.10 mg/L 250 mg/L 500 mg/L 5 mg/L Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 29 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .05 to 0. Contaminant Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Fluoride Foaming Agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc Secondary Standard 0. However.0 mg/L noncorrosive 2. odor.5-8.05 mg/L 3 threshold odor number 6.0 mg/L 0. states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.
headaches.3 mg/L. in writing. There cannot be any fecal coliforms.The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. as follows: • Acrylamide = 0.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent) • Epichlorohydrin = 0. 6 Lead and copper are regulated in a Treatment Technique which requires systems to take tap water samples at sites with lead pipes or copper pipes that have lead solder and/or are served by lead service lines.An enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. Therefore.99% killed/inactivated • Legionella: No limit. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 30 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0. the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified. MCLs are enforceable standards.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent) 8 The Surface Water Treatment Rule requires systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water. no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive). 10 Fecal coliform and E. Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea. 4 Units are in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human animal wastes. cramps. for copper is 1.9% killed/inactivated Viruses: 99.015mg/L. and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Giardia lamblia: 99. 2 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) .0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are inactivated. 3 Treatment Technique . which triggers water systems into taking treatment steps if exceeded in more than 10% of tap water samples. MCLGs are nonenforceable public health goals. 5 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms. and for lead is 0. to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems. nausea. 7 Each water system must certify. Legionella will also be controlled. The margins of safety in MCLGs ensure that exceeding the MCL slightly does not pose significant risk to public health. • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU). • HPC: NO more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter. there is no MCLG for this contaminant. The action level.The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur.Notes 1 Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) . or other symptoms. and which allows for a proper margin of safety. 9 No more than 5. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month.
" Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Giardia lamblia A protozoan. associated with the disease giardiasis. II. targeting likely sources for further investigation. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea. Contamination Source Inventory. In the SDWA. the EPA awards capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance drinking water system infrastructure improvements. . abdominal pain. A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents of the area served by the system or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. ". MCLGs are non-enforceable public health goals. and as necessary.Safe Drinking Water Act Terms Community Water System (CWS). the statute reads. The process of identifying and inventorying contaminant sources within delineated source water protection areas through recording existing data. the Administrator shall also promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems." MCLs are enforceable standards. collecting and interpreting new information on existing or potential sources through surveys. and verifying accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. exposure from person-to-person contact. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 31 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea. and cramps. person-to-person contact. Under section 1452 of the SDWA. which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months. III or IV in which nonhazardous fluids are injected into or above underground sources of drinking water. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults. and other activities to encourage public water system compliance and protection of public health. including surface water systems. an MCL is defined as "the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. Exposure Contact between a person and a chemical. Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR). and which allows for an adequate margin of safety. Under section 107 of the SDWA Amendments of 1996. ground water systems. The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water. and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. or other exposure routes. Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water. to enhance operations and management of drinking water systems. describing sources within the source water protection area. source water protection. Cryptosporidium A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. vomiting. Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Rule. A rule under development covering wells not included in Class I. fatigue. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF). .
so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting the national drinking water regulations while individual states are responsible for ensuring that public water systems under their jurisdiction are complying with the regulations.The Safe Drinking Water Act.1-dichloroethylene. set water quality standards for 8 VOCs and required all community and Non-Transient. para-dichlorobenzene. pesticides.Nephelolometric Turbidity Units. there must be hazard and there must be exposure. Point-of-Use Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment. Point-of-Entry Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home. and has the authority to enforce the law and related regulations.2-dichlorothane. State has adopted rules at least as stringent as federal regulations and has been granted primary enforcement responsibility. Risk The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals. gallons per capita per day (gpcd).1. they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. There are two types of NCWSs: transient and non-transient. vinyl chloride. Phase I Contaminants The Phase I Rule became effective on January 9. or blue baby syndrome. 2-trichlorethane. if necessary. Nitrates Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges. and others. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 32 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Per capita Per person. Radiation can cause adverse health effects. The SDWA was amended in 1986 and again in 1996. The 8 VOCs regulated under this rule are: Benzene. Non-Community Water System (NCWS). This rule. (NTU) A unit of measure used to describe the turbidity of water. 1. SDWA . or VOC Rule. treat their supplies for these chemicals. Turbidity is the cloudiness in water. 1989. trichloroethylene. The Safe Drinking Water Act was first passed in 1974 and established the basic requirements under which the nation’s public water supplies were regulated. and 1. Radionuclides Elements that undergo a process of natural decay. 1. such as cancer. Organics Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobanemia. In order for there to be risk. State that has the responsibility for ensuring a law is implemented. As radionuclides decay. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons. Primacy State. also called the Volatile Organic Chemical Rule. A public water system that is not a community water system. Non-Community water systems to monitor for and. Carbon Tetrachloride. generally used in expressions of water use. which results from interferences in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen.
S. etc. as part of the state SWAP approved by the EPA under section 1453 of the SDWA. The area delineated by the state for a PWS or including numerous PWSs. particularly previous Federal and state inventories of sources. Non-Community Water Systems (T/NT. Source Water Protection Area (SWPA). All information sources may be used. A facility or activity that stores. These systems typically are schools. This analysis will assist the state in determining which potential sources of contamination are "significant. etc. A topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a tributary of a stream. Treatment Technique A specific treatment method required by the EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. territories) the flexibility to design and implement approaches to manage the use of certain pesticides to protect ground water. factories. Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) Designation. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 33 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . An analysis to determine. whether the source is ground water or surface water or both. the susceptibility of the public water systems in the source water protection area to contamination from these sources. and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided. viruses and Legionella. Susceptibility Analysis.Significant Potential Source of Contamination. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). A treatment technique is an enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. tribes and U. Transient/Non-Transient. states. A state management plan under FIFRA required by the EPA to allow states (e. States must inventory sources of contamination to the extent they have the technology and resources to complete an inventory for a Source Water Protection Area delineated as described in the guidance. uses. treatment. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL. or produces chemicals or elements. A state program implemented in accordance with the statutory language at section 1454 of the SDWA to establish local voluntary incentive-based partnerships for SWP and remediation. Water systems that are non-community systems: transient systems serve 25 non-resident persons per day for 6 months or less per year. large stores. the EPA can instead specify a treatment technique. Non-transient systems regularly serve at least 25 of the same non-resident persons per day for more than 6 months per year. The regulations also specify water quality. and that has the potential to release contaminants identified in a state program (contaminants with MCLs plus any others a state considers a health threat) within a source water protection area in an amount which could contribute significantly to the concentration of the contaminants in the source waters of the public water supply. churches. Sub watershed. hotels." To the Extent Practical. The rule specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia. and promulgated filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface water sources or by ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water. State Source Water Petition Program. The surface area above a sole source aquifer and its recharge area. Transient non-community systems typically are restaurants.NCWS). State Management Plan (SMP) Program.g. offices. with a clear understanding of where the significant potential sources of contamination are located.
Watershed. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA). Watershed Area. A topographic boundary area that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a stream. taking into consideration both ground and surface water flow. A watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. Toxicity The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it. land and territories. from which overland flow drains to the intake.Total Coliform Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 34 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water well or well field. The program applies to injection well owners and operators on Federal facilities.The surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field.S. Native American lands. A topographic area that is within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking water intake. Watershed Approach. and on all U. Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. The program is designed to prevent underground injection which endangers drinking water sources. supplying a PWS.
its rate of flow can be relatively fast but this is exceptional. where groundwater has dissolved limestone to form caverns and large openings.Groundwater and Wells A well can be easily contaminated if it is not properly constructed or if toxic materials are released into the well. the dynamics of groundwater flow change in response to this withdrawal. Toxic material spilled or dumped near a well can leach into the aquifer and contaminate the groundwater drawn from that well. Groundwater is withdrawn from wells to provide water for everything from drinking water for the home and business. Contaminated wells used for drinking water are especially dangerous. Groundwater flows slowly through water-bearing formations (aquifers) at different rates. In some places. to water to irrigate crops to industrial processing water. Wells can be tested to see what chemicals may be present in dangerous quantities. Well with a mineral oil sealed vertical turbine pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 35 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . When water is pumped from the ground.
if it contains cracks it can still act as a fractured aquifer. Limestones are often fractured aquifers. Here the spaces in the rock and soil contain both air and water. Most of the aquifers of importance to us are unconsolidated porous media such as sand and gravel. Therefore. Like surface water. for instance. Water in this zone is called soil moisture. A well in such an aquifer is called an artesian well. forming large channels or even caverns. Some very porous materials are not permeable. Clay. In this case. The water in these wells. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 36 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These are called confined aquifers. However. groundwater may move in different directions below the ground than the water flowing on the surface. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone. lie beneath layers of impermeable materials. rises higher than the top of the aquifer because of confining pressure. Porous media such as sandstone may become so highly cemented or recrystalized that all of the original space is filled. the rock is no longer a porous medium. Some aquifers. it does not always mirror the flow of water on the surface. Fractured aquifers are rocks in which the groundwater moves through cracks. rivers. Unconfined aquifers are those that are bounded by the water table. The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone. however. If the water level rises above the ground surface a flowing artesian well occurs. but the spaces are not large enough to permit free movement of water. Groundwater flow in the aquifers underlying surface drainage basins. lakes and the oceans.Many terms are used to describe the nature and extent of the groundwater resource. Groundwater usually flows downhill with the slope of the water table. groundwater flows toward. and water in this saturated zone is called groundwater. The level below which all the spaces are filled with water is called the water table. but here the cracks and fractures may be enlarged by solution. joints or fractures in otherwise solid rock. or sometimes artesian aquifers. and eventually drains into streams. Examples of fractured aquifers include granite and basalt. however. The piezometric surface is the level to which the water in an artesian aquifer will rise. has many spaces between its grains. Limestone terrain where solution has been very active is termed karst.
4.Water Sources Before we discuss the types of treatment it is easier to first understand how the source of water arrives. Evaporation: The process by which the water or other liquids become a gas. 5. hail or other forms of moisture. Because of this. Condensation: The collection of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. Most lakes and rivers are formed this way. 6. we must treat the water for human consumption. Water will be collected as surface supplies or circulate to form in the ground. Once the precipitation begins water is no longer in its purest form. As it becomes rain or snow it may be polluted with organisms. Precipitation: The process by which atmospheric moisture falls on to the land or water surface as rain. Runoff: Water that drains from a saturated or impermeable surface into stream channels or other surface water areas. 3. and inorganic compounds. snow. Water Cycle Terms 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 37 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Transpiration: Moisture that will come from plants as a byproduct of photosynthesis. Infiltration: The gradual flow or movement of water into and through the pores of the soil. organic compounds. 2.
when you think about where your drinking water comes from. aluminium. Most of these substances are of natural origin and are picked up as water passes round the water cycle. Although water suppliers have removed most of the original lead piping from the mains distribution system. The water will also contain a relatively low level of bacteria which is not generally a risk to health Insecticides and herbicides (sometimes referred to as pesticides) Are widely used in agriculture. Temporary hardness comes out of the water when it's heated and is deposited as scale and fur on kettles. people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. As with surface water. depending on its source. Lead Lead does not usually occur naturally in water supplies but is derived from lead distribution and domestic pipework and fittings. The pipework (including the service pipe) within the boundary of the property is the responsibility of the owner of the property. or may span the borders of many states. wild animals and people. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 38 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cysts are rarely present in the public water supply. insecticides and herbicides although the maximum amounts of all these substances are strictly limited by the regulations. lake. Particles and rust These come from the gradual breakdown of the lining of concrete or iron mains water pipes or from sediment which has accumulated over the years and is disturbed in some way. Aluminium Aluminium salts are added during water treatment to remove color and suspended solids.Where Does Drinking Water Come From? A clean. nitrates. but the entire watershed. magnesium and sodium. not the water supplier. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources. These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide. and reservoirs. or reservoir. Cysts These are associated with the reproductive stages of parasitic micro-organisms (protozoans) which can cause acute diarrhea type illnesses. leisure facilities and gardens to control weeds and insect pests and may enter the water cycle in many ways. it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see. many older properties still have lead service pipes and internal lead pipework. These are usually referred to as 'contaminants'. They are very resistant to normal disinfection processes but can be removed by advanced filtration processes installed in water treatment works. industry. drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. coffee makers and taps and appears as a scum or film on tea and coffee. In rural areas. In either case. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. rivers. It is also not uncommon to find traces of iron. Some are present due to the treatment processes which are used make the water suitable for drinking and cooking. chlorides. manganese. such as lakes. Other times. Your water will normally contain chlorine and varying amounts of dissolved minerals including calcium. they come from farm animals. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river. copper. constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. Permanent hardness is unaffected by heating. it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water. sulphates and bicarbonates. Your annual drinking water quality report will tell you where your water supplier gets your water. Water Hardness There are two types of hardness: temporary and permanent.
Wellhead Protection Wellhead protection refers to programs designed to maintain the quality of groundwater used as public drinking water sources. fuels.Source Water Quality Groundwater Groundwater contributes most of all of the water that is derived from wells or springs. viruses. beauty shops. inorganic chemicals (nitrate. Contaminants can be conveniently lumped into three categories: microorganisms (bacteria. it takes only a very small amount of some chemicals in drinking water to raise health concerns. photo processing labs. the recharge area is often the immediate vicinity around the well or "wellhead. pesticides applied to highway right-of-ways. lawn and garden chemicals. fractures or pore spaces between grains) in sediments and rocks below the surface. D) Create a management plan for the protection zone. etc. at the surface or below it. Groundwater moves from areas where the water table is high to where the water table is low. but it is not readily accessible or extractable everywhere. Some of this water percolates down to the water table (shallowest surface of the groundwater) and recharges the aquifer. auto repair shops. potential contaminants are widespread and often come from common everyday activities as well. for example less than 50-75 feet. etc. by managing the land uses around the wellfield. such as septic systems. arsenic. The theory is that management of land use around the well. E) Plan for the future. C) Perform a contaminant use inventory. It occurs in the natural open spaces (e. a common solvent. For shallow wells. If the downward percolating precipitation encounters any source of contamination. The concept usually includes several stages. Wellhead Protection Sequence A) Build a community-wide planning team. and over water moving (underground) toward the well. industry or agriculture. dry cleaners.) and organic chemicals (solvents. etc. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 39 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Groundwater is distributed fairly evenly throughout the crust of the earth. will help to minimize damage to subsurface water supplies by spills or improper use of chemicals. stormwater runoff. increasing the tendency for water to move towards the well." Some wells are recharged in areas that may be a great distance from the well itself. Importantly. gas stations. the water may dissolve some of that contaminant and carry it to the aquifer. etc. More than 90 percent of the world's total supply of drinkable water is groundwater.). one gallon of pure trichloroethylene. For example. a contaminant may enter the aquifer some distance upgradient from you and still move towards your well. medical institutions.). Groundwater originates as precipitation that sinks into the ground. B) Delineate geologically the protection zone. Although it is common practice to associate contamination with highly visible features such as landfills. Consequently.g.. it lowers the water table in the immediate vicinity of the well. will contaminate approximately 292 million gallons of water. Giardia. pesticides. metals. When a well is pumping.
turbidity. temperature. suspended solids. and carbon dioxide will change because of biological activities. this is how the consumer judges how well the provider is treating the water. Chemical characteristics are the elements found that are considered alkali. This will also interact with the chemical composition of the water. and non metals such as fluoride. Runoff could produce mud. Quality of Water Here are the different classifications or the way water characteristics change as it passes on the surface and below the ground it would be in four categories: Physical characteristics such as taste.Water Rights Appropriative: Acquired water rights for exclusive use. Prescriptive: Rights based upon legal prescription or long use or custom. What’s the difference between lakes and reservoirs? Reservoirs are lakes with man-made dams. leaves. Depending on the region. and some will collect as runoff to form streams and rivers that will then flow into the ocean. and turbidity. metals. Surface water is usually contaminated and unsafe to drink. The discharge from industry could increase volatile organic compounds. Surface Water Some of the rainwater will be immediately impounded in lakes and reservoirs. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 40 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . sulfides or acids. The consumer will become sick or complain about hydrogen sulfide odors. some lakes and rivers receive discharge from sewer facilities or defective septic tanks. Riparian: Water rights because property is adjacent to a river or surface water. decayed vegetation. The consumer relates it to scaling of faucets or staining. the rotten egg smell. Some lakes and reservoirs may experience seasonal turnover. Changes in the dissolved oxygen. algae. Radiological characteristics are the result of water coming in contact with radioactive materials. Biological characteristics are the presence of living or dead organisms. and human and animal refuse. temperature. Water is known as the universal solvent because most substances that come in contact with it will dissolve. This could be associated with atomic energy. odor.
and toxicity. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. For example algae and rooted aquatic plants are essential in the food chain of fish and birds. Algae can be controlled by using chemicals such as copper sulfate. In some areas it may be restricted from recreational use. The lack of dissolved oxygen in water is known as anaerobic conditions. color. as algae absorb this energy it converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. With out sun light. Depending on the pH(Power of Hydrogen) and alkalinity of the water will determine how these chemicals will react. Most treatment plant upsets such as taste and odor. Certain vegetation removes the excess nutrients that would promote the growth of algae. color. Another aspect of quality control is aquatic plants. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC or GAC) and Chlorine. operators have used Potassium Permanganate. Algae growth is the result of photosynthesis. discharge or runoff from agriculture. kidneys. Algae growth is supplied by the energy of the sun. Total Trihalomethanes. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. or central nervous systems. Most systems no longer use Chlorine because it reacts with the organics in the water to form Trihalomethanes. Too much algae will imbalance the lake and this will result to fish kill. The type of algae determines the problem it will cause for instance slime. The ecological balance in lakes and reservoirs plays a natural part in the purification and sustaining the life of the lake. source water may have several restrictions of use as part of a Water Shed Management Plan. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 41 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . corrosion. the algae would consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide.Managing Water Quality at the Source Depending on the region. Depending on federal regulations and the amount of copper found natural in water. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. or industrial and wastewater discharge. This creates aerobic conditions that supply fish with oxygen. and filter clogging is due to algae.
Groundwater contaminants include naturally occurring inorganic chemicals (such as arsenic. viruses and bacteria) and low levels of a large number of organic chemicals.C.” The treatment needs of a water system are likely to differ depending on whether the system uses a groundwater or surface water source. fluoride. medical lore of India advised. When selecting among the different treatment options. radon and nitrate) and a number of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that have recently been detected in localized areas. or being heated in the sun or by dipping a heated iron into it. characteristics of the raw water. configuration of the existing system. microbiological contaminants (Giardia. As early as 2000 B. color. and improve aesthetic qualities such as appearance.Water Treatment For thousands of years. These include regulatory requirements. odor. Common surface water contaminants include turbidity. and taste. Large surface water impound Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 42 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . operating requirements and future needs of the service area.. “Impure water should be purified by being boiled over a fire. or it may be purified by filtration through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. cost. the water supplier must consider a number of factors. people have treated water intended for drinking to remove particles of solid matter. reduce health risks. radium.
Both require manual cleaning. If not removed. sand and rocks. weeds. Bar screens are made of straight steel bars at the intake of the plant. Mechanical bar screens very in size and use some type of raking mechanism that travels horizontally down the bars to scrap the debris off. sticks. The spacing of the horizontal bars will rank the size. gravel. this will cause problems to the treatment plants pumps and equipment. leaves. The type of screening used depends on the raw water and the size of intake. Wire mesh screens are woven stainless steel material and the opening of the fabric is narrow. The best way to protect the plant is screening.Preliminary Treatment Most lakes and reservoirs are not free of logs. Mechanical bar screen Non-automated bar screen 43 . tree limbs. and trash.
Most designs will have baffles to prevent short-circuiting and scum from entering the effluent. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 44 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . sand and grit are still present.Pre-Sedimentation Once the water passes the bar screens. Sedimentation basins are also used after the flocculation process. Most are designed with scrapers on the bottom to move the settled sludge to one or more hoppers at the influent end of the tank. This is generally done with clarifiers shaped in either rectangular or round shapes. The most common is a chain and flight collector. It could have a screw conveyor or traveling bridge used to collect the sludge. Clarifiers Let’s first look at the components of a rectangular clarifier. This will damage plant equipment and pipes.
The shafts can be located overhead or below. To prevent damage do to overloads. wearing shoes are used to protect the flights. This means that the gear would simply slide around the shaft and movement of the drive chain would stop. The drive chain turns the drive sprockets and the head shafts. The motor shaft is connected through a gear reducer to a shaft which turns the drive chain. The shear pin holds the gear solidly on the shaft so that no slippage occurs. Some clarifiers may not have scum removal equipment so the configuration of the shaft may very. Remember that the gear moves the drive chain. The flights are usually wood or nonmetallic flights mounted on parallel chains. If a heavy load is put on the sludge collector system then the shear pin should break. the “flights and chains”. The shoes are usually metal and travel across a metal track. a shear pin is used. They move the settled sludge to the hopper in the clarifier for return and they also remove the scum from the surface of the clarifier.Flights and Chains The most important thing to consider is the sludge and scum collection mechanism. As the flights travel across the bottom of the clarifier. Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 45 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 46 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
The major mechanic parts of the clarifier are the drive unit. and the scum removal system. The diagram below shows a typical circular clarifier.Clarifiers In some circular or square tanks rotating scrapers are used. Circular clarifier and collector mechanism Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 47 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Scrapers The most common type has a center pier or column. the sludge collector mechanism.
Backwashing filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 48 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Turbidity washes out of the filter bed as the filter media particles scour one another. Suspended particles carry an electrical charge which causes them to repel one another.10 psi (34 to 68 kPa) from the beginning of the cycle. When the pressure difference between filter inlet and outlet increases by 5 . the pressure drop through the filter increases.within the filter. Since the sand grains all have about the same density. larger grains lay toward the bottom of the filter bed and finer grains lay at the top of the filter bed. The conventional process uses alum (aluminum sulfate) and cationic polymer to neutralize the charge. filtration occurs only within the first few inches of the finer grains at the top of the bed. Traditional filter systems use graded silica sand filter media. As a result. Alum combines with alkalinity in the raw water to form a white precipitate that neutralizes suspended particles' electrical charge and forms a base for coagulating those particles. That allows suspended particles to clump together to form more easily filtered particles. the filter should be reconditioned. Light. Conventional technology uses a 30 to 50 mg/L alum dosage to form a large floc that requires extensive retention time to permit settling. each of different size and density. The media become progressively finer and denser in the lower layers. not in just the top few inches. Traditional treatments rely on expensive. A depth filter has four layers of filtration media. Backwash is an up flow operation. The down flow rinse settles the bed before the filter returns to service.called "mud-balling" . Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 49 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . That allows a depth filter to run substantially longer and use less backwash water than a traditional sand filter. Larger suspended particles are removed by the upper layers while smaller particles are removed in the lower layers. Fast rinse lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. The reconditioning cycle consists of an up flow backwash followed by a down flow rinse. coarse material lies at the top of the filter bed. Particles are trapped throughout the bed. construction-intensive processes with lengthy times. Operating beyond this pressure drop increases the chance of fouling .Conventional Treatment Improving the clarity of surface water has always presented a challenge because source quality varies. As suspended particles accumulate in a filter bed. at about 14 gpm per square foot (34m/hr) of filter bed area that lasts about 10 minutes.
package plants are found as two types: tubetype clarifiers and adsorption clarifiers. package plants are usually built in a factory. and transported virtually assembled to the operation site. Flocculation and Filtration all with in a 20 foot area Package Plants Representing a slight modification of conventional filtration technology. by 90% compared with filtration alone.Chemical pretreatment is often used to enhance filter performance. but without the construction costs and space requirements associated with separately constructed sedimentation basins. These are appropriate for small community systems where full water treatment is desired. mounted on skids. allowing the particles to cling to one another and to the filter media. In addition to the conventional filtration processes. Feeding chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate). ferric chloride. or a cationic polymer neutralizes the charge. measured in NTU. Suspended particles are usually electrically charged. If an operator is present to make adjustments for variations in the raw water. Small water treatment package plant Coagulation. filtered water clarity improvements in the range of 93 to 95% are achievable. clear wells. Chemical pretreatment may increase filtered water clarity. etc. filter beds. particularly when turbidity includes fine colloidal particles. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 50 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 51 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Several recent studies have shown that bacteria and viral agents are attached to organic and inorganic particulates. their charge per volume is significant. This is achieved through the use of coagulant chemicals. and in the process. Aluminum Sulfate is the most widely used coagulant in water treatment. the fine particles must be coagulated. new chemicals have been developed which combine the properties of alum-type coagulants and cationic polymers. Coagulant chemicals are required since colloidal particles by themselves have tendency to stay suspended in water and not settle out. is added to the water in the "flash mix" to cause microscopic impurities in the water to clump together. the like charges on the particles repel each other. this is the most prevalent form of water treatment technology in use today. form a larger particle. which can be thought of as positively charged strings that attract the particles to them. Coagulation is the process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. and form heavier particles called “floc”.Rapid Sand Filtration Also known as rapid-sand filtration. Therefore. as follows: Coagulation At the Water Treatment Plant. and they stay suspended in water. Coagulant chemicals such as "alum" (aluminum sulphate) work by neutralizing the negative charge. All matter has a residual surface charge to a certain degree. removal of these particulates by conventional coagulation and filtration is a major component of effective treatment for the removal of pathogens. This filtration process employs a combination of physical and chemical processes in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. Flocculation The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses which can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. Which chemical is used depends on the application. Other coagulants are called "cationic polymers". Aluminum Sulfate is also excellent for removing nutrients such as phosphorous in wastewater treatment.86% solution. Hence. When solid matter is too small to be removed by a depth filter. As well. More than 98% of poliovirus type 1 was removed by conventional coagulation and filtration. agglomerate (stick together). But since colloidal particles are so small. Bacterial removals of 99% are also achievable. the chemically treated water is sent into a basin where the suspended particles can collide. or "stuck together" to form larger particles which can be filtered. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate is a 48. Large microorganisms including algae and amoebic cysts are readily removed by coagulation and filtration. which allows the particles to come together. The alum and the water are mixed rapidly by the flash mixer. commonly called alum. which follows the rapid mixing. Coagulation is necessary to meet the current regulations for almost all potable water plants using surface water. The resulting larger particles will be removed by filtration. Gentle agitation of the water and appropriate detention times (the length of time water remains in the basin) help facilitate this process. This is primarily due to a negative charge on the surface of the particles. aluminum sulfate. and will usually be chosen by the engineer designing the water treatment system. In this process.
B. gravity holds the material in place and the flow is downwards. Cartridge filters made of fabric. Provides an equalization basin which evens out fluctuations in concentrations of suspended solids. heavy silt) reducing solid removal loads. a sedimentation step may be used. paper. Rectangular Basins B. odor. bacteria and other microorganisms are caught in the floc structure. Once settled. Filters for suspended particle removal can also be made of graded sand. the particles combine to form a sludge that is later removed from the bottom of the basin. Sludge Zone D. including flocculated particles. described earlier. The water flows by gravity through large filters of anthracite coal. The filter is periodically cleaned by a reversal of flow and the discharge of back flushed water into a drain. Activated carbon filters. can settle out by gravity. screens of various materials. or plastic material are also common and are often much smaller and cheaper and are disposable. Following flocculation. garnet and gravel. granular synthetic material. Double deck Basins Sedimentation The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water." As these floc particles mix in the water. Filters are available in several ratings depending on the size of particles to be removed. silica sand. Circular Basins C. The rate of filtration can be adjusted to meet water consumption needs. To allow larger particles time to settle in a reservoir or lake (sand. Inlet Zone B. the velocity of the water is decreased so that the suspended material. Sedimentation Basin Zones A. but would not be recommended for that purpose only. Square Basins D. A. The most widely used are rapid-sand filters in tanks. Settling Zone C.The water is slowly mixed in contact chambers allowing the coagulated particles to become larger and stronger and is now called "floc. In these units. Pre-Sedimentation Depending on the quality of the source water. taste and color. dissolved organics. The floc particles are removed in these filters. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 52 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . will also remove turbidity. some plants have pre-sedimentation. Filtration A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. During sedimentation. and fabrics. Outlet Zone Shapes for a Sedimentation Basin A.
With most of the larger particles settled out, the water now goes to the filtration process. At a rate of between 2 and 10 gpm per square foot, the water is filtered through an approximate 36" bed of graded sand. Anthracite coal or activated carbon may also be included in the sand to improve the filtration process, especially for the removal of organic contaminants, taste, and odor problems. The filtration process removes the following types of particles Silts and clay Colloids Biological forms Floc Four desirable characteristics of filter media A. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) B. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) C. Hard and durable D. Free of impurities and is insoluble in water Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis, at least once per day. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The more uniform the media, the slower head loss buildup. All the water treatment plants that use surface water are governed by the U.S. EPA’s Surface Water Treatment Rules or SWTR. Direct Filtration Plant vs. Conventional Plant The only difference is that the sedimentation process or step is omitted from the Direct Filtration plant. Declining Rate Filters The flow rate will vary with head loss. Each filter operates at the same rate, but can have a variable water level. This system requires an effluent control structure (weir) to provide adequate media submergence. Detention Time Is the actual time required for a small amount of water to pass through a sedimentation basin at a given rate of flow, or the calculated time required for a small amount of liquid to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. Detention Time = (Basin Volume, Gallons) (24 Hours/day) Flow, Gallons/day Disinfection Chlorine is added to the water at the flash mix for pre-disinfection. The chlorine kills or inactivates harmful microorganisms. Chlorine is added again after filtration for post-disinfection.
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Jar Testing (More information later in manual)
Jar testing traditionally has been done on a routine basis in most water treatment plants to control the coagulant dose. Much more information, however, can be obtained with only a small modification in the conventional method of jar testing. It is the quickest and most economical way to obtain good reliable data on the many variables which affect the treatment process. These include: 1. Determination of most effective coagulant. 2. Determination of optimum coagulation pH for the various coagulants. 3. Evaluation of most effective polymers. 4. Optimum point of application of polymers in treatment train. 5. Optimum sequence of application of coagulants, polymers and pH adjustment chemicals. 6. Best flocculation time. pH Expression of a basic or acid condition of a liquid. The range is from 0-14, zero being the most acid and 14 being the most alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Most natural water has a pH between 6.0 and 8.5. Caustic (NaOH) also called Sodium Hydroxide is a strong chemical used in the treatment process to neutralize acidity, increase alkalinity or raise the pH value. Polymer A type of chemical when combined with other types of coagulants aid in binding small suspended particles to larger particles to help in the settling and filtering processes. Post Chlorine Where the water is chlorinated to make sure to hold a residual in the distribution system. Pre Chlorine Where the raw water is dosed with a large concentration of chlorine. Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine before the filtration process will help: A. Control algae and slime growth B. Control mud ball formation C. Improve coagulation D. Precipate iron Raw Turbidity The turbidity of the water coming to the treatment plant from the raw water source. Settled Solids Solids that have been removed from the raw water by the coagulation and settling processes. Hydrofluosilicic Acid (H2SiF6) a clear, fuming corrosive liquid with a pH ranging from 1 to 1.5. Used in water treatment to fluoridate drinking water.
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Corrosion Control The pH of the water is adjusted with sodium carbonate, commonly called soda ash. Soda ash is fed into the water after filtration. Zinc Orthophosphate A chemical used to coat the pipes in the distribution system to inhibit corrosion. Taste and Odor Control Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is occasionally added for taste and odor control. PAC is added to the flash mix. Water Quality Water testing is conducted throughout the treatment process. Items like turbidity, pH and chlorine residual are monitored and recorded continuously. Some items are tested several times per day, some once per quarter and others once per year. Sampling Collect the water sample at least 6 inches under the surface by plunging the container mouth down into the water and turning the mouth towards the current by dragging the container slowly horizontal. Care should be taken not to disturb the bottom of the water source or along the sides so as not to stir up any settled solids. This would create erroneous errors. Chemical Feed and Rapid Mix Chemicals are added to the water in order to improve the subsequent treatment processes. These may include pH adjusters and coagulants. Coagulants are chemicals, such as alum, that neutralize positive or negative charges on small particles, allowing them to stick together and form larger particles that are more easily removed by sedimentation (settling) or filtration. A variety of devices, such as baffles, static mixers, impellers, and in-line sprays can be used to mix the water and distribute the chemicals evenly. Short Circuiting Short Circuiting is a condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the water travels faster than the rest of the flowing water. This is usually undesirable since it may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times in comparison with the presumed detention times. Tube Settlers This modification of the conventional process contains many metal “tubes” that are placed in the sedimentation basin, or clarifier. These tubes are approximately 1 inch deep and 36 inches long, split-hexagonal shape, and installed at an angle or 60 degrees or less. These tubes provide for a very large surface area upon which particles may settle as the water flows upwards. The slope of the tubes facilitates gravity settling of the solids to the bottom of the basin, where they can be collected and removed. The large surface settling area also means that adequate clarification can be obtained with detention times of 15 minutes or less. As with conventional treatment, this sedimentation step is followed by filtration through mixed media.
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Adsorption Clarifiers: The concept of the adsorption clarifier package plant was developed in the early 1980’s. This technology uses an up flow clarifier with low-density plastic bead media, usually held in place by a screen. This adsorption media is designed to enhance the sedimentation/ clarification process by combining flocculation and sedimentation into one step. In this step, turbidity is reduced by adsorption of the coagulated and flocculated solids onto the adsorption media and onto the solids already adsorbed onto the media. Air scouring cleans adsorption clarifiers followed by water flushing. Cleaning of this type of clarifier is initiated more often than filter backwashing because the clarifier removes more solids. As with the tube-settler type of package plant, the sedimentation/ clarification process is followed by mixed-media filtration and disinfection to complete the water treatment. Clearwell: The final step in the conventional filtration process, the clear well provides temporary storage for the treated water. The two main purposes for this storage are to have filtered water available for backwashing the filter, and to provide detention time (or contact time) for the chlorine (or other disinfectant) to kill any microorganisms that may remain in the water.
Public education is key to a water treatment facility’s image. This is a difficult balance with new security rules that are in place since 9/11.
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000 people annually.000 people. The 1996 Amendments also require the EPA to promulgate a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (for systems serving less than 10. and at least 50 deaths were attributed to the cryptosporidiosis outbreak.S. The 1996 Amendments to SDWA require The EPA to promulgate an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (announced in December 1998). Background The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires the EPA to set enforceable standards to protect public health from contaminants which may occur in drinking water. Cryptosporidiosis may manifest itself as a severe infection that can last several weeks and may cause the death of individuals with compromised immune systems. possibly jaundice. This rule will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water. The EPA has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants is a health concern. cramps. LT1 Provisions . by establishing filtration and monitoring requirements for systems serving more than 10. More than 4. 2000 ((1412(b)(14)). Physical removal is critical to the control of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to standard disinfection practice.000 people each.500 small water systems which serve fewer than 10. The IESWTR set the first drinking water standards to control Cryptosporidium in large water systems.Apply to systems serving fewer than 10. nausea. 2000 ((1412(b)(2)(C)) and also required the EPA to “promulgate a regulation to govern the recycling of filter backwash water within the treatment process of a public water system” by August. The current proposed rule includes provisions addressing both of these requirements. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Filter Backwash Rule (LT1FBR) to increase protection of finished drinking water supplies from contamination by Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens. The EPA has set enforceable drinking water treatment requirements to reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreaks. The filter backwash requirements will reduce the potential risks associated with recycling contaminants removed during the filtration process. and fall into the three following categories: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 57 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and headaches and fatigue. This rule proposes to extend protections against Cryptosporidium and other disease-causing microbes to the 11.000 people) by November.EPA Filter Backwash Rule The U. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea.000 were hospitalized. What will the LT1FBR require? The LT1FBR provisions will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water systems. The LT1FBR proposal builds on those standards by extending the requirements to small systems. In 1993. disease outbreaks may result. Cryptosporidium caused over 400. Treatment technologies such as filtration and disinfection can remove or inactivate microbiological contaminants.000 people in Milwaukee to experience intestinal illness. If finished water supplies contain microbiological contaminants. This rule also establishes filter backwash requirements for certain public water systems of all sizes.
and recycle spent filter backwash water. • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with individual filter turbidity requirements. and • Unfiltered systems must comply with updated watershed control requirements that add Cryptosporidium as a pathogen of concern. FBR Provisions .Apply to all systems which recycle regardless of population served: • Recycle systems will be required to return spent filter backwash water. Disinfection Benchmarking • Public water systems will be required to develop a disinfection profile unless they perform applicability monitoring which demonstrates their disinfection byproduct levels are less than 80% of the maximum contaminant levels. and/or liquids from dewatering process within the treatment process must perform a one month. • Direct filtration systems recycling to the treatment process must provide detailed recycle treatment information to the State. and liquids from dewatering process prior to the point of primary coagulant addition unless the State specifies an alternative location. one-time recycle self assessment. and. employ 20 or fewer filters to meet production requirements during a selected month.Turbidity • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with specific combined filter effluent turbidity requirements. • If a system considers making a significant change to their disinfection practice they must develop a disinfection benchmark and receive State approval for implementing the change. gauges and pumps. which may require that modifications to recycle practice be made. • Conventional systems that practice direct recycle. be made to protect public health. Under the filtration basins are tunnels and complex machinery. which may require modifications to recycle practice. Other Requirements • Finished water reservoirs for which construction begins after the effective date of the rule must be covered. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 58 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . thickener supernatant. The self assessment requires hydraulic flow monitoring and that certain data be reported to the State. thickener supernatant.
. is a green alga.000 species) and various Plankton Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 59 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or in a branching thallus form (e. under certain conditions.g.Types of Algae The simplest algae are single cells (e. but some are differentiated for reproduction and for other functions.. in a ribbonlike filament (e.g.. to ingest food in an animal like manner. One of the commonest forms is Spirogyra. The pond scum.g. the green color of the chlorophyll is masked by the presence of other pigments. as is the green film found on the bark of trees. Volvox). Kelps. the more complex forms consist of many cells grouped in a spherical colony (e.seaweeds and kelp -. Fucus). The more complex brown algae and red algae are chiefly saltwater forms. With the exception of the larger Algae -.Protoctista are pretty much all microscopic organisms. Green Algae (Gamophyta & Chlorophyta) 7000 species Red Algae (Rhodophyta) 4000 species such as this Coralline Alga (Calliarthron tuberculosum) Other species include Diatoms (Bacillariophyta. Spirogyra). 10.g. the diatoms). such as ponds and reservoirs. may attain a length of more than 200 ft (61 m). the largest algae. Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able. a green slime found in stagnant water. The cells of the colonies are generally similar.. Pond scum. Blue-green algae have been grouped with other prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera and renamed cyanobacteria. The green algae include most of the freshwater forms. accumulation of floating green algae on the surface of stagnant or slowly moving waters.
They are microscopic and single celled. Blue-green algae are not actually algae. Dinoflagellates have a flagella and can swim in open waters. They are microscopic and single celled Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 60 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Green algae cells have nuclei and the pigment is distinct.Major Algae Groups Blue-green algae are the slimy stuff. they are bacteria. Diatoms look like two shells that fit together. Green algae are the most common algae in ponds and can be multicellular. too. Euglenoids are green or brown and swim with their flagellum. Euglenoids are microscopic and single celled. They are easy to spot because of their red eye. Its cells lack nuclei and its pigment is scattered.
infected children in diapers may get feces on their fingers. Here. failing sewage treatment plants or cross-connections of water lines with sewage lines provide the potential for contaminating water with pathogens. dispersed and diluted into microscopic particles. Influenza virus and tuberculosis bacteria are spread by secretions that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. Day care centers are another common source for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. he or she must take that pathogen in through the mouth. Only proper treatment will ensure eliminating the spread of disease. The foodborne route is one of the more common methods. They can cause illness through exposure to small quantities of contaminated water or food or from direct contact with infected people or animals. not restaurants. These particles. failing septic systems. Pathogens may get into water and spread when infected humans or animals pass the bacteria. then put their fingers in a friend’s mouth or Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 61 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . For another person to become infected. A frequent source is a food handler who does not wash his hands after a bowel movement and then handles food with “unclean” hands. or feces-to-mouth. How Diseases are Transmitted Cryptosporidium Pathogens that may cause waterborne outbreaks through drinking water have one thing in common: they are spread by the fecal-oral. may remain in the water and be passed to humans or animals unless adequately treated. route. Most pathogens are generally associated with diseases that cause intestinal illness and affect people in a relatively short amount of time. viruses and protozoan that cause disease are known as pathogens. containing pathogens. In addition to water. Waterborne pathogens are different from other types of pathogens such as the viruses that cause influenza (the flu) or the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. viruses and protozoa in their stool. Human or animal wastes in watersheds. It is interesting to note the majority of foodborne diseases occur in the home. The water may not appear to be contaminated because feces has been broken up. The individual who eats fecescontaminated food may become infected and ill. other methods exist for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route.Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria. generally a few days to two weeks.
These organisms are also an important cause of “travelers’ diarrhea. may survive for months. All bacteria in water are readily killed or inactivated with chlorine or other disinfectants. therefore. A susceptible person must drink the water that contains the pathogen. Coli Bacteria Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 62 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Salmonellosis. Symptoms begin three to five days after exposure. This contamination may be of human or animal origin. This chain lists the events that must occur for the transmission of disease via drinking water. By breaking the chain at any point. The pathogens in the water must enter the water system’s intake and in numbers sufficient to infect people. nausea and vomiting. The illness is frequently over within two to five days and usually lasts no more than 10 days. The feces must contain pathogens (disease-causing bacteria. The water is either not treated or inadequately treated for the pathogens present. This depends on the temperature of the water and the length of time the pathogens are in the water. The pathogens must survive in the water. yet is accepted by the general public. influenza is an upper respiratory illness and rarely has diarrhea associated with it. Campylobacteriosis outbreaks have most often been associated with food. The general public and some of the medical community usually refer to diarrhea symptoms as “stomach flu. such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium. you may want to think twice about what you’ve digested within the past few days. viruses or protozoa). especially chicken and unpasteurized milk as well as unchlorinated water. Some pathogens will survive for only a short time in water. the transmission of disease will be prevented.handle toys that other children put into their mouths. are other bacterial diseases that can be transmitted through water. malaise. E. Illness (disease) will occur. Bacterial Diseases Campylobacteriosis is the most common diarrhea illness caused by bacteria. stomach flu is a misleading description for foodborne or waterborne illnesses. Other symptoms include abdominal pain. Yersiniosis.” Medical treatment generally is not prescribed for campylobacteriosis because recovery is usually rapid. Shigellosis. others. Chain of Transmission Water is contaminated with feces. Legionellosis. no disease will result. fever.” Technically. So the next time you get the stomach flu. Cholera. If the human or animal source is not infected with a pathogen.
Hepatitis A outbreaks have been related to fecally contaminated water. malaise. including sandwiches and salads that are not cooked or are handled after cooking. The disease varies in severity from a mild illness lasting one to two weeks. Aseptic meningitis. The incubation period is 15-50 days and averages 28-30 days. polio and viral gastroenteritis (Norwalk agent) are other viral diseases that can be transmitted through water. loss of appetite. nausea and abdominal discomfort. food contaminated by infected food handlers. The onset is usually abrupt with fever. to a severely disabling disease lasting several months (rare). Norwalk Agent Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 63 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and raw or undercooked mollusks harvested from contaminated waters. followed within a few days by jaundice.Viral-Caused Diseases Hepatitis A is an example of a common viral disease that may be transmitted through water. Most viruses in drinking water can be inactivated by chlorine or other disinfectants.
abdominal cramps. nausea and vomiting occur less often. fever. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea. Giardiasis occurs worldwide. It has also been referred to as “backpacker’s disease” and “beaver fever” because of the many cases reported among hikers and others who consume untreated surface water. which may be profuse and watery. Waterborne outbreaks in the United States occur most often in communities receiving their drinking water from streams or rivers without adequate disinfection or a filtration system. Giardia lamblia. has been responsible for more community-wide outbreaks of disease in the U. The organism. frequent loose and pale greasy stools. anorexia. fatigue and weight loss. General malaise.S.” The cyst can survive in the environment for long periods of time and be extremely resistant to conventional disinfectants such as chlorine. Many infections are asymptomatic (no symptoms). Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is an example of a protozoan disease that is common worldwide but was only recently recognized as causing human disease. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 64 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . with an average of about seven days. Effective filtration treatment is therefore critical to removing these organisms from water sources. The incubation period is 5-25 days or longer. Giardiasis is a commonly reported protozoan-caused disease. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea. Symptoms usually come and go. The incubation period is 1-12 days. Some parasites enter the environment in a dormant form. They invade and inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. than any other pathogen.Protozoan Caused Diseases Protozoan pathogens are larger than bacteria and viruses but still microscopic. called a “cyst. with an average of 7-10 days. bloating. with a protective cell wall. Drugs are available for treatment but these are not 100% effective. and end in fewer than 30 days in most cases. The diarrhea is associated with cramping abdominal pain.
the importance of properly constructed. and the same routes of transmission. operating and maintaining the system at a high level on a continuing basis is critical to prevent disease. While water treatment cannot achieve sterile water (no microorganisms). By understanding the nature of waterborne diseases. either by person-to-person or animal-to-person. operated and maintained public water systems becomes obvious. on occasion. Particularly vulnerable are persons with weak immune systems such as those with HIV infections or cancer. the goal of treatment must clearly be to produce drinking water that is as pathogen-free as possible at all times. The mode of transmission is fecal-oral. they can cause serious. being either foodborne or waterborne.Cryptosporidium organisms have been identified in human fecal specimens from more than 50 countries on six continents. For those who operate water systems with inadequate source protection or treatment facilities. All these diseases. self-limiting disease. have one symptom in common: diarrhea. For those operating systems that currently provide adequate source protection and treatment. They also have the same mode of transmission. fecal-oral. Although most pathogens cause mild. There is no specific treatment for Cryptosporidium infections. with the exception of hepatitis A. whether through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. the potential risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is real. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 65 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . even life threatening illness.
Coli O157 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 66 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . coli O1 57:H7 (bacterium) Human feces Symptoms vary with type caused gastroenteritis Other E. rapid lives in many coastal waters) dehydration. (also. coli organisms Typhoid Salmonella typhi (bacterium) Human feces. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Human feces. mineral loss — high mortality. lives in polluted waters fever. cramps.E. stomach pain — lasts (protozoan) days to weeks E. dysentery. severe diarrhea. nausea. vomiting. abdominal pain — low mortality. Diarrhea or vomiting children) Norwalk-like viruses Human feces. (protozoan) extra intestinal infection Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (protozoan) Animal or human feces Diarrhea. shellfish Diarrhea and vomiting lives in polluted waters) Salmonellosis Salmonella (bacterium) Animal or human feces Diarrhea or vomiting Escherichia coli-. shellfish Vomiting. (also. and general weakness — lasts one week to months Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Animal or human feces Diarrhea. urine Inflamed intestine. high temperature— sometimes fatal Shigellosis Shigella (bacterium) Human feces Diarrhea Cholera Vibrio choleras (bacterium) Human feces. weight loss. lasts up to four months Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Human feces Mild diarrhea.Waterborne Diseases Name Causative organism Source of organism Disease Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus ( lives mostly in young Human feces. enlarged spleen. enlarged liver. shellfish grown Yellowed skin.
Supply to the affected area was switched to a chlorinated surface water source. They attended separate schools. Some of these companies chlorinate their groundwater supplies and some do not. The source of the infections has not been positively established but suspicion has fallen on a small unchlorinated ground water supply operated by a private company. an Australian pathologist.000 residents in the rapidly growing town are served by private water companies which mainly rely on groundwater sources. bathtubs. Exposure to the organism is believed to be relatively common but infections resulting in illness are rare. As Arizona state law prevents counties from supplying water to areas outside the incorporated municipal zones. Schools and restaurants in the suspect area were also closed. although periodic chlorination has been used after new connections. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 67 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and a flushing program with hyperchlorinated water was carried out to remove possible contamination from the water distribution system. cooking or bathing. spas and fountains. The suspect water supply is drawn from a deep aquifer and is not routinely chlorinated. fowleri in three samples: · one pre-chlorination water sample from a municipal well that was routinely chlorinated · one tank water sample from the suspect unchlorinated groundwater system · the refrigerator filter from the home of the grandparents of one of the boys The chlorinated well is believed unlikely to be the source of infection as chlorination is effective in killing N. the remaining 20.Issue 28 December 2002 Naegleria Deaths In Arizona Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. Naegleria fowleri is a free living amoeba which is common in the environment and grows optimally at temperatures of 35 to 45 degrees C.000 of Peoria's 120.Health Stream Article .000 residents receive chlorinated drinking water from the municipal supply. some four miles away. however the Glendale boy frequently visited his grandparents' home a few blocks from the other boy's residence in Peoria. The disease was first described in 1965 by Dr Malcolm Fowler. Both boys became ill on 9 October and died a few days later on 12 and 13 October respectively. This supply is predominantly drawn from surface water sources but is supplemented by groundwater in times of high demand. This supply was taken off-line on 3 November. pools. fowleri. One of the victims lived in Peoria and the other in the neighboring town of Glendale. Tests by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have detected N. line breaks or incidents that might allow ingress of microbial contamination. Health authorities then began investigating possible common sources of Naegleria exposure including drinking water.000 consumers were warned not to use unboiled tap water for drinking. who identified the amoeba in a patient who had died from meningitis. a boil water notice was issued and 6. About 100. and residents were advised to drain and clean spas and hyperchlorinate swimming pools.
However as the organism may be found in moist soil. and concluded that the high water temperatures reached in summer provided a suitable environment for growth of the organism. People with immune deficiencies may also be more prone to infection. N. Prior to the incidents in Peoria. Investigators found N. The cribiform plate is more permeable in children. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 68 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Queensland and New South Wales. The amoeba may then penetrate the cribiform plate. fowleri infections had not been reported to be associated with groundwater supplies. fowleri meningitis are fatal.fowleri from the water supplies. The involvement of tap water supplies was first documented in South Australia. Warm water conditions and the absence of free chlorine may then allow it to proliferate in the system. Plans are also underway to install a continuous chlorination plant on the groundwater supply. Cases of disease have also been associated with swimming pools where disinfection levels were inadequate. confusion. and spread to the meninges (the membrane surrounding the brain) and often to the brain tissue itself. fowleri has been detected in water supplies in each of these states as well as the Northern Territory. Most cases of N. and some residents have called for the municipality to purchase the private water company and take over its operations. it is feasible that the amoeba may penetrate poorly constructed bores or be introduced by occasional contamination events. and infection occurs through introduction of the organism into the nasal cavities. and the infection cannot be transmitted from person to person. irritability. About half of the cases in the state did not have a recent history of freshwater swimming. fowleri meningitis causes non-specific symptoms such as fever.Most reported cases of N. and N. The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days. Tap water may also have been the primary source of infections attributed to swimming pools in these towns. high pitched crying and convulsions. Similar symptoms also occur in viral and bacterial forms of meningitis which are much more common than the amoebic form. In early studies. and inhalation of tap water from surface water supplies that have been subject to high temperatures. fowleri meningitis are associated with swimming in natural surface freshwater bodies. Cases of disease have also been recorded in Western Australia. drowsiness. where a number of cases occurred in the 1960s and 70s in several towns served by unchlorinated surface water delivered through long above-ground pipelines. a semiporous barrier. Cases are often reported to be associated with jumping or falling into the water. fowleri in the water supply pipelines. Local health authorities in Arizona are continuing their investigation into the two deaths with assistance from CDC personnel. providing conditions where water is forced into the nose at pressure. N. vomiting. with only four survivors known among about 100 cases in the US since 1965. but had intra-nasal exposure to tap water through inhaling or squirting water into the nose. transmission by contaminated dust was suspected as an infection route but this has since been discounted as the organism does not survive desiccation. The incidence of disease was greatly reduced by introduction of reliable chlorination facilities along the above-ground pipelines and introduction of chloramination in the 1980s led to virtual elimination of N. making them more susceptible to infection than adults.
then simulate this during the jar test. If. The procedure may be used to evaluate color. Because the jar test is intended to simulate conditions in your plant.Agglomeration of particles into groups thereby increasing the effective diameter. to determine the proper coagulant dosage. and hardness reduction.2 The practice provides a systematic evaluation of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process. developing the proper procedure is very important.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns. Before you start The jar test. Coagulation . cost of production. 1. turbidity. Terms Flocculation . continues to be one of the most effective tools available to surface water plant operators. Turbidity . Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 69 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Take time to observe what happens to the raw water in your plant after the chemicals have been added. will only provide accurate results when properly performed. all depend on the proper application of chemicals to the raw water entering the treatment plant.A chemical technique directed toward destabilization of colloidal particles. This rule applies to flocculator speed. THE RPM OF THE STIRRER AND THE MINUTES TO COMPLETE THE TEST DEPEND ON CONDITIONS IN YOUR PLANT.1 This practice covers a general procedure for the evaluation of a treatment to reduce dissolved. Scope 1. 1. your plant does not have a static or flash mixer. suspended. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.A measure of the presence of suspended solid material. and nonsettleable matter from water by chemical coagulation-flocculation. associated with its use. Again. 1. Finished water quality. length of filter runs and overall filter life.The Jar Test Jar testing. followed by gravity settling. as with any coagulant test. operate the jar test to simulate conditions in YOUR plant. colloidal. for instance. length of settling time and floc development. starting the test at high rpm would provide misleading results. if any.
van der Waals force. such as He. is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance (1/d6) between the particles. When two or more nonpolar molecules. decay of this force occurs exponentially with distance. This idea can be better understood by relating the colloidal particles large surface area to their small volume (S/V) ratio resulting from their very small size. thereby increasing there size and mass. in other words somehow make them “stick” together. The two primary forces that control whether or not colloidal particles will agglomerate are: Repulsive Force An electrostatic force called the “Zeta Potential” - 4π q d ζ = D Where: ζ = Zeta Potential q = charge per unit area of the particle d = thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface through which the charge is effective D = dielectric constant of the liquid Attractive Force Force due to van der Waals forces van der Waals forces are weak forces based on a polar characteristic induced by neighboring molecules.Turbidity Particles less about 1 to 10 µm in diameter (primarily colloidal particles) will not settle out by gravitational forces. in an unsymmetrical arrangement of the nucleus. The most important factor(s) contributing to the stability of colloidal particles is not their mass. at least momentarily. but their surface properties. Ar. somehow have them come together (conglomerate). As can clearly be seen from this relationship. These particles are the primary contributors to the turbidity of the raw water causing it to be “cloudy”. In order to have gravity affect these particles we must somehow make them larger. therefore making them very difficult to remove. This force. In order to remove these small particles we must either filter the water or somehow incorporate gravitational forces such that these particles will settle out. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 70 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . H2. are in close proximity the nucleus of each atom will weakly attract electrons in the counter atom resulting.
flocculation follows coagulation.5 to 9.) Jackson Candle Test 2. the larger the flocs. By introducing aluminum (Al3+) into the water in the form of Alum (Al2(SO4)3•nH20) we can accomplish the supercharging of the water. Ferrous Sulfate works well in through a range of pH values. The particles are then able to get close enough together for van der Waals forces to take over and the particles begin to flocculate.Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) or Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU). 4. A sensitive photomultiplier tube at a 90o angle from the incident light beam detects the light scattered by the particles in the sample. It important to understand that too much energy. During the coagulation process charged hydroxy-metallic complexes are formed momentarily (i.7. The final key to obtaining good flocs is the added energy put into the system by way of rotating paddles in the flocculator tanks. Ferric Chloride works best at lower pH values.5. Other chemical coagulants used are Ferric Chloride and Ferrous Sulfate. the particles form sub complexes with the Al+3 and gain a positive charge about them. Units .e. Theses complexes are charged highly positive.) Secchi Disk . i. we can upset the charge effect of the particle enough to reduce the Zeta potential (repulsive force) thereby allowing van der Waals forces (attractive forces) to take over. This is the coagulation part of the coagulation/flocculation process. down to pH 4. therefore upsetting the stable negative charge of the target particles.0 .5.By supercharging the water supply momentarily with a positive charge. and settle out (note – the flocculated particles settle out separately from the precipitated Al(OH)3 (s)). the faster they will settle within a clarifier. Alum works best in the pH range of natural waters. The photomultiplier tube converts the light energy into an electrical signal. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 71 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . would cause the particles to shear (breakup).a black and white disk divided like a pie in 4 quadrants about 6" in diameter. 3. Al(OH)3 (s). which is amplified and displayed on the instrument.Ways to Measure Turbidity 1. and the particles restabilize. Al(OH)21+ etc).e.Light is passed through a sample. By “pushing” (adding energy) the particles together we can aid in the flocculation process forming larger flocs. If to much alum is added then the opposite effect occurs. The chemical reaction continues until the aluminum ions (Al+3) reach their final form. thereby reducing the size of the particles and would therefore increase the settling time in the clarifier. 5.5. This upset decreases the distance “d” in-turn decreasing the Zeta potential. Al(OH)2+. During the flocculation process the particles join together to form flocs. thereby displacing the water layer surrounding the charged particle momentarily. rotating the paddles too fast.) Turbidimeter . How to Treat Turbidity Supercharge the water supply .
3H 2O + 6Na(OH ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14. off. 5) Measure the initial pH 6) Add alum and NaOH solutions in equal portions as specified by instructor.3H 2O (4) Apparatus 1) Jar Test Apparatus 2) 6 1500 mL Beakers 3) pH meter 4) Pipettes 5) Conductivity Meter 6) Turbidimeter Procedure 1) Make up a 10-g/L solution of alum. Be careful not to disturb the flocs that have settled. O-2 = 16 mg/mmol. slow mix .15 minutes (20 rpm) c. 9) Measure final pH Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 72 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Take the sample from the center.Key Equations Al 2 (SO 4 )3 • 14.1 minute (100 rpm) b. (Na+1 = 23 mg/mmol. 2) Make up a 0.3H 2O + 6CO2 (3) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. about 2" down for each one liter sample.3H 2O + 3H 2SO 4 (2) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. settling . 4) Measure the temperature and conductivity.3H 2O + 6Na(HCO3 ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.1 N solution of NaOH (buffer). 7) Mixing protocol: a. H+ = 1 mg/mmol) 3) Fill each of the six 1500 mL beakers with one-liter of river water.3H 2O + 6H 2O → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 14. rapid mix .30 minutes 8) Measure final turbidity.
oC Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 73 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .1 N Beaker Alum (ml) Buffer (ml) Alum .Information to be Recorded Initial Turbidity = ? NTU .g/L Turbidity (NTU) pH-Before Buffer pH-After Temp.0.
Different Types of Chemical Storage Tanks found in Water Treatment Facilities Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 74 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
2. 4. but preferably overnight. 10cc). 6.0% solution. 5cc. 250 and 500 mL beakers. Graduated cylinder (100 mL).1% solution. Add 198 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. Insert Braun mixer into water and begin mixing.0% polymer solution. Add 20 mL of 1 % solution. 7. Emulsion polymers (Prepare 1. since it involves compactly coiled large molecules in emulsions. Do not exceed 20 seconds! 5. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Prepare 0. Add 180 mL to 250 mL bottle. Allow dilute polymer to age for at least 20 minutes. Add 198 mL of water to a beaker. the Jar Test results will be very unreliable. 8. 1. Shake vigorously for at least 1 minute. add 2 mL of neat product to bottle. Using a syringe. Water (it is recommended that the makedown water from the plant be used). Add 180 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. 7. Solution polymers and Inorganics (Prepare a 1. The polymer must be uncoiled to provide maximum contact with the colloidal particles to be flocculated. 5.1% solution. inject 2 mL of neat polymer into vortex.) 1. 2. 6. Mix for 20 seconds. 6. prior to activation. Add 20 mL of 1. 3. Syringes (1cc. 4. Dilution technique ("make down") is especially critical. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. High speed hand mixer (for emulsion polymers). If the following procedures are not followed. 3. 3. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 75 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Preparing Polymers for the Jar Test A successful Jar Test is very reliant upon the proper preparation of the polymers being tested. Using a syringe. 4. Prepare 0. 5.0% solution. Required equipment: 250 mL bottles with lids.) 1. 2.
The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 76 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Do not add carbon or chlorine. KMn04 must be used with caution as this material produces an intense purple color when mixed with water.etc. measure 2000 ml of the sample to be tested into each of the six beakers. As the permanganate ion is reduced during its reaction with compounds that it oxidizes.25 0. it changes color from purple to yellow or brown. coagulant.00 0.50 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 77 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . manganese and sulfide compounds and other taste and odor producing substances usually due to the presence of very small quantities of secretions given off by microscopic algae.Potassium Permanganate Jar Test Potassium Permanganate has been used for a number of years in both water & wastewater treatment.75 0. (Test Stock Solution) 4 ml strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 ml distilled water. This may cause the customer to find pink tap water. KMn04 is a strong oxidizer which can be used to destroy many organic compounds of both the natural and man made origin.30 pink 6 1.10 no pink 2 0.35 pink Stir the beakers to simulate the turbulence where the KMn04 is to be added and observe the color change. I must caution you that all KMn04 applied must be converted to manganese dioxide (Mn02) form prior to filtration. Jar # KMn04 ml KMn04 mg/l Color 1 0. Each 5 ml of the test stock solution added to a 2000 ml sample equals 1 mg/l.25 no pink 5 1. which develop on the surface waters and on beds of lakes and rivers under certain conditions of temperature and chemical composition.20 no pink 4 1. dose each beaker with the test stock solution in the following manner.75 0. The final product formed is manganese dioxide (Mn02) an insoluble precipitate that can be removed by sedimentation and filtration. Dose each beaker to simulate plant practices in pre-treatment..50 0. Jar Testing Example If you have a six position stirrer: Using a graduated cylinder. Using a graduated pipette. or the reaction may continue in the system and the same conditions as exist with naturally occurring manganese may cause staining of the plumbing fixtures.15 no pink 3 1. KMn04 is also used to oxidize iron. Stock Solutions (Strong Stock Solution) 5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 ml distilled water. If it is not all converted and is still purple or pink it will pass through the filter into the clearwell or distribution system. pH adjustment.
KMn04 used as a disinfectant in pre-treatment could help control the formation of trihalomethanes by allowing chlorine to be added later in the treatment process or after filtration.3 mg/l. care must be taken not to bring pink water to the filter unless you have "greensand".6(iron.64 mg/l KMn04 dose is the minimum dose. mg/l = 0. mg/l = 0. mg/l) + 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 78 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the actual dose may be higher. This dose assumes there are no oxidizable compounds in the raw water. Quick Test A quick way to check the success of a KMn04 application is by adding 1. As well as being a strong oxidizer for iron and manganese.6(0. Jar testing should be done to determine the required dose. To calculate the dosage of KMn04 for iron and manganese removal here is the formula to use.4 mg/l Kmn04 Dose.0. mg/l Manganese. mg/l) = 0. Samples which retain a brown or yellow color indicate that the oxidation process is incomplete and will require a higher dosage of KMn04. Its usefulness also extends to algae control as well as many taste odor problems. mg/l = 0. Known Unknown Iron. the sample will turn varying shades of brown. If the sample remains pink.0(Manganese. Also.4 of iron.4 mg/l) + 2.2 mg/l) = 2. indicating the presence of oxidized iron and or manganese. The manganese concentration is 1. permanganate generally reacts more quickly at pH levels above 7.25 ml of the test stock solution to 1000 ml finished water. If the first jar test does not produce the correct color change.As the iron and manganese begin to oxidize. KMn04 Dose. KMn04 Dose.2 mg/l Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l.2 mg/l. Therefore. potassium permanganate is an extremely useful chemical treatment.0(Manganese.64 mg/l Note: The calculated 2. mg/l = 1. If the sample turns brown there is iron or manganese remaining in the finished water. When applying potassium permanganate to raw water. oxidation is complete. continue with increased dosages. With proper application. mg/l) Example: Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l for a water with 0.5 ml/ 0.6(Iron. mg/l) + 2.0(1. In the preceding table a pink color first developed in beaker #5 which had been dosed with 1. The end point has been reached when a pink color is observed and remains for at least 10 minutes.
and all the nonmetals are grouped together on the right side of the periodic table. (The groups are numbered I to VIII from left to right. Semimetals are found in between the metals and nonmetals. Cs. What are the Eight Groups of the Periodic Table? Group I: Alkali Metals .) All the metals are grouped together on the left side of the periodic table. Na. shiny solids and good conductors of heat and electricity) softer than most familiar metals. Fr known as alkai metals most reactive of the metals react with all nonmetals except the noble gases contain typical physical properties of metals (ex. and the periods are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom.Li. can be cut with a knife Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 79 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . K. Rb.How is the Periodic Table Organized? The periodic table is organized with eight principal vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods.
or solids at room temperature Poor conductors of heat Are insulators-very poor conductors of electricity Do not have a high reflectivity or a shiny metallic appearance In solid form generally brittle and fracture easily under stress Do not exhibit photoelectric or thermionic effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 80 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . silicon and germanium are semimetals. Ge. but more slowly than the Group I metals solids at room temperature have typical metallic properties harder than the Group I metals higher melting points than the Group I metals Group III: B. Ra known as alkaline earth metals react with nonmetals. P. Ga. Tl boron is a semimetal. In. tin and lead are metals Group V: N. Si. Mg. and selenium are nonmetals. As. Ar. Ne. Bi nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. Rn very unreactive Properties of Metals Solids at room temperature Conduct heat very well Have electrical conductivities that increase with decreasing temperature Have a high flexibility and a shiny metallic luster Are malleable-can be beaten out into sheets or foils Are ductile-can be pulled into thin wires without breaking Emit electrons when they are exposed to radiation of sufficiently high energy or when They are heated (known as photoelectric effect and thermionic effect) Properties of Nonmetals May be gases. Kr. Se. sulfur. Sn. tellurium and polonium are semimetals Group VII: Halogens-F. Al. Sb. Cl. all the others are metals Group IV: C. Te. Xe. liquids. S. Ba. Ca. arsenic and antimony are semimetals. Br. At very reactive nonmetals Group VIII: Noble Gases-He.Group II: Alkaline Earth Metals-Be. Po oxygen. Sr. I. bismuth is a metal Group VI: O. Pb carbon is a nonmetal.
7. The middle of the scale. Because the scale is logarithmic. Normal rain has a pH of 5. the acidity of a sample with a pH of 5 is ten times greater than that of a sample with a pH of 6. would mean that the acidity is one hundred times greater.6 – slightly acidic because of the carbon dioxide picked up in the earth's atmosphere by the rain. pH = (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity). a difference of one pH unit represents a tenfold change. represents the neutral point. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. For example.The pH Scale pH: A measure of the acidity of water. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. from 6 to 4. A difference of 2 units. The acidity of a water sample is measured on a pH scale. and so on. The acidity increases from neutral toward 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 81 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. This scale ranges from 0 (maximum acidity) to 14 (maximum alkalinity).
Total Trihalomethanes Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort or anemia. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 82 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Haloacetic Acids Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.Modern Water Treatment Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. Chloramine Some people who use drinking water containing chloramines well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard. Disinfectant alternatives will include Ozone. kidneys. Bromate Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard. Chlorine Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. You will see an increase of these technologies in the near future. Chlorine Dioxide Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. Chlorite Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. and Ultraviolet light. Some people may experience anemia. Especially after heavy rainstorms. Some people may experience anemia. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. or central nervous systems.
The water will help create acid which will make the leak larger. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 83 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Chlorine Section 2 Ton Cylinders The top lines are for extracting the gas. Never place water on a leaking metal cylinder. and the bottom lines are for extracting the Cl2 liquid.
150 Pound Chlorine Cylinder Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 84 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
3. rubber. 2. and finely divided metals may cause fires and explosions. methane. propylene.08 to part per million (ppm) parts of air have been reported. It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29. acetylene.800 mm Hg 7. Hazardous decomposition products: None reported. soluble in alkalies. Chemical and Physical Properties Physical data 1. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): -34. and silicon should be avoided. DOT label: Poison gas Appearance and odor Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. bismuth. and water. Specific gravity (liquid): 1. and chlorides.Chlorine * Formula: Cl(2) * Structure: Not applicable. Melting point: -101 degrees C (-149. Molecular weight: 70. boron. turpentine. and sulfur). Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture. 8. DOT UN: 1017 20 4. iodine. activated carbon. glycerol. Prolonged exposures may result in olfactory fatigue. and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride.5 5.9 2. Contact between chlorine and arsenic. hydrogen. Vapor density: 2. Special precautions: Chlorine will attack some forms of plastics.2 degrees F) or at high pressures. Conditions contributing to instability: Cylinders of chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures. Chlorine in solution forms a corrosive material. Incompatibilities: Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures with chlorine. Evaporation rate: Data not available. carbon disulfide. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water. hydrazine. reducing agents. oxomonosilane. Contact between chlorine and many combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. and coatings. Odor thresholds ranging from 0.: FO2100000 3. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 85 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . potassium. alcohols. 4. ammonia. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid. Reactivity 1.: 7782-50-5 2. steam. RTECS No. calcium.41 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 6. * Synonyms: Bertholite.28 degrees F) 3. alcohols.6 degrees C (-30. hydrocarbons. CAS No.8 degrees F) 6. molecular chlorine Identifiers 1. Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F): 4.86 atm 4.
Stay away from the ends of containers.5 ppm (1. 254]. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level [29 CFR 1910. Flash point: Not applicable. * Rationale for Limits The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of severe eye.0 ppm (2. do not use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. 1. Autoignition temperature: Not applicable.Flammability Chlorine is a non-combustible gas. Fires involving chlorine should be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self. * NIOSH REL The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0. 2. The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 0 (no fire hazard) to chlorine. most combustible materials will burn in chlorine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 86 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If this is not possible. 3.5 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1 ppm (3 mg/m(3))[NIOSH 1992]. p. * ACGIH TLV The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned chlorine a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0. use water spray or fog. For a massive fire in a cargo area.contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving chlorine. withdraw from the area and let the fire burn. Extinguishant: For small fires use water only. cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out. Exposures at the STEL concentration should not be repeated more than four times a day and should be separated by intervals of at least 60 minutes [ACGIH 1994. Exposure Limits * OSHA PEL The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. Flammable limits in air: Not applicable. If fire must be fought. The ACGIH limits are based on the risk of eye and mucous membrane irritation [ACGIH 1991. Table Z-1]. mucous membrane and skin irritation [NIOSH 1992]. however. p. isolate the hazard area and deny entry. 4. Keep unnecessary people away.9 mg/m(3)) for periods not to exceed 15 minutes.5 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1. if this is impossible. Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely. 15]. Contain and let large fires involving chlorine burn. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles.1000. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering.
Also. With free available chlorine. or plumbing errors. This residual concentration of chlorine provides some degree of protection right to the water faucet. The correct excess is obtained in a method called "Break Point Chlorination ". because organic matter concentrations are generally low in these sources. Chlorine By-Products Chlorination by-products are the chemicals formed when the chlorine used to kill diseasecausing micro-organisms reacts with naturally occurring organic matter (e. Because chlorinated organic compounds are less effective. such as cholera and typhoid fever..1 to 0. There is a constant danger that safe water leaving the treatment plant may become contaminated later. A particularly important group of compounds with combined chlorine is the chloramines formed by reactions with ammonia. bacteria and protozoa — that cause serious and life-threatening diseases. There will be no chlorine residual unless there is an excess over the amount that reacts with the organic matter present. and that which is bound but still effective is combined chlorine. because concentrations of natural organic matter are lower and less chlorine is required to disinfect at colder temperatures. Health Effects Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of THMs have shown increased incidences of cancer. some of which are effective killing agents.5 ppm. The opposite — high organic matter concentrations and high THM levels — is true when rivers or other surface waters are used as the source of the drinking water. several studies of cancer incidence in human populations have reported associations between long-term exposure to high levels of chlorination by-products and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. drinking water supplies are the trihalomethanes (THMs). bromodichloromethane. reaction kinetics complicates interpretation of chlorination data.g. This is largely due to the introduction of water treatment. The amount of THMs formed in drinking water can be influenced by a number of factors. a typical residual is from 0. including the season and the source of the water. and OCl¯ is called free available chlorine. For example. THM levels are also low when wells or large lakes are used as the drinking water source. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 87 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chlorine present as Cl.S. Living cells react with chlorine and reduce its concentration while they die. chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Other less common chlorination by-products includes the haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles. decay products of vegetation) in the water. THM concentrations are generally lower in winter than in summer. There may be breaks in water mains. The Principal Trihalomethanes are: Chloroform. a typical residual is 2 ppm for combined chlorine. particularly chlorination. However. The most common chlorination by-products found in U. loss of pressure that permits an inward leak. The organic matter and other substances that are present. at the turn of the century. most of our drinking water supplies are free of the micro-organisms — viruses.Chlorine (DDBP) Today. One especially important feature of disinfection using chlorine is the ease of overdosing to create a "residual" concentration. convert to chlorinated derivatives. HOCl.
Chlorine storage room. Possible relationships between exposure to high levels of THMs and adverse reproductive effects in humans have also been examined recently. but indicate the need for further research to confirm their results and to assess the potential health effects of chlorination by. The bottom vent will allow the gas to ventilate because Cl2 gas is heavier than air.products other than THMs. pregnant women who consumed large amounts of tap water containing elevated levels of THMs were found to have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. In a California study. notice the vents at the bottom and top.For instance. The available studies on health effects do not provide conclusive proof of a relationship between exposure to THMs and cancer or reproductive effects. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 88 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a recent study conducted in the Great Lakes basin reported an increased risk of bladder and possibly colon cancer in people who drank chlorinated surface water for 35 years or more.
When used with modern water filtration practices.. so that small amounts of chlorine or other disinfectants must be added to the water to ensure continued disinfection as the water is piped to the consumer’s tap. compounds whose toxicity has not yet been fully determined. the preferred method of controlling chlorination by-products is removal of the naturally occurring organic matter from the source water so it cannot react with the chlorine to form by-products. Chloramines are weaker disinfectants than chlorine. viruses and protozoa. they are very persistent and. It is easy to apply. Chlorine dioxide can be an effective disinfectant. A number of cities use ozone to disinfect their source water and to reduce THM formation. Although ozone is a highly effective disinfectant. Assessments of the health risks from these and other chlorine-based disinfectants and chlorination by-products are currently under way. In general. This ensures that the water remains free of microbial contamination on its journey from the treatment plant to the consumer’s tap. but it forms chlorate and chlorite. can be useful for preventing re-growth of microbial pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. and. however. THM levels may also be reduced through the replacement of chlorine with alternative disinfectants. as such.Risks and Benefits of Chlorine Current evidence indicates that the benefits of chlorinating our drinking water — reduced incidence of water-borne diseases — are much greater than the risks of health effects from THMs. it breaks down quickly. small amounts of chlorine remain in the water and continue to disinfect throughout the distribution system. and ozone treatment can create other undesirable by-products that may be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. Although other disinfectants are available. A third option is removal of the by-products by adsorption on activated carbon beds. most importantly. It is extremely important that water treatment plants ensure that methods used to control chlorination by-products do not compromise the effectiveness of water disinfection. Modifying water treatment facilities to use ozone can be expensive. Chlorine Piping and chlorine cylinder yoke Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 89 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .g. Examples of other disinfectants include chloramines and chlorine dioxide. chlorine continues to be the choice of water treatment experts. bromate). chlorine is effective against virtually all infective agents — bacteria. especially against viruses and protozoa.
0 ppm for 8 hours produced statistically significant changes in pulmonary function that were not observed at a 0.5 ppm [ACGIH 1991]. 1991]. and lungs in experimental animals. All but six workers had exposures below 1 ppm. There has been one confirmed case of myasthenia gravis associated with chlorine exposure [NLM 1995].5 ppm exposure concentration.4 percent had abnormal EKGs compared to 8.0 ppm for 4. Exposures of 1. The 1 hour LC(50) is 239 ppm in rats and 137 ppm in mice ()[Sax and Lewis 1989]. Effects on Humans: Severe acute effects of chlorine exposure in humans have been well documented since World War I when chlorine gas was used as a chemical warfare agent.2 percent in the control group. pleurisy. Other severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks. ingestion. and bronchitis [Hathaway et al. mucous membranes. pneumonia. opacification of the cornea. Responses for sensations of itching or burning of the nose and eyes. Six of 14 subjects exposed to 1. The incidence of fatigue was greater among those exposed above 0. A study of workers exposed to chlorine for an average of 10.0 ppm for 8 hours showed increased mucous secretions from the nose and in the hypopharynx. many of these effects are not confirmed in recent studies and are of very dubious significance [ACGIH 1991]. Effects on Animals: Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes. 2. but were perceptible. and general discomfort were not severe. Tooth enamel damage may also occur [Parmeggiani 1983]. a study was published involving 29 subjects exposed to chlorine concentrations up to 2. Exposure to 15 ppm causes throat irritation. In 1981. exposures to 50 ppm are dangerous. A 1983 study of pulmonary function at low concentrations of chlorine exposure also found transient decreases in pulmonary function at the 1. Clayton and Clayton 1982]. but 9.9 years was published in 1970. These exposures have caused death. Animals surviving sublethal inhalation exposures for 15 to 193 days showed marked emphysema. and exposures to 1000 ppm can be fatal.0 ppm exposure level [ACGIH 1991]. Summary of toxicology 1. and eye or skin contact [Genium 1992]. Chlorine injected into the anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes resulted in severe damage with inflammation.5 ppm level [ACGIH 1991]. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 90 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0 ppm exposure level. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and susceptibility to tuberculosis among chronically-exposed workers. 21 had TWAs above 0. Earlier literature reported that exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints. and pulmonary edema. skin.52 ppm. No evidence of permanent lung damage was found. corrosion of the teeth. even if exposure is brief [Sax and Lewis 1989. Acne (chloracne) is not unusual among persons exposed to low concentrations of chlorine for long periods of time. which was associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. atrophy of the iris. and injury to the lens [Grant 1986]. but not at the 0. especially at the 1.and 8-hour periods. lung congestion. However. The lowest lethal concentration reported is 430 ppm for 30 minutes [Clayton and Clayton 1982].Health Hazard Information Routes of Exposure Exposure to chlorine can occur through inhalation.
vomiting. and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations. and restlessness. and fruit. Use in the paper and pulp. 2. in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. and in hydraulic fluids. Use as bleaching and cleaning agents. polymers (synthetic rubber and plastics). Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to low levels of chlorine gas can result in a dermatitis known as chloracne. disinfectant. hemoptysis and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis [Genium 1992]. pesticides. automotive antifreeze and antiknock compounds. laryngeal edema.1200]). dishwashers. and in sewage. fish. excessive salivation. tooth enamel corrosion. Use as a fluxing. flameproofing. and textile industries for bleaching cellulose for artificial fibers. Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 CFR. refrigerants. and demulsifier in treatment of drinking water. those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. purification. and bleaching cellulose. cleaning dairy equipment. use in detinning and dezincing iron. headache. Higher concentrations causes difficulty in breathing. the location and proper use of emergency equipment. choking. Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes [Genium 1992]. in special batteries containing lithium or zinc. and as a disinfectant in laundries. elastomers. are as follows: Process enclosure Local exhaust ventilation General dilution ventilation Personal protective equipment. cleaning powders. and throat irritation. dizziness. violent coughing. cyanosis.g. Use as a bacteriostat. coughing. severe chest pain. and in the manufacture of rocket fuel. nose. use to shrink-proof wool. depending on the feasibility of implementation. and extraction agent in metallurgy. resins. sneezing. Methods that are effective in controlling worker exposures to chlorine. general excitement. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye. chemical pneumonia. nausea. odor control. Emergency Medical Procedures: [NIOSH to supply] Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e.. lubricants. Use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. swimming pools. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 91 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . use in the manufacture of chlorinated lime. vegetables. use in the processing of meat.Signs and Symptoms of Exposure 1. sore throat. cosmetics. adhesives. All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures. Exposure Sources and Control Methods The following operations may involve chlorine and lead to worker exposures to this substance: The Manufacture and Transportation of Chlorine Use as a chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis. acute tracheobronchitis.
hydrogen sulfide and water. propylene. 4. 2. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers. oil. moisture. Use water spray to reduce vapors.Good Sources of Information about Control Methods are as Follows: 1. calcium. All pipes and containment used for chlorine service should be regularly inspected and tested. 3. bismuth. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 92 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ACGIH . reducing agents. iodine. extreme temperatures changes. 6. hydrogen. Kane JM . paper. Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. Chlorine Storage Chlorine should be stored in a cool. Empty containers of chlorine should have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. if not. hydrocarbons. and they should be stored separately from flammable gases and vapors. move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. boron. Scheff PA . alcohols. combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. arsenic. Remove all sources of heat and ignition. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. New York. 5. silicon. vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. ammonia. Design of industrial ventilation systems. Chicago. turpentine. and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures for handling compressed corrosive gases. do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. 3. activated carbon.1200]. carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. potassium. Alden JL. Spills and Leaks In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather. Cincinnati. NY: Industrial Press. hydrazine. dry. Plog BA . glycerol. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: 1. Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. 7. persons not wearing protective equipment and fullyencapsulating. Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk.) away from the leak. 21st ed. Inc. 4. Burton DJ . carbon disulfide. steam. finely divided metals. Notify safety personnel. cylinders. NY: McGraw-Hill. and physical damage. Cincinnati. Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. 5. oxomonosilane. etc. and sulfur). OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. IL: National Safety Council. and water. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. Keep all combustibles (wood. New York. Wadden RA. methane. 2. acetylene.
Reportable Quantity Requirements for Hazardous Releases A hazardous substance release is defined by the EPA as any spilling. reactivity. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to the EPA reporting the amount of chlorine emitted or released from their facility annually. and hazardous waste management may change over time. State. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24-hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility. the EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year or otherwise use 10. Notify the community emergency coordinator of the local emergency planning committee (or relevant local emergency response personnel) of any area likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available. community right-to-know. D. pumping. leaching. emptying. discharging. escaping.24.]. Hazardous Waste Management Requirements EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability. [40 CFR 302.40]. or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. injecting. reportable quantities of hazardous releases. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning. dumping. Notify the emergency response commission of the State likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 93 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . employers are required to notify the proper Federal. or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.21-261.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372. pouring.6]. and local authorities [40 CFR The Reportable Quantity of Chlorine is 10 Pounds. Emergency Planning Requirements Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 100 pounds or more of chlorine must comply with the EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355. corrosivity. emitting.Special Requirements The U. leaking.40]. Community Right-to-Know Requirements Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25. employers are required to do the following: Notify the National Response Center immediately at (800) or at (202) 426-2675 in Washington.S.C.30].
C.S. and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations. the EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above. Of the 70. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 94 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In addition. area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington.Although chlorine is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA. each year. the EPA.5 million tons and over 1 million containers of chlorine are shipped in the U. employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington. Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline. transport.552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I. To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets the EPA regulatory requirements. The U. Approximately 10. D. 1843 were exposed to chlorine gas. Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres. and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal. D.C. Department of Transportation.S.). relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance. Chlorine Gas Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract. France in 1915.
causing it to remain near ground level and increasing exposure time. Hypochlorous acid is also highly water soluble with an injury pattern similar to hydrochloric acid. however. Early Response to Chlorine Gas Chlorine gas. Although the idea that chlorine causes direct tissue damage by generating free oxygen radicals was once accepted.3-0. Cl2 gas does not occur naturally. Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes. and (4) individual susceptibility. but rely on trained emergency response teams to contain leaks. Just a few breaths of it are fatal. from reactions with tissue water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. The cylinders on the right contain chlorine gas. although Chlorine can be found in a number of compounds. Chlorine gas is stored in vented rooms that have panic bar equipped doors. depending on the chemical species produced. The early response to chlorine exposure depends on the (1) concentration of chlorine gas. (3) water content of the tissues exposed. the density of the gas is greater than that of air. distinguishing toxic air levels from permissible air levels may be difficult until irritative symptoms are present. chloramines decompose to ammonia and hypochlorous acid or hydrochloric acid. The cylinders are on a scale that operators use to measure the amount used each day. Mechanism of Activity The mechanisms of the above biological activity are poorly understood and the predominant anatomic site of injury may vary. Cellular injury is believed to result from the oxidation of functional groups in cell components. and from the generation of free oxygen radicals. The chains are used to prevent the tanks from falling over. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 95 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas at standard temperature and pressure. the gas settles low to the ground. In the presence of water. The intermediate water solubility of chlorine accounts for its effect on the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract. Hypochlorous acid may account for the toxicity of elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid to the human body. The odor threshold for chlorine is approximately 0. Solubility Effects Hydrochloric acid is highly soluble in water. The gas comes out of the cylinder through a gas regulator. (2) duration of exposure. Operators have the equipment necessary to reduce the impact of a gas leak. noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. and it burns the skin. when mixed with ammonia. this idea is now controversial. Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow. Because its density is greater than that of air. The predominant targets of the acid are the epithelia of the ocular conjunctivae and upper respiratory mucus membranes. It is extremely reactive with most elements. In addition. reacts to form chloramine gas.5 parts per million (ppm). It is a respiratory irritant.
pneumonia. manifested as hypoxia. nose. larynx. and bronchi. resulting in pulmonary congestion. pharynx. Irritation of the airway mucosa leads to local edema secondary to active arterial and capillary hyperemia. Plasma exudation results in filling the alveoli with edema fluid. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is thought to occur when there is a loss of pulmonary capillary integrity. hyaline membrane formation. trachea. Chlorine Wrenches and Fusible Plugs Simple Chlorine Field Test Kit Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 96 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Pathological Findings Pathologic findings are nonspecific. and ulcerative tracheobronchitis.Immediate Effects The immediate effects of chlorine gas toxicity include acute inflammation of the conjunctivae. They include severe pulmonary edema. The hallmark of pulmonary injury associated with chlorine toxicity is pulmonary edema. multiple pulmonary thromboses.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 97 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . N – diethyl-p-phenylenediame Small portable chlorine measuring kit.Using DPD Method for Chlorine Residuals N. (Make sure you buy a test kit using the DPD method. The most accurate method for determining chlorine residuals to use the laboratory ampermetric titration method. Measuring Chlorine Residual Chlorine residual is the amount of chlorine remaining in water that can be used for disinfection. These results should be kept on file for a health or regulatory agency inspection during a regular field visit. A convenient. simple and inexpensive way to measure chlorine residual is to use a small portable kit with pre-measured packets of chemicals that are added to water. You can measure what chlorine levels are being found in your system (especially at the far ends). and not the outdated orthotolodine method. Free chlorine residuals need to be checked and recorded daily. The redder the mixture the “hotter” or stronger the chlorine in solution.) Chlorine test kits are very useful in adjusting the chlorine dose you apply.
yet convenient: the easiest way to complete ppb-level amperometric titration. benchtop chlorine-measurement system that does it all: calibration.and temperature-dependent. dichloramine. Chlorinated wastewater effluents. particularly in treating drinking water. Taste and odor characteristics of phenols and other organic compounds present in a water supply may be intensified. Hach’s AutoCAT 9000™ Automatic Titrator is the newest solution to hit the disinfection industry – a comprehensive. Combined chlorine in water supplies may be formed in the treatment of raw waters containing ammonia or by the addition of ammonia or ammonium salts. is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the reaction of chlorine with ammonia. • Forward titration: USEPA-accepted methods for free and total chlorine and chlorine dioxide with chlorite. iron. A secondary benefit. sulfide. manganese. Both free and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously. hypochlorous acid. and reaction time. Potentially carcinogenic chloro-organic compounds such as chloroform may be formed.or amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. as well as certain chlorinated industrial effluents. and hypochlorite ion. With ammonia. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 98 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Amperometric Titration The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms. the AutoCAT 9000 gives you: • High throughput: performs the titration and calculates concentration. At the pH of most waters. and some organic substances. The presence and concentrations of these combined forms depend chiefly on pH. Chlorine applied to water in its molecular or hypochlorite form initially undergoes hydrolysis to form free chlorine consisting of aqueous molecular chlorine. initial chlorine-to-nitrogen ratio. hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion will predominate. More a laboratory assistant than an instrument. temperature. Chlorination may produce adverse effects. The relative proportion of these free chlorine forms is pH. Free chlorine reacts readily with ammonia and certain nitrogenous compounds to form combined chlorine. graphic print output. all automatically. even electrode cleaning. chlorine reacts to form the chloramines: monochloramine. normally contain only combined chlorine. titration. calculation. Historically the principal analytical problem has been to distinguish between free and combined forms of chlorine. and nitrogen trichloride. absolute chlorine demand. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia. it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination. real-time graphs. • Back titration: USEPA-accepted method for total chlorine in wastewater. • Accurate. To fulfill the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimize any adverse effects.
You can see column one. Kr are inert gases. I. Beginning The common chemical equation could be A + B --> C + D. These all become ions as H+. Column 18. a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen. Li. He. Now. each having one electron. Be. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 99 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . in barium chloride ( BaCl2) the oxidation number of barium is +2 and of chlorine is -1. Oxidation The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance. ionize to a negative F-. K etc. as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s. there are 18 columns. Br-..e. let us look at some common ions. The next column. Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation. halogen addition to a double bond is regarded as an oxidation. Br. Ca etc. Ca2+. Electrons may also be displaced within the molecule without being completely transferred away from it. two electrons (negative charges) are transferred from the iron atom to the copper atom. This is chemical A + chemical B. but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred. column 2. Na. What you need to memorize is the table of common ions. H. I-. and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent. It is arranged in columns of elements. cupric ion is the oxidizing agent in the reaction: Fe (metal) + Cu++ --> Fe++ + Cu (metal). let’s start with this review of basic chemical equations. both positive ions and negative ions. when two hydrogen atoms. Li+. Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s. Reaction of a hydrocarbon with a halogen. Ne. thus the iron becomes positively charged (is oxidized) by loss of two electrons while the copper receives the two electrons and becomes neutral (is reduced). etc. the two reacting chemicals will go to products C + D etc. Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions). etc. Mg. For example. K+. Oxidation Number The number of electrons that must be added to or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form. for example.Chemical Equations. Have a look at the “periodic table of the elements”. and is dependent on its place within the periodic table. involves partial oxidation of the methane. F. Cl-. i. Oxidation States and Balancing of Equations Before we breakdown Chlorine and other chemicals. Ar. etc. Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state. Mg2+. become ions Be2+. Cl. here. Column 17. An ion is the reactive state of the chemical. CH4 + 2 Cl --> CH3Cl + HCl.
--> NaOH (sodium hydroxide) Na+ + Cl.--> NaCl (salt) 3H+ + PO43. and vice versa.--> H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) 2Na+ + S2O32. For example: Na+ + OH. This is the start of our chemical reactions.--> Na2S2O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 100 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Table of Common Ions Positive Ions Valency 1 lithium sodium potassium silver hydronium (or hydrogen) ammonium copper I mercury I Negative Ions Valency 1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate bicarbonate bisulphate nitrite chlorate permanganate hypochlorite dihydrogen phosphate F - Valency 2 Li+ Na+ K+ Ag+ H3O+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Hg+ magnesium calcium strontium barium copper II lead II zinc manganese II iron II tin II Valency 2 oxide sulfide carbonate sulfate sulfite dichromate chromate oxalate thiosulfate tetrathionate monohydrogen phosphate Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Cu2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Mn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Valency 3 aluminum iron III chromium Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+ Valency 3 O 2- phosphate PO43- ClBr IOHNO3HCO3HSO4NO2ClO3MnO4OClH2PO4- S2CO32SO42SO32Cr2O7CrO42C2O42S2O32S4O62HPO42- Positive ions will react with negative ions.
Al3+ the 3 goes in front of the SO42.You will see from these examples. to balance the number of chlorine’s (Cl-) required. in front of the other ion. that if an ion of one (+). the 2 goes in front of the Al3+ to become 2Al3+. When the left hand side of the equation is written.(phosphate will require an ion of 3+ or an ion of one (+) (but needs three of these) to neutralize the 3. Why? Because we are dealing with the sulfate ion. where the ions have become a compound (a chemical compound). so we have to ensure that the “ion” is bracketed. the 2 times 3+ = 6+. and SO42-. aluminum exists in its ionic state as Al3+. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 101 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Let me give you an easy way of balancing: Al is 3+ SO4 is 2Simply transpose the number of positives (or negatives) for each ion. reacts with an ion of one (-) then the equation is balanced.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) Al3+ + SO42. and 3 times 2.--> AlCl (incorrect) Al3+ + 3Cl. For example.charged (not just the O4). On the right hand side of the equation. is placed after each “ion” entity. Now to check. PO43-.in front of the Al3+.and the 2 from the SO42. or cancel each other out. Let us again look at: Al3+ + SO42. We have equal amounts of positive ions. Remember to encase the SO4 in brackets. However. and balance them. in this case Cl-. Equation becomes: 2Al3+ + 3SO42.charge on the phosphate.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) 2Al3+ + 3SO42.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Put the three from the Al in front of the SO42. it will react with many negatively charged ions. to the other ion. in front of the other ion. by placing this value of one ion. Cl3. this same number (now in front of each ion on the left side of the equation). becomes 3Cl-. what you are doing is balancing the charges (+) or (-) to make them zero.--> Al2(SO4)3. the number is transferred to after the relevant ion. as a whole number. and it is this ion that is 2. SO42-. Al3+ + Cl.--> AlCl3 (correct) How did we work this out? Al3+ has three positives (3+) Cl. and equal amounts of negative ions. the number 3 is placed in front of the ion concerned. SO42-. OH-. Let us do these examples. Another example: Al3+ + SO42.as 3SO42-. and vice versa. an ion like PO43. Then on the right hand side of the equation. You simply place the valency of one ion. That is.has one negative (-) It will require 3 negative charges to cancel out the 3 positive charges on the aluminum ( Al3+). So. examples: Cl-.= 6-.
This is showing you which ions are reacting with each other. or Na+OH.Another example: NaOH + HCl --> ? Na is Na+.--> NaCl The H+ from the HCl will react with a negative (-) ion this will be the OH. The Mg2+ needs to react with a negatively charged ion. because at the moment the Na+ is tied to the OH-. I therefore have 2H3 reacting with 3(OH)2. on the left side of the equation. ( because we originally had (OH)2 attached to the Mg. the equation became 3Mg2+ + 2PO43.--> 6H2O Where did I get the 6 from? When I balanced the Mg2+ with the PO43-. so let us rewrite the equation in ionic form. Reaction is going to be the Na+ reacting with a negatively charged ion. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 102 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The balancing of equations is simple. The complete reaction can be written: NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O.from the Mg(OH)2 left for it to react with. HCl is H+ + Cl -.--> ? (equation on left not balanced). this will be the PO43-. You need to learn the valency of the common ions (see tables). as 6H+ + 6OH.--> Mg3(PO4)2 Therefore. so the equation is balanced.+ H+Cl. The equation becomes: 6H+ + 6OH. and then placing this number after each ion on the right side of the equation) What is left is the H+ from the H3PO4 and this will react with a negative ion.because we need it in ionic form. Cl-. We have to write this.--> H2O (water). we only have the OH.from the NaOH. So: Na+ + Cl.+ 3H+PO43. so this gave us NaOH. Originally the one positive canceled the one negative. and placing it in front of each ion. OH is OH-.--> Na+Cl. this gave us HCl. I must have required 3Mg(OH)2 to begin with. so: 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. and H3 attached to the PO4.--> Mg3(PO4)2 (Remember the swapping of the positive or negative charges on the ions in the left side of the equation. and 2H3PO4. So: H+ + OH.--> 6H2O The full equation is now balanced and is: 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H2O I have purposely split the equation into segments of reactions.+ H+OHSomething More Difficult: Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 --> ? (equation on left not balanced) Mg2+ 2OH. This will have to be the chlorine. 6H+ + 6OH. Once you get the idea of equations you will not need this step. We have equal amounts of all atoms each side of the equation.
each side of the equation. now stays the same. example OH. place the 3 from the Al3+ in front of the OH-. there are no brackets placed around the OH-. now reads 3OH-. Take my earlier hint. as in 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> ? Conductivity.The rest is pure mathematics. or positives. place the 1 from the hydroxyl OH.(one negative ion) then we require 2 more negatively charged ions (in this case OH-) to counteract the 3 positive charges the Al3+ contains. temperature and pH measuring equipment. (3 positive charges) reacts with another ion. all numbers in front of each ion on the left hand side of the equation are placed after each same ion on the right side of the equation. positives versus negatives. a recognized ion. Brackets are used in the right side of the equation because the result is a compound.--> Al(OH)3 The 3 is simply written in front of the OH-. Brackets are also used for compounds (reactants) in the left side of equations. Al3+ + 3OH. You have to have the same number of negatives. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 103 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . On the right hand side of the equation. example Al3+. If one ion.in front of the Al3+. Al3+ (the 1 is never written in chemistry equations). you are balancing valency charges. and the same number of ions or atoms each side of the equation.
Hard to tell. Also notice that this picture is the only eye wash station that we found during our inspection of 10 different facilities. Do you have an eye wash and emergency shower? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 104 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Notice the five gallon bucket of motor oil in the bottom picture. but these are one ton cylinders.
When a chlorine residual test is taken. pathogenic organisms are actually harder to kill. chemical reactions occur as these equations show: Cl 2 + H 2 O → HOCI + HCI (chlorine gas) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (hydrochloric acid) CaOCI + H 2 O → 2HOCI + Ca(OH) (calcium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (calcium hydroxide) NaOCI + H 2 O → HOCI + Na(OH) (sodium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (sodium hydroxide) All three forms of chlorine produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when added to water. Temperature plays a small part in the acid ratio. Total residual is all chlorine that is available for disinfection. Let’s now look at how pH and temperature affect the ratio of hypochlorous acid to hypochlorite ions. As the temperature is decreased. etc. Under normal water conditions. hypochlorous acid will also chemically react and break down into a hypochlorite ion (OCl . This is called the chlorine demand. once chlorine molecules are combined with these interfering agents they are not capable of disinfection. Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid but a strong disinfecting agent. There are always other substances (interfering agents) such as iron. the measured amount of chlorine in the water should be the same as the amount added. turbidity. When any of these is added to water. total and combined chlorine are related. about 100 times less effective. It is free chlorine that is much more effective as a disinfecting agent. Types of Residual If water were pure. manganese. Total chlorine residual = free + combined chlorine residual. But water is not 100% pure. which will combine chemically with the chlorine. either a total or a free chlorine residual can be read. Although the ratio of hypochlorous acid is greater at lower temperatures. So let’s look now at how free. All other things being equal.. The amount of hypochlorous acid depends on the pH and temperature of the water.Chemistry of Chlorination Chlorine can be added as sodium hypochlorite. Naturally. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 105 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . higher water temperatures and a lower pH are more conducive to chlorine disinfection. calcium hypochlorite or chlorine gas.): HOCI H + + OCI – Also expressed HOCI → H + + OCI – (hypochlorous acid) (hydrogen) (hypochlorite ion) The hypochlorite ion is a much weaker disinfecting agent than hypochlorous acid. the ratio of hypochlorous acid increases.
The 1 ton is on a scale. most water regulating agencies will require that your daily chlorine residual readings be of free chlorine residual. Use of the "CT" disinfection concept is recommended to demonstrate satisfactory treatment. uses the combination of disinfectant residual concentration (mg/L) and the effective disinfection contact time (in minutes) to measure effective pathogen reduction. Therefore.Free chlorine residual is a much stronger disinfecting agent. any additional chlorine will be considered free chlorine. The residual is measured at the end of the process. as developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Register. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) The effective reduction in pathogens can be calculated by reference to standard tables of required CTs. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 106 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and the contact time used is the T10 of the process unit (time for 10% of the water to pass). Parts 141 and 142. Residual Concentration/Contact Time (CT) Requirements Disinfection to eliminate fecal and coliform bacteria may not be sufficient to adequately reduce pathogens such as Giardia or viruses to desired levels. Break-point chlorination is where the chlorine demand has been satisfied. The CT concept. 40 CFR. 1 Ton and 150 pound cylinders. 1989). June 29. since monitoring for very low levels of pathogens in treated water is analytically very difficult.
Reduction Ratio = CT actual : CT required Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 107 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . residual concentration.10 cysts/100 L 3-log .0 to be acceptable. Results shall be reported as a reduction Ratio.000 risk of infection per person per year).5-log > 100 cysts/100 L > 5-log *Use geometric means of data to determine raw water Giardia levels for compliance.Required Giardia/Virus Reduction All surface water treatment systems shall ensure a minimum reduction in pathogen levels: 3-log reduction in Giardia. Higher raw water contamination levels may require greater removals as shown on Table 4. The reduction Ratio must be greater than 1. and a finished water goal of 1 cyst/100. or by using the lowest CT value if it is calculated more frequently. These requirements are based on unpolluted raw water sources with Giardia levels of = 1 cyst/100 L. along with the appropriate pH.1. Actual CT values are then compared to required CT values.4-log 10 cysts/100 L .100 cysts/100 L 4-log . Calculation and Reporting of CT Data Disinfection CT values shall be calculated daily using either the maximum hourly flow and the disinfectant residual at the same time. temperature. temperature and the disinfectant used. Users may also calculate and record actual log reductions. and 4-log reduction in viruses. and disinfectant residual. The tables attached to Appendices A and B shall be used to determine the required CT.1 Level of Giardia Reduction Raw Water Giardia Levels* Recommended Giardia Log Reduction < 1 cyst/100 L 3-log 1 cyst/100 L .000 L (equivalent to 1 in 10. TABLE 4. Required CT Value Required CT values are dependent on pH.
This is to prevent a build-up of excessive pressure and the possibility of cylinder rupture due to fire or high temperatures. This metal plug will melt at 158 to 165o F.Chlorinator Parts A. D. H. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 108 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . E. C. G. F. Ejector Check Valve Assembly Rate Valve Diaphragm Assembly Interconnection Manifold Rotometer Tube and Float Pressure Gauge Gas Supply Chlorine measurement devices or Rotometers Safety Information: There is a fusible plug on every chlorine tank. B.
the feed rate of the chlorinator is controlled by a flow proportional signal and a residual analyzer signal to maintain particular chlorine residual in the water. The chlorinator. from the chlorine room. A chlorine room is where chlorine gas cylinders and/or ton containers are stored.Chlorination Equipment Requirements For all water treatment facilities. vent line should be run in such a manner that moisture collecting traps are avoided. As an alternative to chlorine gas. Anti-siphon valves shall be incorporated in the pump heads or in the discharge piping. spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators. gas chlorinators shall be equipped with an automatic changeover system. Standby Provision As a safeguard against malfunction and/or shut-down. may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. Injectors should be located to minimize the length of pressurized chlorine solution lines. the chlorine feeder is used in conjunction with a chlorine residual analyzer which controls the feed rate of the chlorine feeders to maintain a particular residual in the treated water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 109 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . chlorine gas under pressure shall not be permitted outside the chlorine room. or automatic residual controlled. In the automatic residual controlled system. In addition. it is permissible to use hypochlorite with positive displacement pumping. A manual chlorine feed system may be installed for groundwater systems with constant flow rates. Vacuum regulators shall also be located inside the chlorine room. the equipment adjusts the chlorine feed rate automatically in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant pre-established dosage for all rates of flow. In the compound loop control system. or compound loop controlled. chlorine gas vacuum lines should be run as close to the point of solution application as possible. Methods of Control Chlorine feed system shall be automatic proportional controlled. Capacity The chlorinator shall have the capacity to dose enough chlorine to overcome the demand and maintain the required concentration of the "free" or "combined" chlorine. For uninterrupted chlorination. For new and upgraded facilities. The vacuum regulating valve(s) shall have positive shutdown in the event of a break in the downstream vacuum lines. A gas pressure relief system shall be included in the gas vacuum line between the vacuum regulator(s) and the chlorinator(s) to ensure that pressurized chlorine gas does not enter the gas vacuum lines leaving the chlorine room. standby chlorination equipment having the capacity to replace the largest unit shall be provided. The gas pressure relief system shall vent pressurized gas to the atmosphere at a location that is not hazardous to plant personnel. In the automatic proportional controlled system. which is the mechanical gas proportioning equipment.
Equipment shall be in close proximity to the access door(s) of the chlorine room. Chlorine leak detection equipment may not be required for very small chlorine rooms with an exterior door (e. cylinder and/or ton repair kits.Weigh Scales Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all plants using chlorine gas to permit an accurate reading of total daily weight of chlorine used. eye protection. floor area less than 3m2). Safety Equipment The facility shall be provided with personnel safety equipment including the following: Respiratory equipment. Respiratory equipment shall be provided which has been approved under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 110 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . eyewash. the ammonia will create a white colored smoke. Consideration should also be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where such cylinders are in use. protective clothing. If there is a leak. Chlorine leak detection equipment should be connected to a remote audible and visual alarm system and checked on a regular basis to verify proper operation. Scales shall be of corrosion-resistant material. As a minimum. At large plants. Securing Cylinders All chlorine cylinders shall be securely positioned to safeguard against movement. Tag the cylinder ”empty” and store upright and chained. General Safety Regulation . the chlorine gas leakage shall be contained within the chlorine room itself in order to facilitate a proper method of clean-up. Leak detection shall be provided for the chlorine rooms. Leak detection equipment shall not automatically activate the chlorine room ventilation system in such a manner as to discharge chlorine gas.g. You can use a spray solution of Ammonia or a rag soaked with Ammonia to detect a small Cl2 leak.Selection of Respiratory Protective Equipment. During an emergency if the chlorine room is unoccupied. a platform scale shall be provided. Ton containers may not be stacked. safety shower. scales of the recording and indicating type are recommended. gloves.. Chlorine Leak Detection Automatic chlorine leak detection and related alarm equipment shall be installed at all water treatment plants using chlorine gas.
Windows should be at least 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 111 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The chlorine cylinder storage room shall have access either to the chlorine room or from the plant exterior. Heating Chlorine rooms shall have separate heating systems. Air inlets should be louvered near the ceiling. a separate storage room may be provided to simply store the chlorine gas cylinders. The chlorine room shall be located at the ground floor level. Separate switches for fans and lights shall be outside the room at all entrance or viewing points. The vents to the outside shall have insect screens. There should also be a 'panic bar' on the inside of the chlorine room door for emergency exit. Ventilation Gas chlorine rooms shall have entirely separate exhaust ventilation systems capable of delivering one (1) complete air change per minute during periods of chlorine room occupancy only. The chlorinator may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. Viewing glass windows and panic button on the inside of door should also be provided. The air outlet from the room shall be 150 mm above the floor and the point of discharge located to preclude contamination of air inlets to buildings or areas used by people. Cylinders or containers shall be protected to ensure that the chlorine maintains its gaseous state when entering the chlorinator. consideration shall be given to provide scrubbers for the chlorine room. Access All access to the chlorine room shall only be from the exterior of the building. The chlorine gas storage room shall have provision for ventilation at thirty air changes per hour. and arranged to prevent the uncontrolled release of spilled gas. entry into the chlorine rooms may be through a vestibule from outside. Scrubbers For facilities located within residential or densely populated areas. and corrosion resistant and mechanically ventilated enclosure.Chlorine Room Design Requirements Where gas chlorination is practiced. the air being of such temperature as to not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. and a clear wire-reinforced glass window shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the operator to inspect from the outside of the room. Visual inspection of the chlorination equipment from inside may be provided by the installation of glass window(s) in the walls of the chlorine room. with no connection to the line.20 m2 in area. Storage of Chlorine Cylinders If necessary. In very large facilities. The hot water heating system for the building will negate the need for a separate heating system for the chlorine room. if forced air system is used to heat the building. The heat should be controlled at approximately 15oC. and be made of clear wire reinforced glass. the gas cylinders and/or the ton containers up to the vacuum regulators shall be housed in a gas-tight. well illuminated.
These side reactions complicate the use of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Even brief exposure to 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 112 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . How is the effectiveness of disinfection determined? From the results of coliform testing. Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. True How does one determine the ambient temperature in a chlorine room? Use a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. Chlorine Questions and Answer Review Downstream from the point of post chlorination.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. True or False.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal.5 mg/L.Chlorine Demand Chlorine combines with a wide variety of materials. Also. Their demand for chlorine must be satisfied before chlorine becomes available to accomplish disinfection. what should the concentration of a free chlorine residual be in a clear well or distribution reservoir? 0. How often should chlorine storage ventilation equipment be checked? Daily.
This limits usable residuals of chlorine dioxide at the end of a process unit to less than 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 113 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chlorine dioxide provides good Giardia and virus protection but its use is limited by the restriction on the maximum residual of 0. and an ozone offgas destruction system. It is best utilized as a stable distribution system disinfectant. when fed in excess of stoichiometric amount needed. the ammonia residuals in the finished water. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide may be used for either taste and odor control or as a pre-disinfectant. Where chlorine dioxide is approved for use as an oxidant. Ozone does not provide a system residual and should be used as a primary disinfectant only in conjunction with free and/or combined chlorine. Ozone does not produce chlorinated byproducts (such as trihalomethanes) but it may cause an increase in such byproduct formation if it is fed ahead of free chlorine. Ozone Ozone is a very effective disinfectant for both Giardia and viruses. In the production of chloramines.5 mg/L. Warning: Dry sodium chlorite is explosive and can cause fires in feed equipment if leaking solutions or spills are allowed to dry out. Any installed ozonation system must include adequate ozone leak detection alarm systems.50 mg/L (including chlorine dioxide.5 mg/L ClO2/chlorite/chlorate allowed in finished water. but excluding chlorate) shall not exceed 0.30 mg/L during normal operation or 0. an accurate T10 value must be obtained for the contact chamber.Alternate Disinfectants Chloramine Chloramine is a very weak disinfectant for Giardia and virus reduction. ozone may also produce its own oxygenated byproducts such as aldehydes. ketones or carboxylic acids. the preferred method of generation is to entrain chlorine gas into a packed reaction chamber with a 25% aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (NaClO2). Ozone may also be used as an oxidant for removal of taste and odor or may be applied as a predisinfectant. chlorite and chlorate) during periods of extreme variations in the raw water supply. residual levels measured through the chamber and an average ozone residual calculated. Total residual oxidants (including chlorine dioxide and chlorite. should be limited to inhibit growth of nitrifying bacteria. Ozone CT values must be determined for the ozone basin alone. it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with a stronger disinfectant.
D 4500-Cl D Chlorine Residual by Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method I Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl E Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl F Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Low Level Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Iodometric Electrode Technique (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method II (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Residual by Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 C Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 D Chlorine Dioxide by the DPD Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th & 19th Ed. (AWWA) 4500-Cl G Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl H Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl I Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Colorimetric Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. only) Included in Standard Methods 4500-ClO2 E Included in Standard Methods Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 114 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (AWWA) 4500-Cl. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Ferrous Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Included in Standard Methods Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn.Additional Drinking Water Methods (non EPA) for Chemical Parameters Method Method Focus - Title Order Number Source 4500-Cl B Chloride by Silver Nitrate Titration Chloride by Potentiometric Method Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.
numerous test kits are readily available that can be adapted to measure chlorine dioxide.Chlorine Dioxide Methods Most tests for chlorine dioxide rely upon its oxidizing properties. The degree of bleaching is proportional to the concentration of ClO2.1 to 1. The following are the common analytical methods for chlorine dioxide: DPD glycine Method Type: Colorimetric Chlorophenol Red Colorimetric Direct Absorbance Colorimetric Iodometric Titration Titrametric Amperometric Titration Titrametric How It Works Glycine removes Cl2. In addition. Oxidizers 0. The direct measurement of ClO2 is determined between 350 and 450 nM. new methods that are specific for chlorine dioxide are being developed. ClO2 bleaches chlorophenol red indicator. The pH is lower to 2. the color allowed to reform and the titration continued. Range 0. Two aliquots are taken one is sparged with N2 to remove ClO2.5 to 5. Consequently. turbidity Simple > 1 ppm < 1ppm Interferences None Oxidizers Complexity Equipment Required EPA Status Simple Moderate Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter Not approved Yes Moderate Titration equipment High Amperometric Titrator Approved Not approved Marginal Not approved Yes Approved Recommendation Marginal Marginal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 115 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . whose intensity is proportional to the ClO2 concentration. These titrations are repeated on the sparged sample. ClO2 forms a pink color.0 ppm. KI is added to the other sample at pH7 and titrated to a colorless endpoint.0 ppm 100 to 1000 ppm Color.
In addition to protective clothing and goggles. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 116 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . choking. * IDLH 10 PPM Physical and chemical properties of chlorine. dichloramine. a noncombustible gas. The chemical equations best describes this reaction is Cl2 + H2O --> H+ + Cl. warn and evacuate people in adjacent areas. Cl is the elemental symbol and Cl2 is the chemical formula. When chlorine gas is added to water. and mouth. and a strong oxidizer. sneezing. headaches and dizziness. One reason for not adding it directly to the chamber is that the chamber has very little mixing due to low velocities.is the hypochlorite ion and the both of these two species are known as free available chlorine. It can be readily compressed into a clear. nose. Atomic number of Chlorine is 17. Chlorine is added to the effluent before the contact chamber (before the clear well) for complete mixing. Always follow your manufacturer’s instructions. chlorine gas should be used only in a well ventilated area so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate.Chlorine Exposure Limits This information is necessary to pass your certification exam.+ HOCl. Approved method for storing a 150 .IDLH 10 PPM and Fatal Exposure Limit 1. Monochloramine. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level. they are the two main chemical species formed by chlorine in water and they known by collectively as hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion. Emergency procedures in the case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. Never store near heat.200 pound chlorine cylinder: Secure each cylinder in an upright position. The connection from a chlorine cylinder to a chlorinator should be replaced by using a new. Hypochlorous acid is the most germicidal of the chlorine compounds with the possible exception of chlorine dioxide. Cl2 + NH4. Yoke-type connectors should be used on a chlorine cylinder's valve assuming that the threads on the valve may be worn. attach the protective bonnet over the valve and firmly secure each cylinder.000 PPM The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. Notify local emergency response team. and trichloramine are also known as Combined Available Chlorine. * OSHA PEL 1 PPM . Here are several symptoms of chlorine exposure. be sure that no one enters the leak area without adequate self-contained breathing equipment. Always store the empty in an upright. nausea and vomiting. A little Cl2 will corrode the teeth and then progress to throat cancer. and skin blisters. pneumonia. it rapidly hydrolyzes. approved gasket on the connector. Burning of eyes. This is the liquid chlorine supply line and it is going to be made into Chlorine gas. On a 1 or 2 ton cylinder. the OCL. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. amber-colored liquid. HOCl and OCl-. A yellowish green. Here are several safety precautions when using chlorine gas. In water treatment. Solid Chlorine is about 1.5 times heavier than water and gaseous chlorine is about 2. fatal pulmonary edema. the chlorine pressure reducing valve should be located downstream of the evaporator when using an evaporator. coughing. secure position with proper signage.5 times heavier than air.
consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a]. Personal Protective Equipment Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected. The resistance of various materials to permeation by both chlorine liquid and chlorine gas is shown below: Material Breakthrough Time (hr) Chlorine Liquid Responder Chlorine gas butyl rubber neoprene Teflon viton saranex barricade chemrel responder trellchem HPS nitrile rubber H (PE/EVAL) polyethylene polyvinyl chloride. at a minimum. and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with chlorine. However. (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures. complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910. Not recommended. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits. and regular respirator maintenance. sleeves. some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Material is estimated (but not tested) to provide at least four hours of protection. an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e. users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 117 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Respiratory Protection Section Conditions for Respirator Use Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit..g. the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components. used. and cleaning. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e. gloves. encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to chlorine. Respiratory Protection Program Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that. inspection. the regular training of personnel.g. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed. butyl) produced by different manufacturers. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. In addition.134].. Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve chlorine. periodic workplace monitoring. Such a program must include respirator selection. respirator fit testing. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). and (4) during emergencies. (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels. degradation may occur. To evaluate the use of these PPE materials with chlorine.
especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments. caustic.g. minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent. Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation. or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes. Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness. encapsulating suits). In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e.Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. workers should wear work uniforms. or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. SCBA Fit Test Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 118 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk. aprons. coveralls.
such as iron. Product Stability The oxidizing nature of this substance means that it should be handled with extreme care. There are Many Factors that Effect the Stability of a NaOCl Solution • Initial solution strength. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 119 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . set of equipment installation configurations and operating conditions. • Chlorine-producing reaction when solution pH falls below 6. The handling and storage of NaOCl presents the plant with a new and sometimes unfamiliar. There are Three Ways in Which NaOCl Solutions Degrade • Chlorate-forming reaction due to age. some users of gas have chosen to seek alternative forms of disinfectants for their water and wastewater treatment plants.Recommendations for Preparing/Handling/Feeding Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions As a result of the pressures brought to bear by Health and Safety requirements. • pH solution. or metal oxides are brought into contact with the solution. One of these alternative forms is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). light and minor reduction in pH. This is often purchased commercially at 10 to 15% strength. temperature. • Temperature of the solution. As NaOCl is relatively unstable. it degrades over time. • Exposure of the solution to sunlight. copper or nickel. • Oxygen-producing reaction that occurs when metals.
bacteria growth will coat the inside of the well casing. They include: Slime growth Rotten egg odor Increased staining. iron bacteria require 0.01 mg/L dissolved iron and a temperature range of 5 to 15°C. When a well is pumped. Sulfate-reducing bacteria prefer to live underneath the slime layer that the iron bacteria form. creating problems such as: Reduced well yield Restricted water flow in distribution lines Staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Plugging of water treatment equipment “Rotten egg” odor.5-4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Although not a cause of health problems in humans. The iron naturally present in the water can be the cause. as little as 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 120 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (as well as other bacteria) can exist naturally in groundwater. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. Rotten Egg Odor Sulfate-reducing bacteria can cause a rotten egg odor in water. Some iron bacteria use dissolved iron in the water as a food source. water piping and pumping equipment. but the most common are iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Note: All iron staining problems are not necessarily caused by iron bacteria. Iron bacteria aggravate the problem by creating an environment that encourages the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the well. Many types of bacteria can contaminate wells. Slime Growth The easiest way to check a well and water system for iron bacteria is to examine the inside surface of the toilet flush tank. However. Iron bacteria leave this slimy by-product on almost every surface the water is in contact with. Ideal Conditions for Iron Bacteria Water wells provide ideal conditions for iron bacteria. If you see a greasy slime or growth. To thrive. the water flowing in will also bring in nutrients that enhance bacterial growth. A well creates a direct path for oxygen to travel into the ground where it would not normally exist. iron bacteria are probably present. Signs of Iron and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria There are a number of signs that indicate the presence of iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria.Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock chlorination is a relatively inexpensive and straightforward procedure used to control bacteria in water wells.
Bacteria collect in the pore spaces of the formation and on the casing or screened surface of the well. To be effective. Please note that many dug wells are difficult or impossible to disinfect due t o their unsanitary construction. For wells greater than 100 feet deep or with a larger casing diameter. It can create a staining problem where one never existed before or make an iron staining problem worse as time goes by. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock Chlorination Method Shock chlorination is used to control iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria and to eliminate fecal coliform bacteria in a water system. resulting in a “rotten egg” or sulfur odor in the water. a large volume of super chlorinated water is siphoned down the well to displace all the water in the well and some of the water in the formation around the well. Others produce small amounts of sulfuric acid which can corrode the well casing and pumping equipment. Checklist to Determine an Iron or Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Problem Greasy slime on inside surface of toilet flush tank Increased red staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Sulfur odor Reduced well yield Restricted water flow Mixing a Chlorine Solution Add a half gallon of bleach to a clean pail with about 3 gallons of water. through the wellbore and the distribution system) is exposed to water which has a concentration of chlorine strong enough to kill iron and sulfate reducing bacteria.Some of these bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product. the entire system (from the water-bearing formation. Increased Staining Problems Iron bacteria can concentrate iron in water sources with low iron content. you must use enough chlorine to disinfect the entire cased section of the well and adjacent water-bearing formation. use 2 to 4 gallons of bleach added directly to the well. To accomplish this. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 121 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Effectiveness of Shock Chlorination With shock chlorination. The first three are very specific problems related to these bacteria. If you have a dug well with a diameter greater than 18 inches. increase the amount of bleach proportionately. To be effective. The last two problems can be signs of other problems as well. shock chlorination must disinfect the following: The entire well depth The formation around the bottom of the well The pressure system Some water treatment equipment The distribution system. This is generally sufficient to disinfect a 4 inch diameter well 100 feet deep or less. Use the following checklist to determine if you have an iron or sulfate-reducing bacteria problem.
Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Casing Diameter Volume of Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite L needed L need Dry weight1 Water needed per 1 ft. extra 1000 L 1. To control the iron bacteria. before you notice a significant improvement in the water. This is to dislodge and remove the bacterial slime.3 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. In more severe cases.1 5. Store sufficient water to meet farm and family needs for 8 to 48 hours.7 286 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 122 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . you may have to repeat the procedure each spring and fall as a regular maintenance procedure.21 .74 127 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. the pump may have to be removed and chemical solutions added to the well and vigorous agitation carried out using special equipment. (30 cm) per 1 ft. This should be done by a drilling contractor.2 6 (150) 2. (30 cm) of water in the casing of water of water of water (in) (mm) (gal. You might also consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean and flush the well before chlorinating in order to remove any buildup on the casing. Pump the recommended amount of water (see Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM) into clean storage.9 . you must be very careful using the following procedure because over pumping may damage the well.36 .2 19. The recommended amount of water to use is twice the volume of water present in the well casing.The procedure described below does not completely eliminate iron bacteria from the water system.4 10. Shock Chlorination Procedure for Small Drilled Wells A modified procedure is also provided for large diameter wells. (30 cm) per 1 ft. it may be necessary to use a stronger chlorine solution. A clean galvanized stock tank or pickup truck box lined with a 4 mil thick plastic sheet is suitable. but it will hold it in check.091 15. If your well has never been shock chlorinated or has not been done for some time. subtract the non-pumping water level from the total depth of the well.16 27.095 .6 8 (200) 4.1 . See the example below. applied two or three times. (30 cm) per 1 ft. To measure how much water is in the casing.) (L) (L) (L) (g) 4 (100) 1.0 . monitor the water discharge for sediment.042 7.8 1. extra 1000 L 3. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate your well. Caution: If your well is low yielding or tends to pump any silt or sand.7 . When pumping out the chlorinated solution.
furnace humidifier) until the water coming out has a chlorine odor. to prevent damage. The longer the contact time. you must make sure there is proper ventilation during the chlorination procedure. Calculating Amount of Chlorine Example If your casing is 6 in. Consult your water treatment equipment supplier to find out if any part of your water treatment system should be bypassed. and you are using 12% industrial sodium hypochlorite. Caution: Chlorine is corrosive and can even be deadly. Mix the chlorine with the previously measured water to obtain a 1000 ppm chlorine solution. Flush the chlorine solution from the hot water heater and household distribution system. of water in casing = _______ L of chlorine. you will require . If you have 100 ft. Well pits are no longer legal to construct. Backwash and regenerate any water treatment equipment. Allow the hot water tank to fill completely. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Siphon this solution into the well. of water_______ x _______ ft. calculate the amount of chlorine you will need for your well. Open an outside tap and allow the water to run until the chlorine odor is greatly reduced. Using Table 1. Make sure to direct the water away from sensitive plants or landscaping.1 L of 12% chlorine. Use a drilling contractor who has the proper equipment and experience to do the job safely.091 L per ft. This will ensure all the plumbing fixtures are chlorinated. Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM. you will use 0. the better the results.091 L x 100 ft. = 9. The small amount of chlorine in the distribution system will not harm the septic tank. Open each hydrant and faucet in the distribution system (including all appliances that use water such as dishwasher. Calculate the amount of chlorine that is required. Casing diameter_______ Chlorine strength_______ L needed per 1 ft. Leave the chlorine solution in the well and distribution system for 8 to 48 hours. Since a dry chemical is being used.12% industrial sodium hypochlorite and 70% high test hypochlorite are available from: • Water treatment suppliers • Drilling contractor • Swimming pool maintenance suppliers • Dairy equipment suppliers • Some hardware stores. of water in the casing. If your well is located in a pit. of water in the casing. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution before placing it in the well. washing machine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 123 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
x 1. Continue for at least 15 minutes. Modified Procedure for Large Diameter Wells Due to the large volume of water in many bored wells the above procedure can be impractical. x 0. Don't mix acids with chlorine.4 kg of 70% calcium hypochlorite) into the 200 gal. Pump 200 gal.21 L =________ _______ft. x 0. A more practical way to shock chlorinate a bored well is to mix the recommended amount of chlorine right in the well. Any floating debris should be removed from the well and the casing should be scrubbed or hosed to disturb the sludge buildup.8 L =________ _______ft. x 0. x 286 g =________ Since a dry chemical is being used.2 g =________ 6 (150) _______ft. x 0. (30 cm) (in) (mm) in the casing of water of water of water 4 (100) _______ft. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate a large diameter bored well. x 3.2 gal. Calculate the amount of chlorine you require per foot of water in the casing and add directly into the well.3 g =________ 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. x 0. consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean the well prior to chlorinating. x 2. (1000 L) of water into a clean storage tank at the well head. Siphon the 200 gal. of stored water. x 0. This circulates the chlorinated water through the pressure system and back down the well.74 L =_________ ______ft. x 0. of water L per 1 ft.1 gal. =_______ ________ft. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution prior to placing it in the well. (30 cm) per 1 ft.7 L =________ _______ft. _______ft. The chlorinated water is used to force some of the chlorine solution into the formation around the well. Complete the procedure as described in Steps 5 to 9 for drilled wells. x 27. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 124 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .095 L =________ _______ft. x 15. =_______ ________ft.If you have an old well that has not been routinely chlorinated. x 1. Calculating Water and Chlorine Requirements for Shock Chlorination Complete the following table using your own figures to determine how much water and chlorine you need to shock chlorinate your well. (30 cm) L per 1 ft. This is dangerous. x 4. _______ft.7 L =_________ ______ft.6 g =________ 8 (200) _______ft. x 127 g =________ 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. bleach and water solution prepared in Steps 1 and 2 into the well. Mix 20 L of 5 1/4% domestic chlorine bleach (or 8 L of 12% bleach or 1.16 L =_________ ______ft. x 1.091 L =________ ______ft.042 L =________ _______ft. needed per Dry weight 1 ft.4 gal. Casing Volume of 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Diameter Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite Imperial gal.) Circulate chlorine added to the water in the well by hooking a garden hose up to an outside faucet and placing the other end back down the well. (Note that the 70% hypochlorite powder should be dissolved in water to form a solution before placing in the well. =_______ ________ft.36 L =________ _______ft. x 7.
It is important to remember that the groundwater is not necessarily contaminated in these cases. Simply pulling the pump out of the well. Spring water supplies are the most frequently contaminated." The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24 hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready to be used again. Anytime work is performed on the plumbing or pump. with over 70 percent containing coliform bacteria. and returning it to the well is enough to contaminate the well with bacteria. Concentrations of chlorine ranging from 50 to 200 mg/1 are used in the shock chlorination process. At no time should the water be exposed to the ground surface. Although well pits were the common method of construction several years ago. the entire water system should be disinfected with chlorine. rather the well is acting to funnel contaminants down into the groundwater. A properly protected well is evidenced by the well casing extending above the surface of the ground and the ground sloping away from the well to prevent water from collecting around the casing. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 125 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A properly protected spring is developed underground and the water channeled to a sealed spring box. setting it on the grass to work on it. Studies have found that over 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria.What Should I do if my Well Water is Contaminated with Bacteria? First. This is 100 to 400 times the amount of chlorine found in "city water. Keeping the plumbing system clean is an important part of maintaining a sanitary water supply. they are no longer considered sanitary construction. don't panic'! Bacterial contamination is very common. Improving protection of a well or spring from the inflow of surface water is an important option to consider if the supply is contaminated with bacteria. The procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine is called shock chlorination.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 126 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Table 3 lists the amount of chlorine laundry bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) that is needed for wells. The amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined by the amount of water standing in the well. If in doubt.Periodic shock chlorination also may be effective in reducing an iron bacteria problem. it is better to use more chlorine than less.
and read results. Colilert is easy to read. as positive coliform samples turn yellow. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 127 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Bacteriological Monitoring Section Colilert tests simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms and E. and when E. coli is present. samples fluoresce under UV light. incubate for 24 hours. coli in water samples in 24 hours or less. Simply add the Colilert reagent to the sample.
IDEXX’s HPC method is used for the quantification of heterotrophic plate counts in water. The number of fluorescing wells corresponds to a Most Probable Number (MPN) of total bacteria in the original sample. The MPN values generated by the SimPlate for HPC method correlate with the Pour Plate method using Total Plate Count Agar incubated at 35o for 48 hours as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 128 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 19th Edition.SimPlate for HPC Multi Dose Method.
Sterilize by spraying a 5% Clorox or alcohol solution or flaming the end of the tap with disposable butane lighter. Mailing bacteria samples is not recommended because laboratory analysis results are not as reliable. fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. the potential presence of pathogens. occur in high densities in their natural environment and are easily cultured in relatively simple bacteriological media. coli). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 129 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Carefully open the sample container and hold the outside of the cap. Indicators in common use today for routine monitoring of drinking water include total coliforms. Indicator bacteria signal possible fecal contamination and therefore. Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check the lab's schedule. Do not touch or contaminate the inside of the bottle or cap. 100 mls. The routine microbiological analysis of your water is for coliform bacteria. That is Sodium Thiosulfate. Indicator bacteria are usually harmless.Bacteriological Monitoring Most waterborne disease and illnesses have been related to the microbiological quality of drinking water. Fill the container and replace the top. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the testing laboratory within six hours (in an ice chest). The presence of an indicator or pathogenic bacteria in your drinking water is an important health concern. Be careful not to wash-out this chemical while sampling. Bacteria Sampling Water samples for bacteria tests must always be collected in a sterile container. Run the water for five minutes to clear the water lines and bring in fresh water. A water test is not needed for identification. often referred to as a Standard Sample. Check for a reddish-brown slime inside a toilet tank or where water stands for several days. They are used to monitor for pathogens because of the difficulties in determining the presence of specific disease-causing microorganisms. a de-chlorination agent. Iron bacteria forms an obvious slime on the inside of pipes and fixtures. Take the sample from an inside faucet with the aerator removed. Notice the white powder inside the bottle. Notice the custody seal on the bottle. Standard Sample Coliform Bacteria Bac-T Bac-T Sample Bottle. The coliform bacteria group is used as an indicator organism to determine the biological quality of your water.
or 2.Coliform Bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. Noncommunity and nontransient. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 130 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Repeat: Samples collected following a ‘coliform present’ routine sample. noncommunity water systems with less than 1. 2. The three (3) types of samples are: 1. If coliforms are present.000 daily population and has ground water as a source. coli and report their presence or absence. Examples would be a sample collected after repairs to the system and before it is placed back into operation or a sample collected at a wellhead prior to a disinfection injection point. Laboratory Procedures The laboratory may perform the total coliform analysis in one of four methods approved by the U. a product marketed as Colilert is the most common. However. The sample results will be reported by the laboratories as simply coliforms present or absent. It has more than 1. Please indicate in the space provided on the laboratory form the type of sample. Collection should be in accordance with an approved sampling plan. Special: Samples collected for other reasons.S. Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity public water systems will sample at the same frequency as a like sized community public water system if: 1. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. EPA and your local environmental or health division: Methods The MMO-MUG test.000 daily population and groundwater as a source will sample on a quarterly basis. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. Routine: Samples collected on a routine basis to monitor for contamination. The number of repeat samples to be collected is based on the number of routine samples you normally collect. 3. Types of Water Samples It is important to properly identify the type of sample you are collecting. Routine Coliform Sampling The number of routine samples and frequency of collection for community public water systems is shown in Table 3-1. It serves 25 or more daily population and utilizes surface water as a source or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as its source. the laboratory will analyze the sample further to determine if these are fecal coliforms or E.
000 180 450.900 10 12.000 150 320.001 to 220.000 120 220.901 to 17. three (3) repeat samples must be collected. if necessary. it must collect five (5) routine samples the following month or quarter regardless of whether an MCL violation occurred or if repeat sampling was coliform absent.500 2 2.000 40 41.No. The original sampling location of the coliform present sample. Within five (5) service connections downstream from the original sampling location.001-2.000 60 59. The follow-up for repeat sampling is: 1. the repeat samples must be collected from the same sampling location over a four-day period or on the same day.001 to 70. If the system has only one service connection.900 5 4. 6.001 to 41.001 to 59. c.000 240 Repeat Sampling Repeat sampling replaces the old check sampling with a more comprehensive procedure to try to identify problem areas in the system.000 80 83.001 to 130.001 to 450.001 to 50. For systems collecting two (2) or more routine samples per month.001 to 780. of Samples per System Population Persons served . Within five (5) service connections upstream from the original sampling location.100 4 4. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 131 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 50 50.001 to 96.501 to 25.000 70 70.200 15 17. 4.201 to 21.901 to 5. If only one routine sample per month or quarter is required. four (4) repeat samples must be collected.001 to 83. d.000 25 25.001 to 320.000 90 96.501 to 12. Elsewhere in the distribution system or at the wellhead. 5.Samples per month up to 1.301 to 4.000 210 600.000 30 33. 2.000 100 130. Repeat samples must be collected from: a.500 20 21. b.001 to 600.600 8 7. All repeat samples are included in the MCL compliance calculation.700 7 6.601 to 8.800 6 5.501-3.001 to 33.500 9 8. If a system which normally collects fewer than five (5) routine samples per month has a coliform present sample.000 1 1.701 to 7.300 3 3. 3. Whenever a routine sample is total coliform or fecal coliform present a set of repeat samples must be collected within 24 hours after being notified by the laboratory.801 to 6.101 to 4.
The recommended dose of 5% household bleach is 2 cups per 100 gallons of water in the well. This list provides some basic operation and maintenance procedures that could help eliminate potential bacteriological problems. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. If you continuously chlorinate. There are two types of MCL violations for coliform bacteria. 4. The MCLs are based on extensive research on toxicological properties of the contaminants. If you plan to shock the entire system. Perform routine cleaning of the storage system. the water is safe to drink with no threat to human health. risk assessments and factors. 6.2 mg/l free chlorine) at all times in the distribution system. Shock chlorination of a ground water well. review your operation and be sure to maintain a detectable residual (0. 5. The Drinking Water Program contracts with many of the local health departments to provide assistance to water systems. Conduct routine distribution line flushing. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLS) State and federal laws establish standards for drinking water quality. Install blowoffs on all dead end lines. the second is an acute risk to health violation characterized by the confirmed presence of fecal coliform or E. Under normal circumstances when these standards are being met. When a particular contaminant exceeds its MCL a potential health threat may occur.. etc. 2. You conduct the monitoring to make sure your water is in compliance with the MCL. Quebec Colony Counter Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 132 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These standards are known as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). The first is for total coliform. Eliminate all of these connections or provide approved back flow prevention devices. Some examples of typical corrective measures to coliform problems are: 1. calculate the total gallonage of storage and distribution. It is very important to initiate the repeat sampling immediately as the corrective measures will be based on those results.coli.. 3. Upgrade the wellhead area to meet current construction standards as set your state environmental or health agency.Positive or Coliform Present Results What do you do when your sample is positive or coliform present? When you are notified of a positive test result you need to contact either the Drinking Water Program or your local county health department within 24 hours or by the next business day after the results are reported to you. Conduct a cross connection program to identify all connections with non-potable water sources. This should be done anytime the bell is opened for repair (pump replacement. After you have contacted an agency for assistance you will be instructed as to the proper repeat sampling procedures and possible corrective measures for solving the problem. short term (acute) exposure and long term (chronic) exposure.).
4.1 ml of each dilution onto surface of pre-dried plate. submerged colonies often are slower growing and are difficult to transfer. or single cells. 6.Incubate plates at 35oC for 48h.Boil mixture of nutrient agar and nutrient broth for 15 minutes.Distribute inoculum over surface of the medium using a sterile bent glass rod. Methods There are three methods for standard plate count: 1. Spread Plate Method All colonies are on the agar surface where they can be distinguished readily from particles and bubbles. Material i ) Apparatus Glass rod Erlenmeyer flask Graduated Cylinder Pipet Petri dish Incubator ii ) Reagent and sample Reagent-grade water Nutrient agar Sample Procedure* 1. is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria and measuring changes during water treatment and distribution in water or in swimming pools. On the other hand.Pipet 0. showing less tendency to encroach on each other than those produced by surface growth. all of which are included in the term "colony-forming units" (CFU). starting with the highest dilution.Count all colonies on selected plates promptly after incubation. *Duplicate samples Computing and Reporting: Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 133 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 5. let medium solidify. chains. consider only plates having 30 to 300 colonies in determining the plate count. Colonies may arise from pairs. then cool for about 20 minutes. 2.Heterotrophic Plate Count Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) --. 2. 3. clusters.. Membrane Filter Method This method permits testing large volumes of volume of low-turbidity water and is the method of choice for lowcount waters.Pour approximately 15 ml of medium in each Petri dish. Colonies can be transferred quickly. 3. and colony morphology easily can be discerned and compared to published descriptions. Pour Plate Method The colonies produced are relatively small and compact.formerly known as the standard plate count.
Sterilize before using. Preparation of Spread Plates: Immediately after agar sterilization. and one or more plates have more than 300 colonies. Sample Application: Uncover pre-dried agar plate. The Heterotrophic Plate Count provides a technique to quantify the bacteriological activity of a sample. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 134 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Laboratory Equipment: 100 x 15 Petri Dishes Turntable Glass Rods: Bend fire polished glass rod 45 degrees about 40 mm from one end.5 g of yeast extract. let agar solidify. Pipet: Glass.1 mL.3 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. Heterotrophic Plate Count (Spread Plate Method) Heterotrophic organisms utilize organic compounds as their carbon source (food or substrate). The R2A agar provides a medium that will support a large variety of heterotrophic bacteria. 0. After an incubation period. Pipet 0. c) Avoid creating fictitious precision and accuracy when computing CFU by recording only the first two left-hand digits. autotrophic organisms use inorganic carbon sources. Use pre-dried plates immediately or store up to two weeks in sealed plastic bags at 4 degrees C.5 g of glucose.1 or 0. Sample Preparation: Mark each plate with sample type. Prepare at least duplicate plates for each volume of sample or dilution examined. a)If there is no plate with 30 to 300 colonies. Quebec Colony Counter Hand Tally Counter Reagents: 1) R2A Agar: Dissolve and dilute 0. 2) Ethanol: As needed for flame sterilization. 1. and 15. dilution. a bacteriological colony count provides an estimate of the concentration of heterotrophs in the sample of interest. 0.5 g of soluble starch. 3. use the plate(s) having a count nearest 300 colonies. Minimize time plate remains uncovered.3 g of sodium pyruvate.2 with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate before adding agar.5 mL sample onto surface of pre-dried agar plate. Sterilize before using. In contrast.05 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Adjust pH to 7.0 g of agar to 1 L. 0. Heat to dissolve agar and sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes. 0.5 g of casamino acids.CFU/ml = colonies counted / actual volume of sample in dish. report the count as less than 1/actual volume of sample in dish estimated CFU/ml. pour 15 mL of R2A agar into sterile 100 x 15 Petri dishes. 0. Pre-dry plates inverted so that there is a 2 to 3 g water loss overnight with the lids on. Thoroughly mix all samples by rapidly making about 25 complete up-and-down movements. 0. b) If plates from all dilutions of any sample have no colony. date and any other information before sample application. 0.5 g of proteose peptone No.
In the conclusion of your lab report.001 mL (0. Data Table for Samples Sample ID Volume of Sample. 3. Feel free to justify your comments using statistical analysis. promptly count all colonies on the plates. mL To report counts on a plate with no colonies. uncover plate and place on Quebec colony counter. Based on these criteria. To count.Record Volume of Sample Used. If no sample produces a plate with a count in this range.1 mL of a 100:1 and 10000:1 dilution of a sample both turned up with no colonies formed. Report the number of colony forming units (CFU) found on each plate. Incubate at 28 degrees C for 7 days. Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: CFU mL = colonies counted actual volume of sample in dish. Use hand tally counter to maintain count. Using a sterile bent glass rod. Example: if 0. Count all colonies on the plate. Also.) If plates of all dilutions for a sample have no colonies. 2. use the plate(s) with a count closest to 300. which plates meet these criteria. Calculate the CFU per mL for each plate. mL Colonies Counted per plate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 135 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .1 mL divided by 100). regardless of size. the reported result would be <1 divided by the largest sample volume 0. Counting and Recording: After incubation period. Let the sample be absorbed completely into the medium before incubating. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the largest sample volume used. use your calculated results to report the CFU per mL for each sample. Remove Petri dishes from incubator for counting. comment on the general accuracy of this analytical technique and the factors that affect its accuracy and or applicability. distribute the sample over surface of the medium by rotating the dish by hand on a turntable. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the sample volume put on that plate (remember to account for any dilution of that sample. comment on your final results for each sample type as well as the quality of your application of this analysis technique. Assignment: 1. Put cover back on Petri dish and invert for duration of incubation time. The aim of diluting samples is to produce a plate having 30 to 300 colonies. The final reported result for the sample is <1000 CFU per mL.
Total Coliforms This MCL is based on the presence of total coliforms and compliance is on a monthly or quarterly basis. 2. 2. 3. Check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. Certain language maybe mandatory for both these violations and is included in your state drinking water rule. Each public notice must contain certain information. be issued properly and in a timely manner and contain certain mandatory language. coli are present in the distribution system. as defined by the rules. A routine analysis shows total and fecal coliform or E. Public Notice A public notice is required to be issued by a water system whenever it fails to comply with an applicable MCL or treatment technique or fails to comply with the requirements of any scheduled variance or permit. when fecal coliforms or E. A public notice is also required whenever a water system fails to comply with its monitoring and/or reporting requirements or testing procedure. no more than five (5) percent may be Positive. This will inform users when there is a problem with the system and give them information. For systems which collect fewer than 40 samples per month. This type of contamination can pose an immediate threat to human health and notice must be given as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours after notification from your laboratory of the test results. A routine analysis shows total coliform present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates fecal coliform or E. Any violation of the MCL for total coliforms. Any outbreak of waterborne disease. For systems which collect 40 or more samples per month. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. coli present. Coli) An acute risk to human health violation occurs if either one of the following happen: 1. no more than one sample per month may be positive. coli present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates total coliform present. depending on your water system type and state rule. An acute health risk violation requires the water system to provide public notice via radio and television stations in the area. the second positive result (repeat or routine) in a month or quarter results in an MCL violation. In other words. Violation of the MCL for nitrate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 136 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The following are acute violations: 1. The timing and place of posting of the public notice depends on whether an acute risk is present to users. Acute Risk to Health (Fecal Coliforms and E.
Too much Fluoride will mottle the teeth. 10. 3. Wherever possible. 9. Solution feeders shall be of the positive displacement type and constructed of material compatible with the fluoride solution being fed. 4. 6. and the dissolving chambers shall be designed such that at the required rate of feed of the chemical the solution strength will not be greater than 1/4 of that of a saturated solution at the temperature of the dissolving water. Chemical Feed The equipment used for feeding the fluoride to water shall be accurately calibrated before being placed in operation. 2. The following chemical feed practices apply: 1. a suitable weighing mechanism shall be provided to check the daily amount of chemical feed. 11. positive anti-siphon breakers other than valves shall be provided. Feeders shall be provided with anti-siphon valves on the discharge side. Dissolving chambers are required for use with dry feeders. A "day tank" capable of holding a 24 hour supply of solution should be provided. Vacuum dust filters shall be installed with the hoppers to prevent dust from rising into the room when the hopper is filled. and. The fluoride solution should be added to the water supply at a point where the fluoride will not be removed by any following treatment processes and where it will be mixed with the water. The construction material of the dissolving chamber and associated piping shall be compatible with the fluoride solution to be fed. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 137 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 5. 7. It is undesirable to inject the fluoride compound or solution directly on-line unless there are provisions for adequate mixing. The weight of the daily amount of fluoride fed to water shall be accurately determined. Hoppers should be designed to hold a 24 hour supply of the fluoride compound and designed such that the dust hazard to operators is minimized. and be capable of feeding over the entire pumpage range of the plant. Alarm signals are recommended to detect faulty operation of equipment. Where a dry feeder of the volumetric or gravimetric type is used. All equipment shall be sized such that it will be operated in the 20 to 80 percent range of the scale.Fluoride Some water providers will add Fluoride to the water to help prevent cavities in children. 8. and at all times shall be capable of maintaining a rate of feed within 5% of the rate at which the machine is set.
and. weekly samples of raw and treated water for a period of not less than four consecutive weeks. the daily weight of fluoride compound in stock. 2. whereby the fluoride feed rate is automatically adjusted in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant preestablished dosage for all rates of flow. 2. whereby the feed rate is controlled by a flow proportional signal and residual analyzer signal to maintain a constant residual. 3. and the operation of the feeding equipment is to be controlled. Alternate Compounds Any one of the following fluoride compounds may be used: 1. or (2) automatic/ residual controlled. the following sampling procedures are required: 1. A sample of raw water and a sample of treated water shall be forwarded to an approved independent laboratory for fluoride analysis once a month.Metering Metering of the total water to be fluoridated shall be provided. In addition to the reports required. Sampling In keeping the fluoride records. the daily volume of water fluoridated. with the frequency of measurement as follows: (i) treated water being analyzed continuously or once daily. and provided with pallets. if using bagged chemical. Other fluoride compounds may be used if approved by the EPA. 6. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 138 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the daily weight of the fluoride compound fed to the water. Hydrofluosilicic acid. The storage area should be in close proximity to the feeder. Control of the feed rate shall be automatic/ proportional controlled. Sodium silicofluoride. Record of Performance Accurate daily records shall be kept. the fluoride content of the raw and fluoridated water determined by laboratory analysis. 3. the daily weight of fluoride compound in the feeder. 3. and the storage area shall be marked "FLUORIDE CHEMICALS ONLY". whereby a continuous automatic fluoride analyzer determines the residual fluoride level and adjusts the rate of feed accordingly. 2. the daily reading of the water meter which controls the fluoridation equipment or that which determines the amount of water to which the fluoride is added. On new installations or during start-ups of existing installations. and (ii) raw water being analyzed at least once a week. 5. Sodium fluoride. These records shall include: 1. to allow circulation of air and to keep the containers off the floor. 4. EPA may require other information that is deemed necessary. or compound loop controlled. or. Chemical Storage and Ventilation The fluoride chemicals shall be stored separately from other chemicals. kept relatively dry.
anti-siphon devices. shall be inspected periodically and maintained in good operating condition. Individual dust respirators. and appropriate covers shall be maintained over all fluoride solutions. Personal protective equipment shall be used during the clean-up. whether for routine or emergency use. 8. safety features are to be considered and the necessary controls built into the installation to prevent an overdose of fluoride in the water. 2. boots. 6. 5. determining the length and duration of impulses. Wet or damp cleaning methods shall be employed wherever practicable. chemical safety face shields. At all installations. All equipment shall be maintained at a high standard of efficiency. Records shall be maintained and submitted during the period that the equipment is not in operation. All protective devices. a fluoridation program may be discontinued when necessary to repair or replace equipment. and protective clothing shall be worn by all personnel when handling or being exposed to the fluoride dust. but shall be placed in operation immediately after the repair or replacement is complete. rubber gloves. and all areas and appliances shall be kept clean and free of dust. 4. Rubber articles shall be washed in water. over-riding flow switches. rubber gloves. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 139 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 3. 7. and. Safety features shall also be provided to prevent spills and overflows. sizing of pump and feeders. Chemical respirators. or other similar safety devices. Repair and Maintenance Upon notifying the appropriate local board of health. This shall be done either by use of day tanks or containers. all equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and stored in an area free of fluoride dusts. chemical safety goggles and acid proof aprons shall be worn where acids are handled. and hands shall be washed after the equipment is stored.Safety The following safety procedures shall be maintained: 1. After use.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 140 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
2 (February 2003). Vol.Water Quality What’s That Stuff in the Tap Water? by Jameel Rahman and Gary A. No. ←Granular Rust Under a microscope. Enough particulate matter can usually be captured with a water sample of approximately 250 mL. Reprinted from Opflow. For optimum observation. A 0. where Gary A. Particulates can also accumulate in the toilet tank. Use a zoom microscope with at least 40×. 29.burlingame@phila. When samples have low turbidity.45 µm filter can be used if the water’s colloidal matter doesn’t clog the filter before enough particulate material is collected for analysis. Burlingame is the supervisor of water quality and research. Copyright 2003. The most important step in solving a particulate complaint is to collect as much suspect material as possible. the water supplier—at least in customers’ eyes—is usually “guilty until proven innocent. larger volumes will need to be filtered. American Water Works Association. which can be stored in a Plexiglas Petri dish. making sure it represents the customer’s actual concern.” The Philadelphia Water Department has standardized procedures in place that can identify offending materials and help pinpoint their source.gov or (215) 685-1417. by permission. preferably 75×. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 141 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . illuminate the particulates from above with a fiber-optic light. water distribution systems. Contact Burlingame at gary. Sometimes enough material for analysis can be collected from faucet aerators. Although particles can come from cold or hot water systems. A container may be left with the customer for sample collection during normal tap use. and water treatment. Collecting and Identifying Particulates Typically. Almost every water utility employee responsible for solving customer problems has fielded a complaint about particles in a bathtub or faucet aerator. examine the particulate matter captured on a filter. magnification to identify matter on the membrane filter disk. household plumbing. Burlingame Jameel Rahman is a retired analytical chemist supervisor for the Materials Testing Laboratory at the Philadelphia Water Department. Particulate matter can be extracted from water samples by using nitrocellulose membrane filters. the suspended matter customers complain about is particulate in form.
and do not smear the filter disk with black when a drop of toluene is applied. and often are visible to the unaided eye. perform simple chemical tests on the filter. You will need to understand the common soil minerals in your area to identify them. They can show porosity but appear dull compared to anthracite particulates. Color formed by chemical reactions can be seen by the unaided eye. large. Heat Identification Activated carbon particulates are black and usually coated with debris. AC particulates will burn instantaneously with a glitter and no visible smoke or residue. Pick up a few particulates and burn them in a Bunsen burner flame. Usually. Pick up a few particulates on the tip of a wetted platinum wire and burn them in the blue part of a Bunsen burner flame. stickiness. they flex. remove sufficient particulates from the disk and further identify them by IR. found in all colors and with a characteristic wrinkled strip shape. or solubility in a solvent. Particulates can be quantified as few. Relatively large amounts of similar particulates often indicate a problem within a plumbing system. may have smooth facets with sharp edges. Visual Identification Sand particulates have a characteristic vitreous appearance and irregular shape with smooth facets. Disintegrated plastic particulates are usually white. use infrared spectroscopy (IR). A characteristic evolution of a gas. If these tests still fail to identify the debris. Usually the source of such particulates is disintegrating plastic. 10 per filter. relatively large. used in gaskets. are present in single strands. such as pump packing. They can be colorful but usually appear translucent to whitish. or numerous. If particulates cannot be identified by their appearance. If pressed with a needle. rubber burns with a black smoke. such as softness. Mica particulates have a characteristic platelet shape and shine under reflected light. and may be present in large numbers. Identify them further by IR. but fibers found in water typically have a strip shape. Remove a few particulates and burn them. or a corroding component of the plumbing system. Often these particulates are ethylene-propylene-diene monomer. sometimes. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 142 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Disintegrated rubber gasket particulates are usually black. have significant length. which display a shiny luster under reflected light. Fibers used in apparel are round. a rubber gasket. With fine-tipped tweezers. by touching them with a sharp needle and observing their physical properties. Man-made fibers. fibers are not present in large numbers — at most. Glass chips are transparent.Some particulates can be identified by their appearance and. Plastic burns with a smoke. can be observed under the microscope. or further delineation is required. and may be colorful. several. indicating a common source. such as carbon dioxide from scale particulates or marble. Most often they are polypropylene plastic.
9 g of sodium bitartrate and 1. Large particulates may have yellow and black streaks or inclusions. If the particulates turn scarlet red.test plate. add a drop of (1+1) HCl from a Pasture pipette. If tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form under the microscope. while fine rust particulates form a uniform brown film on the filter disk. lead solder is present. Appearance of a blue precipitate or blue color confirms the presence of patina particulates. To prepare the sodium rhodizonate reagent. If lead particulates are suspected.8 buffer solution by dissolving 1. are usually brittle. add a drop of (1+1) hydrochloric acid (500 mL of 11. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 143 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To confirm rust.2 percent solution of freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate. dissolve 0.Acid Identification Rust particulates are usually abundant and are easy to identify with their typically brown and rough irregular shapes.5 g of tartaric acid in 100 mL of distilled water. Calcium carbonate can develop as a white scale through evaporation of hard water or can occur as a particulate of limestone or calcite. Brick-red staining confirms the presence of potassium ferrithiocyanate. Prepare a pH 2. Large Rust Particles Lead solder particulates are gray and may have a whitish coating. Remove a few particulates and place them in the cavity of a spot.8 tartrate-buffer solution followed by a drop of 0. To confirm their presence. the presence of patina is indicated. Patina is hydrated basic copper carbonate and has a greenish color. Add a drop of (1+1) HCl followed by a drop of ammonia. and can be easily pulverized. These irregularly shaped particulates result from corrosion of copper and copper alloys. Often. Rust particulates will interfere with this test if it is performed on the rust-coated filter. they are relatively large in size compared to most other particulates on the filter disk. Yellow staining indicates the presence of ferric chloride. add a drop of pH 2. Scales can form in water heaters. Add a drop of 2 percent solution of potassium thiocyanate on the yellow area where HCl was added.5N hydrochloric acid [HCl] solution plus 500 mL of distilled water) to the filter.2 g of rhodizonic acid disodium salt in 100 mL of distilled water.
Add a drop of toluene. including polypropylene. the particulates are classified as pipe-coating of an asphaltic nature. Let the toluene evaporate or use an oven to expedite drying. add a drop of toluene or chloroform to the filter disk under the microscope. Add a drop of HCl (1+1) on the particulates and observe the evolution of carbon dioxide under the microscope. The brisk evolution of gas confirms the presence of carbonates. which an infrared spectrometer records. IR can differentiate between plastic materials. activated carbon. Anthracite particulates appear shiny compared with other black particulates and do not smear the filter disk if a drop of toluene is applied. and 10 mg of sample is all that is commonly needed to produce a good infrared absorption spectrum. metal oxides. They are usually present as tiny heaps on the filter disk because of their softness and hydrophobic nature. All greases may not behave this way. calcium sulfate. Grease particulates are black and may be shiny.Limestone can come from water treatment processes. grease will dissolve and a black color will spread around the particulates. Inorganic compounds include calcium carbonate. Each compound has a unique infrared absorption spectrum. Inorganic materials are identified by IR scanning of the KBr pellet of the sample alone. and polyethylene. barium sulfate. organic materials are identified by scanning a pellet or a film of the sample cast on a KBr plate. use IR to identify organic and inorganic materials. Among these motions only certain vibrations absorb infrared radiation of specific energy. Visually. they should no longer be sticky and may behave like a black powder. but various types of plastics can occur in water systems. Particulates are removed with fine-tipped tweezers one by one from the filter disk and transferred to a small vial for dissolving in a solvent or to a small agate mortar for grinding and mixing with KBr for making a potassium bromide (KBr) pellet. Atoms in a molecule are in constant motion. changing bond angles by bending and bond lengths by stretching. or phosphates. you might suspect a particulate is plastic in nature. Solvent Identification Asphalt pipe-coating compounds are black. Infrared Spectroscopy When particulates cannot be completely identified by the above means. polyvinyl chloride. They are soft and sticky when touched with a needle and can be smeared easily on the disk. and with the aid of heat. silicates. When portions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by such vibrations. To differentiate between various black particulates. These particulates can be removed from the filter disk and burned in a crucible. an IR absorption band spectrum appears. lead carbonate. and rubber particulates are insoluble in the solvents used. but their stickiness and extreme softness differentiates them from other black particulates. The usually brittle plastic fragments can be powdered easily. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 144 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Anthracite. and various compounds can be identified by comparing absorption band positions in the IR spectrum of an unknown compound to band positions of known compounds. Touch the particulates with a needle in the area where toluene was added. If the disk becomes smeared with black around the particulates. they will leave a solid residue.
make a KBr pellet.Zeolite Particles from a Water Softener Most plastics are readily soluble in hot o-dichlorobenzene. can be identified by common chemical analyses. After a sample is dissolved in a mineral acid. When this issue made the TV news. Eventually. hydrated aluminum oxide can occur as white slurry and be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry after dissolving in mineral acids. calcium carbonates. If soluble. A variety of materials. During the late 1990s. If the sample is insoluble. the dip-tube manufacturer admitted to changing materials to a less-durable plastic. Philadelphia was in a good position to explain the situation to customers because our procedure was already in place for testing and characterizing particulates. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 145 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and copper and silicate particulates. cast a film of the sample on a KBr plate and scan it. it can be analyzed for various elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After obtaining a reasonably strong infrared spectrogram. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the particulates to be polypropylene. a plastic not used in the distribution system. Standard Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses available in most full-service water testing laboratories can be used to identify particulates when sufficient material is available. and scan the pellet. aluminum oxides. For example. prompting water heater manufacturers to give rebates to customers for dip-tube replacements. December 1998). The only common source for this plastic was found to be the dip tubes in residential gas hot-water heaters (see Opflow. customers in Philadelphia and across the country complained about white particulates clogging faucet aerators. Similarly. evaporate the solvent completely and transfer the particulates to an agate mortar. manganese dioxides. the sample is identified by manual means or a computer search of a commercially available online IR library. granules of lead solder can also be analyzed by wet chemical or instrumental methods. including iron oxides. try dissolving the sample in this solvent first.
Dip Tube Particles Table 1.0 µm Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 146 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Suspended matter classified by size Soluble < 0.45 µm Particulate > 1.45 µm Colloidal < 1.0 µm but > 0. Potential sources for particulate matter found in tap water Particulate Activated carbon fines Asphaltic lining fragments Backfill sand Calcium carbonate scale X Cast iron rust Cement lining fragments Copper fragments X Glass chips Greases and lubricants X Lead fragments X Manganese dioxide deposits Man-made fibers On-site treatment device media Plastic fragments X Rubber gasket fragments X Soil minerals. mica From Customer Plumbing From Water Supplier Piping X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 2.
granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are suitable treatments for removal of organic contaminants such as VOCs. As a result. adsorbed contaminants. The addition of PAC can improve the organic removal effectiveness of conventional treatment processes and also remove tastes and odors. one gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to that of a football field. creates no headloss. a process in which dissolved contaminants adhere to the surface of the carbon particles. After a period of a few months or years. Bacterial growth on the carbon is another potential problem. The main disadvantage is that some contaminants require large doses of PAC for removal. adsorbed contaminants can be replaced by other contaminants with which GAC has a greater affinity so their presence might interfere with removal of contaminants of concern. The disinfection process must be carefully monitored in order to avoid this problem. raw water with frequently changing contaminant levels can result in treated water of unpredictable quality. creating a vast network of pores with a very large internal surface area. the surface of the pores in the GAC can no longer adsorb contaminants and the carbon must be replaced. Excessive bacterial growth may cause clogging and higher bacterial counts in the treated water. because GAC is essentially an equilibrium process. or slough off. GAC can be used as a replacement for existing media (such as sand) in a conventional filter or it can be used in a separate contactor such as a vertical steel pressure vessel used to hold the activated carbon bed. depending on the concentration of the contaminants. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 147 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A significant drop in the contaminant level in influent water can cause a GAC filter to desorb. Powdered activated carbon consists of finely ground particles and exhibits the same adsorptive properties as the granular form. Several operational and maintenance factors affect the performance of granular activated carbon. PCBs. solvents. Contaminants in the water can occupy adsorption sites.Granular Activated Carbon / Powdered Activated Carbon Along with aeration. Also. herbicides and pesticides. whether or not they are targeted for removal. does not encourage microbial growth and has relatively small capital costs. Advantages of PAC are that it can be used on a short-term or emergency basis with conventional treatment. PAC is normally applied to the water in a slurry and then filtered out. It removes contaminants through adsorption. It is also somewhat ineffective in removing natural organic matter due to the competition from other contaminants for surface adsorption and the limited contact time between the water and the carbon. Activated carbon is carbon that has been exposed to very high temperature.
resulting in disagreeable tastes. odors. Drinking water contaminated with certain metals (such as lead and cadmium) can harm human health. Lead. fluxes and pipes in the installation or repair of any public water system. cadmium. all discussed below. The highest level of lead in consumers’ tap water will be found in water that has been standing in the pipes after periods of nonuse (overnight or longer). Long-term measures for addressing lead and other corrosion by-products include pH and alkalinity adjustment. Therefore. The EPA has banned the use of lead solders.Corrosion Control Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance by chemical action. Because it is widespread and highly toxic. copper and iron might be found in water when metals in water distribution systems corrode. and cathodic protection. solder used in plumbing has been 50% tin and 50% lead. the simplest short-term or immediate measure that can be taken to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water is to let the water run for two to three minutes before each use. In the past. zinc. lead is the corrosion product of greatest concern. drinking water should not be taken from the hot water tap. corrosion inhibitors. slimes and further corrosion. This is because standing water tends to leach lead or copper out of the metals in the distribution system more readily than does moving water. as hot water tends to leach lead more readily than cold. such as silver-tin and antimony-tin is a key factor in lead corrosion control. coatings and linings. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 148 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Corrosion also reduces the useful life of water distribution systems and can promote the growth of microorganisms. Also. Using lead-free solders.
Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection protects steel from corrosion which is the natural electrochemical process that results in the deterioration of a material because of its reaction with its environment. Therefore. components and equipment exposed to aqueous environments. the system is protected while the attached anode is “sacrificed. it is often necessary to utilize either impressed current or sacrificial anode cathodic protection (CP) in combination with coatings as a means of suppressing the natural degradation phenomenon to provide a long and useful service life. Because these anodes are more active. Metallic structures. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 149 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the system. which acts as the cathode. the corrosive current will exit from them rather than the piping system. or graphite. The direct current then flows from the anode through the soil to the piping system. premature failure. problems can arise which can produce unexpected. soil or seawater can be subject to corrosive attack and accelerated deterioration. Thus.” Sacrificial anodes can be attached to existing piping system or coated steel for a pre-engineered Cathodic protection system. There are Two Types of Cathodic Protection: Ø Sacrificial Anodes (Galvanic Systems) Ù Impressed (Induced) Current Systems How Does Cathodic Protection Work ? Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal more electrically active than the steel piping system. The direct current is then sent through an insulated copper wire to anodes that are buried in the soil near the piping system. Ceramic anodes are not consumed. high silicon cast iron. a rectifier and the soil. Impressed or Induced Current Systems An impressed current Cathodic protection system consists of anodes. if proper considerations are not given. where as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes partially dissolve each year and must be replaced over time. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the piping system. corrosion takes place only at the anodes and not at the piping system. Typical anode materials are ceramic. As a result of the electrochemical properties of the impressed current Cathodic protection system. The rectifier converts the alternating current to direct current. and back to the rectifier through another insulated copper wire. cathodes. However. An asphalt coating is not considered a suitable dielectric coating.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 150 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Does not involve expensive accessories like rectifier unit. 6. Needs no external power source. acts as an anode and the corroding structure as a whole is rendered Cathodic. Impressed Current System The impressed current anode system on the other hand has several advantages over the sacrificial anode systems.C. The anodes have to be distributed all over the structure (as throwing power is lower) and therefore have design limitations in certain applications. Reversal of anode cathode connection at D. source.C. thereby increasing the weight or load on the structure. Needs trained staff for maintenance of units and for monitoring 4. Advantages 1. 7. protection current cannot be altered or increased as may be needed in case of cathode area extension (unprotected) or foreign structure interference (physical contact). 2. It can be high silicon chromium cast iron anodes. Advantages 1. Any foreign structure coming within this field will cause interference problem. graphite anodes or lead silver alloy anodes. Does not involve maintenance work 3. Installation is simple 5. 4. supply for a long times allows structure to corrode again. Fewer anodes can protect large structure 3. 3. These anodes are made of materials such as magnesium. If carefully designed it can render protection for anticipated period. 2. Possibility of over protection should be avoided as it will affect the life of the paint. a metal or alloy reacting more vigorously than that corroding specimen.Sacrificial Anode System In this system. Variations in protection current requirements can be adjusted to some extend (to be incorporated at design stage) Disadvantages 1. this system offers freedom of installation design and location 2. The sacrificial anodes are connected directly to the structure. Obviously we need some material to function as anodes. Since the driving voltage is large.. etc. source will be harmful as structure will dissolve anodic 3. aluminum or zinc which are anodic with respect to the protected structure. Shut down of D. 6. Economical for small structures Disadvantages 1. The driving voltage is small and therefore the anodes have to be fitted close to the structure or on the structure. Power cost must be incorporated in all economic consideration. Initial investments are higher and can pay off only in long run and economic only for large structures 5. Once designed and installed. 2. In this system the protection current is "Forced" through the environment to the structure (cathode) by means of an external D.C.
soda ash (Na2CO3 or sodium carbonate). The most common corrosion inhibitors are inorganic phosphates. Some studies have suggested that systems using only pH to control corrosion should maintain a pH of at least 9. Glassy phosphates.5 and 8.5 is associated with uniform corrosion. Typical coating maintenance doses range from 2 to 12 mg/1. while pHs between 6. Generally. zinc is added in conjunction with orthophosphates or polyphosphates. such as sodium hexametaphosphate.0 to reduce the availability of hydrogen ions as electron receptors. Corrosion Inhibitors Inhibitors reduce corrosion by forming protective coatings on pipes. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in water. The effectiveness depends on the water pH and carbonate concentration. and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. low alkalinity and a pH of less than 8. However. pH is not the only factor in the corrosion equation. to maintain pH at a level that will control corrosion but not conflict with optimum pH levels for disinfection and control of disinfection by-products. carbonate and alkalinity levels affect corrosion as well. The phosphates used as corrosion inhibitors include polyphosphates. alkalinity is a measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids. an increase in pH and alkalinity can decrease corrosion rates and help form a protective layer of scale on corrodible pipe material. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 151 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Generally.4. essentially baking soda). They offer advantages in hot water systems because of their chemical stability. In some cases. Chemicals commonly used for pH and alkalinity adjustment are hydrated lime (CaOH2 or calcium hydroxide). Glassy phosphate has an appearance of broken glass and can cut the operator. glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates. These chemicals have proven successful in reducing corrosion in many water systems. Care must be taken. however.0 can be associated with pitting corrosion. orthophosphates. Sodium silicates are particularly effective for systems with high water velocities. Sodium silicates have been used for over 50 years to inhibit corrosion. sodium silicates and mixtures of phosphates and silicates. water pH less than 6. caustic soda (NaOH or sodium hydroxide). effectively reduce iron corrosion at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/l. they are often used in boilers of steam heating systems. low hardness.Alkalinity and pH Adjustment Adjusting pH and alkalinity is the most common corrosion control method because it is simple and inexpensive. For this reason.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 152 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 153 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If you turn the tap off more slowly. as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually. By making the tower wider near the top.ENERGY . it's your pipe fittings. There are different types that are used in the water distribution systems. where it has lots of gravitational potential energy.Water Storage Section Water storage facilities and tanks vary in size. These tanks serve multiple purposes in the distribution system.When released in a confined space. shape. and maybe even several. Try it at home . This stored energy can be converted to pressure potential energy or kinetic energy for delivery to homes. This banging can be heard as water hammer. These shock waves can create a turbulence that travels at the speed of sound. Distribution operators are aware of this phenomenon! It's called WATER HAMMER. trapping the kinetic energy of moving water within the confined space of a piping system. such as a water distribution system. building a cylindrical water tower is inefficient. or pumps are opened and closed quickly. Just the name alone can give you an idea of its purpose. Since height is everything. often times. it should stay quiet. and application. Something has to give. You should hear a bang. it puts most of its water high up. seeking a point of release. • • • SURGE tanks RESERVOIRS ELEVATED tanks Water towers and Standpipes Surge Tanks What really causes water main breaks . The goal of the water tower or standpipe is to store water high in the air. such as standpipes. then turn it off very quickly. but the surge doesn't always find this release quickly enough. A Surge tank should not be used for water storage. hydropneumatic tanks and surge tanks. valves. elevated tanks and reservoirs. The release the surge usually finds is an elevated tank. The shock waves created when hydrants. Most of the water is then near the ground.turn on your tap.
Normal day for a Distribution Worker after a Water Hammer broke a water main. Aren’t you glad to work in a nice plant? This is a good reason never to complain. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 154 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 155 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The nonpotable water line may contain waste water or other liquids that are not safe to drink. The water may drain from a building back to the potable water line. Backflow. Substantial changes in water quality can occur as drinking water is transported through a distribution system from the point of major treatment and/or disinfection to consumer's taps. Backflow is the waste water that enters potable water lines through a cross connection. Common causes of backpressure involve connecting plumbing to a pump or to steam and/or air pressure. Backflow from cross connections can cause serious illness. Such pressure drops can cause siphoning of waste water or other fluids into the potable water line. Backsiphonage occurs when a water main or a plumbing system in a building lose water pressure. This condition can force waste water or other fluids back into the potable water line. A large Fireline RP backflow Preventer • • Backpressure occurs when water pressure in a building or fixture is greater than the water pressure in the water supply. Backsiphonage and Backpressure • Cross connection occurs when a potable water line and a nonpotable water line connect. you will attain an understanding of the mechanisms by which water flow. This can happen when a water main breaks or when a fire hydrant is used. biofilms and pathogens interact in pipes and service reservoirs to affect health-related and aesthetic dimensions of water quality at consumer's taps.Cross-Connections. Hopefully.
Common Cross-Connections Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 156 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
each impeller acts separately. a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. Open impellers do not have these side walls. For example. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing. The single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from one side only.Centrifugal Pump Section Centrifugal pumps may be classified in several ways. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing. Seal piping leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. they may be either SINGLE STAGE or MULTISTAGE. discharging to the suction of the next stage impeller. and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. Impellers are also classified as CLOSED or OPEN. the casing wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. As a rule. and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. Closed impellers have side walls that extend from the eye to the outer edge of the vane tips. This arrangement is called series staging. Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). to lubricate the packing. depending upon the position of the pump shaft. Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. Recirculating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. The impellers used on centrifugal pumps may be classified as SINGLE SUCTION or DOUBLE SUCTION. In this type of pump. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump. During pump operation. The double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from two directions. Centrifugal pumps are also classified as HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. A single-stage pump has only one impeller. A multistage pump has two or more impellers housed together in one casing. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 157 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient pump speed. worn wearing rings. This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. (2) insufficient speed of the pump. If a motor-driven centrifugal pump DRAWS TOO MUCH POWER. (3) excessive discharge pressure. If a pump WORKS FOR A WHILE AND THEN FAILS TO DELIVER LIQUID. If a pump DOES NOT DEVELOP DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. or (3) misalignment. stuffing box packing. The basic causes may be (1) operation of the pump to excess capacity and insufficient discharge pressure. (5) insufficient liquid on the suction side. impellers. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient priming. If a centrifugal pump DOES NOT DELIVER ANY LIQUID. Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. or (4) reversed rotation of the impeller (3-phase electric motor-driven pumps). stuffing box packing. or (5) excessive heat in the liquid being pumped. (5) clogged impeller passages. (2) too high viscosity or specific gravity of the liquid being pumped. Leakoff causes two types of seal leakage: a. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. or sleeves. (3) clogged water seal passages. impellers.Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. may encounter with centrifugal pumps. (2) air leakage in the stuffing boxes. such as worn wearing rings. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. (7) clogged suction screen (if used). (6) clogged impeller passages. 2. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation. or other mechanical defects. as an Operator. (8) ruptured suction line. (6) the wrong direction of rotation (this may occur after motor overhaul). Pump Troubleshooting Some of the operating troubles you. the trouble will probably be indicated by overheating of the motor. Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. (3) mechanical defects. (4) excessive suction lift. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings. (3) insufficient pump speed. (7) excessive discharge pressure. such as worn wearing rings. Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water. (4) insufficient liquid on the suction side. (2) air leakage into the stuffing boxes in pumps operating at less than atmospheric pressure. If a centrifugal pump delivers some liquid but operates at INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. or sleeves. (2) air or gas in the liquid being pumped. Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system. Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leakoff on idle (vertical) pumps. excessively tight stuffing box packing. or (9) loss of suction pressure. (4) excessive suction lift. or (8) mechanical defects. together with the probable causes are discussed in the following paragraphs. b. Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 158 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . such as might be caused by a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line. a bent shaft.
eroded. as well as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 159 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If it is very rough. Pack the box loosely. be sure the pump is rotating in the correct direction. and set up the packing gland lightly. Open the discharge valve to “load” the pump. It is also possible that air is being drawn into the suction line or into the casing. or has deep ridges in it. or (4) lack of rigidity in the foundation. such as the type of pump. (2) a bent shaft. When replacing packing. condition of the shaft sleeve. Shut the pump discharge valve. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts. stop the pump and continue troubleshooting according to the technical manual for that unit. 6. be sure there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box or seal. 3. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. If the discharge pressure is not normal when the pump is up to its proper speed. Repacking Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. proceed as follows: 1. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the packing gland for the desired amount of leak-off. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer to make it fit. it will score the shaft. Restart the pump. YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. Next. and hours in use. Open all valves in the pump suction line. If the pump fails to build up pressure when the discharge valve is opened and the pump comes up to normal operating speed. or an impeller may be broken. If the shaft is rough. maintained and operated. start the pump. centrifugal pumps are usually trouble-free. If the packing is allowed to dry out. it will have to be renewed. If the pump is electrically driven. or otherwise unbalanced impeller. the suction line may be clogged.VIBRATION of a centrifugal pump is often caused by (1) misalignment. Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration. 2. Rapid wear of the packing will be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). You may then begin to adjust the packing gland. make certain the shaft or sleeve is smooth when the packing is removed from a gland. If any of these conditions exist. (3) a clogged. Some of the most common corrective maintenance actions that you may be required to perform are discussed in the following sections. be sure the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. Maintenance of Centrifugal Pumps When properly installed. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing. particularly in pumps that handle hot or volatile liquids. 5. 4. Secure the pump. Prime the pump (fill casing with the liquid being pumped) and be sure that all air is expelled through the air cocks on the pump casing. it should be sent to the machine shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. When operating a centrifugal pump. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing.
and various cooling systems). Mechanical Seal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 160 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Mechanical shaft seals serve to ensure that position liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on rotary and positive-displacement pumps. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts. You should replace a mechanical seal whenever the seal is removed from the shaft for any reason or whenever leakage causes undesirable effects on equipment or surrounding spaces. Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps that operate in closed systems (such as fuel service and air-conditioning. Shaft sleeves are chamfered (beveled) on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. Do not touch a new seal on the sealing face because body acid and grease or dirt will cause the seal to pit prematurely and leak. chilled-water. Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage. If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked). Mechanical shaft seals must not be positioned by setscrews. it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts.Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments. The type of material used for the seal faces will depend upon the service of the pump. Most water service pumps use a carbon material for one of the seal faces and ceramic (tungsten carbide) for the other. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. check it regularly to make certain that sufficient flow is maintained. They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. Once you have the desired leak-off. they are simply replaced. When the seals wear out.
Multi-stage Bowl Assemblies Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 161 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Common Elements of Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical Turbine Pump Being Removed (notice line shaft) Closed Pump Impeller Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 162 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Consumers frequently complain about problems attributes to hard water. some of which impart a quality known as hardness. Of these. For treatment of surface water. Distillers Various sizes of distillers are available for home use. They must be carbon filtered before and/or after to remove volatile chemicals. and that the power cost for operation will be substantially higher than the operating cost of other types of treatment devices. and freezing. Because of the special facilities required and the complexity of the process. The other commonly used method of softening involves the ion exchange process. so long as turbidity and iron levels are not excessive. minerals. The principal disadvantage is that operating costs are considerably higher. It is still second only to reverse osmosis water for health. Softening can also be accomplished using membrane technology. This process has the advantages of a considerably lower initial cost and ease of use by small systems or by large systems at multiple locations. and other particles are removed. Distillers are effective in killing all microorganisms. Lime softening can be used for treatment of either groundwater or surface water sources. Diet should be rich in electrolytes as the aggressive nature of distilled water can "leech" electrolytes from the body. It has no taste. In the process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 163 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . electrodialysis. Water Distillers have a high energy cost (approximately 20-30 cents per gallon).Hard Water Section Water contains various amounts of dissolved minerals. In this document we will discusses the occurrence. and effects of hard water and the hard water treatment or softening process that remove the hardness-causing minerals. the process normally must be preceded by conventional treatment. Some organic chemicals are also removed. The principal problem with a distiller are that a small unit can produce only 2-3 gal (7. distillation. such as the formation of scale in cooking utensils and hot water heaters. it is generally applicable only to medium. Ion exchange processes can typically be used for direct treatment of groundwater. The precipitation process most frequently used is generally known as the lime process or lime soda process. They all work on the principle of vaporizing water and then condensing the vapor. metals. membrane methods seem to have the greatest potential. dissolved solids such as salt.or large-size water systems where all treatment can be accomplished at a central location. but those that are move volatile are often vaporized and condensed with the product water. It is considered "dead" water because the process removes all extra oxygen and energy. asbestos fibers. This process will provide softened water at the lowest cost.5 -11 Lt) a day.
regardless of the salts associated with it. Hardness caused by calcium is called calcium hardness. are usually present in large enough concentrations to contribute significantly to the total hardness. (positive ions having valence of 2). so it is generally assumed that Total harness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness The carbonate-noncarbonate distinction. calcium chloride (CaCl2). Strontium. in terms of milligrams per liter as CaCO3. however. Types of Hardness Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods: calcium versus magnesium hardness and carbonate versus non-carbonate hardness. aluminum. We will show two different classifications of the relative harness of water: Comparative classifications of water for softness and hardness Classification Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard * Per Sawyer (1960) + Per Briggs and Ficke (1977) mg/L as CaCO3 * 0 – 75 75 – 150 150 – 300 Over 300 mg/L as CaCO3+ 0 – 60 61 – 120 121 – 180 Over 180 Source: Adapted from sawyer 1960 and Briggs and Ficke 1977. Calcium and magnesium are normally the only significant minerals that cause harness. and is also a function of the contact time between water and limestone deposits. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 164 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The degree of hardness that consumer consider objectionable will vary.Occurrence of Hard Water Hard water is caused by soluble. divalent. barium. hardness caused by magnesium is called magnesium hardness. and others. Likewise. This is due to different geologic formations. Magnesium is dissolved as water passes over and through dolomite and other magnesium-bearing minerals. Because groundwater is in contact with these formations for a longer period of time than surface water. Expressing Hardness Concentration Water hardness is generally expressed as a concentration of calcium carbonate. depending on other qualities of the water and on the hardness to which they have become accustomed. groundwater is normally harder than surface water. metallic cations. iron. Water hardness varies considerably in different geographic areas of the contiguous 48 states. The calcium-magnesium distinction is based on the minerals involved. The principal chemicals that cause water hardness are calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). which include calcium sulfate (CaSO4). is based on hardness from either the bicarbonate salts of calcium or the normal salts of calcium and magnesium involved in causing water hardness.
For carbonate and noncarbonate hardness. Hardness ions form precipitates with soap. carbonate hardness is sometimes called “Temporary hardness. it is sometimes called “Permanent hardness. carbon dioxide (CO2) is driven off. Left to dry on the surface of glassware and plumbing fixtures.” Objections to Hard Water Scale Formation Hard water forms scale. These salts ate calcium sulfate. Scale that forms on the inside of water pipes will eventually reduce the flow capacity or possibly block it entirely. Bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium then settle out of the water to form calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates. usually calcium carbonate. Calcium and magnesium combined with carbonate (CO3) also contribute to carbonate hardness. Although modern detergents counteract many of the problems of hard water. and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). calcium chloride. although it is a very rare condition. magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).” such as the familiar bathtub ring. magnesium hydroxide scale will deposit in hot water heaters that are operated at normal temperature of 140-150oF (60-66oC). Effect on Soap The historical objection to hardness has been its effect on soap. In particular. Noncarbonate hardness is a measure of calcium and magnesium salts other than carbonate and bicarbonate salts. many customers prefer softer water. Scale that forms within appliances and water meters causes wear on moving parts. including showers doors. faucets.04 in. Causing unsightly “curd. When hard water is heated. which are calcium bicarbonate. hard water leaves unsightly white scale known as water spots. These precipitates form the familiar chalky deposits on teapots. Because it can be removed by heating.Carbonate hardness is caused primarily by the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. To counteract these problems. which causes a variety of problems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 165 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A coating of only 0. synthetic detergents have been developed and are now used almost exclusively for washing clothes and dishes. (1 mm) of scale on the heating surfaces of a hot water heater creates an insulation effect that will increase heating costs by about 10 percent. scale forms much faster. These detergents have additives known as sequestering agents that “tie up” the hardness ions so that they cannot form the troublesome precipitates.” Because noncarbonated hardness cannot be removed or precipitated by prolonged boiling. Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness When hard water is boiled. Ca(HCO3)2. and sink tops. Calcium and magnesium combined with nitrate may also contribute to noncarbonate hardness. when the magnesium hardness is more than about 40 mg/l (as CaCO3). as well as reduced efficiency in washing and laundering. and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2.
a strong solution of sodium chloride (salt) is passed through the filter to replace the sodium that has been lost. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. and other equipment in which it is used. In the ion exchange process. It forms scale in pipes.Water Softening Is a method of removing from water the minerals that make it hard. boilers. and high levels can clog pipes. or manual. In the lime soda process. the sodium ions in the zeolite are exchanged for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. Softeners are automatic. and the water is softened. semi-automatic. soda ash and lime are added to the water in amounts determined by chemical tests. pending the results of studies on how people are affected by the consumption of the added sodium in softened water. These chemicals combine with the calcium and magnesium in the water to make insoluble compounds that settle to the bottom of the water tank. The most common way to soften household water is to use a water softener. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 166 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit connected into the water supply line. Hard water does not dissolve soap readily. the water filters through minerals called zeolites. After household softeners become exhausted. As the water passes through the filter. Calcium and magnesium in water create hard water. Water softening units also remove iron. Some cities and towns. however. You may want to consider installing a separate faucet for unsoftened water for drinking and cooking. The use of two exchange materials makes it possible to remove both metal and acid ions from water. Softeners may also be safely used to remove up to about 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved iron if the water softener is rated for that amount of iron removal. The principal methods of softening water are the lime soda process and the ion exchange process. prohibit or restrict the use of ion exchange equipment on drinking water.
The principle behind water softening is really just simple chemistry. It's the resulting removal of calcium and magnesium ions that produces "soft water. For a monthly fee the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. your water softener is less efficient. it must be recharged. Semi automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration. Regeneration is usually started by a preset time clock. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing. When hard water passes through the softener. there are companies that provide a water softening service. you should check your water softener once a week to be sure the salt level is always at least one quarter full. A water softener contains resin beads which hold electrically charged ions." The diagram shows the exchange that takes place during the water softening process. In many areas. Typical Water Softener Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 167 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . When the resin is filled to capacity. calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to the charged resin beads. brining and rinsing. When the resin beads in your softener become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions.Using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised. a green-sand filter is a better method. As a rule. some units are started by water use meters or hardness detectors. they need to be recharged. Without sufficient softening salt. Sodium ions from the water softening salt reactivate the resin beads so they can continue to do their job. Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically.
Nollet’s First Osmosis Machine Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 168 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
especially as technology improves and costs are reduced. a process in which water from a dilute solution will naturally pass through a porous membrane into a concentrate solution. large molecules or ions are held back or rejected. water is forced to move through a membrane from a concentrate solution to a dilute solution. In reverse osmosis. water is forced through a porous membrane under pressure while suspended solids. Since that time. water softening. and removal of the fine solids. In potable water treatment. the French physicist Nollet first noted that water would diffuse through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. Description of Membrane Filtration Processes In the simplest membrane processes. resulting in ever-increasing uses in many industries. Types of Membrane Filtration Processes The two general classes of membrane processes. This was the discovery of osmosis. continual improvements and new developments have been made in membrane technology. to be used. In some cases. In particular. more stringent regulations. it can also allow secondary sources. removal of dissolved inorganic and organic chemicals.Membrane Filtration Processes In 1748. scientists have attempted to develop membrane that would be useful in industrial processes. are: • Pressure-driven processes • Electric-driven processes Pressure-Driven Processes The four general membrane processes that operate by applying pressure to the raw water are: • Microfiltration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 169 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . based on the driving force used to make the process work. membrane technology enables some water systems having contaminated water sources to meet new. but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that membranes were produced that could be used for what is known as reverse osmosis. membranes have been used for desalinization. such as brackish groundwater. Over the years. There is great potential for the continuing wide use of membrane filtration processes in potable water treatment.
This was done to improve filtering efficiency. such as in electronic manufacturing. Industrial water uses such as semiconductor manufacturing is also utilizes the RO process. The current primary use of MF is by industries to remove very fine particles from process water. the process has also been used as a pretreatment for other membrane processes. In particular. The process has been used primarily for water softening and reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS). Nanofiltration Nanofiltration (NF) is a process using a membrane that will reject even smaller molecules that UF. This process has not been generally applicable to drinking water treatment because it either does not remove substances that require removal from potable water. including chloride and sodium. This capability will undoubtedly increase the use of NF for potable water treatment. UF membranes can be designed to pass material that weighs less than or equal to a certain molecular weight. The smaller pore size is designed to remove colloids and substances that have larger molecules. Traditionally. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 170 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In addition. These RO membranes have very low MWC pore size that can reject ions at very high rates. The process has been use primarily in the water industry for desalinization of seawater because the capital and operating costs are competitive with other processes for this service. Although UF does not generally work well for removal of salt or dissolved solids. This weight is called the molecular weight cutoff (MWC) of the membrane. RO is discussed in more detail later. RO membranes are susceptible to clogging or binding unless the water being processed is already quite clean.45 µm are normally used.1 µm. especially for small particles that could contain bacterial and protozoan life. it can be used effectively for removal of most organic chemicals. The formed particles were then removed by rapid sand filters. this size is relatively large compared with the other membrane filtration processes. in recent years. which are called high-molecular-weight materials. and radionuclides and microorganisms. Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane process that has the highest rejection capability of all the membrane processes. The RO also works with most organic chemicals. However. microfiltration has been proposed as a filtering method for particles resulting from the direct filtration process. Water from this process is very pure due to the high reject rates.Microfiltration Microfiltration (MF) is a process in which water is forced under pressure through a porous membrane. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is a process that uses a membrane with a pore size generally below 0. this direct filtration process has used the injection of coagulants such as alum or polymers into the raw water stream to remove turbidity such as clay or silts. or the problem substances can be removed more economically using other processes. NF operates with less pressure that reverse osmosis and is still able to remove a significant proportion of inorganic and organic molecules. Membranes with a pore size of 0.
Membrane Configurations Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Plate and Frame Tubular Electric-Driven Processes There are two membrane processes that purify a water stream by using an electric current to move ions across a membrane. These processes are • Electrodialysis • Electrodialysis reversal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 171 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Electrodialysis Reversal Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a process similar to ED. which provides automatic flushing of scale-forming materials from the membrane surface. As a result. ED and EDR have been used at only a few locations for drinking water treatment.Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is a process in which ions are transferred through a membrane as a result of direct electric current applied to the solution. The reversal in polarity reverses the flow of ions between demineralizing compartments. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 172 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . except that the polarity of the direct current is periodically reversed. The current carries the ions through a membrane from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated one. Carbon Vessels used to remove tastes and odors from water. EDR can often be used with little or no pretreatment of feedwater to prevent fouling. So far.
This exceeds the water's osmotic pressure. The membrane must be physically strong enough to stand up to high osmotic pressure . 2500 kg/m. in this case .Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a liquid .2760 kPa) depending on the RO system model. called reverse osmosis. removes up to 98% of dissolved minerals. called osmotic pressure. water flows through the membrane from the more concentrated solution toward the dilute solution. A portion of the water (permeate) diffuses through the membrane leaving dissolved salts and other contaminants behind with the remaining water where they are sent to drain as waste (concentrate). This process.400 psi (1380 . RO produces high quality water at low cost compared to other purifications processes. and if that pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure. or RO.in the case of sea water.passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a relatively dilute solution toward a more concentrated solution. The membrane is constructed into a cartridge called a reverse osmosis module. either as a sheet or fine hollow fibers.water. RO Skid After filtration to remove suspended particles. incoming water is pressurized with a pump to 200 . and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter. If pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 173 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This flow produces a measurable pressure. Most membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film.
Pretreatment is important because it influences permeate quality and quantity. it is described here in greater detail. separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring. Because reverse osmosis is the principal membrane filtration process used in water treatment. The elements that pass through include water. Generally. usually smaller molecules of dissolved solids. To understand Reverse Osmosis. The dissolved solids are usually further restricted based on their respective electrical charge. one must begin by understanding the process of osmosis. It also affects the module's life because many water-borne contaminants can deposit on the membrane and foul it. The component parts include a pure or relatively pure water solution and a saline or contaminated water solution. and a container or transport mechanism of some type. the higher the osmotic pressure. naturally occurring in living things. the pure solution passes through the membrane until the osmotic pressure becomes equalized. and most gases. The semi-permeable membrane is so designated because it permits certain elements to pass through. This pressure differential is determined by the total dissolved solids content of the saline solution or contaminated solution on one side of the membrane. at which point osmosis ceases. and as permeate quality requirements become more demanding. while blocking others. which occurs in nature. In living things. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 174 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The higher the content of dissolved solids. In osmosis. osmosis is frequently seen. in that the molecular weight of the element affects the osmotic pressure. Each element that may be dissolved in the solution contributes to the osmotic pressure. the need for pretreatment increases as systems become larger and operate at higher pressures.
This is important. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 175 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Each sheet of membrane material is inspected at special light tables to ensure the quality of the membrane coating. and becomes the product or result of the purification process. osmosis would have to be reversed. thicker cast layer of Polysulfone. One of the membrane designs was the spiral wound membrane element.S. to reach the point at which osmosis stops for tap water. including brackish water and seawater. The membrane material itself is a special thin film composite (TFC) polyamide material. Thus when water penetrates or permeates though the membrane.000 PPM typically has an osmotic pressure of about 376 PSI (26. Thus. approximate osmotic pressures are usually sufficient to design a system. and to permit the flow of raw water to pass along the length of the membrane. usable membrane materials and designs resulted. before being assembled into the spiral wound element design. Several decades ago. opening at the permeate tube. This permits flows and pressures to be developed to the point that ample processed or purified water is produced. This concentrated raw water is called the reject stream or concentrate stream. However. The permeate or product water is collected from the end of each membrane element. U. colloidal. while keeping the membrane surface relatively free from particulate.75 Bar). higher molecular weights result in higher osmotic pressures. and wound around this tube are one or more "envelopes" of membrane material. when sufficient flows are maintained. Hence the formula for calculating osmotic pressure is very complex. This design enabled the engineers to construct a membrane element that could contain a generous amount of membrane area in a small package. around the spiral and collects in the permeate tube. The microporous support layer is cast on sheets of paper-like material that are made from synthetic fibers such as polyester. Government funding. The design features a perforated tube in the center of the element. or about 1. and suitable synthetic membrane materials would have to be developed. Additionally. aided by a fine mesh called the permeate channel. Government scientists had the idea that the principles of osmosis could be harnessed to purify water from various sources. Each envelope is sealed at the incoming and exiting edge. as the raw water flows along the "brine channel" or coarse medium provided to facilitate good flow characteristics. Common tap water as found in most areas may have an osmotic pressure of about 10 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch). impedes or even prevents the purification process. These ideas were crystallized. a pressure of 376 PSI would have to be applied to the seawater side of the membrane. serves to carry away the impurities removed by the membrane. ways of configuring the membranes would have to be engineered to handle a continuous flow of raw and processed water without clogging or scaling the membrane material. called fouling. a pressure of 10 PSI would have to be applied to the saline solution. It may also be called brine if it is coming from a salt water source. it gets more and more concentrated. and to stop osmosis in seawater. In order to transform this process into one that purifies water.68 Bar. called the product or permeate tube. The concentrate. Seawater at 36. bacteriological or mineralogical fouling. and manufactured to the required tolerances. as buildup on the membrane surface. and fueled by U.S.Generally. Meanwhile. it travels. cast in a microscopically thin layer on another. thus keeping the membrane surface clean and functional. called the microporous support layer.
while high rejection membranes under the same conditions produce drinking water TDS of below 300 PPM. a typical system operating pressure is about 800 PSI. The affect of temperature is that with higher temperatures. membrane age. in that salt passage decreases (reducing the TDS in the permeate or product water). and so forth. the salt passage increases. with each membrane in series seeing progressively higher dissolved solids levels. The rejection rate is the percentage of dissolved solids rejected. These include optimum flows and pressures. or prevented from passing through the membrane. There are many considerations when designing R/O systems that competent engineers are aware of.To achieve Reverse Osmosis. while operating pressures increase. as the raw water is processed. the osmotic pressure must be exceeded. the osmotic pressure is generally doubled. a membrane with a rejection rate of 99% (usually based on Na (Sodium)) will allow only 1% of the concentration of dissolved solids to pass through into the permeate. starting with seawater of 36. Or if operating pressures do not increase. Thus with seawater osmotic pressure of 376 PSI. Factors that affect the pressure required include raw water temperature. raw water TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). For example. and to produce a reasonable amount of purified water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 176 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and operating pressure required is lower. With lower temperatures. optimum recovery rates (the percentage of permeate from a given stream of raw water). standard rejection membranes produce permeate below 500 PPM. Higher temperatures or lower temperatures can be accommodated with appropriate adjustments in the system design.000 PPM would have 100 PPM remaining. and membrane fouling. Membranes are available in "standard rejection" or "high rejection" models for seawater and brackish water. the concentrations of TDS increase as it passes along the membrane’s length. and usually multiple membranes are employed. Of course. then the amount of permeate or product water is reduced. the inverse occurs. Typically. Reverse Osmosis (R/O) systems are designed for raw water temperatures of 25° C (77° F). flux (permeate flow) increases.000 PPM. prefiltration and other pretreatment considerations. In general. Hence product water from a source containing 10.
chemical injection of one or more pretreatment agents may be added. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 177 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . prefiltration in one or more stages. Packaged skid with instrumentation. well designed systems employ multiple stages of prefiltration. UV. or Ozone. R/O pressure vessels. tailored to the application. a membrane array including one or more membranes installed in one or more pressure tubes (also called pressure vessels. a pressure pump suited to the application. or similar). R/O systems typically have the following components: A supply pump or pressurized raw water supply.Membrane systems in general cannot handle the typical load of particulate contaminants without prefiltration. pH adjustment. or mineral injection for some applications. Ultra-Violet (U-V). sized and driven appropriately for the flow and pressure required. Other types of post treatment may include carbon filters. relief valve(s) and/or safety pressure switches. and possibly some form of post treatment. various gauges and flow meters. including multi-media filtration and one or more stages of cartridge filtration. a pressure regulating valve. Post treatment should usually include a form of sterilization such as Chlorine. Bromine. and softening unit. to provide sufficient protection for the membranes. Usually the last stage would be 5m or smaller. Often.
long lived membrane elements. R/O is usually the preferred method of desalination today. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases. the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream.Clean-In-Place Some very low cost R/O systems may dispense with most of the controls and instruments. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable. resulting in stable. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as cross-flow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. Reverse Osmosis has proved to be the most reliable and cost effective method of desalinating water. such as salts. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 178 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . commonly known as a "Clean In Place" (CIP) system. the more likely it will be rejected. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol. systems installed in critical applications should be equipped with a permeate or product flow meter. This is more desirable than the hot water produced by evaporation technologies. reducing maintenance and down time. sugars.8° F may occur due to pumping and friction in the piping). Reverse Osmosis delivers product water or permeate having essentially the same temperature as the raw water source (an increase of 1° C or 1. Another feature found in better systems is a provision to clean the membranes in place. which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane. further extending membrane life and improving performance. concentrate or brine flow meter. particles. and the most common force is pressure from a pump. also known as hyperfiltration. For these and other reasons. The higher the pressure. proteins. a reject. while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. the larger the driving force. dyes. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria. Such a system may be built right into the R/O system or may be provided as an attachment for use as required. while rejecting the contaminants that remain. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years. Advancements have been made in membrane technology. are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged. allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. and hence its use has become more and more widespread. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place. The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane. R/O Systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. Reverse osmosis. The larger the charge and the larger the particle. preferably both before and after the membrane array. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. is the finest filtration known. Component parts have been improved as well. sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane. salts. multiple pressure gauges to indicate the pressure before and after each filtration device and the system operation pressure in the membrane loop. However. and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. taste or properties of the fluid. Energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies. such as organics.
herbicides. when properly configured with sediment. inorganic minerals. odor. cadmium. pesticides.Reverse Osmosis. lead. sodium. carbon and/or carbon block technology. detergents. phosphates. calcium. arsenic. aluminum. dissolved solids. bacteria. heavy metals. Common packaged filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 179 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . sulfates. chlorine and THM's. cysts. parasites. A Reverse Osmosis System removes virtually all: bad taste. insecticides. It is the best tasting because it is oxygen-rich. radioactivity and asbestos. virus. nitrates. produces pure water that is clearly the body's choice for optimal health. turbidity. organic compounds. fluoride. magnesium.
As a result. Ozone is obtained by passing a flow or air of oxygen between two electrodes that are subjected to an alternating current in the order of 10. or of THM and other inorganics. It has a self-policing pungent odor similar to that sometimes noticed during and after heavy electrical storms. because of the possibility of formation of other carcinogens (such as aldehydes or phthalates) it falls into the same category as other disinfectants in that it can produce DBPs.0 ppm. It does not form chloramines or THMs. iron. temperature. it may produce other when followed by chlorination. Further. is has no found much application in the United States. and even sterilization.000 volts. Contact time. Ozone is not practical for complete removal of chlorine or chloramines. and manganese.000 to 20. Oxygen tank is necessary to generate O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 180 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ozone breaks down into oxygen and nascent oxygen. Ozone is a light blue gas at room temperature. and will remove practically all color. and while it may destroy some THMs. Each water has its own ozone demand. and pH of the water are factors to be determined. it is not shipped and must be manufactured on-site. It is an excellent aid to the flocculation and coagulation process.Ozone Ozone (O3) is probably the strongest oxidizing agent available for water treatment. taste. in the order of 0. Although it is widely used throughout the world. In use. 3O2 + electrical discharge → 2O3 Liquid ozone is very unstable and can readily explode. odor. O3 → O2 + O It is the nascent oxygen that produces the high oxidation and disinfections. Ozone acts as a complete disinfectant.5 ppm to 5.
The lamp itself does not come intro contact water. and it is a result of this vaporization that UV rays are produced. A sun lamp. it is given a tangential flow pattern so that the water spins over and around the quartz sleeves. This in turn will vaporize the mercury contained in the lamp. Quartz is used in this case since practically none of the UV rays are absorbed by the quartz. the units are designed so that the contact or retention time of the water in the unit is not less than 15 seconds.Ultraviolet Radiation The enormous temperatures on the sun create ultraviolet (UV) rays in great amounts. allowing all of the rays to reach the water. depending upon the quantity of water to be treated.0 gpm for each inch of the lamp. Further. The water flow around the quartz tube. The lamp is placed inside a quartz tube. As water enters the sterilizer. too much will cause sunburn. sends out UV rays that when properly controlled result in a suntan. leaving little for disinfection. The basic design flow of water of certain UV units is in the order of 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 181 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This radiation can be artificially produced by sending strong electric currents thorough various substances. The UV lamp that can be used for the disinfection of water depends upon the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp to produce the ultraviolet energy. In this way the microorganisms spend maximum time and contact with the outside of the quartz tube and the source of the UV rays. Of course. Ordinary glass cannot be used since it will absorb the UV rays. A mercury vapor lamp is one in which an electric arc is passed through an inert gas. The UV sterilizer will consist of a various number of lamps and tubes. and this radiation is so powerful that all life on earth would be destroyed if these ray were not scattered by the atmosphere and filtered out by the layers of ozone gas that float some 20 miles above the earth. for example. and the water is in contact with the outside of the quartz tube.
Ultraviolet radiation is an excellent disinfectant that is highly effective against viruses. the water to be disinfected must be clean. Also. bicarbonates. manganese. it leaves no residual. taste. and odor. and sulfates affect absorption of the ultraviolet ray. such substances as excesses of chlorides. although a water may appear to be clear. The lamp must be replaced when it loses about 40% to 50% of its UV output. UV radiation will not remove precursors. iron. but in combination with ozone. Alone. which is about 1 year’s time. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 182 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . it is said to be effective in the removal of THM precursors and THMs. and it does not form THMs. The UV manufacturer will of course stipulate which pretreatment may be necessary.500 hours. Each lamp is outfitted with its own photoelectric cell. and yeasts. and free of any suspended solids. It adds no chemicals to the water. These parameters will probably require at least filtration of one type or another. It is used to remove traces of ozone and chloramines from the finished water. The germicidal effect of UV is thought to be associated with its absorption by various organic components essential to the cell’s functioning. For effective use of ultraviolet. and with it own alarm that will be activated when the penetration drops to a present level.Most manufacturers claim that the UV lamps have a life of about 7. in any installation this is determined by means of a photoelectric cell and a meter that shows the output of the lamp. These are conditions that must be met. The water must also be colorless and must be free of any colloids. and it is safe to use. molds.
aeration.Removal of Disinfection By-products Disinfectant Chlorine (HOCl) Disinfectant Byproduct Trialomethane (THM) Chloramine Chlorophenol Probably no THM Others? Chlorites Chlorates No THMs Aldehydes. resins. Carboxylics. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 183 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Phthalates None known Disinfectant By-product Removal Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). controlled coagulation. RO. aeration. GAC or combinations of others processes. nanofiltration. This may aid with a decision as to whether or not precursors should be removed before these disinfectants are added to water. GAC-UV GAC GAC UV? Use of Fe2+ in coagulation. If it is decided that removal of precursors is needed. reverse osmosis. research to date indicates that this removal can be attained through the application of controlled chlorination plus coagulation and filtration. ionexchange GAC GAC Chloramine (NHxCly) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) Permanganate (KMnO4) Ozone (O3) Ultraviolet (UV) The table indicates that most of the disinfectants will leave a by-product that is or would possibly be inimical to health.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 184 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
There is limited experience and scientific knowledge about the by-products and risks associated with the use of alternatives. chlorine dioxide. for an example. Absence of Oxygen: The complete absence of oxygen in water described as Anaerobic.other than chlorination (halogens) . As: Is the chemical symbol of Arsenic. Anaerobic conditions: When anaerobic conditions exist in either the metalimnion or hypolimnion of a stratified lake or reservoir. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. Air Gap: A physical separation space that is present between the discharge vessel and the receiving vessel. Backflow 12 inches: Is the required distance above ground that a double check backflow or RP assembly needs to be installed. or substances to flow back into the distribution system. ozone. An operator must ensure when installing a pressure vacuum breaker backflow device that it must be at least 12 inches about the highest downstream outlet. It is a cationic polymer. water quality problems may make the water unappealing for domestic use without costly water treatment procedures. Acid Rain: Acid rain a result of airborne pollutants. Acid: Slowly add the acid to water while stirring. gases. Aluminum Sulfate: Is the chemical name for Alum. An operator should not mix acid and water or acid to a strong base. See Cross-connection control. Is a permeable layer of the subsurface that allows the movement of groundwater. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. To reverse the natural and normal directional flow of a liquid. and chloramine. e. needs to be installed 12 inches above the ground. a kitchen faucet.g.Water Treatment Glossary Excellent operator certification study tool. The molecular formula of Alum is Al2(SO4)3~14H2O. ultraviolet radiation. Ammonia: A chemical made with Nitrogen and Hydrogen and used with chlorine to disinfect water. Backflow Prevention: To stop or prevent the occurrence of. 0. Continuous positive pressure in a distribution system is essential for preventing a backflow event.used to treat water. Most of these problems are associated with Reduction in the stratified waters. This is different than 12 inches above the ground. Backflow: The definition of ‘backflow ’is a reverse flow condition that causes water or mixtures of water and other liquids. Backsiphonage Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 185 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Activated Charcoal: Is a treatment technique that is not included in the grading of a water facility.1 year is the maximum time period between having a backflow device tested by a certified backflow tester. Acid and a Base is Mixed: When an acid and a base are mixed an explosive reaction occurs and decomposition products are created under certain conditions. the unnatural act of reversing the normal direction of the flow of liquid. Aquifer: An underground geologic formation capable of storing significant amounts of water. Needs to be tested on an annual basis. Most ammonia in water is present as the ammonium ion rather than as ammonia. Air Hood: Is the most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes. Alternative Disinfectants: Disinfectants . Minimum 1 inch or twice the diameter whatever is greater. Backflow or Cross-connection Failure: Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. 10 ppm: Is the IDLH for Cl2 gas according to the NIOSH manual. gases. This is normally an undesirable effect. Accuracy: Is how closely an instrument measures the true or actual value. Backflow: A double check valve backflow assembly provides effective protection from both backpressure and backsiphonage of pollution only. gases. Atom: The general definition of an ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge.2 mg/L: Should be the target value for the free chlorine residual in the distribution system. The difference between a reduced pressure principle backflow device and a double check backflow device is that RP has a relief valve. Air Gap or Vacuum Breaker: A potable water line should be equipped with an air gap or vacuum breaker when connected to a chemical feeder for fluoride. Electron is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Anaerobic: An abnormal condition in which color and odor problems are most likely to occur.
sodium bicarbonate. Carbonate.60. Equipment that utilizes water for cooling. Battery: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. CaOCl2. Calcium. Bypass Valve: Is the name of a type of valve that reduces the differential pressure across a closed disk making the main valve easier to open and close. Centrifugal Force: That force when a ball is whirled on a string pulls the ball outward. Examples include. Bacteria: Are small. Breakpoint Chlorination: The process of chlorinating the water with significant quantities of chlorine to oxidize all contaminants and organic wastes and leave all remaining chlorine as free chlorine. healthy humans. Back-up Disinfection units: If a chlorination system goes out of operation you are required to have back-up. usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels. Calcium Ion: Is divalent because it has a valence of +2. This is one of the chemical disinfectants (HALOGEN) that kills bacteria and algae. This chemical causes skin burns on contact. this gas will accumulate first at the ceiling are. Minimum water pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate customer service during peak flow periods. Vibri Cholera and Cholera. Backwash: A surface wash system should be activated prior to the start of the backwash. Cathodic Protection: An operator should protect against corrosion of the anode and/or the cathode by painting the copper cathode. If released. Backsiphonage: A liquid substance that is carried over a higher point. Magnesium. Ca: Is the chemical symbol for calcium. Bromine: Has a limited use for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. It is the method by which the liquid substance may be forced by excess pressure over or into a higher point. Bacteria are found everywhere. Cl2 gas will settle on the floor. Buffer: Chemical that resists pH change. On a centrifugal pump. Bromine: This chemical disinfectant has been used only on a very limited scale for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. e.g. However minimum positive pressure must be maintained in mains to protect against backflow or backsiphonage from cross-connections. Calcium Hardness: A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. Shigella. including on and in the human body. Ceiling Area: The specific gravity of ammonia gas is 0. Benching: A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps.condition usually causes reduced pressure or negative pressure on the service or supply side. Bacillus. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 186 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Caustic Soda: Also known as sodium hydroxide and is used to raise pH. Humans would be unable to live without the bacteria that inhabit the intestines and assist in digesting food. and a residual is difficult to obtain. Cathodic Protection: Guards against stray current corrosion. and Iron: Are the three elements that cause hardness in water. Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection interrupts corrosion by supplying an electrical current to overcome the corrosion-producing mechanism. Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because the bacteria may cause red water and slime. Carbon Dioxide Gas: The pH will decrease and alkalinity will change as measured by the Langelier index after pumping carbon dioxide gas into water. Salmonella. Cadmium: A contaminant that is usually not found naturally in water or in very small amounts. it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide: Chemicals that are responsible for the alkalinity of water.4H2O: Is the molecular formula of Calcium hypochlorite. lubrication. Capillary Fringe: The material immediately above the water table may contain water by capillary pressure in the small void spaces. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Backwashing: Backwash the filters more frequently can be used to increase water production if an increase in raw water turbidity and coagulation feed rate creates additional loading on the filter. one-celled animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause disease in normal. washing or as a solvent always susceptible to a crossconnection.
bacteria and viruses. Also. Chlorine is added to swimming pools to keep the water safe for swimming. CL2 0. constriction of the chest. Chelation: A chemical process used to control scale formation in which a chelating agent "captures" scale-causing ions and holds them in solution. and edema of the lungs. After 24 hours the minimum Cl2 concentration should be 10 mg/L. Check Valve: It allows water to flow in only one direction.2 mg/l CL2 Gas Exposure: Chlorine gas causes suffocation. The opposite is true for when the temperature increases. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. what should be the minimum concentration of free chlorine residual in the distribution system? 0. Populations at special risk from chlorine exposure are individuals with pulmonary disease. Free: Chlorine available to kill bacteria or algae. when the temperature decreases. or massive pulmonary edema. having an inlet and a discharge connection. The chlorine gas is controlled. The amount of chlorine available for sanitization after the chlorine demand has been met.2 mg/L: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. bronchitis. Some public water system’s drinking water treatment plants use chlorine in a gas form because of the large volumes required. Cl2 Demand: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. Chemical Reaction Rate: In general. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. CL2 10 mg/L: Small water storage tanks are commonly disinfected with a solution containing a Cl2 concentration of 50 mg/L. Chlorine is extremely reactive. As little as 2. Chlorine. but less than 0.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. Chloramination: Treating drinking water by applying chlorine before or after ammonia. Chlorination: The process in water treatment of adding chlorine (gas or solid hypochlorite) for purposes of disinfection. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. Chloramines are not effective as disinfectants and are responsible for eye and skin irritation as well as strong chlorine odors (also known as Combined Chlorine). Also known as chlorine residual. Chlorine Feeding: Chlorine may be delivered by vacuum-controlled solution feed chlorinators. metered. Protozoa are resistant to chlorine because they have thick coats. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. reflex spasm in the larynx. Protozoa are removed from drinking water by filtration. Chemical Oxidizer: KMnO4 is used for taste and odor control because it is a strong oxidizer which eliminates many organic compounds. Chlorine gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to chlorine.5 mg per liter (approximately 0. the minimum concentration of free Cl2 residual in the distribution system. tightness in the throat. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of chlorine gas in air. After long exposure. This creates a persistent disinfectant residual called chloramines. Chlorine is available as solid tablets for swimming pools. Chloramines: A group of chlorine and ammonia compounds formed when chlorine combines with organic wastes in the water. CL2 Chronic Exposure Corrosion of the Teeth: May occur due to chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. a rupture may occur. Chlorine Demand: Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. introduced into a stream of injector water and then conducted as a solution to the point of application. Chlorine: Is a chemical used to disinfect water.Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing. Death is possible from asphyxia. Cl2 Cylinder is Increased: If the temperature of a full Cl2 cylinder is increased by 50o F or 30o C. Cl2 Expands in Volume: Happens to Cl2 when the temperature of a Cl2 cylinder increases. and when it comes in contact with microorganisms in water killing them. CL2 Free Concentration: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. or chronic lung conditions. breathing problems. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Chlorine is very effective against algae. throat cancer will occur. CL2 A Fusible Plug: Is considered a safety device on a Cl2 cylinder. shock. the chemical reaction rate also decreases. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 187 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. CL2: Of an operator cannot open the valve on a Cl2 cylinder because it is too tight. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. CL2: Cl2 combines with water to form both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. Normal breathing will cause coughing. CL2: Cl2 gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to Cl2. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. the victim must attempt to do two things: get out of the area of the leak. CL2 Gas Safety: Gas leak is the primary safety concern when using chlorine gas as opposed to calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. CL2: Store an empty Cl2 cylinder upright. and Tantalum. CL2: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. Cl2 Gas will Accumulate: If a Cl2 leak occurs. CL2: Free available Cl2 is very effective in killing bacteria. Normal breathing will cause coughing. CL2: As soon as CL2 gas enters the throat area. CL2: Before entering a Cl2 room to check on a leak don a self-contained breathing apparatus and check to see that the ventilation system is working. As little as 2. corrosion will occur and the leak will get larger. CL2: Cl2 gas is highly corrosive in moist conditions. The only metals that are TOTALLY inert to moist Cl2 gas are Gold. CL2: 17 is the atomic number of Cl2. the Cl2 gas will accumulate on the floor. proceeding upwind. constriction of the chest. CL2: Determine the ambient temperature in a Cl2 room by using a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. tagged as empty. CL2: Cl2 as with H2S gas produces olfactory fatigue. CL2: A device that has a transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball and is often used to measure the rate of a gas or liquid is called a Rotameter. it primarily transported and packaged as a liquefied gas under pressure in steel containers. the concentration of a free Cl2 residual should be 0. CL2: Downstream from the point of post chlorination. CL2: The effectiveness of disinfection determined from the results of coliform testing. and edema of the lungs. CL2: 200 mg/l is a generally acceptable concentration of Cl2 solution that should be prepared to wash the inside of a storage facility. CL2 Gaskets: Replace according to manufacturers recommendations should be done with the gaskets when making a new connection on a chlorine feed system. Platinum. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 188 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: Cl2 gas should only be used under a fume hood. The victim must attempt to get out of the area of the leak. first loosen the packing gland around the valve. CL2: A burning sensation in the eyes and throat: Is the most likely type of symptom one could expect upon exposure to a very small percentage of Cl2 in the air.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal.01 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. which must be prevented if possible. and tap the valve gently with your hand. tightness in the throat. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this area—nature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. Chlorine gas causes suffocation. CL2: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and concentration of the disinfectant residual. Be sure that no one enters the leak area without an adequate self-contained breathing apparatus. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. At this point. CL2: Chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas may cause corrosion of the teeth. CL2: Even brief exposure to 1.5 mg/L in a clear well or distribution reservoir.CL2 Gas IDLH: As soon as Cl2 gas enters the throat area. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of Cl2 gas in air. CL2: After Cl2 gas is manufactured. CL2: Breakpoint chlorination means adding Cl2 to the water until the Cl2 demand is satisfied. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this areaNature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs.5 mg per liter in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. CL2: The Cl2 storage ventilation equipment be checked on a daily basis. but less than 0. CL2: If an operator places water on a leaking Cl2 cylinder. proceeding upwind.
The operator needs to increase the detention time to maintain good disinfection of the water. Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions. which is at a level that may have an adverse effect on public health. and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. To reduce the quality of the Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 189 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Contamination: To make something bad. CL2: Where other factors are constant. CL2: The physical and chemical properties of Cl2 are: A yellowish green. or radiological substance or matter in water. and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. the organic material decomposes releasing heat very rapidly. CL2: When hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Coliform Bacteria: Are bacteria that are normally found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. CL2: The water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). Mixing is an important part of the coagulation process you want to complete the coagulation process as quickly as possible. Can be readily compressed into a clear. Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences. which are unsanitary. Coliform Testing: The effectiveness of disinfection is usually determined by Coliform bacteria testing. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill = C x T. Condensation: Is the process called that changes water vapor to tiny droplets or ice crystals. Cl2 is about 1. Compliance Period: A 3-calendar year time-frame within a compliance cycle. CL2: When determining a Cl2 use rate.5 times heavier than water and gaseous Cl2 is about 2. and a strong oxidizer. CL2: When Cl2 is inhaled in high concentrations it causes emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels. Coagulation: The best pH range for coagulation is between a pH of 5 and 7. also known as chloramines. To pollute or infect something. Colorimetric Measurement: A means of measuring and unknown chemical concentration in water by measuring a sample's color intensity. Combined Chlorine: The reaction product of chlorine with ammonia or other pollutants. A clear well or a plant storage reservoir is usually filled when demand is low. Coliform bacteria are present in high numbers in animal feces. Composite Sample: Is a water sample that is a combination of a group of samples collected at various intervals during the day. CL2: The purpose of the bottom valve on a 1-ton Cl2 cylinder is to remove liquid Cl2. ClO2: Is the molecular formula of Chlorine dioxide. chemical. biological. CL2: The purpose of an evaporator is to convert liquid Cl2 to gaseous Cl2 for use by gas chlorinators. pH and Low Turbidity: Are factors which are important in providing good disinfection using chlorine. Allow a longer contact time to maintain good disinfection of the water. A positive sample is a bad thing and indicates that you have bacteria contamination.5 times heavier than air. the scale or meter should be read at the same time each day. A noncombustible gas. Colloidal Suspensions: Because both iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen to form insoluble compounds they are not found in high concentrations in waters containing dissolved oxygen except as colloidal suspensions of the oxide. hazardous. Contact Time. amber colored liquid. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Clear Well: Is a large underground storage facility sometimes made of concrete. Compliance Cycle: A 9-calendar year time-frame during which a public water system is required to monitor.CL2: The first step when removing a hypochlorinator from service is to turn off the water supply pump. or dangerous to employees. CL2: The fusible plug on a 150-pound Cl2 cylinder is designed to soften and melt at high temperatures. Each compliance cycle consists of 3 compliance periods. Contains the Element Carbon: Is a simple definition of an organic compound. Adequate and appropriate disinfection effectively destroys coliform bacteria. is that the ejector draws in additional water for dilution of the hypochlorinate solution. Contaminant: Any natural or man-made physical. CL2: The purpose of the ejector on a hypochlorinator. Contact Time: If the water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). They are an indicator of potential contamination of water.
Corrosion is caused by improperly balanced water or excessive water velocity through piping or heat exchangers. Diatomaceous Earth: Is a fine silica material containing the skeletal remains of algae. Disinfect: To kill and inhibit growth of harmful bacterial and viruses in drinking water. viruses. Dangerous Chemicals: The most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes is to work under an air hood. and other parasites. resistant to chlorine disinfection. It may be found in fecal matter or contaminated drinking water. Cross-connection: A physical connection between a public water system and any source of water or other substance that may lead to contamination of the water provided by the public water system through backflow. Dental Caries Prevention in Children: Is the main reason that fluoride is added to a water supply.g. The EPA has determined that these DBPs can cause cancer. other metal surfaces and concrete surfaces in a destructive manner. This container should contain a desiccant. Direct Current: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. Reverse Osmosis and Freezing: Processes can be used to remove minerals from the water. Depolarization: Is the removal of hydrogen from a cathode. For example. Distillation. the unit may be protected by sealing it in a tight container. Detection Lag: Is the period of time between the moment of change in a chlorinator control system and the moment when the change is sensed by the chlorine residual indicator. Demineralization Process: Mineral concentration of the feed water is the most important consideration in the selection of a demineralization process. leaves.The removal of metal from copper. destroy. Disinfection: The treatment of water to inactivate. Cross-contamination: The mixing of two unlike qualities of water. Corrosivity: The Langelier Index measures corrosivity. Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. Decompose: To decay or rot. The effectiveness of disinfection determined by the results of coliform testing. Acid feed is the most common method of scale control in a membrane demineralization treatment system. Copper: Is the chemical name for the symbol Cu. Disinfectant Residual: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and disinfectant residual. Types of source water are required by law to treat water using filtration and disinfection are groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. the mixing of good water with a polluting substance like a chemical substance. and/or remove pathogenic bacteria. Dissolved Oxygen: Can be added to zones within a lake or reservoir that would normally become anaerobic during periods of thermal stratification. Detention Time: The minimum detention time range recommended for flocculation is 5 – 20 minutes for direct filtration and up to 30 minutes for conventional filtration. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. CWS: Community Water System. soil) present in raw water during the water treatment process. protozoa. Distribution 8 inches: The minimum pipe diameter for a dead end line exceeding 2.potable (drinking) water and create an actual hazard to the water supply by poisoning or through spread of diseases. Surface water sources. Corrosion: Is the gradual decomposition or destruction of a material as it chemically reacts with water and is often referred to as corrosion. Coupon: A coupon placed to measure corrosion damage in the water mains. Desiccant: When shutting down equipment which may be damaged by moisture. Decibels: Is the unit of measurement for sound. Decomposition of Organic Material: The decomposition of organic material in water produces taste and odors. Cryptosporidium: A disease-causing parasite.000 feet in length should be 8 inches. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 190 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Control Taste and Odor Problems: KMnO4 Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer is commonly used to control taste and odor problems. Disinfection by-products (DBPs): The products created due to the reaction of chlorine with organic materials (e.
Filtration: A series of processes that physically removes particles from water. E. Escherichia coli : Is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine. F: Is the chemical symbol of Fluorine. adsorption. flocculation. Effectiveness of the Chlorine Decreases: Will occur during disinfection in source water with excessive turbidity. has a flow of 0. and is simple to operate and maintain. and biological action treatment methods are filtration processes that involves a number of interrelated removal mechanisms. sedimentation. This type of filtration medium is only used for water with low turbidity. Faucet with an Aerator: When collecting a water sample from a distribution system. Electrical: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. odor. Dry Acid: A granular chemical used to lower pH and or total alkalinity. Electrical Problem: Moisture will cause the deterioration of oil in a transformer. Filter Clogging: An inability to meet demand may occur when filters are clogging. and Financial Capacity make up the elementary business plan. Direct filtration method is similar to conventional except that the sedimentation step is omitted. the operator should first check the fuse.1 gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area. Finished Water: Treated drinking water that meets minimum state and federal drinking water regulations. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 191 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If the motor does not start. Indicator organisms may be accompanied by pathogens. An operator waits for the overload to cool. Fecal Coliform: A group of bacteria that may indicate the presence of human or animal fecal matter in water. taste and color. This set-up or basin will give the best overall results. it is considered an indicator organism. Electrical: If grease comes in contact with the winding of a motor the winding insulation may deteriorate. Sedimentation. a virus that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Eccentric Valve: The plug on an eccentric valve contacts the valve seat when the valve is closed. Turbidity and Temperature. These are considered evidence of water contamination. but do not necessarily cause disease themselves. Flocculation: The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses that can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. Flood Rim: The point of an object where the water would run over the edge of something and begin to cause a flood. a faucet with an aerator should not be used as a sample location. and filtration. A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. Enhanced Coagulation: The process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. Filtration Methods: The conventional type of water treatment filtration method includes coagulation.Double Suction Pump: One advantage of a double suction pump is a reduction in the thrust load that the bearings must carry. Flocculation Basin: Is a compartmentalized basin with a reduction of speed in each compartment. municipal water. Slow sand filtration process does not require pretreatment. For water quality analyses purposes. Emergency Response Team: Get out of the area and notify your local emergency response team is the first should be done first in case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. Electricity: Rubber may be used to prevent the flow of electricity through a wire. Enterovirus: A virus whose presence may indicate contaminated water. Diatomaceous earth method uses a thin layer of fine siliceous material on a porous plate. Electron: Is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. make sure the main switch is off and the voltage tester is rated to handle the voltage expected in the circuit. dissolved organics. Floc Shearing: Is likely to happen to large floc particles when they reach the flocculation process. To become a new public water system. Demineralization is primarily used to remove total dissolved solids from industrial wastewater. Elementary Business Plan: Technical Capacity. and seawater. Electrical: An operator using a voltage meter to test electrical equipment should first. an owner shall file an elementary business plan for review and approval by the Department. then tries to start the motor again. Managerial Capacity. Electrical Resistance: Resistance of electrical equipment is affected by many variables including the thickness of the insulation and its total mass area. Effectiveness of Chlorination: The factors which influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most are pH. Coli.
Formation of Tubercles: This condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. It is the creation of mounds of rust inside the water lines. Fluoride Feeding System: Always review fluoride feeding system designs and specifications to determine whether locations for monitoring readouts and dosage controls are convenient to the operation center and easy to read and correct. which may be found in. Gt : Represents (Detention time) x (mixing intensity) in flocculation. The water flux decreases through a semipermeable membrane means that the mineral concentration of the water is increasing. Grab Sample: Is a type of sample that should be collected to analyze for coliform bacteria. pH and Temperature. but which EPA does not currently regulate in drinking water. Head: The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water.433 PSI. and manholes within geographic areas with the use of satellites. Health Advisory: An EPA document that provides guidance and information on contaminants that can affect human health and that may occur in drinking water. or Typhoid: Are diseases that may be transmitted through the contamination of a water supply but not AIDS. Free Chlorine Residual: Regardless of whether pre-chloration is practiced or not. Flux: The term flux describes the rate of water flow through a semipermeable membrane. chlorine is used in the form of free chlorine or as hypochlorite ion. pH and Low Turbidity: These are factors that are important in providing good disinfection when using chlorine. Gate Valve: Is the most common type of valve used in isolating a small or medium sized section of a distribution system and is the only linear valve used in water distribution. contaminated water. This chemical must not be overfed due to a possible exposure to a high concentration of the chemical. Hepatitis. The most important safety considerations to know about fluoride chemicals is that all fluoride chemicals are extremely corrosive. And is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation. Hertz: Is the term is used to describe the frequency of cycles in an alternating current (AC) circuit. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 192 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Headworks: The facility at the "head" of the water source where water is first treated and routed into the distribution system. Globe Valve: The main difference between a globe valve and a gate valve is that a globe valve is designed as a controlling device. Good Contact Time. These are the substances is most commonly used to furnish fluoride ions to water: Sodium fluoride. A snap shot of a certain location and time. This is called Mottling. valves. There are various types of heads of water depending upon what is being measured. Heat Damage to Air Compressor: An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. Hazards of Polymers: Slippery and difficult to clean-up are the most common hazards associated with the use of polymers in a water treatment plant. H2SO4: Is the molecular formula of Sulfuric acid. GIS . Hard Water: Hard water causes a buildup of scale in household hot water heaters. Static (water at rest) and Residual (water at flow conditions). Sodium silicofluoride and Hydrofluosilicic acid.Graphic Information System: Detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes. Giardiasis. Fluoride: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. Free Chlorine: In disinfection.Flow must be Measured: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located in a central location. Frequency must a Remote Operator inspect a Grade 1 or grade 2 Water Treatment Plant: Monthly or as necessary a remote operator inspect a grade 1 or grade 2 water treatment plant or distribution system that produces and distributes groundwater. All the other valves are in the rotary classification. Giardia Lamblia: A pathogenic parasite. 1 PSI = 2.31 feet of water or 1 foot of head equals about a half a pound of pressure or . Free Chlorine Residual gives the best Disinfection: Is the reason for chlorinating past the breakpoint is to provide protection in case of backflow. a free chlorine residual of at least 10 mg/L should be maintained in the clear well or distribution reservoir immediately downstream from the point of post-chlorination.
Only when a water sample has been acidified then you can perform the analysis beyond the 48 hour holding time.. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. The water is becoming corrosive in the distribution system causing rusty water if the Langelier index indicates that the pH has decreased from the equilibrium point. The presence of iron and manganese in water promote the growth of Iron bacteria. When iron or manganese reacts with dissolved oxygen (DO) insoluble compound are formed. The energy terms that are used to describe the operation of a pump are pressure and head. Every intake structure must be constructed with consideration for operator safety and for cathodic protection. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 193 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Insoluble Compounds: Are types of compounds cannot be dissolved. viruses and other microorganisms. Inorganic Contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals. Kinetic Energy: The ability of an object to do work by virtue of its motion. total alkalinity. These contaminants are naturally-occurring in some water. Impervious: Not allowing. Iron and Manganese: In water can be usually detected by observing the color of the inside walls of filters and the filter media. pathogens. HOCL and HCL or free available chlorine.Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including non-pathogens. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill=C x T. When significant levels of dissolved oxygen are present. Iron Fouling: You should look for an orange color on the resin and backwash water when checking an ion exchange unit for iron fouling Iron: The elements iron and manganese are undesirable in water because they cause stains and promote the growth of iron bacteria. nitrates. and other human activities. HF: Is the molecular formula of Hydrofluoric acid. chemical manufacturing. Kill=C x T: Where other factors are constant. Impeller: A rotating set of vanes designed to impart rotation to a mass fluid. and asbestos. Hypochlorite and Organic Material: Heat and a possible fire may happen when hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Mathematically derived factor obtained from the values of calcium hardness. Maintaining a free chlorine residual and regular flushing of water mains may control the growth of iron bacteria in a water distribution system. Often referred to as HPC. A Langelier index of zero indicates perfect water balance (i. Hydrogen Sulfide or Chlorine: These chemicals can cause olfactory fatigue. EPA has set legal limits on 15 inorganic contaminants. Hypochlorous and Hydrochloric Acids: Chlorine combines with water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. Iron Bacteria: Perhaps the most troublesome consequence of iron and manganese in the water is they promote the growth of a group of microorganism known as Iron Bacteria. and pH at a given temperature. but can also get into water through farming. Iron and Manganese in water may be detected by observing the color of the of the filter media. Initial monitoring year: An initial monitoring year is the calendar year designated by the Department within a compliance period in which a public water system conducts initial monitoring at a point of entry. there will be black stains on the walls below the water level and a black coating over the top portion of the sand filter bed. Langelier Index: Is a measurement of Corrosivity. Infectious Pathogens/Microbes/Germs: Are considered disease-producing bacteria. The hardness of the source water affects the amount of water an ion exchange softener may treat before the bed requires regeneration. iron and manganese exist in an oxidized state and normally precipitate into the reservoir bottom sediments. Hydrochloric and Hypochlorous Acids: Are the compounds that are formed in water when chlorine gas is introduced. High Turbidity Causing an Increased Chlorine Demand: May occur or be caused by the inadequate disinfection of water. or allowing only with great difficulty. If the raw water is pre-chlorinated.e. Intake Facilities: One of the more important considerations in the construction of intake facilities is the ease of operation and maintenance over the expected lifetime of the facility. the movement of water. Hydrophobic: Does not mix readily with water. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. and opportunistic pathogens. neither corroding nor scaling).
one of which rotates on the shaft. single-celled form of life. Motor: If a motor is rated for 10 amps the overload relays that should be used are 10 to 11 amps. In a lime softening process.0. then tries to start the motor again. This goal is not always economically or technologically feasible. The flushing should be done at night and the water pressure in the distribution system must be at least 25 PSI. Medium Water System: More than 3. Lines: Lines in the distribution system should be flushed on a regular basis. Methane: Is classified as an organic compound. Motor Overload Control: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. Motor 3600 rpms: Is the maximum synchronous speed of an electric motor that has a frequency of 60 Hz. Lead and Copper: Initial tap water monitoring for lead and copper must be conducted during 2 consecutive 6-month periods. The minimum hardness which can be achieved by the lime-soda ash process is 30 to 40 mg/L as calcium carbonate.000 or fewer persons. Magnetic Starter: Is a type of motor starter should be used in an integrated circuit to control flow automatically. M-Endo Broth: The media shall be brought to the boiling point when preparing M-Endo broth to be used in the membrane filter test for total coliform. especially one that causes disease. if a piece of equipment is locked out. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 194 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Microbe. Lime: Is a chemical that may be added to water to reduce the corrosivity. Calcium and magnesium become less soluble. The hardness due to noncarbonate hardness is most likely to determine the choice between lime softening and ion exchange to remove hardness. Held in place with spring pressure. to the pH of the water is raised to 11. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The maximum allowable level of a contaminant that federal or state regulations allow in a public water system. An operator waits for the overload to cool. Measure Corrosion Damage: A coupon is a strip of metal and is placed to measure corrosion damage in the distribution system in a water main. Mechanical Seal: A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. Microbiological: Is a type of analysis in which a composite sample unacceptable. The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. An MCL for turbidity was established by the EPA because turbidity does not allow for proper disinfection. MCL for Turbidity: Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Lime Soda Softening: In a lime soda softening process. Megger: Is used to test the insulation resistance on a motor. Microbial Contaminants: Microscopic organisms present in untreated water that can cause waterborne diseases. Microbial: Any minute. the operator should check first the Motor overload control. the water system must treat the water so that it meets the MCL. The tag is an identification device and the lock is a physical restraint. and the goal is not legally enforceable. excess lime is frequently added to remove Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate. A possible cause for a mechanical noise coming from a motor is there is an unbalance of a rotating mechanical part. Moisture: If a material is hygroscopic it must it be protected from water. LOTO: In a good lock-out/tag out program. If the motor does not start.300 persons and 50. mg/L: Milligrams per liter. mL: milliliter Moisture and Potassium Permanganate: The combination of moisture and potassium permanganate produces heat. And a possible result of over greasing a bearing is that there will be extreme friction in the bearing chamber. Usually made of two flat surfaces. When an operator adds lime to water. the key to the lock-out device the key should be held by the person who is working on the equipment.Leaching: A chemical reaction between water and metals that allows for removal of soluble materials. If the MCL is exceeded. Mottling: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. simple. Magnesium Hardness: Measure of the magnesium salts dissolved in water – it is not a factor in water balance. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health.
Nitrates may also occur naturally in some waters. Ozone. usually of woven fiber. This nonpoint source pollution adversely impacts reservoir water and groundwater quality. Non-carbonate Hardness: Is the portion of the total hardness in excess of the alkalinity. Nitrates: A dissolved form of nitrogen found in fertilizers and sewage by-products that may leach into groundwater and other water sources. Organic Precursors: Natural or man-made compounds with chemical structures based upon carbon that. Removes tastes and odors by adsorption only. One precautions should be taken in storing PAC is that bags of carbon should not be stored near bags of HTH. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 195 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . snubbers and an air cushion chamber are examples of surging and overrange protection devices. Noncarbonate Ions: Water contains Noncarbonate ions if it cannot be softened to a desired level through the use of lime only. New Public Water System: Community water systems and non-transient non-community water systems that begin operations on or after October 1. nitrates can accumulate in aquifers and contaminate groundwater. Also used to separate combined chlorine and convert it into free chlorine. Oxygen Deficient Environment: Name one of the most dangerous threats to an operator upon entering a manhole. NH4+: Is the molecular formula of the Ammonium ion. NaOCl: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hypochlorite. Oligotrophic: A reservoir that is nutrient-poor and contains little plant or animal life. Osmosis: Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semi permeable membrane from a low concentration solute to a high concentration solute to satisfy the pressure differences caused by the solute. Nitrate and nitrite are prohibited: The Department will not grant a nitrate or nitrite waiver. commonly used for in a water treatment plant for taste and odor control. or NH4Cl2: These chemicals may be used as alternative disinfectants.MSDS: Is a safety document must an employer provide to an operator upon request. NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit): A measure of the clarity or cloudiness of water. NH3: Is the molecular formula of Ammonia. O3: Is the molecular formula of ozone. leading to trihalomethane formation. Non-Transient. and hospitals which have their own water systems. NaOH: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hydroxide. Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Are pairs of elements and major plant nutrients that cause algae to grow. Non-point source pollution: Air pollution may leave contaminants on highway surfaces. Non-Community Water System: A water system which supplies water to 25 or more of the same people at least six months per year in places other than their residences. Chlorine Dioxide or Chloramine O3. factories. PAC: A disadvantage of using PAC is it is very abrasive and requires careful maintenance of equipment. ClO2. Jar tests and threshold odor number testing determines the appli-cation rate for powdered activated carbon. Some examples are schools. Notification and Safety of the Public: Is the most important concern to an owner/operator if a toxic substance contaminates a drinking water. upon combination with chlorine. or PAC. NTNCWS: Non-transient non-community water system. office buildings. Ozone does not provide a Residual in the Distribution System: One of the major drawbacks to using ozone as a disinfectant. 1999 must comply with Article 6. Normality: It is the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control the leakage from the stuffing box. Mud Balls in Filter Media: Is a possible result of an ineffective or inadequate filter backwash. Powdered activated carbon may be used with some success in removing the precursors of THMs Packing: Material. Powered activated carbon frequently used for taste and odor control because PAC is non-specific and removes a broad range of compounds. Over time. Oxidizing: The process of breaking down organic wastes into simpler elemental forms or by products. Muriatic Acid: An acid used to reduce pH and alkalinity. Overrange Protection Devices: Mechanical dampers. Capacity Development Requirements for a New Public Water System. Also used to remove stain and scale. NO3-: Is the molecular formula of the Nitrate ion. Powdered activated carbon.
A picocurie is one quadrillionth of a curie. The notice advises consumers what precautions. A curie is the amount of radiation released by a set amount of a certain compound. Pump: A key and a tight fit is the common method used to secure an impeller to the shaft on doublesuction pump. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. Non-Potable: A liquid or water that is not approved for drinking. Pre-chlorination: The addition of chlorine to the water prior to any other plant treatment processes. Pollution: The duration of exposure to the contaminant affects the dose of a toxic contaminant in a water supply. Pressure Measurement: Bourdon tube. Bellows gauge and Diaphragm are commonly used to measure pressure in waterworks systems. etc. Phosphate. The definition of an acidic solution is a solution that contains a significant number of H+ ions. An operator should calibrate the instrument with a known buffer solution before using a pH meter. Pump 5. Pressure Head: The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure. Prevention: To take action. There are more than 170.Pathogens: Disease-causing pathogens. Phenolphthalein /Total Alkalinity: The relationship between the alkalinity constituents bicarbonate. The pH where the Langelier Index equals zero. and hydroxide can be based on the P and T alkalinity measurement. carbonate. Electron: Are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. and Organic Nitrogen: Nutrients in a domestic water supply reservoir may cause water quality problems if they occur in moderate or large quantities. PPM: Abbreviation for parts per million. Pipeline Appurtenance: Pressure reducers. virus or parasite that causes or is capable of causing disease. Neutron. Pneumatic systems are not reliable over transmission lines greater than 1000 feet: Is the primary characteristic which limits the use of a pneumatic data transmission system. Perikinesis: Is the aggregation resulting from random thermal motion of fluid molecules. regulators (which are a type of valve). A mechanical seal is the best seal to use for a pump operating under high suction head Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 196 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Pb: Is the chemical symbol of Lead. Rinse the electrodes with distilled water should be done with the electrodes after measuring the pH of a sample with a pH meter. Potential Energy: The energy that a body has by virtue of its position or state enabling it to do work. pumping station or distribution system. Permeate: Is the term for water which has passed through the membrane of a reverse osmosis unit. Pathogens may contaminate water and cause waterborne disease. Proton. Peak Demand: The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant. Nitrate.000 to 20. pH of Saturation: The ideal pH for perfect water balance in relation to a particular total alkalinity level and a particular calcium hardness level. waterborne pathogens A pathogen is a bacterium.000 PWSs providing water from wells. pCi/L: Picocuries per liter. valves. Polyphosphates: Are chemicals that may be added to remove low levels of iron and manganese. Public Water System (PWS): Any water system which provides water to at least 25 people for at least 60 days annually. Point of Entry: POE.000 hours: Is the typical operating life of a mechanical seal. they should take to protect their health. rivers and other sources to about 250 million Americans. Pressure: A Bellows-type sensor reacts to a change in pressure. See Contaminated. if any. at a particular temperature. There are differing standards for PWSs of different sizes and types. bends. Alkalinity and pH tell an operator with regards to coagulation how to determine the best chemical coagulant to be used. Potable: Good water which is safe for drinking or cooking purposes. Stop something before it happens. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. pH (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity): A measure of the acidity of water. Pump Discharge Valve Off: Is when should a reciprocating pump or piston pump not be operated. The others drink water from private wells. Pollution: To make something unclean or impure. pH Temperature and Chlorine dosage are the factors that influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most. Public Notification: An advisory that EPA requires a water system to distribute to affected consumers when the system has violated MCLs or other regulations.
non-transient non-community water system. One disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is that it is not selfpriming. An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. operation. Community water system. Rules: The objective of a vulnerability assessment is to determine weakness in the distribution or water system. detect. and maintenance of a public water systems for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the facilities for producing and distributing safe drinking water. Before beginning an excavation. or destroy a person’s skin or eyes and can be either acidic or basic. Reagent: A substance used in a chemical reaction to measure. equipment. Runoff: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of natural processes of runoff. A possible cause of a scored shaft sleeve is that the packing has broken down or the packing is too tight or over tightened. Raw Water: Water that has not been treated in any way. burn. Ladders and climbing devices by inspected by a qualified individual once a year. The purpose of the foot valve on a pump is that it keeps the air relief opened.. Two pumps of the same size can be operated alternately to equalize wear and distribute lubricant in bearings. Safety Statements: A supervisor should warn an operator about the presence of a confined space by clearly posting the appropriate signage at all entries to a confined space. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 197 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .conditions. or from the taps of selected consumers. or produce other substances Red Water and Slime: Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because of red water and slime complaints. Residual Disinfection/Protection: A required level of disinfectant that remains in treated water to ensure disinfection protection and prevent recontamination throughout the distribution system (i. examine. Reservoir: An impoundment used to store water. Sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. Sanitary Survey: Persons trained in public health engineering and the epidemiology of waterborne diseases should conduct the sanitary survey. Safe Yield: A possible consequence when the “safe yield” of a well is exceeded and water continues to be pumped from a well is land subsidence around the well will occur. an “Underground Service Alert” center should be contacted to assist in determining the location of all underground utilities in the work area. The main purpose of the wear rings in a centrifugal double suction pump is that the wear rings maintain a flow restriction between the impeller discharge and suction areas. Sand. valve. Safety: 2 Feet: The distance from the edge of a hole must you place the spoil from an excavation. If a pump is located above the level of water a foot valve must be provided on the suction piping to hold the prime. it is generally considered to be unsafe to drink. from water leaving the treatment facility.e. transient non community water system. The viscosity decreases with most lubricants as the temperature increases. facilities. Cavitation is caused by a suction line may be clogged or is above the water line. The importance of a detailed sanitary survey of a new water source can not be overemphasized. Centrifugal pumps do not generate suction unless the impeller is submerged in water. What is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation? The lubricating oil tends to break down quickly requiring frequent replacement. Continuous leakage from a mechanical seal on a pump indicates that the mechanical seal needs to be replaced. Recorder: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located anywhere in the plant where a flow must be measured and in a central location. Salts are Absent: Is a strange characteristic that is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere. Corrosive-This type of chemical classification may weaken. A reciprocating pump or piston pump should not be operated with the discharge valve in the closed position. An on-site review of the water sources. PWS: 3 types of public water systems. The correct order for placing shorting equipment in a trench is starting at the top move to the bottom of the trench and reverse to remove it. The purpose of a non-regulatory sanitary survey is to identify possible biological and chemical pollutants which might affect a water supply. Relay Logic: Is the name of a popular method of automatically controlling a pump. Rotameter: Is the name of transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball is often used to measure the rate of flow of a gas or liquid. EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water. chemical feeder. and other devices. Depending on the regulation. Anthracite and Garnet: Mixed media filters are composed of these three materials. pipes).
or conditioned to decrease the volume of sludge. The regular use of stain prevention chemicals can prevent scale. Ridding a water of organic waste through oxidization by the addition of significant quantities of a halogen. 130 degrees F is the maximum temperature that transmitting equipment is able to with stand. Vapor: 3 forms of matter. Solar Drying Beds or Lagoons: Are shallow. Scale is caused by high calcium hardness and/or high pH. or a spill. Liquid. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Non-enforceable federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. SOC: A common way for a synthetic organic chemical such as dioxin to be introduced to a surface water supply is from an industrial discharge. Sectional Map: Is the name of a map that provides detailed drawings of the distribution system’s zones. Sludge Reduction: Organic polymers are used to reduce the quantity of sludge. Single Phase Power: Is the type of power is used for lighting systems. Saturator: A device which produces a fluoride solution for the fluoride process. dosage. Sedimentation: The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. the result of unbalanced water. Solar Drying Beds. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 198 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and disinfected. appliances. Sodium Bicarbonate: Commonly used to increase alkalinity of water and stabilize pH. Sodium Bisulfate: Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity (dry acid). Scale: Crust of calcium carbonate. heaters and pumps. thickened. Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda. kills algae and oxidizes organic matter. and type of coagulant used are the most important factors which determine the amount of sludge produced in a treatment of water. Hard insoluble minerals deposited (usually calcium bicarbonate) which forms on pool and spa surfaces and clog filters. Sedimentation Basin: This location is where the thickest and greatest concentration of sludge will be found. repaired if necessary. Turbidity of source water. small-volume storage pond where sludge is concentrated and stored for an extended periods. Chemical often used to soften water.300 or fewer persons. Soda Ash: Chemical used to raise pH and total alkalinity (sodium carbonate). If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. agricultural drainage. Softening: The process that removes the ions which cause hardness in water. the sludge could be dewatered. Softening Water: When the water has a low alkalinity it is advantageous to use soda ash instead of caustic soda for softening water. odor. Small Water System: 3. Sensor: A float and cable system are commonly found instruments that may be used as a sensor to control the level of liquid in a tank or basin. Overfeeding must be prevented to protect public health when using a fluoridation system. or color) of drinking water. Sludge Basins: After cleaning sludge basins and before returning the tanks into service the tanks should be inspected. Crystal-grade types of sodium fluoride should be fed with a saturator. a by-product chlorine generation and often used to raise pH. Shroud: The front and/or back of an impeller. small motors. Saturation Index: See Langelier's Index. Twice a year sedimentation tanks should be drained and cleaned if the sludge buildup interferes with the treatment process.Sanitizer: A disinfectant or chemical which disinfects (kills bacteria). Shock: Also known as superchlorination or break point chlorination. Scroll and Basket: Are the two basic types of centrifuges used in water treatment. Centrifuges and Filter Presses: Are procedures used in the dewatering of sludge. SCADA: A remote method of monitoring pumps and equipment. SPADNS: The lab reagent called SPADNS solution is used in performing the Fluoride test. portable power tools and in homes. Some times we call these quarter-sections. Solid. If a plant produces a large volume of sludge. Split Flow Control System: This type of control system is to control the flow to each filter influent which is divided by a weir.
Taste and Odors: The primary purpose to use potassium permanganate in water treatment is to control taste and odors. Total dissolved solids are normally only discussed for freshwater systems. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams. Stuffing Box: That portion of the pump that houses the packing or mechanical seal. generally. Sulfate: Will readily dissolve in water to form an anion.g. Taste and Odor Problems in the Water: May happen if sludge and other debris are allowed to accumulate in a water treatment plant. Surface Water: Water that is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 199 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A stoneline or benchmark. Conditioning. Three-Phase Pumps: Large three-phase pumps employs the use of a magnetic starter. since salinity comprises some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. Surface Water Sources: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of Runoff. TDS: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. Telemetering: The use of a transmission line with remote signaling to monitor a pumping station or motors. You will see white smoke if there is a leak. Demineralization may be necessary in a treatment process if the water has a very high value Total Dissolved Solids. Temperature: This test should be performed immediately in the field. Standpipe: A water tank that is taller than it is wide. Generally. TCE. Stationing: The word stationing on a plan drawing refers to a representation of a location from a starting point or reference. The rate decreases: In general. for example dry cleaning. This process is ideal as long as the water does not contain a large amount of TDS. Tapping Valve: Is the name of the valve that is specifically designed for connecting a new water main to an existing main that is under pressure. a sample should be filtered before being poured into an evaporating dish and dried. TDS-Total Dissolved Solids: is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular. and Dewatering: Are common processes that are utilized to reduce the volume of sludge. Titration: Method of testing by adding a reagent of known strength to a water sample until a specific color change indicates the completion of the reaction. Equalization storage is the volume of water needed to supply the system for periods when demand exceeds supply. and emergency storage. Three-phase Motor: The incoming leads for a three-phase motor all have power. rivers. Storage Tanks: Three types of water usage that determine the volume of a storage tank are fire suppression storage. it is a common groundwater contaminant. although TDS is generally considered not as a primary pollutant (e. Anaerobic water undesirable for drinking water purposes because of color and odor problems are more likely to occur under these conditions. a water storage tank’s interior coating (paint) protect the interior about 3-5 years. equalization storage. the chemical reaction rate decreases also. Sum of all the Atomic Weights of the Elements in a Molecule: Is the molecular weight of a compound. when the temperature decreases. trichloroethylene: A solvent and degreaser used for many purposes. Can be used to accomplish accurate and reliable remote monitoring and control over a long distribution system. Susceptibility Waiver: A waiver that is granted based upon the results of a vulnerability assessment. rivers and lakes. but it is rather used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants. lakes.Spray Bottle of Ammonia: An operator should use ammonia to test for a chlorine leak around a valve or pipe. Spring Pressure: Is what maintains contact between the two surfaces of a mechanical seal. Generally the operational definition is that the solids (often abbreviated TDS) must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve size of two micrometres. Time for Turbidity Breakthrough and Maximum Head Loss: Are the two factors which determine whether or not a change in filter media size should be made. Sterilized Glassware: Is the only type of glassware that should be used in testing for coliform bacteria. Supernatant: Is the liquid layer which forms above the sludge in a settling basin. streams. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects). When determining the total dissolved solids. a grab sample. Thickening.
0005 mg/L. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. For a given quantity of flow.Titration: Is the common method of standardization of a solution determination in the lab. It must meet or surpass all drinking water standards to be considered safe to drink. VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive: The longest term VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive is 9 years. See TDS. Non-Community Water System: A water system which provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. High levels of turbidity may interfere with proper water treatment and monitoring. and bromoform. This technique is the best way to compare water treatment filter runs. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): The accumulated total of all solids that might be dissolved in water. We have all seen these little rust mounds inside cast iron pipe. Turbidimeter is best suited to perform this measurement. Valves: A gate valve should be operated in any position between fully open and fully closed. Turbidity Interferes with Disinfection: The primary reason turbidity of water be minimized. Velocities can be increased to a point that a partial vacuum is created. i. Generally. Transient. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of tiny particles. Velocity Head: The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system. Under Pressure in Steel Containers: After chlorine gas is manufactured. a scratched or unclean sample tube in the nephelometer and selecting an incorrect wavelength of a light path U. there will be a reduction in water treatment costs. the greater the resistance to pH change. dibromochloromethane. Tubercles: The creation of this condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system.e. dichlorobromom-ethane. Turbidimeter: Monitoring the filter effluent turbidity on a continuous basis with an in-line instrument is a recommended practice. Turbidity: One physical characteristic of water. it is primarily transported in steel containers. Valve 20 or 30 Feet Per Inch: Is the typical scale of a Valve and Hydrant map using an intersection method of indexing. VOC’s: The reporting limit for all regulated VOC’s is 0. This characteristic of water changes the most rapidly after a heavy rainfall. Volatile Organic Chemical: VOC. Trihalomethanes (THM): Four separate compounds including chloroform. A measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles. If high quality raw water is low in turbidity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 200 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The following conditions may cause an inaccurate measure of turbidity. Toxic substance contaminates a drinking water: Public Safety is the most important concern should an owner/operator allow a toxic substance to contaminate a drinking water. causing electro-chemical reactions. The most common class of disinfection by-products created when chemical disinfectants react with organic matter in water during the disinfection process. Total Alkalinity: A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water that indicates its buffering ability. Treated Water: Disinfected and/or filtered water served to water system customers. Like iron to copper pipe. this agency responsible for setting drinking water standards and for ensuring their enforcement. See Disinfectant Byproducts. the higher the total alkalinity. Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV): Is one of the most popular ways to compare filter runs. the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies. Tubercles are formed due to joining dissimilar metals. They still must test their water for microbes and several chemicals. An MCL for turbidity established by the EPA because turbidity interferes with disinfection. measure of its resistance to a change in pH.S. Environmental Protection Agency: In the United States. Transient Non-community Water System: Is not required to sample for VOC’s. Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Venturi: If water flows through a pipeline at a high velocity. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. the temperature variation of a sample. the pressure in the pipeline is reduced. Vane: That portion of an impeller that throws the water toward the volute.
Source water monitoring for lead and copper be preformed when a public water system exceeds an action level for lead of copper. river. Waterborne Diseases: A disease. Displacement. The three main classifications of water meters are Compound. Water Level: The probe may be coated by calcium carbonate is a common problem with an electrical probe that is used to measure the level of water..g. capable of being transmitted by water (e. Vulnerability Assessment: An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals. protozoan. Peak day demand is the greatest amount of water used for any one day in a calendar year. or other microorganism. Waivers: Monitoring waivers for nitrate and nitrite are prohibited.Voltage: 1. and furnish quality water to a community. Velocity. Water Meter: A water meter that is removed from service for repair should be handled by sealing the meter to retain water. bacterium. Water Vapor: A characteristic is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere is does not contain salts. Course Proctor Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 201 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Pathogens are disease causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Volute: The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharge by the impeller. Water Meter: Head loss may occur with the use of a water meter. or reservoir. caused by a virus. Watershed: An area that drains all of its water to a particular water course or body of water. radiological. Water Hammer: A surge in a pipeline resulting from the rapid increase or decrease in water flow. biological. typhoid fever.000 volts is the maximum number of volts that electrical equipment can be insulated with a lower limit of 1 megaohm. Water hammer exerts tremendous force on a system and can be highly destructive. A positive bacteriological sample indicates the presence of bacteriological contamination. supply. Jerry Durbin. Physical. The land area from which water drains into a stream. chemical. Water Purveyor: The individuals or organization responsible to help provide. Water Quality: Name the 4 broad categories of water quality. gastroenteritis). amoebic dysentery. cholera.
Washington. NIOSH . Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Schenectady. Cincinnati. Department of Health and Human Services. 4th ed. Research and Special Programs Administration. 92-100. ed. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. ATS . Hughes JP. Hathaway GJ. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 941-947 Mickelsen RL. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Genium . Springfield. Centers for Disease Control. NIOSH [1987b]. Cincinnati. Lide DR . OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. NIOSH [1987a]. guide 20. ACGIH . National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Cincinnati. NY: John Wiley & Sons. DOT . . Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer. Boca Raton.S. Government Printing Office. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.S. 73rd ed. Public Health Service. Cincinnati. Public Health Service. 87-116. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Hazardous substances data bank: Chlorine. 1993 Emergency response guidebook. IL: Charles C Thomas. Cincinnati. Am Rev Respir Dis CFR.S. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Chlorine. Office of the Federal Register. Chern RT. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. OH: U. Trenton. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. Department of Health and Human Services. Hall RC. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 202 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Hall RC . Centers for Disease Control. Inc. Washington. 9th ed. Bethesda. DC: U. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. Technical Information Branch. NJ: New Jersey Department of Health. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 445-447 NFPA . DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 3rd ed. 53. Mickelsen RL. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Grant WM . Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Cincinnati. MD: National Library of Medicine. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Material safety data sheet No. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 3rd ed. NJDH . NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. NIOSH respirator decision logic. Department of Health and Human Services. 3rd rev. Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation. A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements.1987 update. NY: Genium Publishing Corporation. Department of Transportation. 12th ed.S. Centers for Disease Control. New York. OH: U. and Fischman ML . Lewis RJ. Myers JR . New York. Code of Federal regulations. Clayton G. OH: U. Centers for Disease Control. American Thoracic Society. Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. Public Health Service. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing.References ACGIH . New York. NLM . National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH . Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Proctor NH. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Mansdorf SZ . 6th ed. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Cincinnati. Standardization of spirometry -.S. Toxicology of the eye. Forsberg K. MA: National Fire Protection Association. OH: U. 87-108. DC: U. OH: U.S. NIOSH . Hazardous substance fact sheet: Chlorine.S. Department of Health and Human Services. FL: CRC Press. ed. Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. Public Health Service. New York. Clayton F [1981-1982]. Quincy. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Centers for Disease Control. 94-113.
liquid Al(OH)3 AL2(SO4)3 .Common Water Treatment and Distribution Chemicals Chemical Name Common Name Chemical Formula Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Bentonitic clay Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Chlorine gas Chlorine Dioxide Copper sulfate Dichloramine Ferric chloride Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous bicarbonate Ferrous hydroxide Ferrous sulfate Hydrofluorsilicic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hypochlorus acid Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium dioxide Manganous bicarbonate Manganous sulfate Monochloramine Potassium bicarbonate Potassium permanganate Muriatic acid Copperas Iron sulfate Iron chloride Blue vitriol HTH Slaked Lime Unslaked (Quicklime) Gypsum Activated Carbon Limestone Bentonite Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OCl)2 . 14(H2O) NH3 NH4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 203 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 4H2O Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 C CO2 H2CO3 Cl2 ClO2 CuSO4 .7H20 H2SiF6 HCl H2S HOCL Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 MgO2 Mn(HCO3)2 MnSO4 NH2Cl KHCO3 KMnO4 Alum. 5H2O NHCl2 FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(HCO3)2 Fe(OH)3 FeSO4.
Chemical Name Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorsilicate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium Metaphosphate Sodium phosphate Sodium sulfate Sulfuric acid Common Name Soda ash Salt Chemical Formula Na2CO3 NaCl NaClO2 NaF Na2SiF6 Lye Hexametaphosphate Disodium phosphate NaOH NaOCl NaPO3 Na3PO4 Na2SO4 H2SO4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 204 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
(+1) 0 +1 +2 +3 -4. (+4). +1. +5 -2. +4. (+7). +3. +3. +7 +2. +5 0 +1 +2 +3 (+2). +3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 205 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +4 -3. +5 -2 -1. (+2). (+6). +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +2. (+3) +2 (+2). (+2). (+3) (+1). +3. +5 (+2). (+2). +5 +2. (+2). +1 0 +1 +2 -3. +6 -1. (+3). (+4). +3 (+2). (+4). +4 -3. -2. (+6) +2. +6 +6 (+2). +4. +2. (+3). (+4) (+1). +4. (+6) +1. +6 +2. +4 +2. +1. +3. +3. +2. +5. +3. +3 -4. (+6) +2. (+2).Number Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Rubidium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Valence (-1). (+4). +3. (+3). +2 (+1). +3. (+3). +4. +4. +3. +5 -2. +3. +4 (+2). (+6). +4. (+2). +1. +4 -3. +4. +8 (+2). (+5). +6 -1. +3. (+3). +2. (+4) +1. (+1). +2. +3. +4. +2. (+4). -1.
+8 (+1). Inc. +7 (+2). +6 (+1). (+3).. +4 +3 +3. +3 (+2). (+5). +5 -2. +4.). +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +3. +2 +1. (+2). +4 +3 +3 +3 (+2). (+2). +3 (+2). Lange (Ed. (+5). +6 (-1). (+4). (+3). (+4). +3. +1. +4. +2. +4. +4 +3 (+2). 1952. (+2). +3 +3 +3. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 206 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +6. +4 (-3). +4. 8th Ed. +4. +3. +4. (+3). +6 -1. (+5) (-2). +2. (+4). (+3). (+6) ? 0 ? +2 +3 +4 +5 (+2). (+1). Handbook Publishers. +5. (+4). +3 +3 +4 (+3). +6 +1. (+2). +6. +3. +2. +3.50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium +2. +3 +1. (+2). (+4). (+5). +3 +2. +3. +4. Norbert A. +5 (+2). +4 -3. +6 Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry.
wood alum alumina antichlor aqua ammonia aqua regia aqua fortis aromatic spirit of ammonia asbestos aspirin baking soda banana oil (artificial) benzol bichloride of mercury black copper oxide black lead bleaching powder blue vitriol bluestone borax brimstone brine butter of antimony butter of tin calomel carbolic acid carbonic acid gas caustic potash caustic soda chalk Chile saltpeter chrome.Common Used Products Chemical Name acetone acid of sugar alcohol. alum chrome. yellow copperas cream of tartar crocus powder emery powder Epsom salts ethanol fluorspar formalin French chalk galena Glauber's salt gypsum hydrocyanic acid hypo (photography) lime dimethyl ketone oxalic acid ethyl alcohol methyl alcohol aluminum potassium sulfate aluminum oxide sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide nitrohydrochloric acid nitric acid ammonia in alcohol magnesium silicate acetylsalicylic acid sodium bicarbonate isoamyl acetate benzene mercuric chloride cupric oxide graphite (carbon) chlorinated lime copper sulfate copper sulfate sodium borate sulfur aqueous sodium chloride solution antimony trichloride anhydrous stannic chloride mercury chloride phenol carbon dioxide potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium nitrate chromic potassium sulfate lead (VI) chromate ferrous sulfate potassium bitartrate ferric oxide impure aluminum oxide magnesium sulfate ethyl alcohol natural calcium fluoride aqueous formaldehyde solution natural magnesium silicate natural lead sulfide sodium sulfate natural calcium sulfate hydrogen cynanide sodium thiosulfate solution calcium oxide Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 207 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . grain alcohol.
table salt of lemon salt of tartar saltpeter silica soda ash soda lye soluble glass spirit of hartshorn sugar. table talc or talcum vinegar vitamin C washing soda water glass Chemical Name aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide silver nitrate magnesium oxide mercurous oxide methyl alcohol methyl alcohol hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid methyl salicylate copper acetoarsenite powdered calcium carbonate isoamyl acetate potassium carbonate calcium sulfate graphite potassium carbonate potassium hydroxide hydrogen cyanide tetrasodium pyrophosphate calcium oxide mercury lead tetraoxide potassium sodium tartrate ferric oxide isopropyl alcohol ammonium chloride sodium carbonate sodium chloride potassium binoxalate potassium carbonate potassium nitrate silicon dioxide sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium silicate ammonium hydroxide solution sucrose magnesium silicate impure dilute acetic acid ascorbic acid sodium carbonate sodium silicate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 208 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . black methanol methylated spirits muriatic acid oil of vitriol oil of wintergreen (artificial) Paris green Paris white pear oil (artificial) pearl ash plaster of Paris plumbago potash potassa Prussic acid pyro quicklime quicksilver red lead Rochelle salt rouge. jeweler's rubbing alcohol sal ammoniac sal soda salt.Common Used Products limewater lunar caustic magnesia mercury oxide.
55 Cubic Feet per Second = 1 MGD 60 Seconds = 1 Minute 1440 Minutes = 1 Day .14) (Diameter)3 (6) Circumference = 3.13 Feet of Water = 1 Inch of Mercury 454 Grams = 1Pound 1 Gallon of Water = 8.1 mg/L = 1 Grain/Gallon 1% = 10.) = 3.48 Gallons = 1 Cubic Foot 64. ft.433 PSI 1.31 Feet of Water 1 Foot of Water = . (B) X Volume (B) FLOW RATE (Q): Q = A X V (Quantity = Area X Velocity) FLOW RATE (gpm): Flow Rate (gpm) = 2. (A) X Volume (A) = Conc.32) X 5/9 CONCENTRATION: Conc. in) Height.000 mg/L 694 Gallons per Minute = MGD 1. Ft.) = Length X Width Volume (cu.785 Liters = 1Gallon 231 Cubic Inches = 1 Gallon 7.Math Conversion Factors 1 PSI = 2.560 Square Feet – 1 Acre VOLUME 1000 Milliliters = 1 Liter 3.746 kW = 1 Horsepower LENGTH 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5280 Feet = 1 Mile AREA 144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 43.7 Pounds = 1 Cubic Foot Dimensions SQUARE: Area (sq.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) X Depth (ft) SPHERE: (3.34 Percent Efficiency = In – Out X 100 In TEMPERATURE: 0 0 F = (0C X 9/5) + 32 C = (0F .83 (Diameter.ft) = Length (ft) X Width (ft) X Height (ft) CIRCLE: Area (sq.) = 3. in % SLOPE = Rise (feet) X 100 Run (feet) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 209 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .34 lbs/gallon 1 mg/L = 1 PPM 17. ft.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) CYLINDER: Volume (Cu. in)2 (Distance.14 X Diameter General POUNDS = Concentration (mg/L) X Flow (MG) X 8.
gal) FLUORIDE ION PURITY = (Molecular weight of Fluoride) (100%) (%) Molecular weight of Chemical INJURY FREQUENCY RATE = (Number of Injuries) 1.) X Diameter (in) VELOCITY = Distance (ft) Time (Sec) WATER HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 BRAKE HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Efficiency MOTOR HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Eff.ACTUAL LEAKAGE = Leak Rate (GPD) Length (mi. X Motor Eff.5 X (Ca. mg/L) Mg HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 4. gal) + (Volume 2.000. mg/L) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 210 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .12 (Mg.000 Number of hours worked per year DETENTION TIME (hrs) = Volume of Basin (gals) X 24 hrs Flow (GPD) BY-PASS WATER (gpd) = Total Flow (GPD) X Plant Effluent Hardness (gpg) Filtered Hardness (gpg) Hardness HARDNESS (mg/L as CaCO3) = A (mls of titrant) X 1000 Mls of Sample Ca HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 2. gal) (Strength 2.ft) Surface Area (sq. ft) MIXTURE = (Volume 1. %) + (Volume 2. gal) (Strength 1.%) STRENGTH (%) (Volume 1. MEAN OR AVERAGE = Sum of the Values Number of Values TOTAL HEAD (ft) = Suction Lift (ft) X Discharge Head (ft) SURFACE LOADING RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gal/min/sq.
) Filtration FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft) Surface Area (sq.1 mg/L LANGELIER INDEX = pH .34 (lbs. ft) 2.) Dry Polymer (lbs. ft) Filter Area (sq. ft) (gpm) FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft Flow.) DESIRED PAC = Volume (MG) X Dose (mg/L) X 8.785 (1/gallon) 1000 (mg/g) X 454 (g/lb.000 (mg/L) Mls of Sample EXCHANGE CAPACITY (grains) = Resin Volume (cu.pHs Chemical Addition CHEMICAL FEED RATE = Chemical Feed (ml/min) (gpm) 3785 ml/gal CHLORINE DOSE (mg/L) = Chlorine Demand (mg/L) + Chlorine Residual (mg/L) POLYMER % = Dry Polymer (lbs.) + Water (lbs.ALKALINITY-TOTAL = Mls of Titrant X Normality X 50.75 (Diameter.) C Factor Slope = Energy Loss.) BACKWASH PUMPING RATE = Filter Area (sq. ft. ft. ft Distance./gal) = PAC (mg/L) X 3.) X Removal Capacity HARDNESS TO GRAIN/GALLON = Hardness (mg/L) X gr.63 (Slope) 0./MG) 1 MG PAC (lbs. GPM 193. ft) X Backwash Rate (gpm/sq.54 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 211 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 ./gal 17. ft.
C. Second Edition Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Colorado.D.We have over 40 other continuing education correspondence courses available. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 212 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Basic Principles of Water Treatment. Littleton. References Water Treatment. 1996. ed. Tall Oaks Publishing Inc. Morelli.
If you should need any assistance. So often. Without it. please visit www. you will learn how the water has made a trip through the hydrologic cycle. we turn on the faucet and use the water without thinking about the miraculous trip that each drop of water has taken to get to that faucet. You can also find complete assistance under the Assistance Page. type out your own answer key. Introduction Water is an integral part of life. A score of 70 % is necessary to pass this course. please email all concerns and the completed manual to info@tlch2o.Water Treatment Assignment The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. but if you are unable to do so. when we turn on the water faucet. I would prefer that you write out your own answer on the provided manual. Living in the United States. life would not survive. we expect water to flow. You will have 90 days from receipt of this manual to complete in order to receive your Professional Development Hours (PDHs) or Continuing Education Unit (CEU). In this course. Not only do we expect water to flow. irrigate.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC.com. Large raw water impoundment Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 213 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and how we mimic the purification processes by the use of mechanical and chemical applications. bathe and have fun in. We use water to drink. we expect that water to be clean and tasty too. Please include your name and address on your manual and make copy for yourself. the types of source water that is available.ABCTLC.
Another term used for plants giving off moisture would be: Condensation Precipitation Percolation Transpiration Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 214 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Runoff: 3. B. C. A.The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. D. Give a brief definition of the listed components of the water cycle.ABCTLC. it goes through many processes. The Hydrologic Cycle The water on the planet today is the same water that has been on the planet since the beginning. Percolation: 5. instead the water cycles from one place to another. As the water cycles. please visit www. Precipitation: 2. The water that you drank today most likely has been drunk before many years ago. 1. These processes are nature’s way of purifying the water. The planet never gets any new water. Evaporation: 6.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. Infiltration: 4.
we will focus on two categories of source water. True B. To simplify this. A porous material just above the water table describes this source to be surface water. Chemical D. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 215 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Physical B. they are: Source of Water When you go see your doctor due to illness. In the space provided below.7. Biological C. Evolutional 10. 8. There are three basic types of water rights. As water moves over or below the earth surface the quality of the water is classified as the following EXCEPT for: A. A. The same is true when treating water. list the physical characteristics of water. Radiological E. Ground Water and Surface Water. they need to know the source of your problem so they can properly treat it. The hydrological cycle shows several attributes of the earth purifying and moving water. False 9.
Managing Water Quality at the Source 11. In this lesson, you will focus on surface water and the different factors that affect the quality of the water. Many populations have depended on lakes as a source of impounded domestic water supplies. As population increases, list below brief examples of how the supplies are being used?
12. Several common water quality problems in domestic water supply reservoirs may be related to algae blooms. Which of the following summarizes the problems that can occur? A. Taste and odor problems B. Short filter runs at the plant do to clogging C. Increased pH D. Dissolved oxygen depletion E. All of the above Define the following terms: 13. Anaerobic:
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15. During the winter months, which condition is most likely to occur do to cold water conditions on the bottom of the lake? A. Anaerobic B. Aerobic 16. The presence of hydrogen sulfide will produce which type of odor: A. Earthy B. Fishy C. Rotten egg D. Roses 17. What is the definition for Oxidation?
18. What does MCL stand for? A. Maximum Containment Level B. Minimum Contaminant Level C. Maximum Can-drink Level D. Maximum Contaminant Level 19. Which Federal Act would you find the MCL for drinking water? A. SDWA B. OSHA C. NEPDES D. CWA 20. Lakes and reservoirs have intake-outlet structures. In the space provided below, list types of structures and/or screens.
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Coagulation and Flocculation 21. Surface water for domestic use will have some form of impurities. It can be in the form of INORGANIC materials or ORGANIC materials. Given the following illustrations, determine if they are Inorganic or Organic. A. Salt is ____ B. Oxygen is ____ C. Dirt is ____ D. Tree leaves are ____ 22. Which statement describes COLLOIDAL matter? A. Solids that sink to the bottom of a lake B. Solids that are invisible C. Solids that float to the top D. Solids that are very small and repel each other 23. The purpose of using the Coagulation and Flocculation process is to remove the particulate impurities in the water. Which of the two would you use the addition of chemicals? A. Coagulation B. Flocculation 24. What is the purpose of flash mixing? A. Using lightning to shock the water B. To mix the chemical slowly C. To mix the chemical in the water rapidly to prevent clumps D. None of the above 25. List four primary coagulants used in water treatment. A. B. C. D.
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26. Which type of laboratory analysis best simulates the plant process to determine the coagulant dosage? A. Temperature B. pH C. Turbidity D. Jar Test E. Alkalinity 27. Flocculation and Flash Mixing are the same process. A. True B. False 28. Flocculation is a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable floc particles. A. True B. False 29. What is the advantage of minimizing chemical coagulant doses? A. Less sludge is produced and chemical cost are reduced B. Shorter settling times C. Shorter filter runs D. Big clumps floating to the top 30. What is short-circuiting?
Small water treatment package plant
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A. D. What is the definition for Detention Time? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 220 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 34. some plants have Pre-Sedimentation. Depending on the quality of the source water. A cloud forms and rain begins to FALL towards the earth. 31. The impurities precipitate and settle to the bottom. List possible shapes for a sedimentation basin. 33. A. 32. B. B. It gives us a fancy word for RAIN. List some sedimentation basin components. Give two reasons for this.Sedimentation We used the term PRECIPITATION in the hydrological cycle. This is done in SEDIMENTATION basins. A. The same happens to the impurities we coagulated and flocculated. C. B. C.
what will happen to the detention time? A. This stuff belongs at the wastewater plant Vertical Turbine Pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 221 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Sludge concentration is too low C. It will increase C. It will remain the same B. Failure to properly maintain the sludge discharge line B. None of the above 36. What does frequent clogging of the sludge discharge line indicate? A. If a sedimentation basin sludge depth increases. Sludge concentration is too high D. It will decrease D.35.
at least once per day. The filtration process removes which type of particles? A. True B. D. A. Biological forms D. A. True B. B. A. Direct filtration and Conventional. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. True B. 40. Like a coffee filter that keeps the grounds out of the pot. List four desirable characteristics of filter media. All of the above 39.Filtration Filtration is the last attempt in removing particulate impurities from the water. There are to classifications of filtration plants. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 222 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . C. A. the faster the head loss buildup. What is the major difference between a Direct Filtration Plant and a Conventional Plant? 38. Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis. False 41. Silts and clay B. The more uniform the media. False 42. Floc E. In the treatment plant we use a mechanical straining for removal. Colloids C. 37.
MGD D. Filter media provides several characteristics. 45. GPM/sq ft C.W. stand for? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 223 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . B. 46.T. How are filter production rates measured? A. C. Give a brief description of a DECLINING-RATE filter.R. What does S. MGD/sq ft 44. GPM B. list three types: A.43.
THM's D. True B. False 51. A. True B. False 53. List three benefits of prechlorination. A. Floc B. A. Always work in pairs when looking and repairing chlorine leaks. C. True B. False 52. B. the pressure of the chlorine gas inside a chlorine container will decrease. Moisture in a chlorination system will combine with the chlorine gas and cause corrosion. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 224 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Which of the following pathogens are waterborne diseases? A. Hepatitis B C. True B. A. Nitrates C. Turbidity 50. When the temperature increases.Disinfection 47. You can use regular pipe fittings when making connections with chlorine containers. A. None of the above 48. False 54. Shingella B. Giardia lamblia D. True B. 49. Both A & C E. Hypochlorite compounds tend to lower the pH of the water being disinfected. What does organic matter form when it reacts with chlorine? A. A.
True B. A.55. The warmer the water the less dissipation rate of chlorine to the atmosphere C. Which of the following chemical must be present for a breakpoint chlorination curve to develop when chlorine is added to water? A. Ammonia C. Organic matter 58. the longer contact time needed 57. Iron B. Degree of pathogenic inactivation D. The higher the temperature the easier to disinfect the water D. What does the product of C x T provide a measure of? A. The lower the water temperature the easier to disinfect the water B. Manganese D. The warmer the water. When a chlorine leak exist. Threat of THM formation 59. How do water temperature conditions influence the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant? A. Rate of chloramine formation C. What formula would you use to calculate the chlorine feed in pounds per day? Chlorine Gas Windsock Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 225 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Level of disinfectant intensity B. False 56. use water to dilute it.
G. E. A. List eight parts that are used for a chlorinator. H. F. Give a brief description for the use of a fusible plug in a steel cylinder. C. 61. D. 62. B. What is the maximum rate of chlorine removal in a 150 pound cylinder? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 226 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .60.
They quickly measure and record chlorine residual E. What is the most probable cause of leaking joints in gas chlorinator systems? A. Acid corrosion of joints B.63. They measure the liquid chlorine remaining in a chlorine container C. All of the above Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 227 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Gas pressure to high D.How are probes used in the disinfection process? A. They accurately measure chlorine dosage B. Missing gasket 64. Back pressure C. They provide a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant D.
All the above 66. 10 PDHs or 1 CEU or 10 Training Credits. you will receive a certificate for 10 Contact Hours. You have 90 days to successfully complete this course or you will have to pay a $25. pH is low C. Lack of oxygen D. You will not receive your answer key back. Too far gone to look back and see why When you are finished. Which of the following factors influence chlorine disinfection? A. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 228 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Please make a copy for yourself. Why will the engines of emergency vehicles quit operating in the vicinity of a large chlorine leak? A.00 renewal fee. I would prefer that the completed booklet or a typed page is mailed back to TLC. Make a copy of all of your work. pH C. Microorganisms B. If you successfully pass this course. Corrosion damage from chlorine B.65. Temperature E. Reducing agents D.
Please mail this with your final exam WATER TREATMENT COURSE CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSE CARD DATE:________________ NAME:_________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY ______________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________ E-MAIL_________________________________PHONE_______________________ PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER OF THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER IN THE AREA BELOW. Please rate the difficulty of your course. How did you hear about this Course?__________________________________ 5. Very Similar 0 1 2 3 4 5 Very Different 4. Please rate the difficulty of the testing process. ______________________________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 229 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 1. What would you do to improve the Course? ______________________________________________________________________ Any other concerns or comments. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 3. Please rate the subject matter on the exam to your actual field or work. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 Very Difficult Very Difficult 2.
Large butterfly valve on a transmission line Water Intake Screen Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 230 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
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