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CONTINUING EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE
10 PDH's, 10 Training Hours or 1 CEU upon completion
Copyright Notice ©2006 Technical Learning College (TLC) No part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without TLC’s prior written approval. Permission has been sought for all images and text where we believe copyright exists and where the copyright holder is traceable and contactable. All material that is not credited or acknowledged is the copyright of Technical Learning College. This information is intended for educational purposes only. Most unaccredited photographs have been taken by TLC instructors or TLC students. We will be pleased to hear from any copyright holder and will make good on your work if any unintentional copyright infringements were made as soon as these issues are brought to the editor's attention. Every possible effort is made to ensure that all information provided in this course is accurate. All written, graphic, photographic or other material is provided for information only. Therefore, Technical Learning College accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the application or misuse of any information included herein. Requests for permission to make copies should be made to the following address: TLC P.O. Box 420 Payson, AZ 85547 Information in this document is subject to change without notice. TLC is not liable for errors or omissions appearing in this document.
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Special State Approval Information
This course is approved for 10 contact hours/10 PDHS/1 CEU in most States. There is a 40 hour version of this course. It is called Water Treatment Fundamentals and can be found at www.ABCTLC.com.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 10 CEHs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 10 PDHs. California Department of Health Services acceptance, 10 contact hours. Colorado, #06-OW-0029, 1 TUs in Water and Distribution. Georgia, 6 Continuing Education Points, # CE-6-106-TLC-013108-1814. Hawaii Department of Health approval, Public Water System Operators. 1.0 CEU. Indiana, Water Approval PWSTO1-1912, 10 Contact Hours. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Water approval, 10 continuing Education Training Contact Hours. Kentucky, DOW course #ALT-1913 - 10 hours for water operators only. Missouri, Water Approval # 0127336, 10 Renewal Hours, Wastewater 4 Renewal Hours New York Dept. of Health, 10 contact hours. Ohio EPA, Course #D096, Approved for Drinking Water for 10.0 contact hours. Expires 6/26/2009. Oregon, OESAC approval #884, 1.20 CEUs in Drinking Water, and 0.4 CEUs in Wastewater. Expires 12/17/2006. Pennsylvania DEP, 10 hours in Water # 681. Rhode Island, 10 contact hours. Tennessee, Water and Wastewater Certification Board, Approval #R02048, 10 Water Treatment Credit Hours. Utah Department of Environmental Quality requires special form from TLC. Washington WETRC approved 1 CEU. Wyoming DEQ, #373.00 for levels II, III, &IV. 10 Contact Hours “CREDIT is entered into a certified operator’s training record based on the CERTIFICATE NUMBER they list on the roster. FAILURE to provide a certification number or proving an incorrect number may result in no credit given.”
Check with your State to see if this course is accepted for CEU credit.
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The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. What do these conditions include? A simulation of a water treatment plant’s flash mixing process. Under normal plant conditions a flow is 3.0 MGD and a one-minute fast mixing in the jar test is adequate. If the plant flow increases to 4.0 MGD, how long of fast mix is needed in the jar test? Less than one minute is necessary.
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Water Treatment CEU Course
Water Distribution, Well Drillers, Pump Installers, Water Treatment Operators. The target audience for this course is the person interested in working in a water treatment or distribution facility and/or wishing to maintain CEUs for certification license or to learn how to do the job safely and effectively, and/or to meet education needs for promotion. This short CEU course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection and distribution making sure that it meets federal compliance. This course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection of the water that meets federal compliance. Task Analysis and Training Needs Assessments have been conducted to determine or set Needs-To-Know for this course. The following is a listing of some of those who have conducted extensive valid studies from which TLC has based this program upon: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the American Boards of Certification (ABC).
I. The Water Hydrological Cycle A. Terminology. B. Define Water’s Characteristics. II. Source of Water and Quality A. Define Ground water. B. Define Surface water. C. Define Quality Characteristics and Terms. III. Physical Processes A. Define Process Objectives. B. Define Concepts and MCLs. C. Define Terminology. D. Define Plant Layout. IV. Sedimentation and Related Processes A. Define Grit Chambers. B. Define Plain Sedimentation. C. Define Coagulation and Flocculation. 1. Chemical. 2. Process design. D. Define Thickening. E. Define Dewatering. F. Define Drying. G. Define Sludge Recovery and Transport. V. Define Filtration and other Treatment Techniques A. Process descriptions. 1. Functions. 2. Structure. 3. Operation. 4. Application. VI. Define Chlorination, Disinfection and Bacteria Testing.
CEU Course Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the water hydrologic cycle. Describe the source of water and the types of water quality issues. Describe the objectives of physical process of water treatment. Define terminology associated with physical processing of water. Describe the layout of physical processing facilities in water treatment plants. Describe the function, structure, operation, and application of racks, bars, and screens.
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7. 8. 9. 10.
Describe the coagulation and flocculation treatment processes. Describe sedimentation processes. Describe the filtration process. Describe the disinfection process.
Knowledge Obtained by this CEU Course Knowledge of chemical feeders, including startup/shutdown, calibration of feeder and calculation of dosage. 30 Minutes Knowledge of coagulation/flocculation systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of baffle, stationary, and mechanical systems. 20 Minutes Knowledge of sedimentation/clarification systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of sedimentation basin, solids-contact, and sludge depth determination. 25 Minutes Knowledge of granular activated carbon filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of deep-bed monomedia filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of multi-media gravity filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of membrane filtrations systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for operating conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of measurement techniques for expansion of backwash and depth of filter media. 15 Minutes Knowledge of alarm testing of disinfection systems. 5 Minutes Knowledge of operation and calibration of chemical feed pumps, e.g., hypochlorinators, chlorine systems, aqueous ammonia feeders, etc. 50 Minutes Knowledge of calculation of disinfectant dosage, including when to add disinfectant. 25 Minutes Knowledge of gas chlorinator operation, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 50 Minutes Knowledge of gas ammoniator systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 5 Minutes Knowledge of ozonators, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 35 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control solid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control liquid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of the chemistry of lime, caustic, bicarbonate, phosphates, silicates, and acids interacting with processed water. 40 Minutes Knowledge of stabilization reaction basins and correcting for abnormal conditions. 15 Minutes. Knowledge of electrical cathodic protections devices, including calibration. 10 Minutes Knowledge of calibration of flow meters, in-line turbidmeters, in-line chorine analyzers, and in-line pH meters. 10 Minutes Knowledge of programming alarms, autodialers, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes Knowledge of operation of auto shutdown systems, signal generators, signal receivers, signal transmitters, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes EPA Operator Rules, Security information and OSHA rule information. 210 Minutes.
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Other Areas Covered Intake Pretreatment Chemical Feed Chemical Mixing/Rapid Mix Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation/Clarification Filtration Disinfection Fluoridation Storage Softening Corrosion Control Sludge Disposal Recirculation Systems Instrumentation Maintenance Plumbing/Cross-Connections Laboratory Procedures Perform Specific Tests Operate Moving Equipment Management/Supervision/Reporting Specific Course Goals and Timed Outcomes (Beta Testing ) Eleven students were tested and the average time necessary to complete each task was recorded as the stated in the above objectives and timed outcome section. In the above timed outcome section area, the tasks were measured using times spent on each specific objective goal and final assignment grading of 70% and higher. Sixteen students were given a task assignment survey in which to track their times on the above learning objectives (course content) and utilized an essay style answer sheet to complete their final assignment. All students were given 30 days to complete this assignment and survey. September 2000 Beta Testing Group Statistics Sixteen students were selected for this assignment. All the students held water distribution or water treatment operator certification positions. None of the test group received credit for their assignment. Three students failed the final examination. Three students did not complete the reading assignment. The average times were based upon the outcome of eleven students. Prerequisites None Course Procedures for Registration and Support All of Technical Learning College correspondence courses have complete registration and support services offered. Delivery of services will include, e-mail, web site, telephone, fax and mail support. TLC will attempt immediate and prompt service. When a student registers for a distance or correspondence course, he/she is assigned a start date and an end date. It is the student's responsibility to note dates for assignments and keep up with the course work. If a student falls behind, he/she must contact TLC and request an end date extension in order to complete the course. It is the prerogative of TLC to decide whether to grant the request. All students will be tracked by their social security number or a unique number will be assigned to the student. Instructions for Written Assignments The Water Treatment correspondence course uses a multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank answer key. TLC would prefer that the answers are typed and e-mailed to, firstname.lastname@example.org. If you are unable to do so, please write inside the booklet and make a copy for yourself and mail me the completed manual. There are a total of 66 questions in this course.
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You can find course assistance on the website under the Assignment Page, under the Course Assistance button. Feedback Mechanism (examination procedures) Each student will receive a feedback form as part of their study packet. You will be able to find this form in the rear of the course or lesson. Security and Integrity All students are required to do their own work. All lesson sheets and final exams are not returned to the student to discourage sharing of answers. Any fraud or deceit and the student will forfeit all fees and the appropriate agency will be notified. Grading Criteria TLC will offer the student either pass/fail or a standard letter grading assignment. If TLC is not notified, you will only receive a pass/fail notice. (Certificate) Recommended Texts The Water Treatment course can be completed without any other text but you may use either a copy of WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION VOLUME ONE AND TWO - Office of Water Programs, California State University Sacramento or WATER TREATMENT - American Water Works Association to assist in completion or understanding of the assignment. Recordkeeping and Reporting Practices TLC will keep all student records for a minimum of seven years. It is your responsibility to give the completion certificate to the appropriate agencies. We will send the required information to Texas, Indiana and Pennsylvania for your certificate renewals. ADA Compliance TLC will make reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Students should notify TLC and their instructors of any special needs. Course content may vary from this outline to meet the needs of this particular group. Mission Statement Our only product is educational service. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible education service possible. TLC will attempt to make your learning experience an enjoyable educational opportunity.
What are a couple of corrosive substances may be found in a laboratory? Hydrochloric and Sulfuric acids HCL & H2SO4
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Educational Mission The educational mission of TLC is: To provide TLC students with comprehensive and ongoing training in the theory and skills needed for the environmental education field. To provide a forum for the collection and dissemination of current information related to environmental education. Water Operator’s Lab Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 9 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and to maintain an environment that nurtures academic and personal growth. To provide TLC students opportunities to apply and understand the theory and skills needed for operator certification. To provide a forum in which students can exchange experiences and ideas related to environmental education. To provide opportunities for TLC students to learn and practice environmental educational skills with members of the community for the purpose of sharing diverse perspectives and experience.
Final Sedimentation Basin Pre-Sedimentation Clarifier Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 10 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Date_________ If you’ve paid on the Internet.00 Start and Finish Dates:_________________________You will have 90 days from this date in order to complete this course Name______________________________________Signature____________________ (This will appear on your certificate as above) Address:________________________________________________________________ City______________________________State________Zip___________Email________ Phone: Home ( )_______________Work ( )_____________Fax ( )_____________ Social Security___________________________ Your State may require this information. Operator ID# ________________________________Expiration Date____________ Class/Grade__________________________________ Your certificate will be mailed to you in about two weeks. please write your customer#_________________ Referral’s Name_____________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 11 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .O.com 3 digit code on back of card _____ American Express Visa or MasterCard #__________________________________Exp.Contact Hour CEU/PDH Training Registration Water Treatment CEU Course Course Price $50. Water Treatment Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Groundwater Degree Program Other ___________________________ Technical Learning College P. Please circle which certification you are applying the course CEU’s. AZ 85547-0420 ℡Toll Free (866) 557-1746℡ (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 info@tlch2o. Box 420. Payson.
Solids Handling: Primary Return Water Clarifier and Centrifuge Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 12 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Index New EPA Rules 15 Microbes 18 Radionuclides 19 Inorganic Contaminants 20 Volatile Organic Contaminants 21 Primary Drinking Water Requirements 23 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations 29 SDWA Terms 31 Groundwater and Wells 35 Water Sources 37 Source Water Quality 39 Water Treatment 42 Conventional Treatment 49 Rapid Sand Filtration 51 Backwash Rule 57 Algae 59 Waterborne Pathogens 61 Protozoan Diseases 64 Waterborne Diseases 66 Jar Testing 69 Periodic Chart 79 pH 81 Water Disinfectants 82 Chlorine Section 83 DPD Residual Method 97 Amperometric Titration 98 Chemistry Chlorination 99 Chlorinator Parts 108 Chlorine Dioxide 115 Bacteriological Monitor 127 HPC 133 Total Coliforms 136 Fluoride 137 Water Quality 141 Activated Carbon 147 Corrosion Control 148 Cathodic Protection 149 Alkalinity 151 Water Storage 153 Cross-Connections 155 Centrifugal Pumps 157 Hard Water 163 Water Softening 166 Split Case Centrifugal Pump Vertical Turbine Pumps Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 13 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Membrane Filtration Processes Reverse Osmosis Ozone Ultraviolet Radiation DBP Removal Chart Glossary 185 Conversion Factor 209 Assignment 213 Customer Survey 229 169 173 180 181 183 Control Room Disinfectants Contaminant MRDL1 (mg/L)2 MRDL1 (mg/L)2 Potential Health Effects from Sources of Contaminant Ingestion of Water in Drinking Water Chloramines (as Cl2) Chlorine (as Cl2) Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2) MRDLG=41 MRDLG=41 MRDL=4. stomach Water additive used to discomfort control microbes Water additive used to control microbes MRDLG=0.81 MRDL=0. infants & young children: nervous system effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 14 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .01 Eye/nose irritation. stomach Water additive used to discomfort.01 Eye/nose irritation. anemia control microbes MRDL=4.81 Anemia.
epa. disinfectants. Studies have linked long-term exposure of arsenic in drinking water to a variety of cancers in humans. For most people in the U.New EPA Water Rules Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Drinking water microbial and disinfection byproduct information collected for the ICR is now available in EPA's Envirofacts Warehouse. To protect human health. The rule is intended to provide EPA with information on chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with chemicals already present in source water (disinfection byproducts (DBPs)). they release arsenic into water supplies. After adopting 10ppb as the new standard for arsenic in drinking water. and engineering data to control these contaminants. and disinfection byproducts. eating and drinking are the most common ways that people are exposed to arsenic. EPA revised the standard from 50 parts per billion (ppb). When people either drink this water or eat animals and plants that drink it. ICR EPA has collected data required by the Information Collection Rule (ICR) to support future regulation of microbial contaminants. although it can also come from industrial sources. including Cryptosporidium.gov/safewater/arsenic. minerals.S. and soil erode.. an EPA standard limits the amount of arsenic in drinking water. they are exposed to arsenic. When rocks. In October 2001. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 15 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .html. More information on the rulemaking process and the costs and benefits of setting the arsenic limit in drinking water at 10ppb can be found at www. disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). ordering that it fall to 10 ppb by 2006. EPA decided to move forward with implementing the 10ppb standard for arsenic in drinking water. In January 2001. EPA decided to review the decision to ensure that the final standard was based on sound science and accurate estimates of costs and benefits.
Disinfection byproducts are formed when disinfectants used in water treatment plants react with bromide and/or natural organic matter (i. The trihalomethanes are chloroform. known as HAA5. bromate. Disinfection byproducts for which regulations have been established have been identified in drinking water. The EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate total trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a maximum allowable annual average level of 80 parts per billion.000 people under the Total Trihalomethane Rule finalized by the EPA in 1979. Those standards became effective in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water public water systems. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate HAA5 at 60 parts per billion annual average. dibromochloromethane. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. monobromoacetic acid. Different disinfectants produce different types or amounts of disinfection byproducts. haloacetic acids. and bromoform.. The regulated haloacetic acids. This standard will replace the current standard of a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 16 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0 parts per million (ppm) Currently trihalomethanes are regulated at a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion for water systems serving over 10. trichloroacetic acid. are: monochloroacetic acid. bromodichloromethane. and dibromoacetic acid. Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) are a group of chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. and chlorite. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water. The standard became effective for the first time in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water systems.e. including trihalomethanes. The Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule standards became effective for trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts listed above in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. The EPA has established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate bromate at annual average of 10 parts per billion in drinking water. the EPA established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule that requires public water systems to use treatment measures to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and to meet the following specific standards: Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic acids (HAA5) Bromate Chlorite 80 parts per billion (ppb) 60 ppb 10 ppb 1.Disinfection Byproduct Regulations In December 1998. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. decaying vegetation) present in the source water. dichloroacetic acid.
The EPA is also planning to develop other rules to further control pathogens. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems lower disinfection byproduct levels to comply with the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least 99. for systems serving fewer than 10. The new rule will tighten turbidity standards by December 2001. they include turbidity limits. The EPA established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for all public water systems and a 99% removal requirement for Cryptosporidium in filtered public water systems that serve at least 10. respectively.This standard became effective for large public water systems by December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground public water systems back in December 2003. disinfectant residual. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems back in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 17 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The EPA has promulgating a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. This is to improve physical removal of Cryptosporidium. Among its provisions. including pathogens. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems comply with Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate chlorite at a monthly average level of 1 part per million in drinking water. Turbidity is an indicator of the physical removal of particulates. the rule requires that a public water system. The Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule was established in December 1998 to control Cryptosporidium. The Surface Water Treatment Rule specifies treatment criteria to assure that these performance requirements are met.000 people. Microbial Regulations One of the key regulations developed and implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to counter pathogens in drinking water is the Surface Water Treatment Rule. using surface water (or ground water under the direct influence of surface water) as its source.9% and 99. Chlorite is a byproduct formed when chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect water.99%.000 people. and disinfectant contact time conditions.
nausea. However.g. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects. Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including nonpathogens. It causes cryptosporidiosis. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. diarrhea. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. and opportunistic pathogens. The EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 18 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . cramps. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease.Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. or other symptoms. a mild gastrointestinal disease. such as diarrhea. the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. vomiting. The above photo is of a SimPlate for HPC multi-dose used for the quantification of HPC in water. Often referred to as HPC. However. and cramps). headaches. pathogens. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste.
Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. As the organics are driven off by heating. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Combined Radium 226/228. Beta/photon emitters. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources. a carrier gas transports them through a separation column and into a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) where individual components are identified. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Operation A sample is placed into a heated injection port. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 19 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Gas Chromatograph (GC) Separates vaporized sample into individual components. such as wells. and in the air in your home. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.Radionuclides Alpha emitters. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water.
For advice on avoiding lead. may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth.5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2. Synthetic Organic Contaminants. The EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis. in its moderate or severe forms. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health. before they erupt from the gums.4. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the EPA's standard over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system.8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 20 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Inorganic Contaminants (IOC) Antimony Asbestos Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Thallium Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic. This problem occurs only in developing teeth. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. Lead typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings. including pain and tenderness of the bones). including pesticides & herbicides 2. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Dental fluorosis. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks.7.4-D 2. Fluoride. see the EPA’s lead in your drinking water fact sheet. The EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease.3.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 21 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .1.1.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.1.-Trichloroethane 1.2.2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Toluene Vinyl Chloride Xylenes Common water sampling bottles VOC bottles are the smaller.2-Dichloroethylene trans-1. thin bottles with the septum tops.Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC) Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloroethane 1.1-Dichloroethylene cis-1.2-Dicholoroethylene Dichloromethane 1.2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethylene 1.
Giardia Cryptosporidium Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 22 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
solder Discharge from semiconductor manufacturing. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories.2 4. TT Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage.004 Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps Increase in blood pressure Intestinal lesions Cadmium 0. decrease in blood glucose Skin damage.2 Nerve damage or thyroid problems Lead zero Discharge from steel/metal factories. erosion of natural deposits. circulatory system problems. fertilizer and aluminum factories Action Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household Level=0. erosion of natural deposits. discharge from electrical.3 Cyanide (as free cyanide) Fluoride 0. petroleum refining. erosion of 015. erosion of natural deposits Discharge of drilling wastes. TT6 development. 6 3. and defense industries Corrosion of galvanized pipes. discharge from metal refineries. electronics.010 Asbestos (fiber >10 micrometers) Barium Beryllium 7 million 7 MFL fibers per Liter 2 2 0. discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories 4.1 Copper 1. Those with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor if their water systems exceed the copper action level. physical or mental plumbing systems.005 Kidney damage Chromium (total) 0.National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Inorganic Chemicals Antimony Arsenic MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Increase in blood cholesterol. high blood pressure Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 23 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ceramics. erosion of natural Children may get mottled deposits. fire retardants. strong teeth. leaching from wood preservatives 0.004 0. discharge from teeth. 0.1 0.006 0.006 none5 0.0 Bone disease (pain and Water additive which promotes tenderness of the bones). Gastrointestinal distress. erosion of natural deposits Decay of asbestos cement in water mains. animal feed additives. erosion of natural deposits Corrosion of household plumbing systems.0 Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis Action Short term exposure: Level=1. increased risk of cancer Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Discharge from petroleum refineries. herbicides. runoff from waste batteries and paints Discharge from steel and pulp mills. aerospace.005 0. discharge from metal refineries. wood preservatives. natural deposits Adults: Kidney problems.
002 Kidney damage Erosion of natural deposits.life threatening without immediate medical attention. and pharmaceutical companies Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen) 10 10 Nitrite (measured as 1 Nitrogen) 1 Selenium Thallium 0.life threatening without immediate medical attention. sewage. runoff from landfills and cropland Runoff from fertilizer use.Inorganic Mercury 0. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. discharge from mines Leaching from ore-processing sites. discharge from electronics.05 0. changes in blood. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. erosion of natural deposits. leaching from septic tanks.05 0. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from petroleum refineries.0005 0.002 "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . kidney. or liver problems Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 24 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . numbness in fingers or toes. circulatory problems Hair loss. Hair or fingernail loss. erosion of natural deposits Runoff from fertilizer use. glass. leaching from septic tanks. sewage. discharge from refineries and factories.002 0. intestine.
Runoff/leaching from soil increased risk of cancer fumigant used on soybeans. discharge from chemical factories Reproductive difficulties. reproductive difficulties. increased risk of cancer Reproductive difficulties. increased risk of cancer Cardiovascular system problems. reproductive difficulties Anemia.007 Discharger from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Kidney.07 0. increased risk Discharge from pharmaceutical of cancer and chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories General toxic effects or Leaching from PVC plumbing reproductive difficulties systems. kidney or spleen problems.4 0.003 zero zero 0.005 0. changes in blood chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems.0002 0.075 zero 0.6 0.005 0.1 0.007 0.04 zero zero 0.002 0.07 0. increased risk of cancer Eye. kidney or spleen Discharge from industrial damage.007 Di(2zero ethylhexyl)phthalate Dinoseb 0.003 0.075 0. or adrenal gland Runoff from herbicide used on problems row crops Minor kidney changes Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Reproductive difficulties.6 0.2Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1-2Dichloropropane Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Nervous system or blood problems. increased risk of cancer Liver or nervous system problems. liver.006 0.4 0. or circulatory Discharge from industrial system problems chemical factories Anemia.2 0.1 0. liver.2-Dibromo-3chloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.1 zero zero 0. pineapples.4-D Dalapon 1. 2Dichloroethylene trans-1.005 0.2-Dichloroethane 1-1Dichloroethylene cis-1.1 0. liver Discharge from rubber and problems. liver. cotton. leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Residue of banned termiticide zero zero 0.007 0.005 0.07 0. increased risk of cancer Problems with blood or nervous system. Liver problems.Organic Chemicals Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Carbofuran Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene 2. and orchards Liver. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Discharge from factories.07 0. anemia.0002 0.04 .005 0. decrease in blood platelets. increased risk of chemical factories cancer Reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 25 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2 zero TT 7 0. kidney.002 0.
discharge from chemical factories Runoff from herbicide use Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned insecticide Discharge from industrial chemical factories. reproductive or nervous system difficulties.4.3.000000 Reproductive difficulties.04 0.2 0.7 0.5-TP (Silvex) 1. increased risk of cancer Nervous system.05 0.005 1 0. potatoes.1 0.07 0.2 Tetrachloroethylene zero Toluene Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Toxaphene 2.0002 0.002 zero 0.7 0.7 zero 0. lumber. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Changes in adrenal glands Liver.002 TT7 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney.02 0.0002 0.10 0. reproductive difficulties Liver damage. kidney.04 0. kidney.05 0.4Trichlorobenzene 1. reproductive difficulties. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Stomach problems.7 zero Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion.00005 0.2.2 zero Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Styrene zero 0. 03 increased risk of cancer 0. added to water during treatment process Discharge from petroleum refineries Discharge from petroleum refineries Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned termiticide Breakdown of hepatachlor Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Discharge from chemical factories Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle.1 0. liver.0005 Cataracts Stomach and intestinal problems Nervous system effects Stomach problems. or liver problems Liver.Dioxin (2. reproductive difficulties. leaching from landfills Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Discharge from petroleum factories Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Residue of banned herbicide Discharge from textile finishing factories Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 26 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and tomatoes Runoff from landfills.004 0.1Trichloroethane 1 none5 zero 0.05 0. gardens Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits.004 0. livestock Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples.001 0.8TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethelyne dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor zero 0.5 0.001 0.1 0. and circulatory problems Liver problems.0004 0. or circulatory problems 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems. increased risk of cancer Kidney or stomach problems Liver or kidney problems Reproductive difficulties Slight nervous system effects Skin changes. discharge of waste chemicals Heptachlor epoxide zero Hexachlorobenzene zero Hexachlorocyclopen 0. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Problems with blood Liver.0002 Methoxychlor Oxamyl (Vydate) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 0.02 0.7. alfalfa. increased risk of cancer Liver damage.1. kidney or central nervous system problems. vegetables.1 0.05 tadiene Lindane 0. reproductive difficulties. immune deficiencies. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems. nervous system. increased risk of cancer Kidney problems. thymus gland problems.5 0.20 Discharge from wood preserving factories Herbicide runoff Herbicide runoff Discharge from rubber and plastic factories.003 0. or thyroid problems.07 0.
002 10 Liver. increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer Nervous system damage Discharge from industrial chemical factories Discharge from petroleum refineries Leaching from PVC pipes.0%9 TT8 Found naturally in water. kidney. discharge from plastic factories Discharge from petroleum factories. multiplies in heating systems Human and animal fecal waste Soil runoff Total Coliforms zero (including fecal coliform and E. It may indicate the presence of microbes.005 0.2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) 0. a gastroenteric disease HPC has no health effects.005 0.1. Coli) N/A Turbidity Viruses (enteric) zero TT8 Human and animal fecal waste Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 27 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Legionnaire's Disease.003 zero zero 10 0. but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms. commonly known as pneumonia Used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria 10 may be present Turbidity has no health effects but can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Gastroenteric disease n/a Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Human and animal fecal waste Giardia lamblia Heterotrophic plate count zero N/A TT 8 TT8 Legionella zero TT8 5. or immune system problems Liver problems. discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides Beta particles and photon emitters MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Decay of natural and manmade deposits Erosion of natural deposits none 5 Gross alpha particle none5 activity Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined) none5 4 Increased risk of cancer millirems per year 15 Increased risk of cancer picocurie s per Liter (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L Increased risk of cancer Erosion of natural deposits MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 Microorganisms (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Giardiasis.1.
Cholera Legionella Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 28 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
05 mg/L 3 threshold odor number 6. odor.5-8.0 mg/L 0.2 mg/L 250 mg/L 15 (color units) 1. However.05 to 0.10 mg/L 250 mg/L 500 mg/L 5 mg/L Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 29 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .5 0.5 mg/L 0. Contaminant Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Fluoride Foaming Agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc Secondary Standard 0. or color) in drinking water.3 mg/L 0.0 mg/L noncorrosive 2. The EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply.National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.
3 mg/L. • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU). Legionella will also be controlled.The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. 5 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. as follows: • Acrylamide = 0. but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are inactivated. The action level.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent) 8 The Surface Water Treatment Rule requires systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water. Therefore. 2 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) . headaches.The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. or other symptoms. The margins of safety in MCLGs ensure that exceeding the MCL slightly does not pose significant risk to public health.99% killed/inactivated • Legionella: No limit. 10 Fecal coliform and E.0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. cramps. • HPC: NO more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent) • Epichlorohydrin = 0. MCLGs are nonenforceable public health goals. There cannot be any fecal coliforms. Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms.Notes 1 Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) . and for lead is 0. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month.9% killed/inactivated Viruses: 99. and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Giardia lamblia: 99. to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 30 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive). Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea. for copper is 1. in writing.015mg/L. 9 No more than 5. 3 Treatment Technique . and which allows for a proper margin of safety.An enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0. 6 Lead and copper are regulated in a Treatment Technique which requires systems to take tap water samples at sites with lead pipes or copper pipes that have lead solder and/or are served by lead service lines. MCLs are enforceable standards. 7 Each water system must certify. 4 Units are in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. there is no MCLG for this contaminant. which triggers water systems into taking treatment steps if exceeded in more than 10% of tap water samples. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human animal wastes. nausea.
which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months. The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water. including surface water systems. Under section 1452 of the SDWA. the Administrator shall also promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems. Cryptosporidium A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. and other activities to encourage public water system compliance and protection of public health. vomiting. and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults. Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF). the EPA awards capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance drinking water system infrastructure improvements. A rule under development covering wells not included in Class I. II. describing sources within the source water protection area. A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents of the area served by the system or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. and verifying accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. collecting and interpreting new information on existing or potential sources through surveys. Contamination Source Inventory. Exposure Contact between a person and a chemical." Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Rule. ". and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis. exposure from person-to-person contact. but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people. associated with the disease giardiasis. and cramps. The process of identifying and inventorying contaminant sources within delineated source water protection areas through recording existing data. and which allows for an adequate margin of safety. ground water systems. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea." MCLs are enforceable standards. Giardia lamblia A protozoan. source water protection. . Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR). III or IV in which nonhazardous fluids are injected into or above underground sources of drinking water. person-to-person contact. to enhance operations and management of drinking water systems. or other exposure routes. In the SDWA. Under section 107 of the SDWA Amendments of 1996. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea. targeting likely sources for further investigation. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water. . and as necessary. the statute reads. abdominal pain. MCLGs are non-enforceable public health goals.Safe Drinking Water Act Terms Community Water System (CWS). an MCL is defined as "the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. fatigue. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 31 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
2-trichlorethane. and 1. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting the national drinking water regulations while individual states are responsible for ensuring that public water systems under their jurisdiction are complying with the regulations. generally used in expressions of water use.2-dichlorothane. Non-Community Water System (NCWS). trichloroethylene. vinyl chloride. or VOC Rule. if necessary. treat their supplies for these chemicals. gallons per capita per day (gpcd). Radionuclides Elements that undergo a process of natural decay.1-dichloroethylene. Point-of-Entry Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home. Risk The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals. Radiation can cause adverse health effects. Carbon Tetrachloride. Nitrates Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges.The Safe Drinking Water Act. which results from interferences in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Non-Community water systems to monitor for and. para-dichlorobenzene. pesticides. 1. 1989. Primacy State. Organics Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. and has the authority to enforce the law and related regulations. and others. State that has the responsibility for ensuring a law is implemented. As radionuclides decay. (NTU) A unit of measure used to describe the turbidity of water. there must be hazard and there must be exposure. so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water. SDWA . Point-of-Use Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment. or blue baby syndrome. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobanemia. they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. Phase I Contaminants The Phase I Rule became effective on January 9. This rule.Nephelolometric Turbidity Units. such as cancer. Per capita Per person. also called the Volatile Organic Chemical Rule. The Safe Drinking Water Act was first passed in 1974 and established the basic requirements under which the nation’s public water supplies were regulated. 1. A public water system that is not a community water system. The 8 VOCs regulated under this rule are: Benzene. Turbidity is the cloudiness in water. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons.1. State has adopted rules at least as stringent as federal regulations and has been granted primary enforcement responsibility. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 32 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . There are two types of NCWSs: transient and non-transient. set water quality standards for 8 VOCs and required all community and Non-Transient. The SDWA was amended in 1986 and again in 1996. In order for there to be risk.
treatment. A state management plan under FIFRA required by the EPA to allow states (e.NCWS). Transient non-community systems typically are restaurants. The area delineated by the state for a PWS or including numerous PWSs. State Management Plan (SMP) Program. offices. particularly previous Federal and state inventories of sources. All information sources may be used. Non-transient systems regularly serve at least 25 of the same non-resident persons per day for more than 6 months per year. the susceptibility of the public water systems in the source water protection area to contamination from these sources. A topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a tributary of a stream.S. An analysis to determine. Transient/Non-Transient. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR).g." To the Extent Practical. Treatment Technique A specific treatment method required by the EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. A state program implemented in accordance with the statutory language at section 1454 of the SDWA to establish local voluntary incentive-based partnerships for SWP and remediation. and that has the potential to release contaminants identified in a state program (contaminants with MCLs plus any others a state considers a health threat) within a source water protection area in an amount which could contribute significantly to the concentration of the contaminants in the source waters of the public water supply. states. Non-Community Water Systems (T/NT. A facility or activity that stores. etc. viruses and Legionella. Susceptibility Analysis. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 33 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These systems typically are schools. States must inventory sources of contamination to the extent they have the technology and resources to complete an inventory for a Source Water Protection Area delineated as described in the guidance. as part of the state SWAP approved by the EPA under section 1453 of the SDWA. territories) the flexibility to design and implement approaches to manage the use of certain pesticides to protect ground water. The surface area above a sole source aquifer and its recharge area. This analysis will assist the state in determining which potential sources of contamination are "significant. the EPA can instead specify a treatment technique. and promulgated filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface water sources or by ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water. whether the source is ground water or surface water or both. factories. etc. large stores. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL. tribes and U. The regulations also specify water quality. Water systems that are non-community systems: transient systems serve 25 non-resident persons per day for 6 months or less per year. or produces chemicals or elements. Sub watershed. The rule specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia. Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) Designation. Source Water Protection Area (SWPA). hotels. A treatment technique is an enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant.Significant Potential Source of Contamination. State Source Water Petition Program. uses. with a clear understanding of where the significant potential sources of contamination are located. churches. and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided.
taking into consideration both ground and surface water flow. A topographic boundary area that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a stream. The program applies to injection well owners and operators on Federal facilities. Watershed Approach. Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. Watershed Area. supplying a PWS. Toxicity The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it. and on all U. A watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. from which overland flow drains to the intake. through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water well or well field. Watershed.S. A topographic area that is within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking water intake. Native American lands. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA).Total Coliform Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. The program is designed to prevent underground injection which endangers drinking water sources.The surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 34 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . land and territories.
where groundwater has dissolved limestone to form caverns and large openings. Toxic material spilled or dumped near a well can leach into the aquifer and contaminate the groundwater drawn from that well. Contaminated wells used for drinking water are especially dangerous. the dynamics of groundwater flow change in response to this withdrawal. to water to irrigate crops to industrial processing water. Wells can be tested to see what chemicals may be present in dangerous quantities. In some places.Groundwater and Wells A well can be easily contaminated if it is not properly constructed or if toxic materials are released into the well. Groundwater is withdrawn from wells to provide water for everything from drinking water for the home and business. Groundwater flows slowly through water-bearing formations (aquifers) at different rates. When water is pumped from the ground. its rate of flow can be relatively fast but this is exceptional. Well with a mineral oil sealed vertical turbine pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 35 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
rises higher than the top of the aquifer because of confining pressure. Some aquifers. or sometimes artesian aquifers. Unconfined aquifers are those that are bounded by the water table. Water in this zone is called soil moisture. lakes and the oceans. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 36 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . However. and eventually drains into streams. groundwater flows toward. rivers. A well in such an aquifer is called an artesian well. but the spaces are not large enough to permit free movement of water. Examples of fractured aquifers include granite and basalt. Here the spaces in the rock and soil contain both air and water. Limestone terrain where solution has been very active is termed karst. Like surface water. and water in this saturated zone is called groundwater. however. Groundwater flow in the aquifers underlying surface drainage basins. has many spaces between its grains. Groundwater usually flows downhill with the slope of the water table. if it contains cracks it can still act as a fractured aquifer. Fractured aquifers are rocks in which the groundwater moves through cracks. In this case. These are called confined aquifers. The level below which all the spaces are filled with water is called the water table. Most of the aquifers of importance to us are unconsolidated porous media such as sand and gravel. Limestones are often fractured aquifers. groundwater may move in different directions below the ground than the water flowing on the surface.Many terms are used to describe the nature and extent of the groundwater resource. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone. The water in these wells. for instance. The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone. If the water level rises above the ground surface a flowing artesian well occurs. Clay. it does not always mirror the flow of water on the surface. however. Therefore. the rock is no longer a porous medium. lie beneath layers of impermeable materials. Some very porous materials are not permeable. but here the cracks and fractures may be enlarged by solution. Porous media such as sandstone may become so highly cemented or recrystalized that all of the original space is filled. joints or fractures in otherwise solid rock. The piezometric surface is the level to which the water in an artesian aquifer will rise. forming large channels or even caverns.
snow. Infiltration: The gradual flow or movement of water into and through the pores of the soil.Water Sources Before we discuss the types of treatment it is easier to first understand how the source of water arrives. Once the precipitation begins water is no longer in its purest form. and inorganic compounds. hail or other forms of moisture. 3. organic compounds. 6. 2. 5. we must treat the water for human consumption. Water will be collected as surface supplies or circulate to form in the ground. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 37 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Precipitation: The process by which atmospheric moisture falls on to the land or water surface as rain. Condensation: The collection of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. Water Cycle Terms 1. Transpiration: Moisture that will come from plants as a byproduct of photosynthesis. Runoff: Water that drains from a saturated or impermeable surface into stream channels or other surface water areas. Most lakes and rivers are formed this way. As it becomes rain or snow it may be polluted with organisms. 4. Evaporation: The process by which the water or other liquids become a gas. Because of this.
or may span the borders of many states. Temporary hardness comes out of the water when it's heated and is deposited as scale and fur on kettles. magnesium and sodium. Aluminium Aluminium salts are added during water treatment to remove color and suspended solids. sulphates and bicarbonates. In either case. it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water. such as lakes. It is also not uncommon to find traces of iron. and reservoirs. industry. Cysts These are associated with the reproductive stages of parasitic micro-organisms (protozoans) which can cause acute diarrhea type illnesses.Where Does Drinking Water Come From? A clean. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources. Lead Lead does not usually occur naturally in water supplies but is derived from lead distribution and domestic pipework and fittings. Although water suppliers have removed most of the original lead piping from the mains distribution system. leisure facilities and gardens to control weeds and insect pests and may enter the water cycle in many ways. The water will also contain a relatively low level of bacteria which is not generally a risk to health Insecticides and herbicides (sometimes referred to as pesticides) Are widely used in agriculture. rivers. As with surface water. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river. drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. lake. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. coffee makers and taps and appears as a scum or film on tea and coffee. These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide. Permanent hardness is unaffected by heating. not the water supplier. nitrates. In rural areas. when you think about where your drinking water comes from. aluminium. Some are present due to the treatment processes which are used make the water suitable for drinking and cooking. insecticides and herbicides although the maximum amounts of all these substances are strictly limited by the regulations. These are usually referred to as 'contaminants'. manganese. Water Hardness There are two types of hardness: temporary and permanent. Your water will normally contain chlorine and varying amounts of dissolved minerals including calcium. it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see. Cysts are rarely present in the public water supply. they come from farm animals. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 38 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . depending on its source. constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. They are very resistant to normal disinfection processes but can be removed by advanced filtration processes installed in water treatment works. Particles and rust These come from the gradual breakdown of the lining of concrete or iron mains water pipes or from sediment which has accumulated over the years and is disturbed in some way. Your annual drinking water quality report will tell you where your water supplier gets your water. wild animals and people. people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. Other times. Most of these substances are of natural origin and are picked up as water passes round the water cycle. copper. chlorides. The pipework (including the service pipe) within the boundary of the property is the responsibility of the owner of the property. but the entire watershed. or reservoir. many older properties still have lead service pipes and internal lead pipework.
medical institutions. stormwater runoff." Some wells are recharged in areas that may be a great distance from the well itself. Wellhead Protection Sequence A) Build a community-wide planning team. Some of this water percolates down to the water table (shallowest surface of the groundwater) and recharges the aquifer. Groundwater originates as precipitation that sinks into the ground. C) Perform a contaminant use inventory. beauty shops. Giardia. photo processing labs. More than 90 percent of the world's total supply of drinkable water is groundwater. and over water moving (underground) toward the well. Contaminants can be conveniently lumped into three categories: microorganisms (bacteria. gas stations. For shallow wells. If the downward percolating precipitation encounters any source of contamination. for example less than 50-75 feet. etc. auto repair shops. arsenic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 39 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . will contaminate approximately 292 million gallons of water. the water may dissolve some of that contaminant and carry it to the aquifer. lawn and garden chemicals. D) Create a management plan for the protection zone.. one gallon of pure trichloroethylene. B) Delineate geologically the protection zone. a contaminant may enter the aquifer some distance upgradient from you and still move towards your well. For example. potential contaminants are widespread and often come from common everyday activities as well. etc. Groundwater is distributed fairly evenly throughout the crust of the earth. but it is not readily accessible or extractable everywhere. Importantly. Although it is common practice to associate contamination with highly visible features such as landfills. fractures or pore spaces between grains) in sediments and rocks below the surface. Groundwater moves from areas where the water table is high to where the water table is low. pesticides applied to highway right-of-ways. E) Plan for the future. etc. Consequently. industry or agriculture.). it takes only a very small amount of some chemicals in drinking water to raise health concerns.Source Water Quality Groundwater Groundwater contributes most of all of the water that is derived from wells or springs. increasing the tendency for water to move towards the well.). dry cleaners. The theory is that management of land use around the well. etc. at the surface or below it. Wellhead Protection Wellhead protection refers to programs designed to maintain the quality of groundwater used as public drinking water sources. a common solvent. When a well is pumping. fuels. It occurs in the natural open spaces (e. The concept usually includes several stages. metals.g. viruses. inorganic chemicals (nitrate.) and organic chemicals (solvents. pesticides. will help to minimize damage to subsurface water supplies by spills or improper use of chemicals. the recharge area is often the immediate vicinity around the well or "wellhead. such as septic systems. by managing the land uses around the wellfield. it lowers the water table in the immediate vicinity of the well.
turbidity. Surface water is usually contaminated and unsafe to drink. and human and animal refuse. decayed vegetation. odor. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 40 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Biological characteristics are the presence of living or dead organisms. and some will collect as runoff to form streams and rivers that will then flow into the ocean. Water is known as the universal solvent because most substances that come in contact with it will dissolve. metals. leaves. and carbon dioxide will change because of biological activities. the rotten egg smell. Depending on the region. The consumer relates it to scaling of faucets or staining. algae.Water Rights Appropriative: Acquired water rights for exclusive use. The discharge from industry could increase volatile organic compounds. this is how the consumer judges how well the provider is treating the water. Changes in the dissolved oxygen. Some lakes and reservoirs may experience seasonal turnover. Quality of Water Here are the different classifications or the way water characteristics change as it passes on the surface and below the ground it would be in four categories: Physical characteristics such as taste. and turbidity. sulfides or acids. temperature. Surface Water Some of the rainwater will be immediately impounded in lakes and reservoirs. temperature. This will also interact with the chemical composition of the water. Prescriptive: Rights based upon legal prescription or long use or custom. Chemical characteristics are the elements found that are considered alkali. This could be associated with atomic energy. Radiological characteristics are the result of water coming in contact with radioactive materials. The consumer will become sick or complain about hydrogen sulfide odors. suspended solids. some lakes and rivers receive discharge from sewer facilities or defective septic tanks. Runoff could produce mud. and non metals such as fluoride. What’s the difference between lakes and reservoirs? Reservoirs are lakes with man-made dams. Riparian: Water rights because property is adjacent to a river or surface water.
or industrial and wastewater discharge. or central nervous systems. Most treatment plant upsets such as taste and odor. Certain vegetation removes the excess nutrients that would promote the growth of algae. With out sun light. and filter clogging is due to algae. Algae growth is supplied by the energy of the sun. color. Depending on federal regulations and the amount of copper found natural in water. Too much algae will imbalance the lake and this will result to fish kill. Algae can be controlled by using chemicals such as copper sulfate. corrosion. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. and toxicity. kidneys. Total Trihalomethanes. source water may have several restrictions of use as part of a Water Shed Management Plan. discharge or runoff from agriculture. In some areas it may be restricted from recreational use. The ecological balance in lakes and reservoirs plays a natural part in the purification and sustaining the life of the lake. The type of algae determines the problem it will cause for instance slime. The lack of dissolved oxygen in water is known as anaerobic conditions. Algae growth is the result of photosynthesis. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver.Managing Water Quality at the Source Depending on the region. For example algae and rooted aquatic plants are essential in the food chain of fish and birds. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. as algae absorb this energy it converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. Another aspect of quality control is aquatic plants. This creates aerobic conditions that supply fish with oxygen. color. the algae would consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. operators have used Potassium Permanganate. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC or GAC) and Chlorine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 41 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Depending on the pH(Power of Hydrogen) and alkalinity of the water will determine how these chemicals will react. Most systems no longer use Chlorine because it reacts with the organics in the water to form Trihalomethanes.
viruses and bacteria) and low levels of a large number of organic chemicals. medical lore of India advised. people have treated water intended for drinking to remove particles of solid matter.. “Impure water should be purified by being boiled over a fire. fluoride.C. operating requirements and future needs of the service area. or it may be purified by filtration through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. reduce health risks. These include regulatory requirements. Common surface water contaminants include turbidity. the water supplier must consider a number of factors. microbiological contaminants (Giardia. and improve aesthetic qualities such as appearance. Large surface water impound Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 42 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . odor. When selecting among the different treatment options. radium. configuration of the existing system. or being heated in the sun or by dipping a heated iron into it. Groundwater contaminants include naturally occurring inorganic chemicals (such as arsenic. characteristics of the raw water. radon and nitrate) and a number of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that have recently been detected in localized areas.Water Treatment For thousands of years. As early as 2000 B. and taste. color.” The treatment needs of a water system are likely to differ depending on whether the system uses a groundwater or surface water source. cost.
Mechanical bar screen Non-automated bar screen 43 . If not removed. The type of screening used depends on the raw water and the size of intake. The spacing of the horizontal bars will rank the size. this will cause problems to the treatment plants pumps and equipment. Wire mesh screens are woven stainless steel material and the opening of the fabric is narrow. sticks. gravel.Preliminary Treatment Most lakes and reservoirs are not free of logs. Mechanical bar screens very in size and use some type of raking mechanism that travels horizontally down the bars to scrap the debris off. weeds. The best way to protect the plant is screening. tree limbs. Both require manual cleaning. leaves. sand and rocks. and trash. Bar screens are made of straight steel bars at the intake of the plant.
It could have a screw conveyor or traveling bridge used to collect the sludge. Most are designed with scrapers on the bottom to move the settled sludge to one or more hoppers at the influent end of the tank.Pre-Sedimentation Once the water passes the bar screens. This will damage plant equipment and pipes. Sedimentation basins are also used after the flocculation process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 44 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The most common is a chain and flight collector. Most designs will have baffles to prevent short-circuiting and scum from entering the effluent. Clarifiers Let’s first look at the components of a rectangular clarifier. sand and grit are still present. This is generally done with clarifiers shaped in either rectangular or round shapes.
Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 45 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To prevent damage do to overloads. The drive chain turns the drive sprockets and the head shafts. This means that the gear would simply slide around the shaft and movement of the drive chain would stop. the “flights and chains”. The shafts can be located overhead or below. The motor shaft is connected through a gear reducer to a shaft which turns the drive chain.Flights and Chains The most important thing to consider is the sludge and scum collection mechanism. If a heavy load is put on the sludge collector system then the shear pin should break. They move the settled sludge to the hopper in the clarifier for return and they also remove the scum from the surface of the clarifier. Some clarifiers may not have scum removal equipment so the configuration of the shaft may very. The shear pin holds the gear solidly on the shaft so that no slippage occurs. a shear pin is used. wearing shoes are used to protect the flights. Remember that the gear moves the drive chain. As the flights travel across the bottom of the clarifier. The shoes are usually metal and travel across a metal track. The flights are usually wood or nonmetallic flights mounted on parallel chains.
Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 46 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Scrapers The most common type has a center pier or column. The major mechanic parts of the clarifier are the drive unit. Circular clarifier and collector mechanism Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 47 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Clarifiers In some circular or square tanks rotating scrapers are used. the sludge collector mechanism. and the scum removal system. The diagram below shows a typical circular clarifier.
Backwashing filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 48 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
filtration occurs only within the first few inches of the finer grains at the top of the bed. coarse material lies at the top of the filter bed. When the pressure difference between filter inlet and outlet increases by 5 . larger grains lay toward the bottom of the filter bed and finer grains lay at the top of the filter bed. That allows suspended particles to clump together to form more easily filtered particles. Fast rinse lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. As a result. Alum combines with alkalinity in the raw water to form a white precipitate that neutralizes suspended particles' electrical charge and forms a base for coagulating those particles. Light. the pressure drop through the filter increases. at about 14 gpm per square foot (34m/hr) of filter bed area that lasts about 10 minutes. the filter should be reconditioned. The reconditioning cycle consists of an up flow backwash followed by a down flow rinse. As suspended particles accumulate in a filter bed. not in just the top few inches. The media become progressively finer and denser in the lower layers. The down flow rinse settles the bed before the filter returns to service. Since the sand grains all have about the same density.called "mud-balling" . Traditional filter systems use graded silica sand filter media.within the filter.Conventional Treatment Improving the clarity of surface water has always presented a challenge because source quality varies. Conventional technology uses a 30 to 50 mg/L alum dosage to form a large floc that requires extensive retention time to permit settling. Suspended particles carry an electrical charge which causes them to repel one another. construction-intensive processes with lengthy times. Larger suspended particles are removed by the upper layers while smaller particles are removed in the lower layers. Operating beyond this pressure drop increases the chance of fouling . The conventional process uses alum (aluminum sulfate) and cationic polymer to neutralize the charge. each of different size and density. Turbidity washes out of the filter bed as the filter media particles scour one another. Traditional treatments rely on expensive. Particles are trapped throughout the bed. Backwash is an up flow operation. That allows a depth filter to run substantially longer and use less backwash water than a traditional sand filter. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 49 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A depth filter has four layers of filtration media.10 psi (34 to 68 kPa) from the beginning of the cycle.
filter beds. If an operator is present to make adjustments for variations in the raw water. Suspended particles are usually electrically charged. clear wells. Flocculation and Filtration all with in a 20 foot area Package Plants Representing a slight modification of conventional filtration technology. Feeding chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate). allowing the particles to cling to one another and to the filter media. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 50 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . measured in NTU. package plants are found as two types: tubetype clarifiers and adsorption clarifiers. particularly when turbidity includes fine colloidal particles. mounted on skids. but without the construction costs and space requirements associated with separately constructed sedimentation basins. and transported virtually assembled to the operation site. In addition to the conventional filtration processes. etc.Chemical pretreatment is often used to enhance filter performance. ferric chloride. package plants are usually built in a factory. Small water treatment package plant Coagulation. or a cationic polymer neutralizes the charge. These are appropriate for small community systems where full water treatment is desired. filtered water clarity improvements in the range of 93 to 95% are achievable. Chemical pretreatment may increase filtered water clarity. by 90% compared with filtration alone.
But since colloidal particles are so small. agglomerate (stick together). and form heavier particles called “floc”. The resulting larger particles will be removed by filtration. All matter has a residual surface charge to a certain degree. this is the most prevalent form of water treatment technology in use today. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 51 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the fine particles must be coagulated. and will usually be chosen by the engineer designing the water treatment system. commonly called alum. Coagulation is necessary to meet the current regulations for almost all potable water plants using surface water. the like charges on the particles repel each other. Large microorganisms including algae and amoebic cysts are readily removed by coagulation and filtration. Bacterial removals of 99% are also achievable. which can be thought of as positively charged strings that attract the particles to them. which follows the rapid mixing. removal of these particulates by conventional coagulation and filtration is a major component of effective treatment for the removal of pathogens. and in the process. as follows: Coagulation At the Water Treatment Plant. the chemically treated water is sent into a basin where the suspended particles can collide. form a larger particle. This filtration process employs a combination of physical and chemical processes in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. which allows the particles to come together. Hence. or "stuck together" to form larger particles which can be filtered. aluminum sulfate. Coagulant chemicals are required since colloidal particles by themselves have tendency to stay suspended in water and not settle out. Flocculation The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses which can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. Coagulation is the process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. Other coagulants are called "cationic polymers". More than 98% of poliovirus type 1 was removed by conventional coagulation and filtration. This is primarily due to a negative charge on the surface of the particles. When solid matter is too small to be removed by a depth filter. The alum and the water are mixed rapidly by the flash mixer. Therefore.Rapid Sand Filtration Also known as rapid-sand filtration. Aluminum Sulfate is the most widely used coagulant in water treatment. Coagulant chemicals such as "alum" (aluminum sulphate) work by neutralizing the negative charge. Aluminum Sulfate is also excellent for removing nutrients such as phosphorous in wastewater treatment. and they stay suspended in water. This is achieved through the use of coagulant chemicals.86% solution. Which chemical is used depends on the application. new chemicals have been developed which combine the properties of alum-type coagulants and cationic polymers. As well. In this process. their charge per volume is significant. Gentle agitation of the water and appropriate detention times (the length of time water remains in the basin) help facilitate this process. Several recent studies have shown that bacteria and viral agents are attached to organic and inorganic particulates. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate is a 48. is added to the water in the "flash mix" to cause microscopic impurities in the water to clump together.
In these units. B. The water flows by gravity through large filters of anthracite coal. the velocity of the water is decreased so that the suspended material. Activated carbon filters. Outlet Zone Shapes for a Sedimentation Basin A. Circular Basins C. will also remove turbidity. Settling Zone C. bacteria and other microorganisms are caught in the floc structure. some plants have pre-sedimentation. odor. Provides an equalization basin which evens out fluctuations in concentrations of suspended solids. Inlet Zone B. garnet and gravel. Filters are available in several ratings depending on the size of particles to be removed.The water is slowly mixed in contact chambers allowing the coagulated particles to become larger and stronger and is now called "floc. The rate of filtration can be adjusted to meet water consumption needs. To allow larger particles time to settle in a reservoir or lake (sand. silica sand. Once settled. The floc particles are removed in these filters. screens of various materials. Following flocculation. or plastic material are also common and are often much smaller and cheaper and are disposable. Filters for suspended particle removal can also be made of graded sand. including flocculated particles. Rectangular Basins B. Double deck Basins Sedimentation The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. Pre-Sedimentation Depending on the quality of the source water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 52 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . During sedimentation." As these floc particles mix in the water. heavy silt) reducing solid removal loads. The most widely used are rapid-sand filters in tanks. Cartridge filters made of fabric. but would not be recommended for that purpose only. A. The filter is periodically cleaned by a reversal of flow and the discharge of back flushed water into a drain. gravity holds the material in place and the flow is downwards. a sedimentation step may be used. can settle out by gravity. dissolved organics. described earlier. and fabrics. Square Basins D. granular synthetic material. the particles combine to form a sludge that is later removed from the bottom of the basin. Sludge Zone D. taste and color. Sedimentation Basin Zones A. Filtration A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. paper.
With most of the larger particles settled out, the water now goes to the filtration process. At a rate of between 2 and 10 gpm per square foot, the water is filtered through an approximate 36" bed of graded sand. Anthracite coal or activated carbon may also be included in the sand to improve the filtration process, especially for the removal of organic contaminants, taste, and odor problems. The filtration process removes the following types of particles Silts and clay Colloids Biological forms Floc Four desirable characteristics of filter media A. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) B. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) C. Hard and durable D. Free of impurities and is insoluble in water Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis, at least once per day. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The more uniform the media, the slower head loss buildup. All the water treatment plants that use surface water are governed by the U.S. EPA’s Surface Water Treatment Rules or SWTR. Direct Filtration Plant vs. Conventional Plant The only difference is that the sedimentation process or step is omitted from the Direct Filtration plant. Declining Rate Filters The flow rate will vary with head loss. Each filter operates at the same rate, but can have a variable water level. This system requires an effluent control structure (weir) to provide adequate media submergence. Detention Time Is the actual time required for a small amount of water to pass through a sedimentation basin at a given rate of flow, or the calculated time required for a small amount of liquid to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. Detention Time = (Basin Volume, Gallons) (24 Hours/day) Flow, Gallons/day Disinfection Chlorine is added to the water at the flash mix for pre-disinfection. The chlorine kills or inactivates harmful microorganisms. Chlorine is added again after filtration for post-disinfection.
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Jar Testing (More information later in manual)
Jar testing traditionally has been done on a routine basis in most water treatment plants to control the coagulant dose. Much more information, however, can be obtained with only a small modification in the conventional method of jar testing. It is the quickest and most economical way to obtain good reliable data on the many variables which affect the treatment process. These include: 1. Determination of most effective coagulant. 2. Determination of optimum coagulation pH for the various coagulants. 3. Evaluation of most effective polymers. 4. Optimum point of application of polymers in treatment train. 5. Optimum sequence of application of coagulants, polymers and pH adjustment chemicals. 6. Best flocculation time. pH Expression of a basic or acid condition of a liquid. The range is from 0-14, zero being the most acid and 14 being the most alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Most natural water has a pH between 6.0 and 8.5. Caustic (NaOH) also called Sodium Hydroxide is a strong chemical used in the treatment process to neutralize acidity, increase alkalinity or raise the pH value. Polymer A type of chemical when combined with other types of coagulants aid in binding small suspended particles to larger particles to help in the settling and filtering processes. Post Chlorine Where the water is chlorinated to make sure to hold a residual in the distribution system. Pre Chlorine Where the raw water is dosed with a large concentration of chlorine. Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine before the filtration process will help: A. Control algae and slime growth B. Control mud ball formation C. Improve coagulation D. Precipate iron Raw Turbidity The turbidity of the water coming to the treatment plant from the raw water source. Settled Solids Solids that have been removed from the raw water by the coagulation and settling processes. Hydrofluosilicic Acid (H2SiF6) a clear, fuming corrosive liquid with a pH ranging from 1 to 1.5. Used in water treatment to fluoridate drinking water.
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Corrosion Control The pH of the water is adjusted with sodium carbonate, commonly called soda ash. Soda ash is fed into the water after filtration. Zinc Orthophosphate A chemical used to coat the pipes in the distribution system to inhibit corrosion. Taste and Odor Control Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is occasionally added for taste and odor control. PAC is added to the flash mix. Water Quality Water testing is conducted throughout the treatment process. Items like turbidity, pH and chlorine residual are monitored and recorded continuously. Some items are tested several times per day, some once per quarter and others once per year. Sampling Collect the water sample at least 6 inches under the surface by plunging the container mouth down into the water and turning the mouth towards the current by dragging the container slowly horizontal. Care should be taken not to disturb the bottom of the water source or along the sides so as not to stir up any settled solids. This would create erroneous errors. Chemical Feed and Rapid Mix Chemicals are added to the water in order to improve the subsequent treatment processes. These may include pH adjusters and coagulants. Coagulants are chemicals, such as alum, that neutralize positive or negative charges on small particles, allowing them to stick together and form larger particles that are more easily removed by sedimentation (settling) or filtration. A variety of devices, such as baffles, static mixers, impellers, and in-line sprays can be used to mix the water and distribute the chemicals evenly. Short Circuiting Short Circuiting is a condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the water travels faster than the rest of the flowing water. This is usually undesirable since it may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times in comparison with the presumed detention times. Tube Settlers This modification of the conventional process contains many metal “tubes” that are placed in the sedimentation basin, or clarifier. These tubes are approximately 1 inch deep and 36 inches long, split-hexagonal shape, and installed at an angle or 60 degrees or less. These tubes provide for a very large surface area upon which particles may settle as the water flows upwards. The slope of the tubes facilitates gravity settling of the solids to the bottom of the basin, where they can be collected and removed. The large surface settling area also means that adequate clarification can be obtained with detention times of 15 minutes or less. As with conventional treatment, this sedimentation step is followed by filtration through mixed media.
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Adsorption Clarifiers: The concept of the adsorption clarifier package plant was developed in the early 1980’s. This technology uses an up flow clarifier with low-density plastic bead media, usually held in place by a screen. This adsorption media is designed to enhance the sedimentation/ clarification process by combining flocculation and sedimentation into one step. In this step, turbidity is reduced by adsorption of the coagulated and flocculated solids onto the adsorption media and onto the solids already adsorbed onto the media. Air scouring cleans adsorption clarifiers followed by water flushing. Cleaning of this type of clarifier is initiated more often than filter backwashing because the clarifier removes more solids. As with the tube-settler type of package plant, the sedimentation/ clarification process is followed by mixed-media filtration and disinfection to complete the water treatment. Clearwell: The final step in the conventional filtration process, the clear well provides temporary storage for the treated water. The two main purposes for this storage are to have filtered water available for backwashing the filter, and to provide detention time (or contact time) for the chlorine (or other disinfectant) to kill any microorganisms that may remain in the water.
Public education is key to a water treatment facility’s image. This is a difficult balance with new security rules that are in place since 9/11.
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by establishing filtration and monitoring requirements for systems serving more than 10. More than 4.000 people in Milwaukee to experience intestinal illness. The IESWTR set the first drinking water standards to control Cryptosporidium in large water systems.000 people annually.500 small water systems which serve fewer than 10. What will the LT1FBR require? The LT1FBR provisions will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water systems. Background The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires the EPA to set enforceable standards to protect public health from contaminants which may occur in drinking water. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea. This rule proposes to extend protections against Cryptosporidium and other disease-causing microbes to the 11. If finished water supplies contain microbiological contaminants.000 people each. In 1993. disease outbreaks may result. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Filter Backwash Rule (LT1FBR) to increase protection of finished drinking water supplies from contamination by Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens. The current proposed rule includes provisions addressing both of these requirements. and fall into the three following categories: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 57 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The 1996 Amendments to SDWA require The EPA to promulgate an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (announced in December 1998). Treatment technologies such as filtration and disinfection can remove or inactivate microbiological contaminants. nausea. 2000 ((1412(b)(2)(C)) and also required the EPA to “promulgate a regulation to govern the recycling of filter backwash water within the treatment process of a public water system” by August. possibly jaundice. This rule also establishes filter backwash requirements for certain public water systems of all sizes.EPA Filter Backwash Rule The U.Apply to systems serving fewer than 10. Cryptosporidium caused over 400. The filter backwash requirements will reduce the potential risks associated with recycling contaminants removed during the filtration process. 2000 ((1412(b)(14)).000 people. Physical removal is critical to the control of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to standard disinfection practice. The EPA has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants is a health concern. The EPA has set enforceable drinking water treatment requirements to reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreaks. cramps.000 were hospitalized. The LT1FBR proposal builds on those standards by extending the requirements to small systems. The 1996 Amendments also require the EPA to promulgate a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (for systems serving less than 10. LT1 Provisions . and headaches and fatigue. Cryptosporidiosis may manifest itself as a severe infection that can last several weeks and may cause the death of individuals with compromised immune systems. and at least 50 deaths were attributed to the cryptosporidiosis outbreak. This rule will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water.000 people) by November.S.
• Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with individual filter turbidity requirements.Apply to all systems which recycle regardless of population served: • Recycle systems will be required to return spent filter backwash water. and recycle spent filter backwash water. one-time recycle self assessment. thickener supernatant. and • Unfiltered systems must comply with updated watershed control requirements that add Cryptosporidium as a pathogen of concern. be made to protect public health. and liquids from dewatering process prior to the point of primary coagulant addition unless the State specifies an alternative location. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 58 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Other Requirements • Finished water reservoirs for which construction begins after the effective date of the rule must be covered. Disinfection Benchmarking • Public water systems will be required to develop a disinfection profile unless they perform applicability monitoring which demonstrates their disinfection byproduct levels are less than 80% of the maximum contaminant levels. The self assessment requires hydraulic flow monitoring and that certain data be reported to the State.Turbidity • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with specific combined filter effluent turbidity requirements. • If a system considers making a significant change to their disinfection practice they must develop a disinfection benchmark and receive State approval for implementing the change. and/or liquids from dewatering process within the treatment process must perform a one month. FBR Provisions . • Conventional systems that practice direct recycle. gauges and pumps. which may require that modifications to recycle practice be made. • Direct filtration systems recycling to the treatment process must provide detailed recycle treatment information to the State. and. Under the filtration basins are tunnels and complex machinery. thickener supernatant. employ 20 or fewer filters to meet production requirements during a selected month. which may require modifications to recycle practice.
. the more complex forms consist of many cells grouped in a spherical colony (e. The cells of the colonies are generally similar.g. the green color of the chlorophyll is masked by the presence of other pigments. 10.Types of Algae The simplest algae are single cells (e. to ingest food in an animal like manner. Green Algae (Gamophyta & Chlorophyta) 7000 species Red Algae (Rhodophyta) 4000 species such as this Coralline Alga (Calliarthron tuberculosum) Other species include Diatoms (Bacillariophyta.g. is a green alga.Protoctista are pretty much all microscopic organisms. One of the commonest forms is Spirogyra. Fucus). Spirogyra). the diatoms). With the exception of the larger Algae -. may attain a length of more than 200 ft (61 m). The more complex brown algae and red algae are chiefly saltwater forms.seaweeds and kelp -.g. The green algae include most of the freshwater forms.000 species) and various Plankton Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 59 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . under certain conditions.. such as ponds and reservoirs. but some are differentiated for reproduction and for other functions. The pond scum. the largest algae. or in a branching thallus form (e.. Volvox). as is the green film found on the bark of trees. Blue-green algae have been grouped with other prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera and renamed cyanobacteria.g. a green slime found in stagnant water. Pond scum. in a ribbonlike filament (e. accumulation of floating green algae on the surface of stagnant or slowly moving waters. Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able. Kelps..
They are microscopic and single celled Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 60 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Blue-green algae are not actually algae.Major Algae Groups Blue-green algae are the slimy stuff. Green algae cells have nuclei and the pigment is distinct. Dinoflagellates have a flagella and can swim in open waters. Euglenoids are microscopic and single celled. They are easy to spot because of their red eye. They are microscopic and single celled. Diatoms look like two shells that fit together. Green algae are the most common algae in ponds and can be multicellular. too. Euglenoids are green or brown and swim with their flagellum. Its cells lack nuclei and its pigment is scattered. they are bacteria.
route. They can cause illness through exposure to small quantities of contaminated water or food or from direct contact with infected people or animals. A frequent source is a food handler who does not wash his hands after a bowel movement and then handles food with “unclean” hands. then put their fingers in a friend’s mouth or Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 61 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . generally a few days to two weeks. viruses and protozoan that cause disease are known as pathogens. In addition to water. failing sewage treatment plants or cross-connections of water lines with sewage lines provide the potential for contaminating water with pathogens.Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria. Most pathogens are generally associated with diseases that cause intestinal illness and affect people in a relatively short amount of time. Influenza virus and tuberculosis bacteria are spread by secretions that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. infected children in diapers may get feces on their fingers. dispersed and diluted into microscopic particles. not restaurants. The individual who eats fecescontaminated food may become infected and ill. For another person to become infected. The foodborne route is one of the more common methods. Only proper treatment will ensure eliminating the spread of disease. The water may not appear to be contaminated because feces has been broken up. or feces-to-mouth. failing septic systems. Here. other methods exist for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. Pathogens may get into water and spread when infected humans or animals pass the bacteria. Day care centers are another common source for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. Waterborne pathogens are different from other types of pathogens such as the viruses that cause influenza (the flu) or the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. These particles. How Diseases are Transmitted Cryptosporidium Pathogens that may cause waterborne outbreaks through drinking water have one thing in common: they are spread by the fecal-oral. he or she must take that pathogen in through the mouth. It is interesting to note the majority of foodborne diseases occur in the home. viruses and protozoa in their stool. Human or animal wastes in watersheds. containing pathogens. may remain in the water and be passed to humans or animals unless adequately treated.
This contamination may be of human or animal origin. you may want to think twice about what you’ve digested within the past few days. nausea and vomiting.” Medical treatment generally is not prescribed for campylobacteriosis because recovery is usually rapid. Chain of Transmission Water is contaminated with feces. The general public and some of the medical community usually refer to diarrhea symptoms as “stomach flu. Bacterial Diseases Campylobacteriosis is the most common diarrhea illness caused by bacteria. Some pathogens will survive for only a short time in water. Legionellosis. no disease will result. influenza is an upper respiratory illness and rarely has diarrhea associated with it. By breaking the chain at any point. The illness is frequently over within two to five days and usually lasts no more than 10 days. Campylobacteriosis outbreaks have most often been associated with food. stomach flu is a misleading description for foodborne or waterborne illnesses. Salmonellosis. are other bacterial diseases that can be transmitted through water. Cholera. This chain lists the events that must occur for the transmission of disease via drinking water. Coli Bacteria Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 62 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the transmission of disease will be prevented. These organisms are also an important cause of “travelers’ diarrhea. Shigellosis. The feces must contain pathogens (disease-causing bacteria. others.handle toys that other children put into their mouths. Illness (disease) will occur. especially chicken and unpasteurized milk as well as unchlorinated water. malaise. viruses or protozoa).” Technically. Yersiniosis. So the next time you get the stomach flu. A susceptible person must drink the water that contains the pathogen. This depends on the temperature of the water and the length of time the pathogens are in the water. may survive for months. The pathogens must survive in the water. therefore. If the human or animal source is not infected with a pathogen. The water is either not treated or inadequately treated for the pathogens present. fever. E. The pathogens in the water must enter the water system’s intake and in numbers sufficient to infect people. All bacteria in water are readily killed or inactivated with chlorine or other disinfectants. Symptoms begin three to five days after exposure. such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium. Other symptoms include abdominal pain. yet is accepted by the general public.
food contaminated by infected food handlers.Viral-Caused Diseases Hepatitis A is an example of a common viral disease that may be transmitted through water. followed within a few days by jaundice. and raw or undercooked mollusks harvested from contaminated waters. to a severely disabling disease lasting several months (rare). The disease varies in severity from a mild illness lasting one to two weeks. malaise. including sandwiches and salads that are not cooked or are handled after cooking. Hepatitis A outbreaks have been related to fecally contaminated water. The incubation period is 15-50 days and averages 28-30 days. Aseptic meningitis. polio and viral gastroenteritis (Norwalk agent) are other viral diseases that can be transmitted through water. nausea and abdominal discomfort. The onset is usually abrupt with fever. Norwalk Agent Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 63 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Most viruses in drinking water can be inactivated by chlorine or other disinfectants. loss of appetite.
has been responsible for more community-wide outbreaks of disease in the U. than any other pathogen. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea. Some parasites enter the environment in a dormant form. frequent loose and pale greasy stools. It has also been referred to as “backpacker’s disease” and “beaver fever” because of the many cases reported among hikers and others who consume untreated surface water. Symptoms usually come and go. Giardia lamblia. with an average of 7-10 days. fatigue and weight loss.” The cyst can survive in the environment for long periods of time and be extremely resistant to conventional disinfectants such as chlorine. Many infections are asymptomatic (no symptoms). with an average of about seven days. Giardiasis is a commonly reported protozoan-caused disease. abdominal cramps. The diarrhea is associated with cramping abdominal pain. They invade and inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. The incubation period is 5-25 days or longer. The incubation period is 1-12 days. Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is an example of a protozoan disease that is common worldwide but was only recently recognized as causing human disease. The organism. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 64 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . nausea and vomiting occur less often. Effective filtration treatment is therefore critical to removing these organisms from water sources. Waterborne outbreaks in the United States occur most often in communities receiving their drinking water from streams or rivers without adequate disinfection or a filtration system. anorexia. Drugs are available for treatment but these are not 100% effective. called a “cyst.S. with a protective cell wall. fever. bloating. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea. General malaise. which may be profuse and watery. and end in fewer than 30 days in most cases.Protozoan Caused Diseases Protozoan pathogens are larger than bacteria and viruses but still microscopic. Giardiasis occurs worldwide.
While water treatment cannot achieve sterile water (no microorganisms). operating and maintaining the system at a high level on a continuing basis is critical to prevent disease. whether through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. Particularly vulnerable are persons with weak immune systems such as those with HIV infections or cancer. the importance of properly constructed. with the exception of hepatitis A. self-limiting disease. either by person-to-person or animal-to-person. There is no specific treatment for Cryptosporidium infections. The mode of transmission is fecal-oral. For those who operate water systems with inadequate source protection or treatment facilities. even life threatening illness. have one symptom in common: diarrhea. By understanding the nature of waterborne diseases. they can cause serious. the goal of treatment must clearly be to produce drinking water that is as pathogen-free as possible at all times. the potential risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is real. operated and maintained public water systems becomes obvious. They also have the same mode of transmission. and the same routes of transmission.Cryptosporidium organisms have been identified in human fecal specimens from more than 50 countries on six continents. For those operating systems that currently provide adequate source protection and treatment. All these diseases. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 65 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . fecal-oral. Although most pathogens cause mild. on occasion. being either foodborne or waterborne.
shellfish Diarrhea and vomiting lives in polluted waters) Salmonellosis Salmonella (bacterium) Animal or human feces Diarrhea or vomiting Escherichia coli-. urine Inflamed intestine. rapid lives in many coastal waters) dehydration. shellfish grown Yellowed skin.E. abdominal pain — low mortality. (protozoan) extra intestinal infection Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (protozoan) Animal or human feces Diarrhea. (also. lasts up to four months Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Human feces Mild diarrhea. vomiting. dysentery. severe diarrhea. coli organisms Typhoid Salmonella typhi (bacterium) Human feces. enlarged spleen. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Human feces. shellfish Vomiting. lives in polluted waters fever. enlarged liver. and general weakness — lasts one week to months Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Animal or human feces Diarrhea. coli O1 57:H7 (bacterium) Human feces Symptoms vary with type caused gastroenteritis Other E. nausea. mineral loss — high mortality. cramps. weight loss. Diarrhea or vomiting children) Norwalk-like viruses Human feces. high temperature— sometimes fatal Shigellosis Shigella (bacterium) Human feces Diarrhea Cholera Vibrio choleras (bacterium) Human feces. Coli O157 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 66 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (also.Waterborne Diseases Name Causative organism Source of organism Disease Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus ( lives mostly in young Human feces. stomach pain — lasts (protozoan) days to weeks E.
About 100. and residents were advised to drain and clean spas and hyperchlorinate swimming pools. spas and fountains.000 of Peoria's 120. This supply is predominantly drawn from surface water sources but is supplemented by groundwater in times of high demand. although periodic chlorination has been used after new connections. Supply to the affected area was switched to a chlorinated surface water source.000 residents receive chlorinated drinking water from the municipal supply. and a flushing program with hyperchlorinated water was carried out to remove possible contamination from the water distribution system. Exposure to the organism is believed to be relatively common but infections resulting in illness are rare. As Arizona state law prevents counties from supplying water to areas outside the incorporated municipal zones. Both boys became ill on 9 October and died a few days later on 12 and 13 October respectively. who identified the amoeba in a patient who had died from meningitis. line breaks or incidents that might allow ingress of microbial contamination. an Australian pathologist. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 67 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Tests by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have detected N. the remaining 20. a boil water notice was issued and 6. some four miles away.000 consumers were warned not to use unboiled tap water for drinking. pools.Health Stream Article . fowleri in three samples: · one pre-chlorination water sample from a municipal well that was routinely chlorinated · one tank water sample from the suspect unchlorinated groundwater system · the refrigerator filter from the home of the grandparents of one of the boys The chlorinated well is believed unlikely to be the source of infection as chlorination is effective in killing N. They attended separate schools. bathtubs. Naegleria fowleri is a free living amoeba which is common in the environment and grows optimally at temperatures of 35 to 45 degrees C. Health authorities then began investigating possible common sources of Naegleria exposure including drinking water. Some of these companies chlorinate their groundwater supplies and some do not. Schools and restaurants in the suspect area were also closed.Issue 28 December 2002 Naegleria Deaths In Arizona Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. however the Glendale boy frequently visited his grandparents' home a few blocks from the other boy's residence in Peoria. This supply was taken off-line on 3 November. fowleri. cooking or bathing.000 residents in the rapidly growing town are served by private water companies which mainly rely on groundwater sources. The source of the infections has not been positively established but suspicion has fallen on a small unchlorinated ground water supply operated by a private company. The suspect water supply is drawn from a deep aquifer and is not routinely chlorinated. One of the victims lived in Peoria and the other in the neighboring town of Glendale. The disease was first described in 1965 by Dr Malcolm Fowler.
high pitched crying and convulsions. Investigators found N. fowleri in the water supply pipelines. The incidence of disease was greatly reduced by introduction of reliable chlorination facilities along the above-ground pipelines and introduction of chloramination in the 1980s led to virtual elimination of N.Most reported cases of N. Warm water conditions and the absence of free chlorine may then allow it to proliferate in the system. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 68 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . However as the organism may be found in moist soil. Cases of disease have also been associated with swimming pools where disinfection levels were inadequate. but had intra-nasal exposure to tap water through inhaling or squirting water into the nose. Similar symptoms also occur in viral and bacterial forms of meningitis which are much more common than the amoebic form. Cases are often reported to be associated with jumping or falling into the water. The involvement of tap water supplies was first documented in South Australia. and infection occurs through introduction of the organism into the nasal cavities. fowleri meningitis causes non-specific symptoms such as fever. fowleri has been detected in water supplies in each of these states as well as the Northern Territory. and N. it is feasible that the amoeba may penetrate poorly constructed bores or be introduced by occasional contamination events. confusion. About half of the cases in the state did not have a recent history of freshwater swimming. and some residents have called for the municipality to purchase the private water company and take over its operations. transmission by contaminated dust was suspected as an infection route but this has since been discounted as the organism does not survive desiccation. Tap water may also have been the primary source of infections attributed to swimming pools in these towns. fowleri meningitis are fatal. Cases of disease have also been recorded in Western Australia.fowleri from the water supplies. In early studies. The amoeba may then penetrate the cribiform plate. N. Most cases of N. irritability. fowleri meningitis are associated with swimming in natural surface freshwater bodies. Plans are also underway to install a continuous chlorination plant on the groundwater supply. People with immune deficiencies may also be more prone to infection. making them more susceptible to infection than adults. fowleri infections had not been reported to be associated with groundwater supplies. Queensland and New South Wales. a semiporous barrier. The cribiform plate is more permeable in children. and the infection cannot be transmitted from person to person. and spread to the meninges (the membrane surrounding the brain) and often to the brain tissue itself. and inhalation of tap water from surface water supplies that have been subject to high temperatures. with only four survivors known among about 100 cases in the US since 1965. providing conditions where water is forced into the nose at pressure. N. vomiting. where a number of cases occurred in the 1960s and 70s in several towns served by unchlorinated surface water delivered through long above-ground pipelines. Prior to the incidents in Peoria. Local health authorities in Arizona are continuing their investigation into the two deaths with assistance from CDC personnel. and concluded that the high water temperatures reached in summer provided a suitable environment for growth of the organism. drowsiness. The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days.
for instance. Scope 1. This rule applies to flocculator speed. if any. turbidity. then simulate this during the jar test. Turbidity . followed by gravity settling. to determine the proper coagulant dosage. Take time to observe what happens to the raw water in your plant after the chemicals have been added.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns. The procedure may be used to evaluate color. If. Because the jar test is intended to simulate conditions in your plant. 1. suspended. starting the test at high rpm would provide misleading results. Before you start The jar test. all depend on the proper application of chemicals to the raw water entering the treatment plant. Finished water quality. 1. operate the jar test to simulate conditions in YOUR plant. and hardness reduction.Agglomeration of particles into groups thereby increasing the effective diameter.A chemical technique directed toward destabilization of colloidal particles. THE RPM OF THE STIRRER AND THE MINUTES TO COMPLETE THE TEST DEPEND ON CONDITIONS IN YOUR PLANT. 1.A measure of the presence of suspended solid material. colloidal. and nonsettleable matter from water by chemical coagulation-flocculation.1 This practice covers a general procedure for the evaluation of a treatment to reduce dissolved. your plant does not have a static or flash mixer. cost of production. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. length of settling time and floc development. as with any coagulant test. continues to be one of the most effective tools available to surface water plant operators. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 69 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2 The practice provides a systematic evaluation of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process. Terms Flocculation . associated with its use. will only provide accurate results when properly performed. length of filter runs and overall filter life. Coagulation . developing the proper procedure is very important.The Jar Test Jar testing. Again.
are in close proximity the nucleus of each atom will weakly attract electrons in the counter atom resulting. These particles are the primary contributors to the turbidity of the raw water causing it to be “cloudy”. at least momentarily. thereby increasing there size and mass. but their surface properties. van der Waals force. As can clearly be seen from this relationship. Ar. such as He. When two or more nonpolar molecules. In order to have gravity affect these particles we must somehow make them larger. in an unsymmetrical arrangement of the nucleus. The most important factor(s) contributing to the stability of colloidal particles is not their mass. H2. This force. somehow have them come together (conglomerate). The two primary forces that control whether or not colloidal particles will agglomerate are: Repulsive Force An electrostatic force called the “Zeta Potential” - 4π q d ζ = D Where: ζ = Zeta Potential q = charge per unit area of the particle d = thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface through which the charge is effective D = dielectric constant of the liquid Attractive Force Force due to van der Waals forces van der Waals forces are weak forces based on a polar characteristic induced by neighboring molecules. This idea can be better understood by relating the colloidal particles large surface area to their small volume (S/V) ratio resulting from their very small size. is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance (1/d6) between the particles.Turbidity Particles less about 1 to 10 µm in diameter (primarily colloidal particles) will not settle out by gravitational forces. decay of this force occurs exponentially with distance. in other words somehow make them “stick” together. therefore making them very difficult to remove. In order to remove these small particles we must either filter the water or somehow incorporate gravitational forces such that these particles will settle out. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 70 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
The chemical reaction continues until the aluminum ions (Al+3) reach their final form.Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) or Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU). which is amplified and displayed on the instrument. The particles are then able to get close enough together for van der Waals forces to take over and the particles begin to flocculate.5 to 9. we can upset the charge effect of the particle enough to reduce the Zeta potential (repulsive force) thereby allowing van der Waals forces (attractive forces) to take over.5. and settle out (note – the flocculated particles settle out separately from the precipitated Al(OH)3 (s)).5. and the particles restabilize.e. By “pushing” (adding energy) the particles together we can aid in the flocculation process forming larger flocs. Al(OH)2+. therefore upsetting the stable negative charge of the target particles.5. 3. the faster they will settle within a clarifier. This is the coagulation part of the coagulation/flocculation process. The photomultiplier tube converts the light energy into an electrical signal. Al(OH)3 (s). Alum works best in the pH range of natural waters. i. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 71 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ferrous Sulfate works well in through a range of pH values. During the flocculation process the particles join together to form flocs. flocculation follows coagulation.) Secchi Disk . thereby displacing the water layer surrounding the charged particle momentarily.By supercharging the water supply momentarily with a positive charge. rotating the paddles too fast. If to much alum is added then the opposite effect occurs. This upset decreases the distance “d” in-turn decreasing the Zeta potential.e. During the coagulation process charged hydroxy-metallic complexes are formed momentarily (i. How to Treat Turbidity Supercharge the water supply .a black and white disk divided like a pie in 4 quadrants about 6" in diameter. A sensitive photomultiplier tube at a 90o angle from the incident light beam detects the light scattered by the particles in the sample. The final key to obtaining good flocs is the added energy put into the system by way of rotating paddles in the flocculator tanks. It important to understand that too much energy. Other chemical coagulants used are Ferric Chloride and Ferrous Sulfate. would cause the particles to shear (breakup). the particles form sub complexes with the Al+3 and gain a positive charge about them.Light is passed through a sample.7. By introducing aluminum (Al3+) into the water in the form of Alum (Al2(SO4)3•nH20) we can accomplish the supercharging of the water. thereby reducing the size of the particles and would therefore increase the settling time in the clarifier. 5.) Turbidimeter . the larger the flocs.) Jackson Candle Test 2. Ferric Chloride works best at lower pH values. 4.Ways to Measure Turbidity 1. Al(OH)21+ etc). Theses complexes are charged highly positive.0 . Units . down to pH 4.
5) Measure the initial pH 6) Add alum and NaOH solutions in equal portions as specified by instructor. 2) Make up a 0. Take the sample from the center. O-2 = 16 mg/mmol. 7) Mixing protocol: a.15 minutes (20 rpm) c.3H 2O + 6CO2 (3) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14.3H 2O + 6H 2O → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 14. rapid mix . H+ = 1 mg/mmol) 3) Fill each of the six 1500 mL beakers with one-liter of river water.Key Equations Al 2 (SO 4 )3 • 14. (Na+1 = 23 mg/mmol.3H 2O (4) Apparatus 1) Jar Test Apparatus 2) 6 1500 mL Beakers 3) pH meter 4) Pipettes 5) Conductivity Meter 6) Turbidimeter Procedure 1) Make up a 10-g/L solution of alum. settling . Be careful not to disturb the flocs that have settled. about 2" down for each one liter sample. 9) Measure final pH Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 72 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .3H 2O + 3H 2SO 4 (2) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. slow mix .3H 2O + 6Na(OH ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.30 minutes 8) Measure final turbidity. off.1 minute (100 rpm) b.1 N solution of NaOH (buffer). 4) Measure the temperature and conductivity.3H 2O + 6Na(HCO3 ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.
Information to be Recorded Initial Turbidity = ? NTU . oC Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 73 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .g/L Turbidity (NTU) pH-Before Buffer pH-After Temp.1 N Beaker Alum (ml) Buffer (ml) Alum .0.
Different Types of Chemical Storage Tanks found in Water Treatment Facilities Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 74 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Using a syringe. Add 198 mL of water to a beaker. inject 2 mL of neat polymer into vortex. but preferably overnight. 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 75 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 2. Shake vigorously for at least 1 minute. Do not exceed 20 seconds! 5. 7. 6. 6. Graduated cylinder (100 mL).) 1. High speed hand mixer (for emulsion polymers). 10cc). 6. 4. 3.1% solution. Add 180 mL to 250 mL bottle. 4. Water (it is recommended that the makedown water from the plant be used). If the following procedures are not followed. Prepare 0. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. 7. add 2 mL of neat product to bottle. 1. since it involves compactly coiled large molecules in emulsions. Add 20 mL of 1 % solution.0% solution. Emulsion polymers (Prepare 1. Dilution technique ("make down") is especially critical. 8. Mix for 20 seconds. Add 180 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. Required equipment: 250 mL bottles with lids. 4. Add 198 mL of water to 250 mL bottle.) 1. 250 and 500 mL beakers. 5.Preparing Polymers for the Jar Test A successful Jar Test is very reliant upon the proper preparation of the polymers being tested. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Solution polymers and Inorganics (Prepare a 1. The polymer must be uncoiled to provide maximum contact with the colloidal particles to be flocculated. Prepare 0. the Jar Test results will be very unreliable.0% polymer solution. 5cc. 2.1% solution. 5. Allow dilute polymer to age for at least 20 minutes. prior to activation. Using a syringe. Insert Braun mixer into water and begin mixing. 3. 3.0% solution. Add 20 mL of 1. Syringes (1cc.
The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 76 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
KMn04 is also used to oxidize iron. KMn04 is a strong oxidizer which can be used to destroy many organic compounds of both the natural and man made origin. it changes color from purple to yellow or brown. If it is not all converted and is still purple or pink it will pass through the filter into the clearwell or distribution system. KMn04 must be used with caution as this material produces an intense purple color when mixed with water.00 0.50 0.20 no pink 4 1. measure 2000 ml of the sample to be tested into each of the six beakers.Potassium Permanganate Jar Test Potassium Permanganate has been used for a number of years in both water & wastewater treatment.75 0.25 0. Stock Solutions (Strong Stock Solution) 5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 ml distilled water.25 no pink 5 1. Jar # KMn04 ml KMn04 mg/l Color 1 0.15 no pink 3 1. Jar Testing Example If you have a six position stirrer: Using a graduated cylinder. coagulant. I must caution you that all KMn04 applied must be converted to manganese dioxide (Mn02) form prior to filtration. Using a graduated pipette. As the permanganate ion is reduced during its reaction with compounds that it oxidizes. The final product formed is manganese dioxide (Mn02) an insoluble precipitate that can be removed by sedimentation and filtration. which develop on the surface waters and on beds of lakes and rivers under certain conditions of temperature and chemical composition.50 0..35 pink Stir the beakers to simulate the turbulence where the KMn04 is to be added and observe the color change. dose each beaker with the test stock solution in the following manner. or the reaction may continue in the system and the same conditions as exist with naturally occurring manganese may cause staining of the plumbing fixtures.75 0.etc.10 no pink 2 0. (Test Stock Solution) 4 ml strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 ml distilled water. Dose each beaker to simulate plant practices in pre-treatment. Do not add carbon or chlorine. This may cause the customer to find pink tap water. Each 5 ml of the test stock solution added to a 2000 ml sample equals 1 mg/l. pH adjustment. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 77 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .30 pink 6 1. manganese and sulfide compounds and other taste and odor producing substances usually due to the presence of very small quantities of secretions given off by microscopic algae.
With proper application. continue with increased dosages. Samples which retain a brown or yellow color indicate that the oxidation process is incomplete and will require a higher dosage of KMn04. KMn04 Dose. To calculate the dosage of KMn04 for iron and manganese removal here is the formula to use. Therefore.0.0(Manganese. oxidation is complete. Quick Test A quick way to check the success of a KMn04 application is by adding 1.64 mg/l Note: The calculated 2. mg/l = 0. Its usefulness also extends to algae control as well as many taste odor problems. Jar testing should be done to determine the required dose. If the sample turns brown there is iron or manganese remaining in the finished water.64 mg/l KMn04 dose is the minimum dose.2 mg/l) = 2. mg/l) Example: Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l for a water with 0. This dose assumes there are no oxidizable compounds in the raw water.4 of iron. KMn04 used as a disinfectant in pre-treatment could help control the formation of trihalomethanes by allowing chlorine to be added later in the treatment process or after filtration.0(Manganese. If the sample remains pink.2 mg/l. mg/l = 1.4 mg/l) + 2. If the first jar test does not produce the correct color change. Also. As well as being a strong oxidizer for iron and manganese.As the iron and manganese begin to oxidize. the actual dose may be higher. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 78 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .4 mg/l Kmn04 Dose. mg/l) + 2. In the preceding table a pink color first developed in beaker #5 which had been dosed with 1. the sample will turn varying shades of brown. mg/l = 0. potassium permanganate is an extremely useful chemical treatment.3 mg/l. Known Unknown Iron.6(iron. The end point has been reached when a pink color is observed and remains for at least 10 minutes.0(1. KMn04 Dose.25 ml of the test stock solution to 1000 ml finished water.6(0.5 ml/ 0. mg/l Manganese. The manganese concentration is 1. mg/l) = 0. care must be taken not to bring pink water to the filter unless you have "greensand". mg/l = 0. mg/l) + 2. indicating the presence of oxidized iron and or manganese. When applying potassium permanganate to raw water.2 mg/l Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l. permanganate generally reacts more quickly at pH levels above 7.6(Iron.
and the periods are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom. K.) All the metals are grouped together on the left side of the periodic table.How is the Periodic Table Organized? The periodic table is organized with eight principal vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods.Li. Semimetals are found in between the metals and nonmetals. Cs. Fr known as alkai metals most reactive of the metals react with all nonmetals except the noble gases contain typical physical properties of metals (ex. and all the nonmetals are grouped together on the right side of the periodic table. Na. What are the Eight Groups of the Periodic Table? Group I: Alkali Metals . shiny solids and good conductors of heat and electricity) softer than most familiar metals. (The groups are numbered I to VIII from left to right. Rb. can be cut with a knife Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 79 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Al. Ge.Group II: Alkaline Earth Metals-Be. Kr. Sn. Ra known as alkaline earth metals react with nonmetals. Bi nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. tin and lead are metals Group V: N. Ar. liquids. Br. Ca. In. sulfur. Ne. Cl. Mg. Ga. silicon and germanium are semimetals. but more slowly than the Group I metals solids at room temperature have typical metallic properties harder than the Group I metals higher melting points than the Group I metals Group III: B. At very reactive nonmetals Group VIII: Noble Gases-He. Pb carbon is a nonmetal. arsenic and antimony are semimetals. Ba. or solids at room temperature Poor conductors of heat Are insulators-very poor conductors of electricity Do not have a high reflectivity or a shiny metallic appearance In solid form generally brittle and fracture easily under stress Do not exhibit photoelectric or thermionic effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 80 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . I. Rn very unreactive Properties of Metals Solids at room temperature Conduct heat very well Have electrical conductivities that increase with decreasing temperature Have a high flexibility and a shiny metallic luster Are malleable-can be beaten out into sheets or foils Are ductile-can be pulled into thin wires without breaking Emit electrons when they are exposed to radiation of sufficiently high energy or when They are heated (known as photoelectric effect and thermionic effect) Properties of Nonmetals May be gases. Tl boron is a semimetal. Sb. As. tellurium and polonium are semimetals Group VII: Halogens-F. Si. S. Te. Xe. Sr. Se. Po oxygen. bismuth is a metal Group VI: O. P. and selenium are nonmetals. all the others are metals Group IV: C.
A difference of 2 units. and so on. represents the neutral point. For example. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 81 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the acidity of a sample with a pH of 5 is ten times greater than that of a sample with a pH of 6. This scale ranges from 0 (maximum acidity) to 14 (maximum alkalinity). The middle of the scale. would mean that the acidity is one hundred times greater. a difference of one pH unit represents a tenfold change. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. pH = (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity). 7. Normal rain has a pH of 5. from 6 to 4. Because the scale is logarithmic.The pH Scale pH: A measure of the acidity of water. The acidity increases from neutral toward 0. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. The acidity of a water sample is measured on a pH scale.6 – slightly acidic because of the carbon dioxide picked up in the earth's atmosphere by the rain.
Bromate Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort or anemia. You will see an increase of these technologies in the near future. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. kidneys. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard. Chlorite Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. and Ultraviolet light. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort. Chlorine Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people may experience anemia. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Haloacetic Acids Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Chlorine Dioxide Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. Chloramine Some people who use drinking water containing chloramines well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Disinfectant alternatives will include Ozone. Total Trihalomethanes Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver.Modern Water Treatment Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. or central nervous systems. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard. Some people may experience anemia. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 82 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Especially after heavy rainstorms.
The water will help create acid which will make the leak larger.Chlorine Section 2 Ton Cylinders The top lines are for extracting the gas. Never place water on a leaking metal cylinder. and the bottom lines are for extracting the Cl2 liquid. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 83 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
150 Pound Chlorine Cylinder Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 84 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
glycerol. Prolonged exposures may result in olfactory fatigue. potassium. DOT UN: 1017 20 4. rubber. iodine. alcohols. Reactivity 1. carbon disulfide.6 degrees C (-30. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): -34. ammonia. and finely divided metals may cause fires and explosions. and chlorides. DOT label: Poison gas Appearance and odor Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Melting point: -101 degrees C (-149.: 7782-50-5 2. and coatings. Odor thresholds ranging from 0. CAS No. Conditions contributing to instability: Cylinders of chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures. and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride. soluble in alkalies.08 to part per million (ppm) parts of air have been reported. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid. 3. boron. Contact between chlorine and arsenic. Special precautions: Chlorine will attack some forms of plastics. Hazardous decomposition products: None reported.2 degrees F) or at high pressures. Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F): 4. hydrazine. turpentine.Chlorine * Formula: Cl(2) * Structure: Not applicable. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 85 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and water. alcohols. hydrocarbons. molecular chlorine Identifiers 1. Chlorine in solution forms a corrosive material. activated carbon. calcium.41 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 6. 4.5 5.: FO2100000 3.8 degrees F) 6.800 mm Hg 7. Specific gravity (liquid): 1. reducing agents. steam. It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29.9 2. * Synonyms: Bertholite. propylene. 2. Chemical and Physical Properties Physical data 1. oxomonosilane. Contact between chlorine and many combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. and sulfur). bismuth. Evaporation rate: Data not available. 8.28 degrees F) 3. Molecular weight: 70. Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture. Incompatibilities: Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures with chlorine. and silicon should be avoided. methane. Vapor density: 2. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water. RTECS No.86 atm 4. acetylene. hydrogen.
2.9 mg/m(3)) for periods not to exceed 15 minutes. The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 0 (no fire hazard) to chlorine. 15]. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 86 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . p. Extinguishant: For small fires use water only.1000. Stay away from the ends of containers. isolate the hazard area and deny entry. 3. Table Z-1]. 1. Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely. withdraw from the area and let the fire burn. 254].5 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1. cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out. For a massive fire in a cargo area. mucous membrane and skin irritation [NIOSH 1992]. if this is impossible. do not use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. use water spray or fog. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level [29 CFR 1910. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering. Autoignition temperature: Not applicable.Flammability Chlorine is a non-combustible gas.0 ppm (2. If fire must be fought. * NIOSH REL The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0.5 ppm (1. Keep unnecessary people away. most combustible materials will burn in chlorine. Fires involving chlorine should be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles.contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving chlorine. however.5 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1 ppm (3 mg/m(3))[NIOSH 1992]. * Rationale for Limits The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of severe eye. Contain and let large fires involving chlorine burn. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self. * ACGIH TLV The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned chlorine a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0. p. Exposure Limits * OSHA PEL The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. Exposures at the STEL concentration should not be repeated more than four times a day and should be separated by intervals of at least 60 minutes [ACGIH 1994. The ACGIH limits are based on the risk of eye and mucous membrane irritation [ACGIH 1991. 4. Flammable limits in air: Not applicable. Flash point: Not applicable. If this is not possible.
most of our drinking water supplies are free of the micro-organisms — viruses. several studies of cancer incidence in human populations have reported associations between long-term exposure to high levels of chlorination by-products and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.S.g. because organic matter concentrations are generally low in these sources. There is a constant danger that safe water leaving the treatment plant may become contaminated later. With free available chlorine. THM concentrations are generally lower in winter than in summer.5 ppm. For example. reaction kinetics complicates interpretation of chlorination data. particularly chlorination. and that which is bound but still effective is combined chlorine. loss of pressure that permits an inward leak. The amount of THMs formed in drinking water can be influenced by a number of factors. bromodichloromethane. bacteria and protozoa — that cause serious and life-threatening diseases. This residual concentration of chlorine provides some degree of protection right to the water faucet. chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Living cells react with chlorine and reduce its concentration while they die. because concentrations of natural organic matter are lower and less chlorine is required to disinfect at colder temperatures. some of which are effective killing agents. or plumbing errors. The most common chlorination by-products found in U. drinking water supplies are the trihalomethanes (THMs).1 to 0. a typical residual is from 0. such as cholera and typhoid fever. a typical residual is 2 ppm for combined chlorine. THM levels are also low when wells or large lakes are used as the drinking water source. The Principal Trihalomethanes are: Chloroform. Because chlorinated organic compounds are less effective. decay products of vegetation) in the water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 87 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Chlorine (DDBP) Today. The organic matter and other substances that are present.. Other less common chlorination by-products includes the haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles. including the season and the source of the water. There may be breaks in water mains. and OCl¯ is called free available chlorine. Also. However. Health Effects Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of THMs have shown increased incidences of cancer. at the turn of the century. convert to chlorinated derivatives. There will be no chlorine residual unless there is an excess over the amount that reacts with the organic matter present. Chlorine By-Products Chlorination by-products are the chemicals formed when the chlorine used to kill diseasecausing micro-organisms reacts with naturally occurring organic matter (e. A particularly important group of compounds with combined chlorine is the chloramines formed by reactions with ammonia. The correct excess is obtained in a method called "Break Point Chlorination ". One especially important feature of disinfection using chlorine is the ease of overdosing to create a "residual" concentration. The opposite — high organic matter concentrations and high THM levels — is true when rivers or other surface waters are used as the source of the drinking water. HOCl. This is largely due to the introduction of water treatment. Chlorine present as Cl.
In a California study. pregnant women who consumed large amounts of tap water containing elevated levels of THMs were found to have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 88 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a recent study conducted in the Great Lakes basin reported an increased risk of bladder and possibly colon cancer in people who drank chlorinated surface water for 35 years or more.products other than THMs.For instance. but indicate the need for further research to confirm their results and to assess the potential health effects of chlorination by. The bottom vent will allow the gas to ventilate because Cl2 gas is heavier than air. The available studies on health effects do not provide conclusive proof of a relationship between exposure to THMs and cancer or reproductive effects. Possible relationships between exposure to high levels of THMs and adverse reproductive effects in humans have also been examined recently. Chlorine storage room. notice the vents at the bottom and top.
Chlorine dioxide can be an effective disinfectant. they are very persistent and. Examples of other disinfectants include chloramines and chlorine dioxide. Although ozone is a highly effective disinfectant. as such. Although other disinfectants are available.g. so that small amounts of chlorine or other disinfectants must be added to the water to ensure continued disinfection as the water is piped to the consumer’s tap. compounds whose toxicity has not yet been fully determined. When used with modern water filtration practices. and. viruses and protozoa. however. small amounts of chlorine remain in the water and continue to disinfect throughout the distribution system. bromate). Assessments of the health risks from these and other chlorine-based disinfectants and chlorination by-products are currently under way. chlorine continues to be the choice of water treatment experts. In general. and ozone treatment can create other undesirable by-products that may be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. it breaks down quickly. can be useful for preventing re-growth of microbial pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. but it forms chlorate and chlorite. most importantly. Chloramines are weaker disinfectants than chlorine. THM levels may also be reduced through the replacement of chlorine with alternative disinfectants.. especially against viruses and protozoa. Modifying water treatment facilities to use ozone can be expensive. the preferred method of controlling chlorination by-products is removal of the naturally occurring organic matter from the source water so it cannot react with the chlorine to form by-products. A third option is removal of the by-products by adsorption on activated carbon beds. This ensures that the water remains free of microbial contamination on its journey from the treatment plant to the consumer’s tap. A number of cities use ozone to disinfect their source water and to reduce THM formation. chlorine is effective against virtually all infective agents — bacteria.Risks and Benefits of Chlorine Current evidence indicates that the benefits of chlorinating our drinking water — reduced incidence of water-borne diseases — are much greater than the risks of health effects from THMs. It is extremely important that water treatment plants ensure that methods used to control chlorination by-products do not compromise the effectiveness of water disinfection. It is easy to apply. Chlorine Piping and chlorine cylinder yoke Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 89 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
2 percent in the control group. Earlier literature reported that exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints. many of these effects are not confirmed in recent studies and are of very dubious significance [ACGIH 1991]. 2. skin. Responses for sensations of itching or burning of the nose and eyes.and 8-hour periods. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and susceptibility to tuberculosis among chronically-exposed workers. Tooth enamel damage may also occur [Parmeggiani 1983]. Effects on Humans: Severe acute effects of chlorine exposure in humans have been well documented since World War I when chlorine gas was used as a chemical warfare agent. In 1981. 1991]. and injury to the lens [Grant 1986]. and bronchitis [Hathaway et al.52 ppm. atrophy of the iris. which was associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. However. The 1 hour LC(50) is 239 ppm in rats and 137 ppm in mice ()[Sax and Lewis 1989]. A 1983 study of pulmonary function at low concentrations of chlorine exposure also found transient decreases in pulmonary function at the 1.9 years was published in 1970. Summary of toxicology 1. Acne (chloracne) is not unusual among persons exposed to low concentrations of chlorine for long periods of time. even if exposure is brief [Sax and Lewis 1989. Exposures of 1. corrosion of the teeth. Clayton and Clayton 1982]. Other severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks. The incidence of fatigue was greater among those exposed above 0. 21 had TWAs above 0. and general discomfort were not severe. and lungs in experimental animals.0 ppm for 8 hours showed increased mucous secretions from the nose and in the hypopharynx. a study was published involving 29 subjects exposed to chlorine concentrations up to 2. Exposure to 15 ppm causes throat irritation. and pulmonary edema. and eye or skin contact [Genium 1992]. Chlorine injected into the anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes resulted in severe damage with inflammation. ingestion.5 ppm exposure concentration.5 ppm [ACGIH 1991].0 ppm exposure level [ACGIH 1991]. lung congestion. especially at the 1.0 ppm for 4. pneumonia. All but six workers had exposures below 1 ppm.4 percent had abnormal EKGs compared to 8. but were perceptible. and exposures to 1000 ppm can be fatal. but 9. No evidence of permanent lung damage was found. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 90 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .5 ppm level [ACGIH 1991]. but not at the 0. These exposures have caused death. A study of workers exposed to chlorine for an average of 10. Animals surviving sublethal inhalation exposures for 15 to 193 days showed marked emphysema. Effects on Animals: Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes.Health Hazard Information Routes of Exposure Exposure to chlorine can occur through inhalation. pleurisy.0 ppm exposure level. The lowest lethal concentration reported is 430 ppm for 30 minutes [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. There has been one confirmed case of myasthenia gravis associated with chlorine exposure [NLM 1995].0 ppm for 8 hours produced statistically significant changes in pulmonary function that were not observed at a 0. opacification of the cornea. Six of 14 subjects exposed to 1. mucous membranes. exposures to 50 ppm are dangerous.
those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. resins.g.1200]). and in the manufacture of rocket fuel. Methods that are effective in controlling worker exposures to chlorine. odor control. are as follows: Process enclosure Local exhaust ventilation General dilution ventilation Personal protective equipment. use to shrink-proof wool. dizziness. nausea. 2. adhesives. cosmetics. and extraction agent in metallurgy. and demulsifier in treatment of drinking water.. coughing. excessive salivation. dishwashers. laryngeal edema. in special batteries containing lithium or zinc. cleaning dairy equipment. vomiting.Signs and Symptoms of Exposure 1. automotive antifreeze and antiknock compounds. severe chest pain. Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes [Genium 1992]. cleaning powders. vegetables. Use in the paper and pulp. in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. Higher concentrations causes difficulty in breathing. general excitement. tooth enamel corrosion. All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to low levels of chlorine gas can result in a dermatitis known as chloracne. and fruit. disinfectant. and in hydraulic fluids. refrigerants. Use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. and bleaching cellulose. the location and proper use of emergency equipment. pesticides. and textile industries for bleaching cellulose for artificial fibers. acute tracheobronchitis. Use as a bacteriostat. Exposure Sources and Control Methods The following operations may involve chlorine and lead to worker exposures to this substance: The Manufacture and Transportation of Chlorine Use as a chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis. and restlessness. choking. chemical pneumonia. use in the processing of meat. use in detinning and dezincing iron. flameproofing. fish. violent coughing. cyanosis. Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 CFR. use in the manufacture of chlorinated lime. and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations. sore throat. and throat irritation. Use as bleaching and cleaning agents. and in sewage. polymers (synthetic rubber and plastics). Use as a fluxing. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 91 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Acute exposure: Acute exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye. hemoptysis and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis [Genium 1992]. headache. swimming pools. sneezing. purification. depending on the feasibility of implementation. nose. elastomers. Emergency Medical Procedures: [NIOSH to supply] Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e. and as a disinfectant in laundries. lubricants.
hydrogen. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. hydrogen sulfide and water. persons not wearing protective equipment and fullyencapsulating. 6. methane. finely divided metals. Burton DJ . 21st ed. oil. etc. ACGIH .) away from the leak. if not. Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers. iodine. ammonia. and water. Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. and physical damage. 4. Notify safety personnel. propylene. 2. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather. glycerol. Plog BA . hydrocarbons. Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk. All pipes and containment used for chlorine service should be regularly inspected and tested. New York. Chlorine Storage Chlorine should be stored in a cool. vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. Scheff PA . 4. Use water spray to reduce vapors. Inc.Good Sources of Information about Control Methods are as Follows: 1. Cincinnati. paper. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. turpentine. acetylene. 7. steam. Keep all combustibles (wood. Empty containers of chlorine should have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately. Design of industrial ventilation systems. reducing agents. Cincinnati. potassium. hydrazine. activated carbon. Alden JL. bismuth. oxomonosilane. IL: National Safety Council. do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: 1. silicon. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 92 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. and they should be stored separately from flammable gases and vapors. alcohols. combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. Spills and Leaks In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine. 2. Kane JM . Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. 5. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. NY: McGraw-Hill. dry. NY: Industrial Press. moisture.1200]. carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. extreme temperatures changes. move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. Wadden RA. 3. 3. boron. Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. 5. calcium. and sulfur). Chicago. and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures for handling compressed corrosive gases. New York. cylinders. arsenic. carbon disulfide. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. Remove all sources of heat and ignition.
[40 CFR 302. pouring. pumping. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available. reactivity. injecting. leaking. Hazardous Waste Management Requirements EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability. or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261. employers are required to notify the proper Federal.C. dumping. reportable quantities of hazardous releases.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to the EPA reporting the amount of chlorine emitted or released from their facility annually. Emergency Planning Requirements Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 100 pounds or more of chlorine must comply with the EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 93 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Notify the emergency response commission of the State likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. employers are required to do the following: Notify the National Response Center immediately at (800) or at (202) 426-2675 in Washington. D. emitting. corrosivity.24. and local authorities [40 CFR The Reportable Quantity of Chlorine is 10 Pounds. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24-hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility. and hazardous waste management may change over time.6]. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical.30].000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year or otherwise use 10. leaching.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning.40].40].21-261. the EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. emptying.Special Requirements The U. Reportable Quantity Requirements for Hazardous Releases A hazardous substance release is defined by the EPA as any spilling. Community Right-to-Know Requirements Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25. State.]. or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. Notify the community emergency coordinator of the local emergency planning committee (or relevant local emergency response personnel) of any area likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372. community right-to-know. discharging. escaping.
C. France in 1915. transport. In addition. the EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above. the EPA. and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal.C. Department of Transportation. relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance. D.Although chlorine is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA.). To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets the EPA regulatory requirements. each year.5 million tons and over 1 million containers of chlorine are shipped in the U.552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I. Of the 70. Approximately 10.S. and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations. Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline. Chlorine Gas Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract.S. 1843 were exposed to chlorine gas. The U. employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington. Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres. area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington. D. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 94 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
however. The early response to chlorine exposure depends on the (1) concentration of chlorine gas. and it burns the skin. and from the generation of free oxygen radicals. The cylinders are on a scale that operators use to measure the amount used each day. The gas comes out of the cylinder through a gas regulator. Hypochlorous acid may account for the toxicity of elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid to the human body. The cylinders on the right contain chlorine gas. but rely on trained emergency response teams to contain leaks. from reactions with tissue water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. It is extremely reactive with most elements. Chlorine gas is stored in vented rooms that have panic bar equipped doors.5 parts per million (ppm). In the presence of water. Cl2 gas does not occur naturally. Early Response to Chlorine Gas Chlorine gas. and (4) individual susceptibility. Hypochlorous acid is also highly water soluble with an injury pattern similar to hydrochloric acid. Solubility Effects Hydrochloric acid is highly soluble in water. this idea is now controversial. The predominant targets of the acid are the epithelia of the ocular conjunctivae and upper respiratory mucus membranes.Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas at standard temperature and pressure. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 95 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The intermediate water solubility of chlorine accounts for its effect on the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract. Operators have the equipment necessary to reduce the impact of a gas leak. Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes. distinguishing toxic air levels from permissible air levels may be difficult until irritative symptoms are present. although Chlorine can be found in a number of compounds. when mixed with ammonia. In addition. (2) duration of exposure. reacts to form chloramine gas.3-0. chloramines decompose to ammonia and hypochlorous acid or hydrochloric acid. Although the idea that chlorine causes direct tissue damage by generating free oxygen radicals was once accepted. the density of the gas is greater than that of air. causing it to remain near ground level and increasing exposure time. The odor threshold for chlorine is approximately 0. (3) water content of the tissues exposed. Cellular injury is believed to result from the oxidation of functional groups in cell components. Because its density is greater than that of air. depending on the chemical species produced. the gas settles low to the ground. Mechanism of Activity The mechanisms of the above biological activity are poorly understood and the predominant anatomic site of injury may vary. noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It is a respiratory irritant. Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow. The chains are used to prevent the tanks from falling over. Just a few breaths of it are fatal.
multiple pulmonary thromboses. manifested as hypoxia. resulting in pulmonary congestion. hyaline membrane formation. pneumonia. Chlorine Wrenches and Fusible Plugs Simple Chlorine Field Test Kit Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 96 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Irritation of the airway mucosa leads to local edema secondary to active arterial and capillary hyperemia. nose. pharynx. They include severe pulmonary edema. and ulcerative tracheobronchitis. trachea. Pathological Findings Pathologic findings are nonspecific. larynx. and bronchi. The hallmark of pulmonary injury associated with chlorine toxicity is pulmonary edema. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is thought to occur when there is a loss of pulmonary capillary integrity.Immediate Effects The immediate effects of chlorine gas toxicity include acute inflammation of the conjunctivae. Plasma exudation results in filling the alveoli with edema fluid.
) Chlorine test kits are very useful in adjusting the chlorine dose you apply.Using DPD Method for Chlorine Residuals N. simple and inexpensive way to measure chlorine residual is to use a small portable kit with pre-measured packets of chemicals that are added to water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 97 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A convenient. and not the outdated orthotolodine method. The redder the mixture the “hotter” or stronger the chlorine in solution. The most accurate method for determining chlorine residuals to use the laboratory ampermetric titration method. Measuring Chlorine Residual Chlorine residual is the amount of chlorine remaining in water that can be used for disinfection. (Make sure you buy a test kit using the DPD method. N – diethyl-p-phenylenediame Small portable chlorine measuring kit. These results should be kept on file for a health or regulatory agency inspection during a regular field visit. Free chlorine residuals need to be checked and recorded daily. You can measure what chlorine levels are being found in your system (especially at the far ends).
Taste and odor characteristics of phenols and other organic compounds present in a water supply may be intensified. Chlorine applied to water in its molecular or hypochlorite form initially undergoes hydrolysis to form free chlorine consisting of aqueous molecular chlorine. sulfide. • Back titration: USEPA-accepted method for total chlorine in wastewater. even electrode cleaning. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 98 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . particularly in treating drinking water.and temperature-dependent. is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the reaction of chlorine with ammonia. dichloramine. manganese. To fulfill the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimize any adverse effects. Chlorinated wastewater effluents. calculation. iron. and hypochlorite ion. absolute chlorine demand. as well as certain chlorinated industrial effluents. Chlorination may produce adverse effects. The presence and concentrations of these combined forms depend chiefly on pH. and nitrogen trichloride.Amperometric Titration The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms.or amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. yet convenient: the easiest way to complete ppb-level amperometric titration. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia. titration. initial chlorine-to-nitrogen ratio. all automatically. hypochlorous acid. normally contain only combined chlorine. Combined chlorine in water supplies may be formed in the treatment of raw waters containing ammonia or by the addition of ammonia or ammonium salts. it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination. Both free and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously. More a laboratory assistant than an instrument. At the pH of most waters. Historically the principal analytical problem has been to distinguish between free and combined forms of chlorine. graphic print output. temperature. • Accurate. A secondary benefit. The relative proportion of these free chlorine forms is pH. and reaction time. benchtop chlorine-measurement system that does it all: calibration. hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion will predominate. Free chlorine reacts readily with ammonia and certain nitrogenous compounds to form combined chlorine. real-time graphs. chlorine reacts to form the chloramines: monochloramine. and some organic substances. the AutoCAT 9000 gives you: • High throughput: performs the titration and calculates concentration. Hach’s AutoCAT 9000™ Automatic Titrator is the newest solution to hit the disinfection industry – a comprehensive. Potentially carcinogenic chloro-organic compounds such as chloroform may be formed. • Forward titration: USEPA-accepted methods for free and total chlorine and chlorine dioxide with chlorite. With ammonia.
in barium chloride ( BaCl2) the oxidation number of barium is +2 and of chlorine is -1. Now. Oxidation The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance.. a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen. For example. An ion is the reactive state of the chemical. Cl-. Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state. Electrons may also be displaced within the molecule without being completely transferred away from it. etc. I. Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s. Column 18. ionize to a negative F-. involves partial oxidation of the methane. thus the iron becomes positively charged (is oxidized) by loss of two electrons while the copper receives the two electrons and becomes neutral (is reduced). Li. each having one electron. The next column. What you need to memorize is the table of common ions. i. He. halogen addition to a double bond is regarded as an oxidation. both positive ions and negative ions. K+. the two reacting chemicals will go to products C + D etc. for example. Na. and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent. and is dependent on its place within the periodic table. let’s start with this review of basic chemical equations. Mg. two electrons (negative charges) are transferred from the iron atom to the copper atom. This is chemical A + chemical B. H. there are 18 columns. Oxidation Number The number of electrons that must be added to or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form. as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s. Kr are inert gases. These all become ions as H+. Li+. Ca2+. F. Reaction of a hydrocarbon with a halogen. You can see column one. Ar. Mg2+. here. Br-.Chemical Equations. Ca etc. become ions Be2+. Br. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 99 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Beginning The common chemical equation could be A + B --> C + D. It is arranged in columns of elements. etc. K etc. when two hydrogen atoms. Cl. Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions). but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred.e. column 2. let us look at some common ions. I-. Have a look at the “periodic table of the elements”. Be. Ne. cupric ion is the oxidizing agent in the reaction: Fe (metal) + Cu++ --> Fe++ + Cu (metal). Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation. Column 17. Oxidation States and Balancing of Equations Before we breakdown Chlorine and other chemicals. etc. CH4 + 2 Cl --> CH3Cl + HCl.
--> H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) 2Na+ + S2O32. For example: Na+ + OH.--> NaOH (sodium hydroxide) Na+ + Cl. and vice versa. This is the start of our chemical reactions.--> NaCl (salt) 3H+ + PO43.--> Na2S2O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 100 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Table of Common Ions Positive Ions Valency 1 lithium sodium potassium silver hydronium (or hydrogen) ammonium copper I mercury I Negative Ions Valency 1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate bicarbonate bisulphate nitrite chlorate permanganate hypochlorite dihydrogen phosphate F - Valency 2 Li+ Na+ K+ Ag+ H3O+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Hg+ magnesium calcium strontium barium copper II lead II zinc manganese II iron II tin II Valency 2 oxide sulfide carbonate sulfate sulfite dichromate chromate oxalate thiosulfate tetrathionate monohydrogen phosphate Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Cu2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Mn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Valency 3 aluminum iron III chromium Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+ Valency 3 O 2- phosphate PO43- ClBr IOHNO3HCO3HSO4NO2ClO3MnO4OClH2PO4- S2CO32SO42SO32Cr2O7CrO42C2O42S2O32S4O62HPO42- Positive ions will react with negative ions.
--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Put the three from the Al in front of the SO42. Al3+ the 3 goes in front of the SO42.You will see from these examples.and the 2 from the SO42. and equal amounts of negative ions.--> AlCl (incorrect) Al3+ + 3Cl. SO42-. or cancel each other out. PO43-. is placed after each “ion” entity. SO42-. in front of the other ion. However.as 3SO42-. the 2 times 3+ = 6+. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 101 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and SO42-.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Let me give you an easy way of balancing: Al is 3+ SO4 is 2Simply transpose the number of positives (or negatives) for each ion.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) Al3+ + SO42. Let us again look at: Al3+ + SO42. So.--> Al2(SO4)3. Let us do these examples.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) 2Al3+ + 3SO42. by placing this value of one ion. OH-. and vice versa. Equation becomes: 2Al3+ + 3SO42. You simply place the valency of one ion. in front of the other ion. that if an ion of one (+). this same number (now in front of each ion on the left side of the equation). Now to check. Al3+ + Cl. to the other ion. We have equal amounts of positive ions.(phosphate will require an ion of 3+ or an ion of one (+) (but needs three of these) to neutralize the 3. aluminum exists in its ionic state as Al3+. and 3 times 2. the number is transferred to after the relevant ion.--> AlCl3 (correct) How did we work this out? Al3+ has three positives (3+) Cl. it will react with many negatively charged ions. an ion like PO43.in front of the Al3+. and it is this ion that is 2.charged (not just the O4).= 6-.charge on the phosphate. the number 3 is placed in front of the ion concerned.has one negative (-) It will require 3 negative charges to cancel out the 3 positive charges on the aluminum ( Al3+). When the left hand side of the equation is written. so we have to ensure that the “ion” is bracketed. as a whole number. reacts with an ion of one (-) then the equation is balanced. Then on the right hand side of the equation. Remember to encase the SO4 in brackets. and balance them. what you are doing is balancing the charges (+) or (-) to make them zero. in this case Cl-. the 2 goes in front of the Al3+ to become 2Al3+. becomes 3Cl-. That is. examples: Cl-. Cl3. to balance the number of chlorine’s (Cl-) required. For example. On the right hand side of the equation. where the ions have become a compound (a chemical compound). Why? Because we are dealing with the sulfate ion. Another example: Al3+ + SO42.
I therefore have 2H3 reacting with 3(OH)2.--> 6H2O The full equation is now balanced and is: 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H2O I have purposely split the equation into segments of reactions. and H3 attached to the PO4. We have to write this.--> H2O (water). because at the moment the Na+ is tied to the OH-. and placing it in front of each ion.from the NaOH. I must have required 3Mg(OH)2 to begin with. So: Na+ + Cl. so: 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. Reaction is going to be the Na+ reacting with a negatively charged ion. We have equal amounts of all atoms each side of the equation. You need to learn the valency of the common ions (see tables).Another example: NaOH + HCl --> ? Na is Na+. or Na+OH.--> Na+Cl. Cl-. we only have the OH. The Mg2+ needs to react with a negatively charged ion. Originally the one positive canceled the one negative.from the Mg(OH)2 left for it to react with.--> Mg3(PO4)2 Therefore.--> 6H2O Where did I get the 6 from? When I balanced the Mg2+ with the PO43-.because we need it in ionic form. and 2H3PO4. so this gave us NaOH. so let us rewrite the equation in ionic form. so the equation is balanced. HCl is H+ + Cl -. This will have to be the chlorine. The complete reaction can be written: NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O. on the left side of the equation. this gave us HCl. 6H+ + 6OH. and then placing this number after each ion on the right side of the equation) What is left is the H+ from the H3PO4 and this will react with a negative ion. So: H+ + OH. OH is OH-. this will be the PO43-. Once you get the idea of equations you will not need this step. The equation becomes: 6H+ + 6OH. ( because we originally had (OH)2 attached to the Mg. as 6H+ + 6OH.+ 3H+PO43. The balancing of equations is simple.+ H+Cl.--> Mg3(PO4)2 (Remember the swapping of the positive or negative charges on the ions in the left side of the equation. the equation became 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. This is showing you which ions are reacting with each other. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 102 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .--> NaCl The H+ from the HCl will react with a negative (-) ion this will be the OH.+ H+OHSomething More Difficult: Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 --> ? (equation on left not balanced) Mg2+ 2OH.--> ? (equation on left not balanced).
You have to have the same number of negatives. all numbers in front of each ion on the left hand side of the equation are placed after each same ion on the right side of the equation. place the 1 from the hydroxyl OH. Take my earlier hint. (3 positive charges) reacts with another ion. now reads 3OH-. each side of the equation.The rest is pure mathematics. positives versus negatives. Al3+ + 3OH. there are no brackets placed around the OH-. and the same number of ions or atoms each side of the equation. Al3+ (the 1 is never written in chemistry equations). On the right hand side of the equation. example Al3+. Brackets are used in the right side of the equation because the result is a compound. or positives. Brackets are also used for compounds (reactants) in the left side of equations. place the 3 from the Al3+ in front of the OH-.in front of the Al3+. now stays the same. temperature and pH measuring equipment.--> Al(OH)3 The 3 is simply written in front of the OH-. as in 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> ? Conductivity. example OH. you are balancing valency charges. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 103 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a recognized ion.(one negative ion) then we require 2 more negatively charged ions (in this case OH-) to counteract the 3 positive charges the Al3+ contains. If one ion.
but these are one ton cylinders.Hard to tell. Notice the five gallon bucket of motor oil in the bottom picture. Do you have an eye wash and emergency shower? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 104 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Also notice that this picture is the only eye wash station that we found during our inspection of 10 different facilities.
the measured amount of chlorine in the water should be the same as the amount added. All other things being equal.. Under normal water conditions. hypochlorous acid will also chemically react and break down into a hypochlorite ion (OCl . calcium hypochlorite or chlorine gas. manganese. Total chlorine residual = free + combined chlorine residual. the ratio of hypochlorous acid increases. Let’s now look at how pH and temperature affect the ratio of hypochlorous acid to hypochlorite ions. Temperature plays a small part in the acid ratio. pathogenic organisms are actually harder to kill. about 100 times less effective. But water is not 100% pure. When a chlorine residual test is taken. Naturally. Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid but a strong disinfecting agent. once chlorine molecules are combined with these interfering agents they are not capable of disinfection. As the temperature is decreased. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 105 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This is called the chlorine demand. turbidity.): HOCI H + + OCI – Also expressed HOCI → H + + OCI – (hypochlorous acid) (hydrogen) (hypochlorite ion) The hypochlorite ion is a much weaker disinfecting agent than hypochlorous acid. Although the ratio of hypochlorous acid is greater at lower temperatures. chemical reactions occur as these equations show: Cl 2 + H 2 O → HOCI + HCI (chlorine gas) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (hydrochloric acid) CaOCI + H 2 O → 2HOCI + Ca(OH) (calcium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (calcium hydroxide) NaOCI + H 2 O → HOCI + Na(OH) (sodium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (sodium hydroxide) All three forms of chlorine produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when added to water. The amount of hypochlorous acid depends on the pH and temperature of the water. Types of Residual If water were pure. When any of these is added to water. either a total or a free chlorine residual can be read. So let’s look now at how free. It is free chlorine that is much more effective as a disinfecting agent. which will combine chemically with the chlorine.Chemistry of Chlorination Chlorine can be added as sodium hypochlorite. etc. higher water temperatures and a lower pH are more conducive to chlorine disinfection. total and combined chlorine are related. Total residual is all chlorine that is available for disinfection. There are always other substances (interfering agents) such as iron.
1989). uses the combination of disinfectant residual concentration (mg/L) and the effective disinfection contact time (in minutes) to measure effective pathogen reduction. Parts 141 and 142. since monitoring for very low levels of pathogens in treated water is analytically very difficult. Residual Concentration/Contact Time (CT) Requirements Disinfection to eliminate fecal and coliform bacteria may not be sufficient to adequately reduce pathogens such as Giardia or viruses to desired levels. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) The effective reduction in pathogens can be calculated by reference to standard tables of required CTs. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 106 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 40 CFR. The residual is measured at the end of the process. 1 Ton and 150 pound cylinders. and the contact time used is the T10 of the process unit (time for 10% of the water to pass). as developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Register. June 29.Free chlorine residual is a much stronger disinfecting agent. any additional chlorine will be considered free chlorine. Use of the "CT" disinfection concept is recommended to demonstrate satisfactory treatment. Therefore. The 1 ton is on a scale. most water regulating agencies will require that your daily chlorine residual readings be of free chlorine residual. The CT concept. Break-point chlorination is where the chlorine demand has been satisfied.
100 cysts/100 L 4-log . TABLE 4. or by using the lowest CT value if it is calculated more frequently.5-log > 100 cysts/100 L > 5-log *Use geometric means of data to determine raw water Giardia levels for compliance. and disinfectant residual. Calculation and Reporting of CT Data Disinfection CT values shall be calculated daily using either the maximum hourly flow and the disinfectant residual at the same time. Higher raw water contamination levels may require greater removals as shown on Table 4. and 4-log reduction in viruses.4-log 10 cysts/100 L .10 cysts/100 L 3-log .1. The tables attached to Appendices A and B shall be used to determine the required CT. Users may also calculate and record actual log reductions. temperature. Results shall be reported as a reduction Ratio. The reduction Ratio must be greater than 1.000 L (equivalent to 1 in 10. Actual CT values are then compared to required CT values.Required Giardia/Virus Reduction All surface water treatment systems shall ensure a minimum reduction in pathogen levels: 3-log reduction in Giardia. Required CT Value Required CT values are dependent on pH. and a finished water goal of 1 cyst/100.1 Level of Giardia Reduction Raw Water Giardia Levels* Recommended Giardia Log Reduction < 1 cyst/100 L 3-log 1 cyst/100 L . These requirements are based on unpolluted raw water sources with Giardia levels of = 1 cyst/100 L. Reduction Ratio = CT actual : CT required Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 107 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . residual concentration.0 to be acceptable.000 risk of infection per person per year). temperature and the disinfectant used. along with the appropriate pH.
B. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 108 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . F. This metal plug will melt at 158 to 165o F. This is to prevent a build-up of excessive pressure and the possibility of cylinder rupture due to fire or high temperatures. H. G. D. E. Ejector Check Valve Assembly Rate Valve Diaphragm Assembly Interconnection Manifold Rotometer Tube and Float Pressure Gauge Gas Supply Chlorine measurement devices or Rotometers Safety Information: There is a fusible plug on every chlorine tank.Chlorinator Parts A. C.
As an alternative to chlorine gas. For uninterrupted chlorination. chlorine gas under pressure shall not be permitted outside the chlorine room. may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. In addition. spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators. In the automatic residual controlled system. which is the mechanical gas proportioning equipment. chlorine gas vacuum lines should be run as close to the point of solution application as possible. the chlorine feeder is used in conjunction with a chlorine residual analyzer which controls the feed rate of the chlorine feeders to maintain a particular residual in the treated water. The chlorinator. it is permissible to use hypochlorite with positive displacement pumping. vent line should be run in such a manner that moisture collecting traps are avoided.Chlorination Equipment Requirements For all water treatment facilities. For new and upgraded facilities. In the compound loop control system. Standby Provision As a safeguard against malfunction and/or shut-down. A manual chlorine feed system may be installed for groundwater systems with constant flow rates. In the automatic proportional controlled system. Capacity The chlorinator shall have the capacity to dose enough chlorine to overcome the demand and maintain the required concentration of the "free" or "combined" chlorine. or automatic residual controlled. gas chlorinators shall be equipped with an automatic changeover system. Vacuum regulators shall also be located inside the chlorine room. Methods of Control Chlorine feed system shall be automatic proportional controlled. standby chlorination equipment having the capacity to replace the largest unit shall be provided. or compound loop controlled. the feed rate of the chlorinator is controlled by a flow proportional signal and a residual analyzer signal to maintain particular chlorine residual in the water. Injectors should be located to minimize the length of pressurized chlorine solution lines. the equipment adjusts the chlorine feed rate automatically in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant pre-established dosage for all rates of flow. A gas pressure relief system shall be included in the gas vacuum line between the vacuum regulator(s) and the chlorinator(s) to ensure that pressurized chlorine gas does not enter the gas vacuum lines leaving the chlorine room. Anti-siphon valves shall be incorporated in the pump heads or in the discharge piping. A chlorine room is where chlorine gas cylinders and/or ton containers are stored. The gas pressure relief system shall vent pressurized gas to the atmosphere at a location that is not hazardous to plant personnel. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 109 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . from the chlorine room. The vacuum regulating valve(s) shall have positive shutdown in the event of a break in the downstream vacuum lines.
Leak detection equipment shall not automatically activate the chlorine room ventilation system in such a manner as to discharge chlorine gas. the ammonia will create a white colored smoke. Tag the cylinder ”empty” and store upright and chained. Respiratory equipment shall be provided which has been approved under the Occupational Health and Safety Act.. a platform scale shall be provided. Leak detection shall be provided for the chlorine rooms. gloves. Consideration should also be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where such cylinders are in use. the chlorine gas leakage shall be contained within the chlorine room itself in order to facilitate a proper method of clean-up. At large plants. Equipment shall be in close proximity to the access door(s) of the chlorine room. You can use a spray solution of Ammonia or a rag soaked with Ammonia to detect a small Cl2 leak. scales of the recording and indicating type are recommended. floor area less than 3m2). cylinder and/or ton repair kits. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 110 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . eye protection. Chlorine leak detection equipment should be connected to a remote audible and visual alarm system and checked on a regular basis to verify proper operation. eyewash. During an emergency if the chlorine room is unoccupied. Ton containers may not be stacked. If there is a leak. General Safety Regulation .g. Securing Cylinders All chlorine cylinders shall be securely positioned to safeguard against movement. Scales shall be of corrosion-resistant material.Weigh Scales Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all plants using chlorine gas to permit an accurate reading of total daily weight of chlorine used. Safety Equipment The facility shall be provided with personnel safety equipment including the following: Respiratory equipment. As a minimum.Selection of Respiratory Protective Equipment. Chlorine leak detection equipment may not be required for very small chlorine rooms with an exterior door (e. protective clothing. safety shower. Chlorine Leak Detection Automatic chlorine leak detection and related alarm equipment shall be installed at all water treatment plants using chlorine gas.
Scrubbers For facilities located within residential or densely populated areas. Access All access to the chlorine room shall only be from the exterior of the building. The chlorine cylinder storage room shall have access either to the chlorine room or from the plant exterior. consideration shall be given to provide scrubbers for the chlorine room. Viewing glass windows and panic button on the inside of door should also be provided. The chlorinator may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. the air being of such temperature as to not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. The hot water heating system for the building will negate the need for a separate heating system for the chlorine room. Visual inspection of the chlorination equipment from inside may be provided by the installation of glass window(s) in the walls of the chlorine room. a separate storage room may be provided to simply store the chlorine gas cylinders. the gas cylinders and/or the ton containers up to the vacuum regulators shall be housed in a gas-tight.Chlorine Room Design Requirements Where gas chlorination is practiced. The heat should be controlled at approximately 15oC. In very large facilities. The vents to the outside shall have insect screens. well illuminated. The chlorine room shall be located at the ground floor level. if forced air system is used to heat the building. The chlorine gas storage room shall have provision for ventilation at thirty air changes per hour. entry into the chlorine rooms may be through a vestibule from outside. Separate switches for fans and lights shall be outside the room at all entrance or viewing points. and corrosion resistant and mechanically ventilated enclosure. Storage of Chlorine Cylinders If necessary. Windows should be at least 0. and arranged to prevent the uncontrolled release of spilled gas. with no connection to the line.20 m2 in area. and a clear wire-reinforced glass window shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the operator to inspect from the outside of the room. Air inlets should be louvered near the ceiling. The air outlet from the room shall be 150 mm above the floor and the point of discharge located to preclude contamination of air inlets to buildings or areas used by people. and be made of clear wire reinforced glass. Heating Chlorine rooms shall have separate heating systems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 111 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cylinders or containers shall be protected to ensure that the chlorine maintains its gaseous state when entering the chlorinator. There should also be a 'panic bar' on the inside of the chlorine room door for emergency exit. Ventilation Gas chlorine rooms shall have entirely separate exhaust ventilation systems capable of delivering one (1) complete air change per minute during periods of chlorine room occupancy only.
means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. what should the concentration of a free chlorine residual be in a clear well or distribution reservoir? 0. Even brief exposure to 1. Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. True How does one determine the ambient temperature in a chlorine room? Use a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room.5 mg/L.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. These side reactions complicate the use of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. How often should chlorine storage ventilation equipment be checked? Daily.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal.Chlorine Demand Chlorine combines with a wide variety of materials. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 112 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Also. How is the effectiveness of disinfection determined? From the results of coliform testing. Their demand for chlorine must be satisfied before chlorine becomes available to accomplish disinfection. Chlorine Questions and Answer Review Downstream from the point of post chlorination. True or False.
5 mg/L. In the production of chloramines. the preferred method of generation is to entrain chlorine gas into a packed reaction chamber with a 25% aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (NaClO2). Any installed ozonation system must include adequate ozone leak detection alarm systems. It is best utilized as a stable distribution system disinfectant. Total residual oxidants (including chlorine dioxide and chlorite. it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with a stronger disinfectant.50 mg/L (including chlorine dioxide. Ozone does not provide a system residual and should be used as a primary disinfectant only in conjunction with free and/or combined chlorine. Ozone CT values must be determined for the ozone basin alone. should be limited to inhibit growth of nitrifying bacteria. when fed in excess of stoichiometric amount needed. Warning: Dry sodium chlorite is explosive and can cause fires in feed equipment if leaking solutions or spills are allowed to dry out. Ozone may also be used as an oxidant for removal of taste and odor or may be applied as a predisinfectant. residual levels measured through the chamber and an average ozone residual calculated. ozone may also produce its own oxygenated byproducts such as aldehydes. chlorite and chlorate) during periods of extreme variations in the raw water supply. Ozone Ozone is a very effective disinfectant for both Giardia and viruses. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 113 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . but excluding chlorate) shall not exceed 0. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide may be used for either taste and odor control or as a pre-disinfectant. This limits usable residuals of chlorine dioxide at the end of a process unit to less than 0. Chlorine dioxide provides good Giardia and virus protection but its use is limited by the restriction on the maximum residual of 0. the ammonia residuals in the finished water. ketones or carboxylic acids. Where chlorine dioxide is approved for use as an oxidant. an accurate T10 value must be obtained for the contact chamber. and an ozone offgas destruction system. Ozone does not produce chlorinated byproducts (such as trihalomethanes) but it may cause an increase in such byproduct formation if it is fed ahead of free chlorine.30 mg/L during normal operation or 0.Alternate Disinfectants Chloramine Chloramine is a very weak disinfectant for Giardia and virus reduction.5 mg/L ClO2/chlorite/chlorate allowed in finished water.
18th. 18th. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 C Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 D Chlorine Dioxide by the DPD Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Colorimetric Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th & 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by Low Level Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.D 4500-Cl D Chlorine Residual by Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by Iodometric Electrode Technique (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-Cl. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Included in Standard Methods Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Residual by Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Ferrous Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Included in Standard Methods 4500-ClO2 E Included in Standard Methods Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 114 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-Cl G Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl H Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl I Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method I Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl E Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl F Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn.Additional Drinking Water Methods (non EPA) for Chemical Parameters Method Method Focus - Title Order Number Source 4500-Cl B Chloride by Silver Nitrate Titration Chloride by Potentiometric Method Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method II (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th.
5 to 5. Oxidizers 0. The pH is lower to 2. The direct measurement of ClO2 is determined between 350 and 450 nM. The following are the common analytical methods for chlorine dioxide: DPD glycine Method Type: Colorimetric Chlorophenol Red Colorimetric Direct Absorbance Colorimetric Iodometric Titration Titrametric Amperometric Titration Titrametric How It Works Glycine removes Cl2. In addition. Consequently. The degree of bleaching is proportional to the concentration of ClO2. turbidity Simple > 1 ppm < 1ppm Interferences None Oxidizers Complexity Equipment Required EPA Status Simple Moderate Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter Not approved Yes Moderate Titration equipment High Amperometric Titrator Approved Not approved Marginal Not approved Yes Approved Recommendation Marginal Marginal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 115 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Two aliquots are taken one is sparged with N2 to remove ClO2. KI is added to the other sample at pH7 and titrated to a colorless endpoint.1 to 1. ClO2 forms a pink color. numerous test kits are readily available that can be adapted to measure chlorine dioxide. Range 0.0 ppm. ClO2 bleaches chlorophenol red indicator. whose intensity is proportional to the ClO2 concentration. These titrations are repeated on the sparged sample. new methods that are specific for chlorine dioxide are being developed.Chlorine Dioxide Methods Most tests for chlorine dioxide rely upon its oxidizing properties.0 ppm 100 to 1000 ppm Color. the color allowed to reform and the titration continued.
sneezing. On a 1 or 2 ton cylinder. Cl2 + NH4. headaches and dizziness. Hypochlorous acid is the most germicidal of the chlorine compounds with the possible exception of chlorine dioxide. nose.Chlorine Exposure Limits This information is necessary to pass your certification exam. the chlorine pressure reducing valve should be located downstream of the evaporator when using an evaporator. a noncombustible gas.000 PPM The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit.5 times heavier than water and gaseous chlorine is about 2. Approved method for storing a 150 .200 pound chlorine cylinder: Secure each cylinder in an upright position. * OSHA PEL 1 PPM . HOCl and OCl-. Burning of eyes. chlorine gas should be used only in a well ventilated area so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate. Solid Chlorine is about 1. secure position with proper signage. attach the protective bonnet over the valve and firmly secure each cylinder. amber-colored liquid. and trichloramine are also known as Combined Available Chlorine. * IDLH 10 PPM Physical and chemical properties of chlorine.is the hypochlorite ion and the both of these two species are known as free available chlorine. Here are several safety precautions when using chlorine gas. warn and evacuate people in adjacent areas. the OCL. fatal pulmonary edema. it rapidly hydrolyzes. Always store the empty in an upright. In water treatment. One reason for not adding it directly to the chamber is that the chamber has very little mixing due to low velocities. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. dichloramine. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level. be sure that no one enters the leak area without adequate self-contained breathing equipment. Never store near heat. choking. Yoke-type connectors should be used on a chlorine cylinder's valve assuming that the threads on the valve may be worn. It can be readily compressed into a clear. Cl is the elemental symbol and Cl2 is the chemical formula. Atomic number of Chlorine is 17. pneumonia. Emergency procedures in the case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. When chlorine gas is added to water. Here are several symptoms of chlorine exposure. The chemical equations best describes this reaction is Cl2 + H2O --> H+ + Cl. Chlorine is added to the effluent before the contact chamber (before the clear well) for complete mixing. approved gasket on the connector. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 116 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and mouth. and skin blisters. and a strong oxidizer. This is the liquid chlorine supply line and it is going to be made into Chlorine gas.IDLH 10 PPM and Fatal Exposure Limit 1. Always follow your manufacturer’s instructions. Monochloramine. A yellowish green. A little Cl2 will corrode the teeth and then progress to throat cancer. they are the two main chemical species formed by chlorine in water and they known by collectively as hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion. In addition to protective clothing and goggles. coughing.+ HOCl. Notify local emergency response team. The connection from a chlorine cylinder to a chlorinator should be replaced by using a new.5 times heavier than air. nausea and vomiting.
(2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures.g. encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to chlorine. Not recommended. (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels. Such a program must include respirator selection. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve chlorine. used. gloves. and (4) during emergencies.. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 117 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Personal Protective Equipment Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected. users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. periodic workplace monitoring. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e. some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. sleeves. Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. and regular respirator maintenance. respirator fit testing. inspection. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed.Respiratory Protection Section Conditions for Respirator Use Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. Material is estimated (but not tested) to provide at least four hours of protection. The resistance of various materials to permeation by both chlorine liquid and chlorine gas is shown below: Material Breakthrough Time (hr) Chlorine Liquid Responder Chlorine gas butyl rubber neoprene Teflon viton saranex barricade chemrel responder trellchem HPS nitrile rubber H (PE/EVAL) polyethylene polyvinyl chloride.134]. In addition. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly.. and cleaning. degradation may occur. Respiratory Protection Program Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that. the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components. butyl) produced by different manufacturers. at a minimum. To evaluate the use of these PPE materials with chlorine. However. and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with chlorine.g. an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator. consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a]. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users. the regular training of personnel. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.
or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes. Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness. workers should wear work uniforms. In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e. aprons.. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. encapsulating suits).g. SCBA Fit Test Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 118 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk. especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments. Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation. caustic.Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long. coveralls. minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent.
Recommendations for Preparing/Handling/Feeding Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions As a result of the pressures brought to bear by Health and Safety requirements. it degrades over time. Product Stability The oxidizing nature of this substance means that it should be handled with extreme care. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 119 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . • pH solution. • Chlorine-producing reaction when solution pH falls below 6. such as iron. copper or nickel. some users of gas have chosen to seek alternative forms of disinfectants for their water and wastewater treatment plants. or metal oxides are brought into contact with the solution. As NaOCl is relatively unstable. There are Three Ways in Which NaOCl Solutions Degrade • Chlorate-forming reaction due to age. This is often purchased commercially at 10 to 15% strength. • Oxygen-producing reaction that occurs when metals. • Exposure of the solution to sunlight. There are Many Factors that Effect the Stability of a NaOCl Solution • Initial solution strength. light and minor reduction in pH. One of these alternative forms is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). temperature. • Temperature of the solution. set of equipment installation configurations and operating conditions. The handling and storage of NaOCl presents the plant with a new and sometimes unfamiliar.
They include: Slime growth Rotten egg odor Increased staining.5-4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Sulfate-reducing bacteria prefer to live underneath the slime layer that the iron bacteria form. bacteria growth will coat the inside of the well casing.Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock chlorination is a relatively inexpensive and straightforward procedure used to control bacteria in water wells. Some iron bacteria use dissolved iron in the water as a food source. A well creates a direct path for oxygen to travel into the ground where it would not normally exist. However. To thrive. Slime Growth The easiest way to check a well and water system for iron bacteria is to examine the inside surface of the toilet flush tank. Iron bacteria aggravate the problem by creating an environment that encourages the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the well. The iron naturally present in the water can be the cause. iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (as well as other bacteria) can exist naturally in groundwater. water piping and pumping equipment. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. but the most common are iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Iron bacteria leave this slimy by-product on almost every surface the water is in contact with. Signs of Iron and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria There are a number of signs that indicate the presence of iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 120 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Many types of bacteria can contaminate wells.01 mg/L dissolved iron and a temperature range of 5 to 15°C. Ideal Conditions for Iron Bacteria Water wells provide ideal conditions for iron bacteria. iron bacteria are probably present. If you see a greasy slime or growth. Rotten Egg Odor Sulfate-reducing bacteria can cause a rotten egg odor in water. Although not a cause of health problems in humans. Note: All iron staining problems are not necessarily caused by iron bacteria. creating problems such as: Reduced well yield Restricted water flow in distribution lines Staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Plugging of water treatment equipment “Rotten egg” odor. iron bacteria require 0. as little as 0. the water flowing in will also bring in nutrients that enhance bacterial growth. When a well is pumped.
Others produce small amounts of sulfuric acid which can corrode the well casing and pumping equipment. a large volume of super chlorinated water is siphoned down the well to displace all the water in the well and some of the water in the formation around the well. resulting in a “rotten egg” or sulfur odor in the water. the entire system (from the water-bearing formation. through the wellbore and the distribution system) is exposed to water which has a concentration of chlorine strong enough to kill iron and sulfate reducing bacteria. If you have a dug well with a diameter greater than 18 inches.Some of these bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product. Checklist to Determine an Iron or Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Problem Greasy slime on inside surface of toilet flush tank Increased red staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Sulfur odor Reduced well yield Restricted water flow Mixing a Chlorine Solution Add a half gallon of bleach to a clean pail with about 3 gallons of water. For wells greater than 100 feet deep or with a larger casing diameter. Effectiveness of Shock Chlorination With shock chlorination. To be effective. Please note that many dug wells are difficult or impossible to disinfect due t o their unsanitary construction. It can create a staining problem where one never existed before or make an iron staining problem worse as time goes by. Increased Staining Problems Iron bacteria can concentrate iron in water sources with low iron content. shock chlorination must disinfect the following: The entire well depth The formation around the bottom of the well The pressure system Some water treatment equipment The distribution system. you must use enough chlorine to disinfect the entire cased section of the well and adjacent water-bearing formation. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock Chlorination Method Shock chlorination is used to control iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria and to eliminate fecal coliform bacteria in a water system. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 121 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . increase the amount of bleach proportionately. To be effective. The first three are very specific problems related to these bacteria. The last two problems can be signs of other problems as well. To accomplish this. Bacteria collect in the pore spaces of the formation and on the casing or screened surface of the well. Use the following checklist to determine if you have an iron or sulfate-reducing bacteria problem. This is generally sufficient to disinfect a 4 inch diameter well 100 feet deep or less. use 2 to 4 gallons of bleach added directly to the well.
36 .091 15. extra 1000 L 1.16 27. (30 cm) per 1 ft. When pumping out the chlorinated solution. monitor the water discharge for sediment. (30 cm) per 1 ft. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Casing Diameter Volume of Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite L needed L need Dry weight1 Water needed per 1 ft.2 19. To measure how much water is in the casing. Shock Chlorination Procedure for Small Drilled Wells A modified procedure is also provided for large diameter wells. This is to dislodge and remove the bacterial slime.21 . it may be necessary to use a stronger chlorine solution. (30 cm) of water in the casing of water of water of water (in) (mm) (gal. subtract the non-pumping water level from the total depth of the well. You might also consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean and flush the well before chlorinating in order to remove any buildup on the casing. Store sufficient water to meet farm and family needs for 8 to 48 hours. Caution: If your well is low yielding or tends to pump any silt or sand.1 5.1 .7 .The procedure described below does not completely eliminate iron bacteria from the water system. Pump the recommended amount of water (see Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM) into clean storage.7 286 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 122 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the pump may have to be removed and chemical solutions added to the well and vigorous agitation carried out using special equipment. This should be done by a drilling contractor. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate your well. The recommended amount of water to use is twice the volume of water present in the well casing.8 1. If your well has never been shock chlorinated or has not been done for some time.095 . To control the iron bacteria. but it will hold it in check. (30 cm) per 1 ft.2 6 (150) 2.6 8 (200) 4. you may have to repeat the procedure each spring and fall as a regular maintenance procedure. See the example below. extra 1000 L 3.3 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. applied two or three times.042 7. In more severe cases.0 . you must be very careful using the following procedure because over pumping may damage the well. A clean galvanized stock tank or pickup truck box lined with a 4 mil thick plastic sheet is suitable.) (L) (L) (L) (g) 4 (100) 1.9 .4 10.74 127 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. before you notice a significant improvement in the water.
Casing diameter_______ Chlorine strength_______ L needed per 1 ft. Using Table 1. calculate the amount of chlorine you will need for your well.1 L of 12% chlorine. you will use 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 123 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Siphon this solution into the well. of water_______ x _______ ft. Flush the chlorine solution from the hot water heater and household distribution system. of water in the casing.091 L per ft. you must make sure there is proper ventilation during the chlorination procedure.091 L x 100 ft. washing machine. This will ensure all the plumbing fixtures are chlorinated. Open each hydrant and faucet in the distribution system (including all appliances that use water such as dishwasher. Caution: Chlorine is corrosive and can even be deadly. Well pits are no longer legal to construct. Calculating Amount of Chlorine Example If your casing is 6 in. Calculate the amount of chlorine that is required. If your well is located in a pit. Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM. Make sure to direct the water away from sensitive plants or landscaping. Leave the chlorine solution in the well and distribution system for 8 to 48 hours. The longer the contact time. furnace humidifier) until the water coming out has a chlorine odor. The small amount of chlorine in the distribution system will not harm the septic tank. and you are using 12% industrial sodium hypochlorite. of water in the casing. you will require . Since a dry chemical is being used. Consult your water treatment equipment supplier to find out if any part of your water treatment system should be bypassed. = 9. Open an outside tap and allow the water to run until the chlorine odor is greatly reduced. the better the results. If you have 100 ft. Mix the chlorine with the previously measured water to obtain a 1000 ppm chlorine solution. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution before placing it in the well. of water in casing = _______ L of chlorine.12% industrial sodium hypochlorite and 70% high test hypochlorite are available from: • Water treatment suppliers • Drilling contractor • Swimming pool maintenance suppliers • Dairy equipment suppliers • Some hardware stores. Use a drilling contractor who has the proper equipment and experience to do the job safely. to prevent damage. Backwash and regenerate any water treatment equipment. Allow the hot water tank to fill completely.
4 kg of 70% calcium hypochlorite) into the 200 gal. (Note that the 70% hypochlorite powder should be dissolved in water to form a solution before placing in the well. bleach and water solution prepared in Steps 1 and 2 into the well. Modified Procedure for Large Diameter Wells Due to the large volume of water in many bored wells the above procedure can be impractical. =_______ ________ft.095 L =________ _______ft. This circulates the chlorinated water through the pressure system and back down the well.) Circulate chlorine added to the water in the well by hooking a garden hose up to an outside faucet and placing the other end back down the well. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate a large diameter bored well.7 L =________ _______ft.If you have an old well that has not been routinely chlorinated. (30 cm) per 1 ft. x 1. =_______ ________ft. x 0.2 g =________ 6 (150) _______ft.8 L =________ _______ft. Don't mix acids with chlorine. x 2. Mix 20 L of 5 1/4% domestic chlorine bleach (or 8 L of 12% bleach or 1. x 0. x 1. x 3. Continue for at least 15 minutes.042 L =________ _______ft. x 0. Any floating debris should be removed from the well and the casing should be scrubbed or hosed to disturb the sludge buildup.3 g =________ 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. Calculating Water and Chlorine Requirements for Shock Chlorination Complete the following table using your own figures to determine how much water and chlorine you need to shock chlorinate your well. (1000 L) of water into a clean storage tank at the well head. x 27. (30 cm) (in) (mm) in the casing of water of water of water 4 (100) _______ft. x 15. The chlorinated water is used to force some of the chlorine solution into the formation around the well. of water L per 1 ft. (30 cm) L per 1 ft. Complete the procedure as described in Steps 5 to 9 for drilled wells.21 L =________ _______ft. This is dangerous. =_______ ________ft. Calculate the amount of chlorine you require per foot of water in the casing and add directly into the well.4 gal. x 127 g =________ 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal.091 L =________ ______ft.1 gal. Pump 200 gal. of stored water. A more practical way to shock chlorinate a bored well is to mix the recommended amount of chlorine right in the well. x 0. x 7. x 286 g =________ Since a dry chemical is being used. x 1. consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean the well prior to chlorinating. x 4.6 g =________ 8 (200) _______ft. x 0. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution prior to placing it in the well. _______ft. _______ft. x 0.7 L =_________ ______ft. Siphon the 200 gal.74 L =_________ ______ft. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 124 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .16 L =_________ ______ft.36 L =________ _______ft. x 0. needed per Dry weight 1 ft.2 gal. Casing Volume of 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Diameter Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite Imperial gal.
At no time should the water be exposed to the ground surface. Keeping the plumbing system clean is an important part of maintaining a sanitary water supply. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 125 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A properly protected well is evidenced by the well casing extending above the surface of the ground and the ground sloping away from the well to prevent water from collecting around the casing. they are no longer considered sanitary construction. the entire water system should be disinfected with chlorine.What Should I do if my Well Water is Contaminated with Bacteria? First. Although well pits were the common method of construction several years ago. Concentrations of chlorine ranging from 50 to 200 mg/1 are used in the shock chlorination process. It is important to remember that the groundwater is not necessarily contaminated in these cases. Anytime work is performed on the plumbing or pump. and returning it to the well is enough to contaminate the well with bacteria. The procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine is called shock chlorination. Studies have found that over 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria. Spring water supplies are the most frequently contaminated. A properly protected spring is developed underground and the water channeled to a sealed spring box. rather the well is acting to funnel contaminants down into the groundwater." The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24 hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready to be used again. Improving protection of a well or spring from the inflow of surface water is an important option to consider if the supply is contaminated with bacteria. This is 100 to 400 times the amount of chlorine found in "city water. setting it on the grass to work on it. Simply pulling the pump out of the well. don't panic'! Bacterial contamination is very common. with over 70 percent containing coliform bacteria.
If in doubt. The amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined by the amount of water standing in the well.Periodic shock chlorination also may be effective in reducing an iron bacteria problem. it is better to use more chlorine than less. Table 3 lists the amount of chlorine laundry bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) that is needed for wells. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 126 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
incubate for 24 hours. Simply add the Colilert reagent to the sample. coli in water samples in 24 hours or less. and read results. samples fluoresce under UV light. Colilert is easy to read. as positive coliform samples turn yellow. and when E.Bacteriological Monitoring Section Colilert tests simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms and E. coli is present. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 127 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
IDEXX’s HPC method is used for the quantification of heterotrophic plate counts in water.SimPlate for HPC Multi Dose Method. The number of fluorescing wells corresponds to a Most Probable Number (MPN) of total bacteria in the original sample. The MPN values generated by the SimPlate for HPC method correlate with the Pour Plate method using Total Plate Count Agar incubated at 35o for 48 hours as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 128 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 19th Edition.
Notice the custody seal on the bottle. Check for a reddish-brown slime inside a toilet tank or where water stands for several days. That is Sodium Thiosulfate. 100 mls. Indicators in common use today for routine monitoring of drinking water include total coliforms. Bacteria Sampling Water samples for bacteria tests must always be collected in a sterile container. Indicator bacteria are usually harmless. coli). Be careful not to wash-out this chemical while sampling. occur in high densities in their natural environment and are easily cultured in relatively simple bacteriological media. A water test is not needed for identification. Run the water for five minutes to clear the water lines and bring in fresh water. They are used to monitor for pathogens because of the difficulties in determining the presence of specific disease-causing microorganisms. Mailing bacteria samples is not recommended because laboratory analysis results are not as reliable. often referred to as a Standard Sample.Bacteriological Monitoring Most waterborne disease and illnesses have been related to the microbiological quality of drinking water. Notice the white powder inside the bottle. The routine microbiological analysis of your water is for coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria group is used as an indicator organism to determine the biological quality of your water. Do not touch or contaminate the inside of the bottle or cap. Take the sample from an inside faucet with the aerator removed. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the testing laboratory within six hours (in an ice chest). Carefully open the sample container and hold the outside of the cap. The presence of an indicator or pathogenic bacteria in your drinking water is an important health concern. Indicator bacteria signal possible fecal contamination and therefore. Sterilize by spraying a 5% Clorox or alcohol solution or flaming the end of the tap with disposable butane lighter. fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. the potential presence of pathogens. a de-chlorination agent. Fill the container and replace the top. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 129 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check the lab's schedule. Standard Sample Coliform Bacteria Bac-T Bac-T Sample Bottle. Iron bacteria forms an obvious slime on the inside of pipes and fixtures.
Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity public water systems will sample at the same frequency as a like sized community public water system if: 1. coli and report their presence or absence. It has more than 1. noncommunity water systems with less than 1. If coliforms are present. 2. It serves 25 or more daily population and utilizes surface water as a source or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as its source. a product marketed as Colilert is the most common. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 130 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Coliform Bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful.000 daily population and groundwater as a source will sample on a quarterly basis. Types of Water Samples It is important to properly identify the type of sample you are collecting. 3. the laboratory will analyze the sample further to determine if these are fecal coliforms or E.S. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. The sample results will be reported by the laboratories as simply coliforms present or absent. The number of repeat samples to be collected is based on the number of routine samples you normally collect. Noncommunity and nontransient. or 2. Collection should be in accordance with an approved sampling plan. EPA and your local environmental or health division: Methods The MMO-MUG test. Special: Samples collected for other reasons. Routine: Samples collected on a routine basis to monitor for contamination. Please indicate in the space provided on the laboratory form the type of sample.000 daily population and has ground water as a source. Examples would be a sample collected after repairs to the system and before it is placed back into operation or a sample collected at a wellhead prior to a disinfection injection point. Repeat: Samples collected following a ‘coliform present’ routine sample. The three (3) types of samples are: 1. Laboratory Procedures The laboratory may perform the total coliform analysis in one of four methods approved by the U. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. However. Routine Coliform Sampling The number of routine samples and frequency of collection for community public water systems is shown in Table 3-1.
000 180 450.001 to 41. 5.Samples per month up to 1.000 210 600. four (4) repeat samples must be collected.501 to 25.800 6 5.501-3.200 15 17.001 to 600.No.500 20 21.000 150 320.700 7 6.100 4 4.000 30 33.601 to 8.001 to 130.001 to 33. If a system which normally collects fewer than five (5) routine samples per month has a coliform present sample. Within five (5) service connections upstream from the original sampling location. c.001 to 83.000 90 96.000 120 220. three (3) repeat samples must be collected.501 to 12. Within five (5) service connections downstream from the original sampling location.001 to 320. 2.000 100 130. 6. d.901 to 5. If the system has only one service connection.901 to 17. if necessary. If only one routine sample per month or quarter is required. The follow-up for repeat sampling is: 1.000 50 50.000 80 83.801 to 6. The original sampling location of the coliform present sample.001 to 96.000 25 25. of Samples per System Population Persons served . For systems collecting two (2) or more routine samples per month. All repeat samples are included in the MCL compliance calculation.001-2.600 8 7. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 131 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .701 to 7.000 1 1.101 to 4.001 to 450.500 2 2.900 10 12.000 60 59. Repeat samples must be collected from: a. the repeat samples must be collected from the same sampling location over a four-day period or on the same day.300 3 3.001 to 59. Whenever a routine sample is total coliform or fecal coliform present a set of repeat samples must be collected within 24 hours after being notified by the laboratory.001 to 220. b.000 70 70.001 to 70.001 to 780.301 to 4.000 240 Repeat Sampling Repeat sampling replaces the old check sampling with a more comprehensive procedure to try to identify problem areas in the system. Elsewhere in the distribution system or at the wellhead. 4.500 9 8.201 to 21.000 40 41.001 to 50.900 5 4. it must collect five (5) routine samples the following month or quarter regardless of whether an MCL violation occurred or if repeat sampling was coliform absent. 3.
These standards are known as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). This list provides some basic operation and maintenance procedures that could help eliminate potential bacteriological problems. There are two types of MCL violations for coliform bacteria. This should be done anytime the bell is opened for repair (pump replacement. 3. review your operation and be sure to maintain a detectable residual (0. Upgrade the wellhead area to meet current construction standards as set your state environmental or health agency. Eliminate all of these connections or provide approved back flow prevention devices. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. short term (acute) exposure and long term (chronic) exposure. The recommended dose of 5% household bleach is 2 cups per 100 gallons of water in the well.. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLS) State and federal laws establish standards for drinking water quality. After you have contacted an agency for assistance you will be instructed as to the proper repeat sampling procedures and possible corrective measures for solving the problem. Conduct routine distribution line flushing. 2. When a particular contaminant exceeds its MCL a potential health threat may occur.coli. 4. The Drinking Water Program contracts with many of the local health departments to provide assistance to water systems. etc. the second is an acute risk to health violation characterized by the confirmed presence of fecal coliform or E. Conduct a cross connection program to identify all connections with non-potable water sources.2 mg/l free chlorine) at all times in the distribution system. Perform routine cleaning of the storage system. It is very important to initiate the repeat sampling immediately as the corrective measures will be based on those results.Positive or Coliform Present Results What do you do when your sample is positive or coliform present? When you are notified of a positive test result you need to contact either the Drinking Water Program or your local county health department within 24 hours or by the next business day after the results are reported to you. the water is safe to drink with no threat to human health. Some examples of typical corrective measures to coliform problems are: 1. If you plan to shock the entire system. You conduct the monitoring to make sure your water is in compliance with the MCL. calculate the total gallonage of storage and distribution. Under normal circumstances when these standards are being met. The first is for total coliform. Shock chlorination of a ground water well. If you continuously chlorinate.). 6. The MCLs are based on extensive research on toxicological properties of the contaminants.. 5. risk assessments and factors. Install blowoffs on all dead end lines. Quebec Colony Counter Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 132 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Material i ) Apparatus Glass rod Erlenmeyer flask Graduated Cylinder Pipet Petri dish Incubator ii ) Reagent and sample Reagent-grade water Nutrient agar Sample Procedure* 1.Incubate plates at 35oC for 48h. or single cells. *Duplicate samples Computing and Reporting: Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 133 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Spread Plate Method All colonies are on the agar surface where they can be distinguished readily from particles and bubbles.formerly known as the standard plate count. consider only plates having 30 to 300 colonies in determining the plate count. all of which are included in the term "colony-forming units" (CFU). is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria and measuring changes during water treatment and distribution in water or in swimming pools. 5. Pour Plate Method The colonies produced are relatively small and compact. On the other hand. Membrane Filter Method This method permits testing large volumes of volume of low-turbidity water and is the method of choice for lowcount waters. Colonies may arise from pairs. 2. starting with the highest dilution.Heterotrophic Plate Count Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) --. Methods There are three methods for standard plate count: 1.Distribute inoculum over surface of the medium using a sterile bent glass rod. chains.Boil mixture of nutrient agar and nutrient broth for 15 minutes. clusters. then cool for about 20 minutes. let medium solidify. showing less tendency to encroach on each other than those produced by surface growth.Count all colonies on selected plates promptly after incubation. 2. Colonies can be transferred quickly. and colony morphology easily can be discerned and compared to published descriptions.Pipet 0. 4. 3..1 ml of each dilution onto surface of pre-dried plate. 3. submerged colonies often are slower growing and are difficult to transfer.Pour approximately 15 ml of medium in each Petri dish. 6.
2) Ethanol: As needed for flame sterilization.5 g of soluble starch. a bacteriological colony count provides an estimate of the concentration of heterotrophs in the sample of interest. let agar solidify. b) If plates from all dilutions of any sample have no colony. Pipet: Glass.1 or 0. 0. c) Avoid creating fictitious precision and accuracy when computing CFU by recording only the first two left-hand digits. After an incubation period. 0.3 g of sodium pyruvate. The R2A agar provides a medium that will support a large variety of heterotrophic bacteria.5 g of yeast extract. The Heterotrophic Plate Count provides a technique to quantify the bacteriological activity of a sample. Sample Preparation: Mark each plate with sample type. Prepare at least duplicate plates for each volume of sample or dilution examined. date and any other information before sample application. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 134 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Quebec Colony Counter Hand Tally Counter Reagents: 1) R2A Agar: Dissolve and dilute 0.5 g of proteose peptone No. Sample Application: Uncover pre-dried agar plate. a)If there is no plate with 30 to 300 colonies. Pre-dry plates inverted so that there is a 2 to 3 g water loss overnight with the lids on.5 mL sample onto surface of pre-dried agar plate.1 mL. 3.2 with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate before adding agar. Minimize time plate remains uncovered. Laboratory Equipment: 100 x 15 Petri Dishes Turntable Glass Rods: Bend fire polished glass rod 45 degrees about 40 mm from one end. 0. In contrast.CFU/ml = colonies counted / actual volume of sample in dish. 1. dilution. 0.5 g of casamino acids. Preparation of Spread Plates: Immediately after agar sterilization. 0.5 g of glucose.3 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. Heterotrophic Plate Count (Spread Plate Method) Heterotrophic organisms utilize organic compounds as their carbon source (food or substrate). Heat to dissolve agar and sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes. Pipet 0. Use pre-dried plates immediately or store up to two weeks in sealed plastic bags at 4 degrees C. report the count as less than 1/actual volume of sample in dish estimated CFU/ml. Sterilize before using. Thoroughly mix all samples by rapidly making about 25 complete up-and-down movements. Sterilize before using. and 15. autotrophic organisms use inorganic carbon sources. use the plate(s) having a count nearest 300 colonies. 0. Adjust pH to 7. and one or more plates have more than 300 colonies. 0.0 g of agar to 1 L.05 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. pour 15 mL of R2A agar into sterile 100 x 15 Petri dishes.
comment on the general accuracy of this analytical technique and the factors that affect its accuracy and or applicability.1 mL of a 100:1 and 10000:1 dilution of a sample both turned up with no colonies formed.1 mL divided by 100). use your calculated results to report the CFU per mL for each sample. Use hand tally counter to maintain count. distribute the sample over surface of the medium by rotating the dish by hand on a turntable. If no sample produces a plate with a count in this range. mL Colonies Counted per plate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 135 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . mL To report counts on a plate with no colonies. To count. The final reported result for the sample is <1000 CFU per mL. Let the sample be absorbed completely into the medium before incubating. Data Table for Samples Sample ID Volume of Sample. 2. The aim of diluting samples is to produce a plate having 30 to 300 colonies. Count all colonies on the plate. regardless of size.Record Volume of Sample Used. which plates meet these criteria. uncover plate and place on Quebec colony counter. Counting and Recording: After incubation period. the reported result would be <1 divided by the largest sample volume 0. Feel free to justify your comments using statistical analysis. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the largest sample volume used. In the conclusion of your lab report.) If plates of all dilutions for a sample have no colonies. Based on these criteria. Example: if 0. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the sample volume put on that plate (remember to account for any dilution of that sample. promptly count all colonies on the plates. Assignment: 1. comment on your final results for each sample type as well as the quality of your application of this analysis technique. Using a sterile bent glass rod. Report the number of colony forming units (CFU) found on each plate. Remove Petri dishes from incubator for counting. Put cover back on Petri dish and invert for duration of incubation time. 3.001 mL (0. Incubate at 28 degrees C for 7 days. Calculate the CFU per mL for each plate. Also. use the plate(s) with a count closest to 300. Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: CFU mL = colonies counted actual volume of sample in dish.
For systems which collect 40 or more samples per month. 2. 2. Violation of the MCL for nitrate. For systems which collect fewer than 40 samples per month. Certain language maybe mandatory for both these violations and is included in your state drinking water rule. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. 3.Total Coliforms This MCL is based on the presence of total coliforms and compliance is on a monthly or quarterly basis. A routine analysis shows total coliform present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates fecal coliform or E. coli present. Coli) An acute risk to human health violation occurs if either one of the following happen: 1. Public Notice A public notice is required to be issued by a water system whenever it fails to comply with an applicable MCL or treatment technique or fails to comply with the requirements of any scheduled variance or permit. Acute Risk to Health (Fecal Coliforms and E. be issued properly and in a timely manner and contain certain mandatory language. In other words. coli present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates total coliform present. no more than five (5) percent may be Positive. as defined by the rules. This type of contamination can pose an immediate threat to human health and notice must be given as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours after notification from your laboratory of the test results. An acute health risk violation requires the water system to provide public notice via radio and television stations in the area. coli are present in the distribution system. The following are acute violations: 1. The timing and place of posting of the public notice depends on whether an acute risk is present to users. Any violation of the MCL for total coliforms. when fecal coliforms or E. Each public notice must contain certain information. This will inform users when there is a problem with the system and give them information. Check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. A routine analysis shows total and fecal coliform or E. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 136 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the second positive result (repeat or routine) in a month or quarter results in an MCL violation. Any outbreak of waterborne disease. no more than one sample per month may be positive. depending on your water system type and state rule. A public notice is also required whenever a water system fails to comply with its monitoring and/or reporting requirements or testing procedure.
Vacuum dust filters shall be installed with the hoppers to prevent dust from rising into the room when the hopper is filled. Too much Fluoride will mottle the teeth.Fluoride Some water providers will add Fluoride to the water to help prevent cavities in children. positive anti-siphon breakers other than valves shall be provided. The fluoride solution should be added to the water supply at a point where the fluoride will not be removed by any following treatment processes and where it will be mixed with the water. 3. Alarm signals are recommended to detect faulty operation of equipment. The following chemical feed practices apply: 1. Feeders shall be provided with anti-siphon valves on the discharge side. 6. a suitable weighing mechanism shall be provided to check the daily amount of chemical feed. 8. Dissolving chambers are required for use with dry feeders. 2. Solution feeders shall be of the positive displacement type and constructed of material compatible with the fluoride solution being fed. The weight of the daily amount of fluoride fed to water shall be accurately determined. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 137 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and the dissolving chambers shall be designed such that at the required rate of feed of the chemical the solution strength will not be greater than 1/4 of that of a saturated solution at the temperature of the dissolving water. All equipment shall be sized such that it will be operated in the 20 to 80 percent range of the scale. 7. 4. 5. Wherever possible. A "day tank" capable of holding a 24 hour supply of solution should be provided. It is undesirable to inject the fluoride compound or solution directly on-line unless there are provisions for adequate mixing. Chemical Feed The equipment used for feeding the fluoride to water shall be accurately calibrated before being placed in operation. 11. 9. The construction material of the dissolving chamber and associated piping shall be compatible with the fluoride solution to be fed. and. Where a dry feeder of the volumetric or gravimetric type is used. and be capable of feeding over the entire pumpage range of the plant. 10. Hoppers should be designed to hold a 24 hour supply of the fluoride compound and designed such that the dust hazard to operators is minimized. and at all times shall be capable of maintaining a rate of feed within 5% of the rate at which the machine is set.
Alternate Compounds Any one of the following fluoride compounds may be used: 1. the following sampling procedures are required: 1. weekly samples of raw and treated water for a period of not less than four consecutive weeks. 5. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 138 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Sodium silicofluoride. On new installations or during start-ups of existing installations. A sample of raw water and a sample of treated water shall be forwarded to an approved independent laboratory for fluoride analysis once a month. and (ii) raw water being analyzed at least once a week. Sodium fluoride. 6. the fluoride content of the raw and fluoridated water determined by laboratory analysis. EPA may require other information that is deemed necessary. 2.Metering Metering of the total water to be fluoridated shall be provided. and the storage area shall be marked "FLUORIDE CHEMICALS ONLY". whereby the fluoride feed rate is automatically adjusted in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant preestablished dosage for all rates of flow. Other fluoride compounds may be used if approved by the EPA. Chemical Storage and Ventilation The fluoride chemicals shall be stored separately from other chemicals. or (2) automatic/ residual controlled. or compound loop controlled. and the operation of the feeding equipment is to be controlled. the daily reading of the water meter which controls the fluoridation equipment or that which determines the amount of water to which the fluoride is added. 3. 2. 2. 3. the daily weight of fluoride compound in the feeder. These records shall include: 1. with the frequency of measurement as follows: (i) treated water being analyzed continuously or once daily. 3. or. Control of the feed rate shall be automatic/ proportional controlled. Record of Performance Accurate daily records shall be kept. the daily weight of fluoride compound in stock. whereby the feed rate is controlled by a flow proportional signal and residual analyzer signal to maintain a constant residual. to allow circulation of air and to keep the containers off the floor. whereby a continuous automatic fluoride analyzer determines the residual fluoride level and adjusts the rate of feed accordingly. the daily volume of water fluoridated. In addition to the reports required. kept relatively dry. Sampling In keeping the fluoride records. Hydrofluosilicic acid. and provided with pallets. 4. if using bagged chemical. and. The storage area should be in close proximity to the feeder. the daily weight of the fluoride compound fed to the water.
At all installations. Wet or damp cleaning methods shall be employed wherever practicable. 3. and. and protective clothing shall be worn by all personnel when handling or being exposed to the fluoride dust. and all areas and appliances shall be kept clean and free of dust. but shall be placed in operation immediately after the repair or replacement is complete. determining the length and duration of impulses. All protective devices. a fluoridation program may be discontinued when necessary to repair or replace equipment. 2. All equipment shall be maintained at a high standard of efficiency. sizing of pump and feeders. Records shall be maintained and submitted during the period that the equipment is not in operation. Personal protective equipment shall be used during the clean-up. Chemical respirators. 7. anti-siphon devices. and hands shall be washed after the equipment is stored. shall be inspected periodically and maintained in good operating condition. chemical safety goggles and acid proof aprons shall be worn where acids are handled. or other similar safety devices. After use. 6.Safety The following safety procedures shall be maintained: 1. rubber gloves. all equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and stored in an area free of fluoride dusts. Safety features shall also be provided to prevent spills and overflows. chemical safety face shields. 5. Rubber articles shall be washed in water. Repair and Maintenance Upon notifying the appropriate local board of health. boots. 4. whether for routine or emergency use. over-riding flow switches. and appropriate covers shall be maintained over all fluoride solutions. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 139 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . rubber gloves. This shall be done either by use of day tanks or containers. Individual dust respirators. 8. safety features are to be considered and the necessary controls built into the installation to prevent an overdose of fluoride in the water.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 140 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
and water treatment. where Gary A. making sure it represents the customer’s actual concern. preferably 75×. by permission. household plumbing. Although particles can come from cold or hot water systems. water distribution systems. Reprinted from Opflow. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 141 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The most important step in solving a particulate complaint is to collect as much suspect material as possible. larger volumes will need to be filtered.” The Philadelphia Water Department has standardized procedures in place that can identify offending materials and help pinpoint their source. Particulates can also accumulate in the toilet tank. Sometimes enough material for analysis can be collected from faucet aerators.45 µm filter can be used if the water’s colloidal matter doesn’t clog the filter before enough particulate material is collected for analysis.gov or (215) 685-1417. Burlingame is the supervisor of water quality and research. For optimum observation. Collecting and Identifying Particulates Typically. American Water Works Association. Vol. Burlingame Jameel Rahman is a retired analytical chemist supervisor for the Materials Testing Laboratory at the Philadelphia Water Department. 29. the suspended matter customers complain about is particulate in form. 2 (February 2003).burlingame@phila. Copyright 2003. magnification to identify matter on the membrane filter disk. Use a zoom microscope with at least 40×. A container may be left with the customer for sample collection during normal tap use. A 0. Enough particulate matter can usually be captured with a water sample of approximately 250 mL.Water Quality What’s That Stuff in the Tap Water? by Jameel Rahman and Gary A. ←Granular Rust Under a microscope. Particulate matter can be extracted from water samples by using nitrocellulose membrane filters. which can be stored in a Plexiglas Petri dish. the water supplier—at least in customers’ eyes—is usually “guilty until proven innocent. When samples have low turbidity. No. examine the particulate matter captured on a filter. Almost every water utility employee responsible for solving customer problems has fielded a complaint about particles in a bathtub or faucet aerator. illuminate the particulates from above with a fiber-optic light. Contact Burlingame at gary.
or solubility in a solvent. or further delineation is required. 10 per filter. several. They can be colorful but usually appear translucent to whitish. remove sufficient particulates from the disk and further identify them by IR. Color formed by chemical reactions can be seen by the unaided eye. Disintegrated rubber gasket particulates are usually black. which display a shiny luster under reflected light. but fibers found in water typically have a strip shape. sometimes. If pressed with a needle. a rubber gasket. With fine-tipped tweezers. used in gaskets. Glass chips are transparent. They can show porosity but appear dull compared to anthracite particulates. fibers are not present in large numbers — at most. use infrared spectroscopy (IR). stickiness. indicating a common source. Fibers used in apparel are round. and do not smear the filter disk with black when a drop of toluene is applied. Usually. have significant length.Some particulates can be identified by their appearance and. large. Identify them further by IR. such as carbon dioxide from scale particulates or marble. Pick up a few particulates and burn them in a Bunsen burner flame. such as softness. Remove a few particulates and burn them. Disintegrated plastic particulates are usually white. You will need to understand the common soil minerals in your area to identify them. A characteristic evolution of a gas. Plastic burns with a smoke. or numerous. Usually the source of such particulates is disintegrating plastic. Man-made fibers. Most often they are polypropylene plastic. perform simple chemical tests on the filter. can be observed under the microscope. they flex. Heat Identification Activated carbon particulates are black and usually coated with debris. Mica particulates have a characteristic platelet shape and shine under reflected light. may have smooth facets with sharp edges. relatively large. If particulates cannot be identified by their appearance. or a corroding component of the plumbing system. Often these particulates are ethylene-propylene-diene monomer. Relatively large amounts of similar particulates often indicate a problem within a plumbing system. rubber burns with a black smoke. by touching them with a sharp needle and observing their physical properties. and may be present in large numbers. If these tests still fail to identify the debris. Visual Identification Sand particulates have a characteristic vitreous appearance and irregular shape with smooth facets. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 142 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . are present in single strands. Pick up a few particulates on the tip of a wetted platinum wire and burn them in the blue part of a Bunsen burner flame. and may be colorful. such as pump packing. AC particulates will burn instantaneously with a glitter and no visible smoke or residue. Particulates can be quantified as few. and often are visible to the unaided eye. found in all colors and with a characteristic wrinkled strip shape.
Rust particulates will interfere with this test if it is performed on the rust-coated filter. To prepare the sodium rhodizonate reagent. Yellow staining indicates the presence of ferric chloride. To confirm their presence. To confirm rust.Acid Identification Rust particulates are usually abundant and are easy to identify with their typically brown and rough irregular shapes. dissolve 0. add a drop of (1+1) HCl from a Pasture pipette. Scales can form in water heaters. Prepare a pH 2. Remove a few particulates and place them in the cavity of a spot. while fine rust particulates form a uniform brown film on the filter disk. add a drop of (1+1) hydrochloric acid (500 mL of 11. Appearance of a blue precipitate or blue color confirms the presence of patina particulates. the presence of patina is indicated.9 g of sodium bitartrate and 1.2 g of rhodizonic acid disodium salt in 100 mL of distilled water.8 buffer solution by dissolving 1.2 percent solution of freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate. If the particulates turn scarlet red. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 143 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Calcium carbonate can develop as a white scale through evaporation of hard water or can occur as a particulate of limestone or calcite. Large particulates may have yellow and black streaks or inclusions. Often. Add a drop of 2 percent solution of potassium thiocyanate on the yellow area where HCl was added. If tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form under the microscope. Large Rust Particles Lead solder particulates are gray and may have a whitish coating. These irregularly shaped particulates result from corrosion of copper and copper alloys.8 tartrate-buffer solution followed by a drop of 0. are usually brittle. they are relatively large in size compared to most other particulates on the filter disk. Patina is hydrated basic copper carbonate and has a greenish color. Add a drop of (1+1) HCl followed by a drop of ammonia. add a drop of pH 2.5N hydrochloric acid [HCl] solution plus 500 mL of distilled water) to the filter.test plate. If lead particulates are suspected.5 g of tartaric acid in 100 mL of distilled water. Brick-red staining confirms the presence of potassium ferrithiocyanate. and can be easily pulverized. lead solder is present.
or phosphates. including polypropylene. Particulates are removed with fine-tipped tweezers one by one from the filter disk and transferred to a small vial for dissolving in a solvent or to a small agate mortar for grinding and mixing with KBr for making a potassium bromide (KBr) pellet. use IR to identify organic and inorganic materials. Visually.Limestone can come from water treatment processes. Grease particulates are black and may be shiny. activated carbon. calcium sulfate. changing bond angles by bending and bond lengths by stretching. add a drop of toluene or chloroform to the filter disk under the microscope. These particulates can be removed from the filter disk and burned in a crucible. the particulates are classified as pipe-coating of an asphaltic nature. lead carbonate. silicates. Add a drop of toluene. and 10 mg of sample is all that is commonly needed to produce a good infrared absorption spectrum. and polyethylene. Touch the particulates with a needle in the area where toluene was added. Inorganic compounds include calcium carbonate. but various types of plastics can occur in water systems. Each compound has a unique infrared absorption spectrum. polyvinyl chloride. metal oxides. Among these motions only certain vibrations absorb infrared radiation of specific energy. they should no longer be sticky and may behave like a black powder. All greases may not behave this way. and with the aid of heat. Anthracite. When portions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by such vibrations. barium sulfate. Inorganic materials are identified by IR scanning of the KBr pellet of the sample alone. but their stickiness and extreme softness differentiates them from other black particulates. you might suspect a particulate is plastic in nature. organic materials are identified by scanning a pellet or a film of the sample cast on a KBr plate. an IR absorption band spectrum appears. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 144 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . They are soft and sticky when touched with a needle and can be smeared easily on the disk. which an infrared spectrometer records. They are usually present as tiny heaps on the filter disk because of their softness and hydrophobic nature. Solvent Identification Asphalt pipe-coating compounds are black. Let the toluene evaporate or use an oven to expedite drying. IR can differentiate between plastic materials. The usually brittle plastic fragments can be powdered easily. grease will dissolve and a black color will spread around the particulates. and various compounds can be identified by comparing absorption band positions in the IR spectrum of an unknown compound to band positions of known compounds. Anthracite particulates appear shiny compared with other black particulates and do not smear the filter disk if a drop of toluene is applied. they will leave a solid residue. Atoms in a molecule are in constant motion. and rubber particulates are insoluble in the solvents used. To differentiate between various black particulates. Infrared Spectroscopy When particulates cannot be completely identified by the above means. If the disk becomes smeared with black around the particulates. The brisk evolution of gas confirms the presence of carbonates. Add a drop of HCl (1+1) on the particulates and observe the evolution of carbon dioxide under the microscope.
Infrared spectroscopy revealed the particulates to be polypropylene. If the sample is insoluble. the sample is identified by manual means or a computer search of a commercially available online IR library. a plastic not used in the distribution system. Philadelphia was in a good position to explain the situation to customers because our procedure was already in place for testing and characterizing particulates. prompting water heater manufacturers to give rebates to customers for dip-tube replacements. granules of lead solder can also be analyzed by wet chemical or instrumental methods. the dip-tube manufacturer admitted to changing materials to a less-durable plastic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 145 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A variety of materials. try dissolving the sample in this solvent first. cast a film of the sample on a KBr plate and scan it. customers in Philadelphia and across the country complained about white particulates clogging faucet aerators. The only common source for this plastic was found to be the dip tubes in residential gas hot-water heaters (see Opflow. and scan the pellet. For example. and copper and silicate particulates. During the late 1990s. can be identified by common chemical analyses.Zeolite Particles from a Water Softener Most plastics are readily soluble in hot o-dichlorobenzene. After a sample is dissolved in a mineral acid. evaporate the solvent completely and transfer the particulates to an agate mortar. it can be analyzed for various elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Similarly. December 1998). hydrated aluminum oxide can occur as white slurry and be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry after dissolving in mineral acids. After obtaining a reasonably strong infrared spectrogram. manganese dioxides. aluminum oxides. When this issue made the TV news. including iron oxides. calcium carbonates. Eventually. If soluble. Standard Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses available in most full-service water testing laboratories can be used to identify particulates when sufficient material is available. make a KBr pellet.
Potential sources for particulate matter found in tap water Particulate Activated carbon fines Asphaltic lining fragments Backfill sand Calcium carbonate scale X Cast iron rust Cement lining fragments Copper fragments X Glass chips Greases and lubricants X Lead fragments X Manganese dioxide deposits Man-made fibers On-site treatment device media Plastic fragments X Rubber gasket fragments X Soil minerals.45 µm Particulate > 1.Dip Tube Particles Table 1.0 µm Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 146 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .45 µm Colloidal < 1.0 µm but > 0. Suspended matter classified by size Soluble < 0. mica From Customer Plumbing From Water Supplier Piping X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 2.
After a period of a few months or years. It removes contaminants through adsorption. Advantages of PAC are that it can be used on a short-term or emergency basis with conventional treatment. Several operational and maintenance factors affect the performance of granular activated carbon. Powdered activated carbon consists of finely ground particles and exhibits the same adsorptive properties as the granular form. a process in which dissolved contaminants adhere to the surface of the carbon particles. GAC can be used as a replacement for existing media (such as sand) in a conventional filter or it can be used in a separate contactor such as a vertical steel pressure vessel used to hold the activated carbon bed. Activated carbon is carbon that has been exposed to very high temperature. It is also somewhat ineffective in removing natural organic matter due to the competition from other contaminants for surface adsorption and the limited contact time between the water and the carbon. whether or not they are targeted for removal. Excessive bacterial growth may cause clogging and higher bacterial counts in the treated water. or slough off. Also. Bacterial growth on the carbon is another potential problem. As a result. PAC is normally applied to the water in a slurry and then filtered out. adsorbed contaminants can be replaced by other contaminants with which GAC has a greater affinity so their presence might interfere with removal of contaminants of concern. depending on the concentration of the contaminants. granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are suitable treatments for removal of organic contaminants such as VOCs. The main disadvantage is that some contaminants require large doses of PAC for removal. because GAC is essentially an equilibrium process. raw water with frequently changing contaminant levels can result in treated water of unpredictable quality. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 147 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . creates no headloss. Contaminants in the water can occupy adsorption sites.Granular Activated Carbon / Powdered Activated Carbon Along with aeration. herbicides and pesticides. creating a vast network of pores with a very large internal surface area. The disinfection process must be carefully monitored in order to avoid this problem. does not encourage microbial growth and has relatively small capital costs. adsorbed contaminants. solvents. the surface of the pores in the GAC can no longer adsorb contaminants and the carbon must be replaced. one gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to that of a football field. A significant drop in the contaminant level in influent water can cause a GAC filter to desorb. PCBs. The addition of PAC can improve the organic removal effectiveness of conventional treatment processes and also remove tastes and odors.
This is because standing water tends to leach lead or copper out of the metals in the distribution system more readily than does moving water. cadmium. such as silver-tin and antimony-tin is a key factor in lead corrosion control. zinc.Corrosion Control Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance by chemical action. the simplest short-term or immediate measure that can be taken to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water is to let the water run for two to three minutes before each use. In the past. resulting in disagreeable tastes. Long-term measures for addressing lead and other corrosion by-products include pH and alkalinity adjustment. drinking water should not be taken from the hot water tap. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 148 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The highest level of lead in consumers’ tap water will be found in water that has been standing in the pipes after periods of nonuse (overnight or longer). Also. odors. fluxes and pipes in the installation or repair of any public water system. copper and iron might be found in water when metals in water distribution systems corrode. and cathodic protection. as hot water tends to leach lead more readily than cold. Using lead-free solders. Lead. Therefore. slimes and further corrosion. Corrosion also reduces the useful life of water distribution systems and can promote the growth of microorganisms. Drinking water contaminated with certain metals (such as lead and cadmium) can harm human health. coatings and linings. The EPA has banned the use of lead solders. Because it is widespread and highly toxic. corrosion inhibitors. lead is the corrosion product of greatest concern. all discussed below. solder used in plumbing has been 50% tin and 50% lead.
As a result of the electrochemical properties of the impressed current Cathodic protection system. The rectifier converts the alternating current to direct current. which acts as the cathode. There are Two Types of Cathodic Protection: Ø Sacrificial Anodes (Galvanic Systems) Ù Impressed (Induced) Current Systems How Does Cathodic Protection Work ? Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal more electrically active than the steel piping system. it is often necessary to utilize either impressed current or sacrificial anode cathodic protection (CP) in combination with coatings as a means of suppressing the natural degradation phenomenon to provide a long and useful service life. Impressed or Induced Current Systems An impressed current Cathodic protection system consists of anodes. However.” Sacrificial anodes can be attached to existing piping system or coated steel for a pre-engineered Cathodic protection system. and back to the rectifier through another insulated copper wire. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 149 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . premature failure. corrosion takes place only at the anodes and not at the piping system. Thus. soil or seawater can be subject to corrosive attack and accelerated deterioration. the system is protected while the attached anode is “sacrificed. Ceramic anodes are not consumed. Typical anode materials are ceramic. Therefore. where as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes partially dissolve each year and must be replaced over time. or graphite. if proper considerations are not given. a rectifier and the soil. high silicon cast iron. problems can arise which can produce unexpected. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the system. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the piping system. Metallic structures. the corrosive current will exit from them rather than the piping system. cathodes. The direct current then flows from the anode through the soil to the piping system. Because these anodes are more active.Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection protects steel from corrosion which is the natural electrochemical process that results in the deterioration of a material because of its reaction with its environment. components and equipment exposed to aqueous environments. An asphalt coating is not considered a suitable dielectric coating. The direct current is then sent through an insulated copper wire to anodes that are buried in the soil near the piping system.
Since the driving voltage is large. Shut down of D. Initial investments are higher and can pay off only in long run and economic only for large structures 5. If carefully designed it can render protection for anticipated period.Sacrificial Anode System In this system.C. Advantages 1. Needs trained staff for maintenance of units and for monitoring 4. 2. Power cost must be incorporated in all economic consideration. Any foreign structure coming within this field will cause interference problem. Once designed and installed. Obviously we need some material to function as anodes. Possibility of over protection should be avoided as it will affect the life of the paint. a metal or alloy reacting more vigorously than that corroding specimen.C. thereby increasing the weight or load on the structure. It can be high silicon chromium cast iron anodes. Impressed Current System The impressed current anode system on the other hand has several advantages over the sacrificial anode systems. Reversal of anode cathode connection at D. protection current cannot be altered or increased as may be needed in case of cathode area extension (unprotected) or foreign structure interference (physical contact). 2. Installation is simple 5. source. Does not involve maintenance work 3. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 150 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The anodes have to be distributed all over the structure (as throwing power is lower) and therefore have design limitations in certain applications.C. 6. etc. Does not involve expensive accessories like rectifier unit. 4. These anodes are made of materials such as magnesium. 6. 2. In this system the protection current is "Forced" through the environment to the structure (cathode) by means of an external D. aluminum or zinc which are anodic with respect to the protected structure. The sacrificial anodes are connected directly to the structure. 7. graphite anodes or lead silver alloy anodes. source will be harmful as structure will dissolve anodic 3. Needs no external power source. Variations in protection current requirements can be adjusted to some extend (to be incorporated at design stage) Disadvantages 1.. 3. this system offers freedom of installation design and location 2. Fewer anodes can protect large structure 3. acts as an anode and the corroding structure as a whole is rendered Cathodic. Advantages 1. supply for a long times allows structure to corrode again. Economical for small structures Disadvantages 1. The driving voltage is small and therefore the anodes have to be fitted close to the structure or on the structure.
The most common corrosion inhibitors are inorganic phosphates.5 and 8. Typical coating maintenance doses range from 2 to 12 mg/1. However. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 151 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . sodium silicates and mixtures of phosphates and silicates. to maintain pH at a level that will control corrosion but not conflict with optimum pH levels for disinfection and control of disinfection by-products. pH is not the only factor in the corrosion equation. alkalinity is a measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids.0 to reduce the availability of hydrogen ions as electron receptors. carbonate and alkalinity levels affect corrosion as well. caustic soda (NaOH or sodium hydroxide). Sodium silicates have been used for over 50 years to inhibit corrosion. They offer advantages in hot water systems because of their chemical stability. soda ash (Na2CO3 or sodium carbonate). while pHs between 6. Generally. Corrosion Inhibitors Inhibitors reduce corrosion by forming protective coatings on pipes. low alkalinity and a pH of less than 8. Glassy phosphates. zinc is added in conjunction with orthophosphates or polyphosphates. For this reason. These chemicals have proven successful in reducing corrosion in many water systems. low hardness. Generally. Some studies have suggested that systems using only pH to control corrosion should maintain a pH of at least 9. Glassy phosphate has an appearance of broken glass and can cut the operator. an increase in pH and alkalinity can decrease corrosion rates and help form a protective layer of scale on corrodible pipe material. The effectiveness depends on the water pH and carbonate concentration. glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates. Sodium silicates are particularly effective for systems with high water velocities.Alkalinity and pH Adjustment Adjusting pH and alkalinity is the most common corrosion control method because it is simple and inexpensive. In some cases. however. effectively reduce iron corrosion at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/l. Care must be taken. essentially baking soda). The phosphates used as corrosion inhibitors include polyphosphates. water pH less than 6. Chemicals commonly used for pH and alkalinity adjustment are hydrated lime (CaOH2 or calcium hydroxide).4.5 is associated with uniform corrosion. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in water. such as sodium hexametaphosphate. orthophosphates.0 can be associated with pitting corrosion. and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. they are often used in boilers of steam heating systems.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 152 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
it should stay quiet. but the surge doesn't always find this release quickly enough. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 153 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or pumps are opened and closed quickly. then turn it off very quickly. it puts most of its water high up. it's your pipe fittings. and maybe even several. where it has lots of gravitational potential energy. Just the name alone can give you an idea of its purpose. Try it at home . The shock waves created when hydrants.turn on your tap. This stored energy can be converted to pressure potential energy or kinetic energy for delivery to homes. If you turn the tap off more slowly. Distribution operators are aware of this phenomenon! It's called WATER HAMMER. elevated tanks and reservoirs. The release the surge usually finds is an elevated tank. • • • SURGE tanks RESERVOIRS ELEVATED tanks Water towers and Standpipes Surge Tanks What really causes water main breaks . building a cylindrical water tower is inefficient. Since height is everything. shape. These tanks serve multiple purposes in the distribution system. seeking a point of release. Something has to give. By making the tower wider near the top. trapping the kinetic energy of moving water within the confined space of a piping system. as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually.Water Storage Section Water storage facilities and tanks vary in size. A Surge tank should not be used for water storage. These shock waves can create a turbulence that travels at the speed of sound. valves. This banging can be heard as water hammer. often times. The goal of the water tower or standpipe is to store water high in the air. hydropneumatic tanks and surge tanks. You should hear a bang. and application. such as standpipes.ENERGY . such as a water distribution system.When released in a confined space. Most of the water is then near the ground. There are different types that are used in the water distribution systems.
Normal day for a Distribution Worker after a Water Hammer broke a water main. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 154 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Aren’t you glad to work in a nice plant? This is a good reason never to complain.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 155 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Cross-Connections. Such pressure drops can cause siphoning of waste water or other fluids into the potable water line. you will attain an understanding of the mechanisms by which water flow. Backsiphonage and Backpressure • Cross connection occurs when a potable water line and a nonpotable water line connect. This can happen when a water main breaks or when a fire hydrant is used. A large Fireline RP backflow Preventer • • Backpressure occurs when water pressure in a building or fixture is greater than the water pressure in the water supply. Backsiphonage occurs when a water main or a plumbing system in a building lose water pressure. Hopefully. Common causes of backpressure involve connecting plumbing to a pump or to steam and/or air pressure. The water may drain from a building back to the potable water line. This condition can force waste water or other fluids back into the potable water line. Backflow is the waste water that enters potable water lines through a cross connection. Backflow from cross connections can cause serious illness. biofilms and pathogens interact in pipes and service reservoirs to affect health-related and aesthetic dimensions of water quality at consumer's taps. Substantial changes in water quality can occur as drinking water is transported through a distribution system from the point of major treatment and/or disinfection to consumer's taps. Backflow. The nonpotable water line may contain waste water or other liquids that are not safe to drink.
Common Cross-Connections Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 156 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Centrifugal Pump Section Centrifugal pumps may be classified in several ways. to lubricate the packing. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump. discharging to the suction of the next stage impeller. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing. Centrifugal pumps are also classified as HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL. and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 157 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . each impeller acts separately. This arrangement is called series staging. depending upon the position of the pump shaft. As a rule. A multistage pump has two or more impellers housed together in one casing. Open impellers do not have these side walls. The single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from one side only. the casing wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. A single-stage pump has only one impeller. and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. Seal piping leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. The impellers used on centrifugal pumps may be classified as SINGLE SUCTION or DOUBLE SUCTION. In this type of pump. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. Closed impellers have side walls that extend from the eye to the outer edge of the vane tips. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). The double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from two directions. they may be either SINGLE STAGE or MULTISTAGE. Recirculating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. Impellers are also classified as CLOSED or OPEN. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. During pump operation. For example.
(3) clogged water seal passages. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient priming. may encounter with centrifugal pumps. such as worn wearing rings. or other mechanical defects. stuffing box packing. (6) clogged impeller passages. Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leakoff on idle (vertical) pumps. 2. or (3) misalignment. the trouble will probably be indicated by overheating of the motor. b. worn wearing rings. (3) mechanical defects. Pump Troubleshooting Some of the operating troubles you. (7) clogged suction screen (if used). or (8) mechanical defects. Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. such as worn wearing rings. together with the probable causes are discussed in the following paragraphs. The basic causes may be (1) operation of the pump to excess capacity and insufficient discharge pressure. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient pump speed. Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1. (6) the wrong direction of rotation (this may occur after motor overhaul). (8) ruptured suction line. If a pump WORKS FOR A WHILE AND THEN FAILS TO DELIVER LIQUID. (2) air or gas in the liquid being pumped. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. excessively tight stuffing box packing. Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. (4) excessive suction lift. (7) excessive discharge pressure. stuffing box packing. (2) air leakage in the stuffing boxes. (2) air leakage into the stuffing boxes in pumps operating at less than atmospheric pressure. or sleeves. (4) excessive suction lift. This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. (2) insufficient speed of the pump. Leakoff causes two types of seal leakage: a. Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water. If a centrifugal pump delivers some liquid but operates at INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY. (3) insufficient pump speed. Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. (5) clogged impeller passages. such as might be caused by a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line. (3) excessive discharge pressure. If a motor-driven centrifugal pump DRAWS TOO MUCH POWER. impellers. or sleeves. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. If a centrifugal pump DOES NOT DELIVER ANY LIQUID. If a pump DOES NOT DEVELOP DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. (4) insufficient liquid on the suction side. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation.Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. as an Operator. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings. or (9) loss of suction pressure. a bent shaft. impellers. (5) insufficient liquid on the suction side. or (5) excessive heat in the liquid being pumped. (2) too high viscosity or specific gravity of the liquid being pumped. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 158 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or (4) reversed rotation of the impeller (3-phase electric motor-driven pumps).
If the discharge pressure is not normal when the pump is up to its proper speed. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing. If the packing is allowed to dry out. centrifugal pumps are usually trouble-free. Shut the pump discharge valve. Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration. When operating a centrifugal pump. it will score the shaft. YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. If the pump is electrically driven. (2) a bent shaft. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing. eroded. start the pump. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. If the shaft is rough. It is also possible that air is being drawn into the suction line or into the casing. You may then begin to adjust the packing gland. 3. 6. be sure the pump is rotating in the correct direction. particularly in pumps that handle hot or volatile liquids. and set up the packing gland lightly. be sure there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box or seal. Pack the box loosely. be sure the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 159 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . When replacing packing. If it is very rough. Maintenance of Centrifugal Pumps When properly installed. Restart the pump. 5. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the packing gland for the desired amount of leak-off. Open all valves in the pump suction line. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer to make it fit. Open the discharge valve to “load” the pump. 4. or has deep ridges in it. Next. condition of the shaft sleeve. make certain the shaft or sleeve is smooth when the packing is removed from a gland.VIBRATION of a centrifugal pump is often caused by (1) misalignment. or (4) lack of rigidity in the foundation. Secure the pump. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. it should be sent to the machine shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. 2. Repacking Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. If any of these conditions exist. the suction line may be clogged. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. Rapid wear of the packing will be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). or otherwise unbalanced impeller. (3) a clogged. stop the pump and continue troubleshooting according to the technical manual for that unit. If the pump fails to build up pressure when the discharge valve is opened and the pump comes up to normal operating speed. maintained and operated. proceed as follows: 1. Some of the most common corrective maintenance actions that you may be required to perform are discussed in the following sections. it will have to be renewed. or an impeller may be broken. as well as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure. such as the type of pump. and hours in use. Prime the pump (fill casing with the liquid being pumped) and be sure that all air is expelled through the air cocks on the pump casing.
Mechanical shaft seals must not be positioned by setscrews. they are simply replaced. Once you have the desired leak-off. chilled-water. You should replace a mechanical seal whenever the seal is removed from the shaft for any reason or whenever leakage causes undesirable effects on equipment or surrounding spaces. When the seals wear out. The type of material used for the seal faces will depend upon the service of the pump. They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. check it regularly to make certain that sufficient flow is maintained. Mechanical shaft seals serve to ensure that position liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage. Do not touch a new seal on the sealing face because body acid and grease or dirt will cause the seal to pit prematurely and leak.Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments. Mechanical Seal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 160 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Most water service pumps use a carbon material for one of the seal faces and ceramic (tungsten carbide) for the other. Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on rotary and positive-displacement pumps. Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps that operate in closed systems (such as fuel service and air-conditioning. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts. Shaft sleeves are chamfered (beveled) on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts. it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked). and various cooling systems).
Multi-stage Bowl Assemblies Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 161 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Common Elements of Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical Turbine Pump Being Removed (notice line shaft) Closed Pump Impeller Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 162 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
or large-size water systems where all treatment can be accomplished at a central location. In the process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 163 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Diet should be rich in electrolytes as the aggressive nature of distilled water can "leech" electrolytes from the body. some of which impart a quality known as hardness. It is still second only to reverse osmosis water for health. This process will provide softened water at the lowest cost. but those that are move volatile are often vaporized and condensed with the product water. membrane methods seem to have the greatest potential. Lime softening can be used for treatment of either groundwater or surface water sources. metals. distillation.5 -11 Lt) a day. dissolved solids such as salt. Water Distillers have a high energy cost (approximately 20-30 cents per gallon). Because of the special facilities required and the complexity of the process. Ion exchange processes can typically be used for direct treatment of groundwater. For treatment of surface water. The other commonly used method of softening involves the ion exchange process. the process normally must be preceded by conventional treatment. and freezing. Distillers Various sizes of distillers are available for home use. They must be carbon filtered before and/or after to remove volatile chemicals. The precipitation process most frequently used is generally known as the lime process or lime soda process. Distillers are effective in killing all microorganisms. Some organic chemicals are also removed. so long as turbidity and iron levels are not excessive. asbestos fibers. It has no taste. such as the formation of scale in cooking utensils and hot water heaters. The principal problem with a distiller are that a small unit can produce only 2-3 gal (7. The principal disadvantage is that operating costs are considerably higher. and that the power cost for operation will be substantially higher than the operating cost of other types of treatment devices. Of these. This process has the advantages of a considerably lower initial cost and ease of use by small systems or by large systems at multiple locations. and effects of hard water and the hard water treatment or softening process that remove the hardness-causing minerals. Consumers frequently complain about problems attributes to hard water. Softening can also be accomplished using membrane technology. It is considered "dead" water because the process removes all extra oxygen and energy. electrodialysis. and other particles are removed. They all work on the principle of vaporizing water and then condensing the vapor. In this document we will discusses the occurrence.Hard Water Section Water contains various amounts of dissolved minerals. minerals. it is generally applicable only to medium.
metallic cations. Water hardness varies considerably in different geographic areas of the contiguous 48 states. The degree of hardness that consumer consider objectionable will vary. Expressing Hardness Concentration Water hardness is generally expressed as a concentration of calcium carbonate. Strontium. Calcium and magnesium are normally the only significant minerals that cause harness. Likewise. divalent. so it is generally assumed that Total harness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness The carbonate-noncarbonate distinction. are usually present in large enough concentrations to contribute significantly to the total hardness. hardness caused by magnesium is called magnesium hardness. barium. aluminum. (positive ions having valence of 2). calcium chloride (CaCl2). and is also a function of the contact time between water and limestone deposits. We will show two different classifications of the relative harness of water: Comparative classifications of water for softness and hardness Classification Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard * Per Sawyer (1960) + Per Briggs and Ficke (1977) mg/L as CaCO3 * 0 – 75 75 – 150 150 – 300 Over 300 mg/L as CaCO3+ 0 – 60 61 – 120 121 – 180 Over 180 Source: Adapted from sawyer 1960 and Briggs and Ficke 1977. Magnesium is dissolved as water passes over and through dolomite and other magnesium-bearing minerals. regardless of the salts associated with it. Hardness caused by calcium is called calcium hardness. groundwater is normally harder than surface water. The calcium-magnesium distinction is based on the minerals involved. Types of Hardness Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods: calcium versus magnesium hardness and carbonate versus non-carbonate hardness. in terms of milligrams per liter as CaCO3. iron. The principal chemicals that cause water hardness are calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). is based on hardness from either the bicarbonate salts of calcium or the normal salts of calcium and magnesium involved in causing water hardness. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 164 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . depending on other qualities of the water and on the hardness to which they have become accustomed.Occurrence of Hard Water Hard water is caused by soluble. Because groundwater is in contact with these formations for a longer period of time than surface water. This is due to different geologic formations. and others. which include calcium sulfate (CaSO4). however.
Bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium then settle out of the water to form calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates. scale forms much faster. Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness When hard water is boiled. and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Calcium and magnesium combined with nitrate may also contribute to noncarbonate hardness. These precipitates form the familiar chalky deposits on teapots. These salts ate calcium sulfate. which causes a variety of problems.” Objections to Hard Water Scale Formation Hard water forms scale. To counteract these problems.” Because noncarbonated hardness cannot be removed or precipitated by prolonged boiling. and sink tops. hard water leaves unsightly white scale known as water spots. faucets. which are calcium bicarbonate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 165 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Carbonate hardness is caused primarily by the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. For carbonate and noncarbonate hardness. calcium chloride. many customers prefer softer water. Effect on Soap The historical objection to hardness has been its effect on soap. Scale that forms on the inside of water pipes will eventually reduce the flow capacity or possibly block it entirely. Calcium and magnesium combined with carbonate (CO3) also contribute to carbonate hardness.04 in. A coating of only 0. Left to dry on the surface of glassware and plumbing fixtures. These detergents have additives known as sequestering agents that “tie up” the hardness ions so that they cannot form the troublesome precipitates.” such as the familiar bathtub ring. Hardness ions form precipitates with soap. carbonate hardness is sometimes called “Temporary hardness. Because it can be removed by heating. Noncarbonate hardness is a measure of calcium and magnesium salts other than carbonate and bicarbonate salts. (1 mm) of scale on the heating surfaces of a hot water heater creates an insulation effect that will increase heating costs by about 10 percent. usually calcium carbonate. Scale that forms within appliances and water meters causes wear on moving parts. When hard water is heated. when the magnesium hardness is more than about 40 mg/l (as CaCO3). carbon dioxide (CO2) is driven off. including showers doors. synthetic detergents have been developed and are now used almost exclusively for washing clothes and dishes. Although modern detergents counteract many of the problems of hard water. it is sometimes called “Permanent hardness. as well as reduced efficiency in washing and laundering. Causing unsightly “curd. magnesium hydroxide scale will deposit in hot water heaters that are operated at normal temperature of 140-150oF (60-66oC). Ca(HCO3)2. although it is a very rare condition. In particular. and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2.
a strong solution of sodium chloride (salt) is passed through the filter to replace the sodium that has been lost. the sodium ions in the zeolite are exchanged for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. The most common way to soften household water is to use a water softener. and the water is softened. and high levels can clog pipes. The use of two exchange materials makes it possible to remove both metal and acid ions from water. Softeners may also be safely used to remove up to about 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved iron if the water softener is rated for that amount of iron removal. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. As the water passes through the filter. These chemicals combine with the calcium and magnesium in the water to make insoluble compounds that settle to the bottom of the water tank. prohibit or restrict the use of ion exchange equipment on drinking water. the water filters through minerals called zeolites. however. Hard water does not dissolve soap readily. In the ion exchange process. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit connected into the water supply line. Calcium and magnesium in water create hard water. The principal methods of softening water are the lime soda process and the ion exchange process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 166 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In the lime soda process. After household softeners become exhausted.Water Softening Is a method of removing from water the minerals that make it hard. Water softening units also remove iron. Some cities and towns. Softeners are automatic. semi-automatic. pending the results of studies on how people are affected by the consumption of the added sodium in softened water. boilers. soda ash and lime are added to the water in amounts determined by chemical tests. It forms scale in pipes. You may want to consider installing a separate faucet for unsoftened water for drinking and cooking. and other equipment in which it is used. or manual.
Using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised. brining and rinsing. they need to be recharged. Semi automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration." The diagram shows the exchange that takes place during the water softening process. Regeneration is usually started by a preset time clock. Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically. In many areas. it must be recharged. A water softener contains resin beads which hold electrically charged ions. Without sufficient softening salt. When the resin beads in your softener become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. some units are started by water use meters or hardness detectors. It's the resulting removal of calcium and magnesium ions that produces "soft water. calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to the charged resin beads. The principle behind water softening is really just simple chemistry. When the resin is filled to capacity. your water softener is less efficient. a green-sand filter is a better method. Sodium ions from the water softening salt reactivate the resin beads so they can continue to do their job. Typical Water Softener Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 167 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . you should check your water softener once a week to be sure the salt level is always at least one quarter full. For a monthly fee the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. When hard water passes through the softener. there are companies that provide a water softening service. As a rule. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing.
Nollet’s First Osmosis Machine Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 168 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
In potable water treatment. it can also allow secondary sources. Description of Membrane Filtration Processes In the simplest membrane processes. to be used. more stringent regulations. water softening. especially as technology improves and costs are reduced. such as brackish groundwater. the French physicist Nollet first noted that water would diffuse through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. water is forced through a porous membrane under pressure while suspended solids. are: • Pressure-driven processes • Electric-driven processes Pressure-Driven Processes The four general membrane processes that operate by applying pressure to the raw water are: • Microfiltration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 169 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . scientists have attempted to develop membrane that would be useful in industrial processes. resulting in ever-increasing uses in many industries. In some cases. a process in which water from a dilute solution will naturally pass through a porous membrane into a concentrate solution. In particular. Over the years. water is forced to move through a membrane from a concentrate solution to a dilute solution. based on the driving force used to make the process work. removal of dissolved inorganic and organic chemicals. but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that membranes were produced that could be used for what is known as reverse osmosis.Membrane Filtration Processes In 1748. and removal of the fine solids. There is great potential for the continuing wide use of membrane filtration processes in potable water treatment. membranes have been used for desalinization. This was the discovery of osmosis. continual improvements and new developments have been made in membrane technology. large molecules or ions are held back or rejected. membrane technology enables some water systems having contaminated water sources to meet new. In reverse osmosis. Since that time. Types of Membrane Filtration Processes The two general classes of membrane processes.
The smaller pore size is designed to remove colloids and substances that have larger molecules. This capability will undoubtedly increase the use of NF for potable water treatment. such as in electronic manufacturing. this direct filtration process has used the injection of coagulants such as alum or polymers into the raw water stream to remove turbidity such as clay or silts. The current primary use of MF is by industries to remove very fine particles from process water.1 µm. RO is discussed in more detail later. it can be used effectively for removal of most organic chemicals. this size is relatively large compared with the other membrane filtration processes. Water from this process is very pure due to the high reject rates. In addition. NF operates with less pressure that reverse osmosis and is still able to remove a significant proportion of inorganic and organic molecules. or the problem substances can be removed more economically using other processes. Nanofiltration Nanofiltration (NF) is a process using a membrane that will reject even smaller molecules that UF. microfiltration has been proposed as a filtering method for particles resulting from the direct filtration process. and radionuclides and microorganisms. RO membranes are susceptible to clogging or binding unless the water being processed is already quite clean. This process has not been generally applicable to drinking water treatment because it either does not remove substances that require removal from potable water. This was done to improve filtering efficiency. the process has also been used as a pretreatment for other membrane processes. The RO also works with most organic chemicals. These RO membranes have very low MWC pore size that can reject ions at very high rates. This weight is called the molecular weight cutoff (MWC) of the membrane. in recent years. The process has been used primarily for water softening and reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS). UF membranes can be designed to pass material that weighs less than or equal to a certain molecular weight.Microfiltration Microfiltration (MF) is a process in which water is forced under pressure through a porous membrane. The formed particles were then removed by rapid sand filters. Traditionally. Although UF does not generally work well for removal of salt or dissolved solids. The process has been use primarily in the water industry for desalinization of seawater because the capital and operating costs are competitive with other processes for this service. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is a process that uses a membrane with a pore size generally below 0. Membranes with a pore size of 0. which are called high-molecular-weight materials.45 µm are normally used. Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane process that has the highest rejection capability of all the membrane processes. However. especially for small particles that could contain bacterial and protozoan life. including chloride and sodium. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 170 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In particular. Industrial water uses such as semiconductor manufacturing is also utilizes the RO process.
These processes are • Electrodialysis • Electrodialysis reversal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 171 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Membrane Configurations Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Plate and Frame Tubular Electric-Driven Processes There are two membrane processes that purify a water stream by using an electric current to move ions across a membrane.
As a result. Electrodialysis Reversal Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a process similar to ED. The current carries the ions through a membrane from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated one. EDR can often be used with little or no pretreatment of feedwater to prevent fouling. So far. The reversal in polarity reverses the flow of ions between demineralizing compartments.Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is a process in which ions are transferred through a membrane as a result of direct electric current applied to the solution. ED and EDR have been used at only a few locations for drinking water treatment. except that the polarity of the direct current is periodically reversed. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 172 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Carbon Vessels used to remove tastes and odors from water. which provides automatic flushing of scale-forming materials from the membrane surface.
The membrane is constructed into a cartridge called a reverse osmosis module. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 173 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This exceeds the water's osmotic pressure.in the case of sea water. 2500 kg/m. either as a sheet or fine hollow fibers.passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a relatively dilute solution toward a more concentrated solution. called osmotic pressure.2760 kPa) depending on the RO system model. A portion of the water (permeate) diffuses through the membrane leaving dissolved salts and other contaminants behind with the remaining water where they are sent to drain as waste (concentrate).Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a liquid . The membrane must be physically strong enough to stand up to high osmotic pressure .400 psi (1380 . incoming water is pressurized with a pump to 200 . This flow produces a measurable pressure. water flows through the membrane from the more concentrated solution toward the dilute solution. in this case . and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter.water. Most membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film. and if that pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure. If pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution. or RO. called reverse osmosis. This process. RO produces high quality water at low cost compared to other purifications processes. RO Skid After filtration to remove suspended particles. removes up to 98% of dissolved minerals.
Pretreatment is important because it influences permeate quality and quantity. which occurs in nature. The dissolved solids are usually further restricted based on their respective electrical charge. In living things. and a container or transport mechanism of some type. It also affects the module's life because many water-borne contaminants can deposit on the membrane and foul it. and most gases. the higher the osmotic pressure. while blocking others. and as permeate quality requirements become more demanding. The component parts include a pure or relatively pure water solution and a saline or contaminated water solution. Because reverse osmosis is the principal membrane filtration process used in water treatment. at which point osmosis ceases. usually smaller molecules of dissolved solids. naturally occurring in living things. in that the molecular weight of the element affects the osmotic pressure. separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The higher the content of dissolved solids. Generally. To understand Reverse Osmosis. it is described here in greater detail. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 174 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . osmosis is frequently seen. The elements that pass through include water. The semi-permeable membrane is so designated because it permits certain elements to pass through. In osmosis. the pure solution passes through the membrane until the osmotic pressure becomes equalized. Each element that may be dissolved in the solution contributes to the osmotic pressure. This pressure differential is determined by the total dissolved solids content of the saline solution or contaminated solution on one side of the membrane. the need for pretreatment increases as systems become larger and operate at higher pressures. The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring. one must begin by understanding the process of osmosis.
S. It may also be called brine if it is coming from a salt water source. approximate osmotic pressures are usually sufficient to design a system. while keeping the membrane surface relatively free from particulate. called the microporous support layer. and suitable synthetic membrane materials would have to be developed. colloidal. Thus when water penetrates or permeates though the membrane. Each sheet of membrane material is inspected at special light tables to ensure the quality of the membrane coating. and fueled by U. and wound around this tube are one or more "envelopes" of membrane material. opening at the permeate tube. Additionally. as the raw water flows along the "brine channel" or coarse medium provided to facilitate good flow characteristics. thus keeping the membrane surface clean and functional. when sufficient flows are maintained. called the product or permeate tube. impedes or even prevents the purification process. called fouling. In order to transform this process into one that purifies water. bacteriological or mineralogical fouling. cast in a microscopically thin layer on another. osmosis would have to be reversed. as buildup on the membrane surface. it travels. One of the membrane designs was the spiral wound membrane element. This is important. The design features a perforated tube in the center of the element. Each envelope is sealed at the incoming and exiting edge. U. around the spiral and collects in the permeate tube. The microporous support layer is cast on sheets of paper-like material that are made from synthetic fibers such as polyester. Seawater at 36. or about 1. The permeate or product water is collected from the end of each membrane element. it gets more and more concentrated.75 Bar). and to stop osmosis in seawater. Common tap water as found in most areas may have an osmotic pressure of about 10 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch). and manufactured to the required tolerances. Hence the formula for calculating osmotic pressure is very complex.68 Bar. thicker cast layer of Polysulfone. However. The membrane material itself is a special thin film composite (TFC) polyamide material. Meanwhile. serves to carry away the impurities removed by the membrane. This design enabled the engineers to construct a membrane element that could contain a generous amount of membrane area in a small package. ways of configuring the membranes would have to be engineered to handle a continuous flow of raw and processed water without clogging or scaling the membrane material. a pressure of 10 PSI would have to be applied to the saline solution. including brackish water and seawater. aided by a fine mesh called the permeate channel. Government scientists had the idea that the principles of osmosis could be harnessed to purify water from various sources. The concentrate. These ideas were crystallized. This permits flows and pressures to be developed to the point that ample processed or purified water is produced. This concentrated raw water is called the reject stream or concentrate stream. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 175 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Thus. to reach the point at which osmosis stops for tap water. Government funding. higher molecular weights result in higher osmotic pressures. usable membrane materials and designs resulted.Generally. a pressure of 376 PSI would have to be applied to the seawater side of the membrane.S. before being assembled into the spiral wound element design. Several decades ago. and becomes the product or result of the purification process. and to permit the flow of raw water to pass along the length of the membrane.000 PPM typically has an osmotic pressure of about 376 PSI (26.
In general. and so forth.000 PPM. with each membrane in series seeing progressively higher dissolved solids levels. The affect of temperature is that with higher temperatures. then the amount of permeate or product water is reduced. the concentrations of TDS increase as it passes along the membrane’s length. a typical system operating pressure is about 800 PSI. standard rejection membranes produce permeate below 500 PPM. in that salt passage decreases (reducing the TDS in the permeate or product water). Or if operating pressures do not increase. the osmotic pressure must be exceeded. while high rejection membranes under the same conditions produce drinking water TDS of below 300 PPM. For example. Higher temperatures or lower temperatures can be accommodated with appropriate adjustments in the system design. the osmotic pressure is generally doubled. starting with seawater of 36. Of course. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 176 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . optimum recovery rates (the percentage of permeate from a given stream of raw water). prefiltration and other pretreatment considerations.000 PPM would have 100 PPM remaining. Typically. while operating pressures increase. or prevented from passing through the membrane. and to produce a reasonable amount of purified water. a membrane with a rejection rate of 99% (usually based on Na (Sodium)) will allow only 1% of the concentration of dissolved solids to pass through into the permeate. and usually multiple membranes are employed. and membrane fouling.To achieve Reverse Osmosis. and operating pressure required is lower. raw water TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). With lower temperatures. Thus with seawater osmotic pressure of 376 PSI. These include optimum flows and pressures. The rejection rate is the percentage of dissolved solids rejected. Factors that affect the pressure required include raw water temperature. Membranes are available in "standard rejection" or "high rejection" models for seawater and brackish water. flux (permeate flow) increases. Hence product water from a source containing 10. the salt passage increases. Reverse Osmosis (R/O) systems are designed for raw water temperatures of 25° C (77° F). as the raw water is processed. membrane age. There are many considerations when designing R/O systems that competent engineers are aware of. the inverse occurs.
a membrane array including one or more membranes installed in one or more pressure tubes (also called pressure vessels. tailored to the application. to provide sufficient protection for the membranes. Bromine. and softening unit. prefiltration in one or more stages. or similar).Membrane systems in general cannot handle the typical load of particulate contaminants without prefiltration. chemical injection of one or more pretreatment agents may be added. well designed systems employ multiple stages of prefiltration. and possibly some form of post treatment. UV. Packaged skid with instrumentation. a pressure pump suited to the application. Often. or mineral injection for some applications. Usually the last stage would be 5m or smaller. R/O pressure vessels. relief valve(s) and/or safety pressure switches. pH adjustment. sized and driven appropriately for the flow and pressure required. a pressure regulating valve. Ultra-Violet (U-V). Other types of post treatment may include carbon filters. including multi-media filtration and one or more stages of cartridge filtration. various gauges and flow meters. Post treatment should usually include a form of sterilization such as Chlorine. or Ozone. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 177 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . R/O systems typically have the following components: A supply pump or pressurized raw water supply.
the larger the driving force. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol. and hence its use has become more and more widespread. This is more desirable than the hot water produced by evaporation technologies. sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane. dyes. preferably both before and after the membrane array. commonly known as a "Clean In Place" (CIP) system. R/O is usually the preferred method of desalination today. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color. However. is the finest filtration known. and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. Another feature found in better systems is a provision to clean the membranes in place. R/O Systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. multiple pressure gauges to indicate the pressure before and after each filtration device and the system operation pressure in the membrane loop. sugars. Component parts have been improved as well.8° F may occur due to pumping and friction in the piping). are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged. allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 178 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane. while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. Advancements have been made in membrane technology. the more likely it will be rejected. salts. and the most common force is pressure from a pump. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream. particles. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable. Reverse Osmosis has proved to be the most reliable and cost effective method of desalinating water. reducing maintenance and down time. resulting in stable. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years. the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases. such as salts. also known as hyperfiltration. long lived membrane elements. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as cross-flow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. Such a system may be built right into the R/O system or may be provided as an attachment for use as required. while rejecting the contaminants that remain. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria. systems installed in critical applications should be equipped with a permeate or product flow meter. proteins. taste or properties of the fluid. The larger the charge and the larger the particle. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases.Clean-In-Place Some very low cost R/O systems may dispense with most of the controls and instruments. The higher the pressure. Reverse Osmosis delivers product water or permeate having essentially the same temperature as the raw water source (an increase of 1° C or 1. further extending membrane life and improving performance. a reject. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane. such as organics. Energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies. concentrate or brine flow meter. For these and other reasons. Reverse osmosis.
fluoride. heavy metals. A Reverse Osmosis System removes virtually all: bad taste. calcium. parasites.Reverse Osmosis. radioactivity and asbestos. arsenic. virus. insecticides. bacteria. sodium. phosphates. lead. sulfates. turbidity. It is the best tasting because it is oxygen-rich. nitrates. produces pure water that is clearly the body's choice for optimal health. Common packaged filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 179 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . detergents. cysts. cadmium. herbicides. dissolved solids. magnesium. when properly configured with sediment. carbon and/or carbon block technology. organic compounds. pesticides. aluminum. odor. chlorine and THM's. inorganic minerals.
in the order of 0. is has no found much application in the United States. temperature. Ozone acts as a complete disinfectant.5 ppm to 5. and while it may destroy some THMs. Although it is widely used throughout the world. In use.000 volts. iron. Oxygen tank is necessary to generate O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 180 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . it may produce other when followed by chlorination. and pH of the water are factors to be determined. Further. it is not shipped and must be manufactured on-site.0 ppm.Ozone Ozone (O3) is probably the strongest oxidizing agent available for water treatment. O3 → O2 + O It is the nascent oxygen that produces the high oxidation and disinfections. Each water has its own ozone demand. or of THM and other inorganics. taste. and even sterilization. Ozone is not practical for complete removal of chlorine or chloramines.000 to 20. Ozone is obtained by passing a flow or air of oxygen between two electrodes that are subjected to an alternating current in the order of 10. It is an excellent aid to the flocculation and coagulation process. odor. because of the possibility of formation of other carcinogens (such as aldehydes or phthalates) it falls into the same category as other disinfectants in that it can produce DBPs. ozone breaks down into oxygen and nascent oxygen. and manganese. As a result. It has a self-policing pungent odor similar to that sometimes noticed during and after heavy electrical storms. It does not form chloramines or THMs. and will remove practically all color. 3O2 + electrical discharge → 2O3 Liquid ozone is very unstable and can readily explode. Ozone is a light blue gas at room temperature. Contact time.
The basic design flow of water of certain UV units is in the order of 2. The lamp itself does not come intro contact water. In this way the microorganisms spend maximum time and contact with the outside of the quartz tube and the source of the UV rays. leaving little for disinfection. The water flow around the quartz tube. and the water is in contact with the outside of the quartz tube. The UV sterilizer will consist of a various number of lamps and tubes. depending upon the quantity of water to be treated. and it is a result of this vaporization that UV rays are produced. Ordinary glass cannot be used since it will absorb the UV rays. Of course. it is given a tangential flow pattern so that the water spins over and around the quartz sleeves. sends out UV rays that when properly controlled result in a suntan. The UV lamp that can be used for the disinfection of water depends upon the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp to produce the ultraviolet energy. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 181 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . too much will cause sunburn. A sun lamp. A mercury vapor lamp is one in which an electric arc is passed through an inert gas. The lamp is placed inside a quartz tube.Ultraviolet Radiation The enormous temperatures on the sun create ultraviolet (UV) rays in great amounts. allowing all of the rays to reach the water.0 gpm for each inch of the lamp. for example. This radiation can be artificially produced by sending strong electric currents thorough various substances. and this radiation is so powerful that all life on earth would be destroyed if these ray were not scattered by the atmosphere and filtered out by the layers of ozone gas that float some 20 miles above the earth. This in turn will vaporize the mercury contained in the lamp. Further. As water enters the sterilizer. the units are designed so that the contact or retention time of the water in the unit is not less than 15 seconds. Quartz is used in this case since practically none of the UV rays are absorbed by the quartz.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 182 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and it does not form THMs. it is said to be effective in the removal of THM precursors and THMs. Also. It is used to remove traces of ozone and chloramines from the finished water. taste. but in combination with ozone. The water must also be colorless and must be free of any colloids. These are conditions that must be met. in any installation this is determined by means of a photoelectric cell and a meter that shows the output of the lamp. The germicidal effect of UV is thought to be associated with its absorption by various organic components essential to the cell’s functioning. iron. The UV manufacturer will of course stipulate which pretreatment may be necessary. bicarbonates. such substances as excesses of chlorides. These parameters will probably require at least filtration of one type or another. although a water may appear to be clear. the water to be disinfected must be clean. It adds no chemicals to the water.Most manufacturers claim that the UV lamps have a life of about 7. UV radiation will not remove precursors. manganese. and with it own alarm that will be activated when the penetration drops to a present level. Ultraviolet radiation is an excellent disinfectant that is highly effective against viruses. Each lamp is outfitted with its own photoelectric cell. For effective use of ultraviolet. and sulfates affect absorption of the ultraviolet ray. and it is safe to use. and odor. which is about 1 year’s time.500 hours. and free of any suspended solids. and yeasts. it leaves no residual. Alone. The lamp must be replaced when it loses about 40% to 50% of its UV output. molds.
ionexchange GAC GAC Chloramine (NHxCly) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) Permanganate (KMnO4) Ozone (O3) Ultraviolet (UV) The table indicates that most of the disinfectants will leave a by-product that is or would possibly be inimical to health. nanofiltration. aeration. controlled coagulation. Phthalates None known Disinfectant By-product Removal Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). If it is decided that removal of precursors is needed. resins. reverse osmosis. aeration. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 183 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . GAC-UV GAC GAC UV? Use of Fe2+ in coagulation. This may aid with a decision as to whether or not precursors should be removed before these disinfectants are added to water.Removal of Disinfection By-products Disinfectant Chlorine (HOCl) Disinfectant Byproduct Trialomethane (THM) Chloramine Chlorophenol Probably no THM Others? Chlorites Chlorates No THMs Aldehydes. RO. Carboxylics. research to date indicates that this removal can be attained through the application of controlled chlorination plus coagulation and filtration. GAC or combinations of others processes.
Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 184 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Backflow Prevention: To stop or prevent the occurrence of. Needs to be tested on an annual basis. or substances to flow back into the distribution system. An operator must ensure when installing a pressure vacuum breaker backflow device that it must be at least 12 inches about the highest downstream outlet. It is a cationic polymer.g. gases. 0. Backflow or Cross-connection Failure: Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. Acid Rain: Acid rain a result of airborne pollutants. Backflow 12 inches: Is the required distance above ground that a double check backflow or RP assembly needs to be installed. Anaerobic conditions: When anaerobic conditions exist in either the metalimnion or hypolimnion of a stratified lake or reservoir. 10 ppm: Is the IDLH for Cl2 gas according to the NIOSH manual. a kitchen faucet. Anaerobic: An abnormal condition in which color and odor problems are most likely to occur. gases. See Cross-connection control. There is limited experience and scientific knowledge about the by-products and risks associated with the use of alternatives. ozone. Acid and a Base is Mixed: When an acid and a base are mixed an explosive reaction occurs and decomposition products are created under certain conditions. Minimum 1 inch or twice the diameter whatever is greater. Aluminum Sulfate: Is the chemical name for Alum. and chloramine. Air Gap or Vacuum Breaker: A potable water line should be equipped with an air gap or vacuum breaker when connected to a chemical feeder for fluoride. Air Gap: A physical separation space that is present between the discharge vessel and the receiving vessel. Ammonia: A chemical made with Nitrogen and Hydrogen and used with chlorine to disinfect water. Is a permeable layer of the subsurface that allows the movement of groundwater. Accuracy: Is how closely an instrument measures the true or actual value. Electron is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. ultraviolet radiation. An operator should not mix acid and water or acid to a strong base. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. To reverse the natural and normal directional flow of a liquid. Backflow: The definition of ‘backflow ’is a reverse flow condition that causes water or mixtures of water and other liquids. Backsiphonage Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 185 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Most ammonia in water is present as the ammonium ion rather than as ammonia. needs to be installed 12 inches above the ground. Atom: The general definition of an ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge. Acid: Slowly add the acid to water while stirring. This is normally an undesirable effect. The molecular formula of Alum is Al2(SO4)3~14H2O. The difference between a reduced pressure principle backflow device and a double check backflow device is that RP has a relief valve.2 mg/L: Should be the target value for the free chlorine residual in the distribution system. Air Hood: Is the most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes. e.other than chlorination (halogens) . chlorine dioxide. gases. Most of these problems are associated with Reduction in the stratified waters. As: Is the chemical symbol of Arsenic. Continuous positive pressure in a distribution system is essential for preventing a backflow event. This is different than 12 inches above the ground.Water Treatment Glossary Excellent operator certification study tool. Aquifer: An underground geologic formation capable of storing significant amounts of water.1 year is the maximum time period between having a backflow device tested by a certified backflow tester. water quality problems may make the water unappealing for domestic use without costly water treatment procedures. Backflow: A double check valve backflow assembly provides effective protection from both backpressure and backsiphonage of pollution only.used to treat water. the unnatural act of reversing the normal direction of the flow of liquid. Absence of Oxygen: The complete absence of oxygen in water described as Anaerobic. Alternative Disinfectants: Disinfectants . Activated Charcoal: Is a treatment technique that is not included in the grading of a water facility. for an example.
healthy humans. Humans would be unable to live without the bacteria that inhabit the intestines and assist in digesting food. and Iron: Are the three elements that cause hardness in water. Breakpoint Chlorination: The process of chlorinating the water with significant quantities of chlorine to oxidize all contaminants and organic wastes and leave all remaining chlorine as free chlorine. this gas will accumulate first at the ceiling are. sodium bicarbonate.4H2O: Is the molecular formula of Calcium hypochlorite. It is the method by which the liquid substance may be forced by excess pressure over or into a higher point. Salmonella. Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because the bacteria may cause red water and slime. Shigella. Bacillus. Capillary Fringe: The material immediately above the water table may contain water by capillary pressure in the small void spaces. Benching: A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps. Bromine: Has a limited use for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Backsiphonage: A liquid substance that is carried over a higher point. This chemical causes skin burns on contact.condition usually causes reduced pressure or negative pressure on the service or supply side. On a centrifugal pump. Magnesium. Cl2 gas will settle on the floor. Centrifugal Force: That force when a ball is whirled on a string pulls the ball outward. Cathodic Protection: An operator should protect against corrosion of the anode and/or the cathode by painting the copper cathode. If released. Calcium Ion: Is divalent because it has a valence of +2. Backwashing: Backwash the filters more frequently can be used to increase water production if an increase in raw water turbidity and coagulation feed rate creates additional loading on the filter. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Ca: Is the chemical symbol for calcium. However minimum positive pressure must be maintained in mains to protect against backflow or backsiphonage from cross-connections. washing or as a solvent always susceptible to a crossconnection. Battery: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. including on and in the human body. Back-up Disinfection units: If a chlorination system goes out of operation you are required to have back-up. Cathodic Protection: Guards against stray current corrosion. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide: Chemicals that are responsible for the alkalinity of water. and a residual is difficult to obtain. e. Bromine: This chemical disinfectant has been used only on a very limited scale for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Calcium. lubrication.g. Caustic Soda: Also known as sodium hydroxide and is used to raise pH. CaOCl2. Carbon Dioxide Gas: The pH will decrease and alkalinity will change as measured by the Langelier index after pumping carbon dioxide gas into water. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause disease in normal. Vibri Cholera and Cholera. Minimum water pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate customer service during peak flow periods. Calcium Hardness: A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. Equipment that utilizes water for cooling. Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection interrupts corrosion by supplying an electrical current to overcome the corrosion-producing mechanism. Bacteria: Are small. Bacteria are found everywhere. Carbonate. Backwash: A surface wash system should be activated prior to the start of the backwash. Bypass Valve: Is the name of a type of valve that reduces the differential pressure across a closed disk making the main valve easier to open and close. Ceiling Area: The specific gravity of ammonia gas is 0. one-celled animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. Buffer: Chemical that resists pH change. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 186 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels. Examples include.60. This is one of the chemical disinfectants (HALOGEN) that kills bacteria and algae. Cadmium: A contaminant that is usually not found naturally in water or in very small amounts. it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller.
constriction of the chest. Chlorine is added to swimming pools to keep the water safe for swimming. Also known as chlorine residual. Check Valve: It allows water to flow in only one direction.5 mg per liter (approximately 0. Chlorine Feeding: Chlorine may be delivered by vacuum-controlled solution feed chlorinators. and when it comes in contact with microorganisms in water killing them. Cl2 Demand: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 187 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Populations at special risk from chlorine exposure are individuals with pulmonary disease. or chronic lung conditions.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. Cl2 Expands in Volume: Happens to Cl2 when the temperature of a Cl2 cylinder increases. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Chlorine.2 mg/l CL2 Gas Exposure: Chlorine gas causes suffocation. Chloramination: Treating drinking water by applying chlorine before or after ammonia. or massive pulmonary edema. CL2 A Fusible Plug: Is considered a safety device on a Cl2 cylinder. After 24 hours the minimum Cl2 concentration should be 10 mg/L. shock. CL2 10 mg/L: Small water storage tanks are commonly disinfected with a solution containing a Cl2 concentration of 50 mg/L. Some public water system’s drinking water treatment plants use chlorine in a gas form because of the large volumes required. having an inlet and a discharge connection. introduced into a stream of injector water and then conducted as a solution to the point of application.2 mg/L: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. Chlorine: Is a chemical used to disinfect water. tightness in the throat. breathing problems.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes.Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing. what should be the minimum concentration of free chlorine residual in the distribution system? 0. Protozoa are resistant to chlorine because they have thick coats. and edema of the lungs. The amount of chlorine available for sanitization after the chlorine demand has been met. Chloramines: A group of chlorine and ammonia compounds formed when chlorine combines with organic wastes in the water. Chlorination: The process in water treatment of adding chlorine (gas or solid hypochlorite) for purposes of disinfection. CL2 Free Concentration: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. Also. As little as 2. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. The opposite is true for when the temperature increases.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. a rupture may occur. reflex spasm in the larynx. Chlorine gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to chlorine. This creates a persistent disinfectant residual called chloramines. when the temperature decreases. The chlorine gas is controlled. CL2 Chronic Exposure Corrosion of the Teeth: May occur due to chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas. Cl2 Cylinder is Increased: If the temperature of a full Cl2 cylinder is increased by 50o F or 30o C. Chlorine is very effective against algae. Chlorine is available as solid tablets for swimming pools. CL2 0. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of chlorine gas in air. After long exposure. bacteria and viruses. the minimum concentration of free Cl2 residual in the distribution system. Chemical Oxidizer: KMnO4 is used for taste and odor control because it is a strong oxidizer which eliminates many organic compounds. bronchitis. Chlorine Demand: Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. the chemical reaction rate also decreases. Chlorine is extremely reactive. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. throat cancer will occur. Chemical Reaction Rate: In general. but less than 0. Protozoa are removed from drinking water by filtration. Chelation: A chemical process used to control scale formation in which a chelating agent "captures" scale-causing ions and holds them in solution. metered. Free: Chlorine available to kill bacteria or algae. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. Chloramines are not effective as disinfectants and are responsible for eye and skin irritation as well as strong chlorine odors (also known as Combined Chlorine). Death is possible from asphyxia.
a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this areaNature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. corrosion will occur and the leak will get larger. and edema of the lungs.01 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. first loosen the packing gland around the valve. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of Cl2 gas in air.CL2 Gas IDLH: As soon as Cl2 gas enters the throat area. tightness in the throat. Cl2 Gas will Accumulate: If a Cl2 leak occurs. CL2: Of an operator cannot open the valve on a Cl2 cylinder because it is too tight. Normal breathing will cause coughing. CL2: The Cl2 storage ventilation equipment be checked on a daily basis. CL2 Gaskets: Replace according to manufacturers recommendations should be done with the gaskets when making a new connection on a chlorine feed system.5 mg per liter in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. and Tantalum. CL2: Cl2 as with H2S gas produces olfactory fatigue. Platinum. The victim must attempt to get out of the area of the leak. but less than 0. CL2: Chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas may cause corrosion of the teeth. CL2: Even brief exposure to 1. the Cl2 gas will accumulate on the floor. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: As soon as CL2 gas enters the throat area. CL2: Cl2 gas is highly corrosive in moist conditions. CL2: Breakpoint chlorination means adding Cl2 to the water until the Cl2 demand is satisfied. At this point. CL2: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and concentration of the disinfectant residual. the victim must attempt to do two things: get out of the area of the leak. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. CL2: Store an empty Cl2 cylinder upright. CL2: Cl2 gas should only be used under a fume hood. CL2: Determine the ambient temperature in a Cl2 room by using a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. CL2: 200 mg/l is a generally acceptable concentration of Cl2 solution that should be prepared to wash the inside of a storage facility. constriction of the chest. CL2: Before entering a Cl2 room to check on a leak don a self-contained breathing apparatus and check to see that the ventilation system is working. CL2: A device that has a transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball and is often used to measure the rate of a gas or liquid is called a Rotameter. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 188 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . CL2: Cl2 gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to Cl2. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. CL2 Gas Safety: Gas leak is the primary safety concern when using chlorine gas as opposed to calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. CL2: Cl2 combines with water to form both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. and tap the valve gently with your hand. it primarily transported and packaged as a liquefied gas under pressure in steel containers. CL2: A burning sensation in the eyes and throat: Is the most likely type of symptom one could expect upon exposure to a very small percentage of Cl2 in the air. which must be prevented if possible. proceeding upwind. CL2: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. CL2: After Cl2 gas is manufactured. CL2: The effectiveness of disinfection determined from the results of coliform testing. CL2: Free available Cl2 is very effective in killing bacteria. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. CL2: 17 is the atomic number of Cl2. Chlorine gas causes suffocation. Normal breathing will cause coughing. The only metals that are TOTALLY inert to moist Cl2 gas are Gold. the concentration of a free Cl2 residual should be 0. tagged as empty.5 mg/L in a clear well or distribution reservoir. Be sure that no one enters the leak area without an adequate self-contained breathing apparatus. As little as 2. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. CL2: If an operator places water on a leaking Cl2 cylinder. CL2: Downstream from the point of post chlorination.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this area—nature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. proceeding upwind.
CL2: The purpose of the bottom valve on a 1-ton Cl2 cylinder is to remove liquid Cl2.CL2: The first step when removing a hypochlorinator from service is to turn off the water supply pump. Contamination: To make something bad. Coliform Bacteria: Are bacteria that are normally found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. CL2: When determining a Cl2 use rate. Colorimetric Measurement: A means of measuring and unknown chemical concentration in water by measuring a sample's color intensity. Coliform Testing: The effectiveness of disinfection is usually determined by Coliform bacteria testing. is that the ejector draws in additional water for dilution of the hypochlorinate solution. and a strong oxidizer. The operator needs to increase the detention time to maintain good disinfection of the water. Clear Well: Is a large underground storage facility sometimes made of concrete. the organic material decomposes releasing heat very rapidly. Allow a longer contact time to maintain good disinfection of the water. also known as chloramines. A clear well or a plant storage reservoir is usually filled when demand is low. CL2: When Cl2 is inhaled in high concentrations it causes emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels. Coagulation: The best pH range for coagulation is between a pH of 5 and 7. Mixing is an important part of the coagulation process you want to complete the coagulation process as quickly as possible. Can be readily compressed into a clear. the scale or meter should be read at the same time each day. which are unsanitary. or radiological substance or matter in water. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill = C x T. and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. Contact Time: If the water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). CL2: The physical and chemical properties of Cl2 are: A yellowish green. Compliance Period: A 3-calendar year time-frame within a compliance cycle. Compliance Cycle: A 9-calendar year time-frame during which a public water system is required to monitor. Colloidal Suspensions: Because both iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen to form insoluble compounds they are not found in high concentrations in waters containing dissolved oxygen except as colloidal suspensions of the oxide. chemical. CL2: The purpose of an evaporator is to convert liquid Cl2 to gaseous Cl2 for use by gas chlorinators. Coliform bacteria are present in high numbers in animal feces. Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Contaminant: Any natural or man-made physical. Combined Chlorine: The reaction product of chlorine with ammonia or other pollutants. They are an indicator of potential contamination of water. To reduce the quality of the Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 189 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To pollute or infect something. pH and Low Turbidity: Are factors which are important in providing good disinfection using chlorine. hazardous. A noncombustible gas. CL2: The water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. CL2: The fusible plug on a 150-pound Cl2 cylinder is designed to soften and melt at high temperatures. CL2: The purpose of the ejector on a hypochlorinator. CL2: When hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Cl2 is about 1. Contact Time. which is at a level that may have an adverse effect on public health.5 times heavier than air. Condensation: Is the process called that changes water vapor to tiny droplets or ice crystals. CL2: Where other factors are constant.5 times heavier than water and gaseous Cl2 is about 2. Each compliance cycle consists of 3 compliance periods. A positive sample is a bad thing and indicates that you have bacteria contamination. amber colored liquid. biological. Composite Sample: Is a water sample that is a combination of a group of samples collected at various intervals during the day. Contains the Element Carbon: Is a simple definition of an organic compound. or dangerous to employees. Adequate and appropriate disinfection effectively destroys coliform bacteria. Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions. ClO2: Is the molecular formula of Chlorine dioxide.
Cross-connection: A physical connection between a public water system and any source of water or other substance that may lead to contamination of the water provided by the public water system through backflow. Surface water sources. Detention Time: The minimum detention time range recommended for flocculation is 5 – 20 minutes for direct filtration and up to 30 minutes for conventional filtration. CWS: Community Water System. Decompose: To decay or rot. Dental Caries Prevention in Children: Is the main reason that fluoride is added to a water supply. other metal surfaces and concrete surfaces in a destructive manner. The EPA has determined that these DBPs can cause cancer. Decomposition of Organic Material: The decomposition of organic material in water produces taste and odors.The removal of metal from copper. Distribution 8 inches: The minimum pipe diameter for a dead end line exceeding 2. and/or remove pathogenic bacteria. Direct Current: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. and other parasites.000 feet in length should be 8 inches. Corrosion: Is the gradual decomposition or destruction of a material as it chemically reacts with water and is often referred to as corrosion. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Diatomaceous Earth: Is a fine silica material containing the skeletal remains of algae. Types of source water are required by law to treat water using filtration and disinfection are groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. protozoa. For example. Distillation. viruses. Disinfection: The treatment of water to inactivate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 190 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Corrosivity: The Langelier Index measures corrosivity. the mixing of good water with a polluting substance like a chemical substance. soil) present in raw water during the water treatment process. Disinfect: To kill and inhibit growth of harmful bacterial and viruses in drinking water. Depolarization: Is the removal of hydrogen from a cathode. resistant to chlorine disinfection. Copper: Is the chemical name for the symbol Cu. Coupon: A coupon placed to measure corrosion damage in the water mains. destroy. This container should contain a desiccant. Disinfection by-products (DBPs): The products created due to the reaction of chlorine with organic materials (e. Control Taste and Odor Problems: KMnO4 Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer is commonly used to control taste and odor problems. It may be found in fecal matter or contaminated drinking water. Decibels: Is the unit of measurement for sound. Reverse Osmosis and Freezing: Processes can be used to remove minerals from the water. Desiccant: When shutting down equipment which may be damaged by moisture. Dissolved Oxygen: Can be added to zones within a lake or reservoir that would normally become anaerobic during periods of thermal stratification. leaves. the unit may be protected by sealing it in a tight container.g. The effectiveness of disinfection determined by the results of coliform testing. Cryptosporidium: A disease-causing parasite. Acid feed is the most common method of scale control in a membrane demineralization treatment system. Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. Demineralization Process: Mineral concentration of the feed water is the most important consideration in the selection of a demineralization process. Corrosion is caused by improperly balanced water or excessive water velocity through piping or heat exchangers.potable (drinking) water and create an actual hazard to the water supply by poisoning or through spread of diseases. Disinfectant Residual: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and disinfectant residual. Cross-contamination: The mixing of two unlike qualities of water. Detection Lag: Is the period of time between the moment of change in a chlorinator control system and the moment when the change is sensed by the chlorine residual indicator. Dangerous Chemicals: The most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes is to work under an air hood.
adsorption. an owner shall file an elementary business plan for review and approval by the Department. To become a new public water system. Direct filtration method is similar to conventional except that the sedimentation step is omitted. Indicator organisms may be accompanied by pathogens. For water quality analyses purposes. Enterovirus: A virus whose presence may indicate contaminated water. Sedimentation. a virus that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Elementary Business Plan: Technical Capacity. If the motor does not start. Turbidity and Temperature. A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. Flocculation Basin: Is a compartmentalized basin with a reduction of speed in each compartment. Electrical: If grease comes in contact with the winding of a motor the winding insulation may deteriorate. municipal water. make sure the main switch is off and the voltage tester is rated to handle the voltage expected in the circuit. has a flow of 0. taste and color. Filter Clogging: An inability to meet demand may occur when filters are clogging. Dry Acid: A granular chemical used to lower pH and or total alkalinity. and is simple to operate and maintain. Finished Water: Treated drinking water that meets minimum state and federal drinking water regulations. Fecal Coliform: A group of bacteria that may indicate the presence of human or animal fecal matter in water. and seawater. Electrical Problem: Moisture will cause the deterioration of oil in a transformer. and Financial Capacity make up the elementary business plan. Escherichia coli : Is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine.Double Suction Pump: One advantage of a double suction pump is a reduction in the thrust load that the bearings must carry. Electricity: Rubber may be used to prevent the flow of electricity through a wire. Filtration: A series of processes that physically removes particles from water. it is considered an indicator organism. Managerial Capacity. Floc Shearing: Is likely to happen to large floc particles when they reach the flocculation process. then tries to start the motor again. Electron: Is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Demineralization is primarily used to remove total dissolved solids from industrial wastewater. Coli. Emergency Response Team: Get out of the area and notify your local emergency response team is the first should be done first in case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. Effectiveness of Chlorination: The factors which influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most are pH. F: Is the chemical symbol of Fluorine. This set-up or basin will give the best overall results. Electrical: An operator using a voltage meter to test electrical equipment should first. dissolved organics. Electrical: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. and biological action treatment methods are filtration processes that involves a number of interrelated removal mechanisms. Flood Rim: The point of an object where the water would run over the edge of something and begin to cause a flood. Enhanced Coagulation: The process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. a faucet with an aerator should not be used as a sample location.1 gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area. but do not necessarily cause disease themselves. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 191 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Effectiveness of the Chlorine Decreases: Will occur during disinfection in source water with excessive turbidity. Flocculation: The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses that can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. Faucet with an Aerator: When collecting a water sample from a distribution system. This type of filtration medium is only used for water with low turbidity. These are considered evidence of water contamination. the operator should first check the fuse. flocculation. E. odor. Filtration Methods: The conventional type of water treatment filtration method includes coagulation. An operator waits for the overload to cool. sedimentation. Electrical Resistance: Resistance of electrical equipment is affected by many variables including the thickness of the insulation and its total mass area. Diatomaceous earth method uses a thin layer of fine siliceous material on a porous plate. Slow sand filtration process does not require pretreatment. Eccentric Valve: The plug on an eccentric valve contacts the valve seat when the valve is closed. and filtration.
Flux: The term flux describes the rate of water flow through a semipermeable membrane. Gate Valve: Is the most common type of valve used in isolating a small or medium sized section of a distribution system and is the only linear valve used in water distribution. and manholes within geographic areas with the use of satellites. pH and Low Turbidity: These are factors that are important in providing good disinfection when using chlorine. or Typhoid: Are diseases that may be transmitted through the contamination of a water supply but not AIDS. Free Chlorine Residual gives the best Disinfection: Is the reason for chlorinating past the breakpoint is to provide protection in case of backflow. Hertz: Is the term is used to describe the frequency of cycles in an alternating current (AC) circuit.31 feet of water or 1 foot of head equals about a half a pound of pressure or . This is called Mottling. Static (water at rest) and Residual (water at flow conditions). Gt : Represents (Detention time) x (mixing intensity) in flocculation. This chemical must not be overfed due to a possible exposure to a high concentration of the chemical. Hepatitis. Globe Valve: The main difference between a globe valve and a gate valve is that a globe valve is designed as a controlling device. Formation of Tubercles: This condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. H2SO4: Is the molecular formula of Sulfuric acid. valves. Sodium silicofluoride and Hydrofluosilicic acid. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 192 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . These are the substances is most commonly used to furnish fluoride ions to water: Sodium fluoride. Heat Damage to Air Compressor: An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. Health Advisory: An EPA document that provides guidance and information on contaminants that can affect human health and that may occur in drinking water. Free Chlorine Residual: Regardless of whether pre-chloration is practiced or not.Graphic Information System: Detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes. A snap shot of a certain location and time. Headworks: The facility at the "head" of the water source where water is first treated and routed into the distribution system. contaminated water. chlorine is used in the form of free chlorine or as hypochlorite ion. GIS . Free Chlorine: In disinfection. 1 PSI = 2. Hard Water: Hard water causes a buildup of scale in household hot water heaters. It is the creation of mounds of rust inside the water lines. Fluoride Feeding System: Always review fluoride feeding system designs and specifications to determine whether locations for monitoring readouts and dosage controls are convenient to the operation center and easy to read and correct. The water flux decreases through a semipermeable membrane means that the mineral concentration of the water is increasing. but which EPA does not currently regulate in drinking water. pH and Temperature. Giardiasis. which may be found in. Frequency must a Remote Operator inspect a Grade 1 or grade 2 Water Treatment Plant: Monthly or as necessary a remote operator inspect a grade 1 or grade 2 water treatment plant or distribution system that produces and distributes groundwater.Flow must be Measured: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located in a central location. And is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation. All the other valves are in the rotary classification. Giardia Lamblia: A pathogenic parasite. Hazards of Polymers: Slippery and difficult to clean-up are the most common hazards associated with the use of polymers in a water treatment plant. Good Contact Time. There are various types of heads of water depending upon what is being measured. Fluoride: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans.433 PSI. Head: The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water. Grab Sample: Is a type of sample that should be collected to analyze for coliform bacteria. The most important safety considerations to know about fluoride chemicals is that all fluoride chemicals are extremely corrosive. a free chlorine residual of at least 10 mg/L should be maintained in the clear well or distribution reservoir immediately downstream from the point of post-chlorination.
Initial monitoring year: An initial monitoring year is the calendar year designated by the Department within a compliance period in which a public water system conducts initial monitoring at a point of entry. viruses and other microorganisms. Hydrophobic: Does not mix readily with water. Hydrogen Sulfide or Chlorine: These chemicals can cause olfactory fatigue.. A Langelier index of zero indicates perfect water balance (i. Langelier Index: Is a measurement of Corrosivity. HOCL and HCL or free available chlorine. The energy terms that are used to describe the operation of a pump are pressure and head. EPA has set legal limits on 15 inorganic contaminants. and asbestos. These contaminants are naturally-occurring in some water. nitrates. Iron Bacteria: Perhaps the most troublesome consequence of iron and manganese in the water is they promote the growth of a group of microorganism known as Iron Bacteria. Impervious: Not allowing. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. Iron and Manganese in water may be detected by observing the color of the of the filter media.e. Impeller: A rotating set of vanes designed to impart rotation to a mass fluid. there will be black stains on the walls below the water level and a black coating over the top portion of the sand filter bed. Mathematically derived factor obtained from the values of calcium hardness. Hydrochloric and Hypochlorous Acids: Are the compounds that are formed in water when chlorine gas is introduced. The hardness of the source water affects the amount of water an ion exchange softener may treat before the bed requires regeneration. iron and manganese exist in an oxidized state and normally precipitate into the reservoir bottom sediments. and pH at a given temperature. Maintaining a free chlorine residual and regular flushing of water mains may control the growth of iron bacteria in a water distribution system. neither corroding nor scaling). If the raw water is pre-chlorinated. When iron or manganese reacts with dissolved oxygen (DO) insoluble compound are formed. Intake Facilities: One of the more important considerations in the construction of intake facilities is the ease of operation and maintenance over the expected lifetime of the facility. Only when a water sample has been acidified then you can perform the analysis beyond the 48 hour holding time. Insoluble Compounds: Are types of compounds cannot be dissolved. Iron and Manganese: In water can be usually detected by observing the color of the inside walls of filters and the filter media. When significant levels of dissolved oxygen are present. HF: Is the molecular formula of Hydrofluoric acid. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 193 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and other human activities. The presence of iron and manganese in water promote the growth of Iron bacteria. Iron Fouling: You should look for an orange color on the resin and backwash water when checking an ion exchange unit for iron fouling Iron: The elements iron and manganese are undesirable in water because they cause stains and promote the growth of iron bacteria. Infectious Pathogens/Microbes/Germs: Are considered disease-producing bacteria. the movement of water. Hypochlorite and Organic Material: Heat and a possible fire may happen when hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. The water is becoming corrosive in the distribution system causing rusty water if the Langelier index indicates that the pH has decreased from the equilibrium point. or allowing only with great difficulty. chemical manufacturing.Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including non-pathogens. Inorganic Contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals. Often referred to as HPC. Every intake structure must be constructed with consideration for operator safety and for cathodic protection. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill=C x T. total alkalinity. Kinetic Energy: The ability of an object to do work by virtue of its motion. Hypochlorous and Hydrochloric Acids: Chlorine combines with water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. Kill=C x T: Where other factors are constant. pathogens. but can also get into water through farming. High Turbidity Causing an Increased Chlorine Demand: May occur or be caused by the inadequate disinfection of water. and opportunistic pathogens.
Microbial Contaminants: Microscopic organisms present in untreated water that can cause waterborne diseases. If the motor does not start. excess lime is frequently added to remove Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate.000 or fewer persons. Mottling: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. simple. The flushing should be done at night and the water pressure in the distribution system must be at least 25 PSI. to the pH of the water is raised to 11. When an operator adds lime to water. Calcium and magnesium become less soluble. single-celled form of life. Medium Water System: More than 3. Held in place with spring pressure. Magnesium Hardness: Measure of the magnesium salts dissolved in water – it is not a factor in water balance.0. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The maximum allowable level of a contaminant that federal or state regulations allow in a public water system. LOTO: In a good lock-out/tag out program. The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. mg/L: Milligrams per liter. Lime: Is a chemical that may be added to water to reduce the corrosivity. if a piece of equipment is locked out. An operator waits for the overload to cool. Microbe. An MCL for turbidity was established by the EPA because turbidity does not allow for proper disinfection. Lime Soda Softening: In a lime soda softening process.Leaching: A chemical reaction between water and metals that allows for removal of soluble materials. then tries to start the motor again. the operator should check first the Motor overload control. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health. Methane: Is classified as an organic compound. The hardness due to noncarbonate hardness is most likely to determine the choice between lime softening and ion exchange to remove hardness. The minimum hardness which can be achieved by the lime-soda ash process is 30 to 40 mg/L as calcium carbonate. one of which rotates on the shaft. Microbiological: Is a type of analysis in which a composite sample unacceptable. Megger: Is used to test the insulation resistance on a motor.300 persons and 50. Motor Overload Control: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. MCL for Turbidity: Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Moisture: If a material is hygroscopic it must it be protected from water. and the goal is not legally enforceable. M-Endo Broth: The media shall be brought to the boiling point when preparing M-Endo broth to be used in the membrane filter test for total coliform. Usually made of two flat surfaces. This goal is not always economically or technologically feasible. Mechanical Seal: A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. In a lime softening process. Measure Corrosion Damage: A coupon is a strip of metal and is placed to measure corrosion damage in the distribution system in a water main. Motor: If a motor is rated for 10 amps the overload relays that should be used are 10 to 11 amps. The tag is an identification device and the lock is a physical restraint. Lead and Copper: Initial tap water monitoring for lead and copper must be conducted during 2 consecutive 6-month periods. especially one that causes disease. If the MCL is exceeded. the water system must treat the water so that it meets the MCL. And a possible result of over greasing a bearing is that there will be extreme friction in the bearing chamber. Microbial: Any minute. Lines: Lines in the distribution system should be flushed on a regular basis. A possible cause for a mechanical noise coming from a motor is there is an unbalance of a rotating mechanical part. mL: milliliter Moisture and Potassium Permanganate: The combination of moisture and potassium permanganate produces heat. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 194 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Magnetic Starter: Is a type of motor starter should be used in an integrated circuit to control flow automatically. Motor 3600 rpms: Is the maximum synchronous speed of an electric motor that has a frequency of 60 Hz. the key to the lock-out device the key should be held by the person who is working on the equipment.
Also used to remove stain and scale. Jar tests and threshold odor number testing determines the appli-cation rate for powdered activated carbon. Capacity Development Requirements for a New Public Water System. Normality: It is the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. Mud Balls in Filter Media: Is a possible result of an ineffective or inadequate filter backwash. NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit): A measure of the clarity or cloudiness of water. Ozone does not provide a Residual in the Distribution System: One of the major drawbacks to using ozone as a disinfectant. nitrates can accumulate in aquifers and contaminate groundwater. Notification and Safety of the Public: Is the most important concern to an owner/operator if a toxic substance contaminates a drinking water. One precautions should be taken in storing PAC is that bags of carbon should not be stored near bags of HTH. Ozone. Non-point source pollution: Air pollution may leave contaminants on highway surfaces. Osmosis: Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semi permeable membrane from a low concentration solute to a high concentration solute to satisfy the pressure differences caused by the solute. Oxidizing: The process of breaking down organic wastes into simpler elemental forms or by products. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 195 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Are pairs of elements and major plant nutrients that cause algae to grow.MSDS: Is a safety document must an employer provide to an operator upon request. Non-Community Water System: A water system which supplies water to 25 or more of the same people at least six months per year in places other than their residences. upon combination with chlorine. Noncarbonate Ions: Water contains Noncarbonate ions if it cannot be softened to a desired level through the use of lime only. commonly used for in a water treatment plant for taste and odor control. Powdered activated carbon may be used with some success in removing the precursors of THMs Packing: Material. office buildings. usually of woven fiber. placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control the leakage from the stuffing box. NH4+: Is the molecular formula of the Ammonium ion. Powdered activated carbon. Non-carbonate Hardness: Is the portion of the total hardness in excess of the alkalinity. ClO2. NH3: Is the molecular formula of Ammonia. and hospitals which have their own water systems. Removes tastes and odors by adsorption only. Overrange Protection Devices: Mechanical dampers. NO3-: Is the molecular formula of the Nitrate ion. O3: Is the molecular formula of ozone. Nitrates: A dissolved form of nitrogen found in fertilizers and sewage by-products that may leach into groundwater and other water sources. NaOCl: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hypochlorite. Nitrate and nitrite are prohibited: The Department will not grant a nitrate or nitrite waiver. This nonpoint source pollution adversely impacts reservoir water and groundwater quality. NTNCWS: Non-transient non-community water system. Oxygen Deficient Environment: Name one of the most dangerous threats to an operator upon entering a manhole. or PAC. Over time. Muriatic Acid: An acid used to reduce pH and alkalinity. snubbers and an air cushion chamber are examples of surging and overrange protection devices. Also used to separate combined chlorine and convert it into free chlorine. Oligotrophic: A reservoir that is nutrient-poor and contains little plant or animal life. factories. or NH4Cl2: These chemicals may be used as alternative disinfectants. NaOH: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hydroxide. Chlorine Dioxide or Chloramine O3. Organic Precursors: Natural or man-made compounds with chemical structures based upon carbon that. Non-Transient. PAC: A disadvantage of using PAC is it is very abrasive and requires careful maintenance of equipment. Some examples are schools. New Public Water System: Community water systems and non-transient non-community water systems that begin operations on or after October 1. Powered activated carbon frequently used for taste and odor control because PAC is non-specific and removes a broad range of compounds. 1999 must comply with Article 6. leading to trihalomethane formation. Nitrates may also occur naturally in some waters.
at a particular temperature. Proton.000 hours: Is the typical operating life of a mechanical seal. There are differing standards for PWSs of different sizes and types. Stop something before it happens. pCi/L: Picocuries per liter. Pneumatic systems are not reliable over transmission lines greater than 1000 feet: Is the primary characteristic which limits the use of a pneumatic data transmission system. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. Pb: Is the chemical symbol of Lead. A mechanical seal is the best seal to use for a pump operating under high suction head Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 196 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and hydroxide can be based on the P and T alkalinity measurement. Alkalinity and pH tell an operator with regards to coagulation how to determine the best chemical coagulant to be used. Pump Discharge Valve Off: Is when should a reciprocating pump or piston pump not be operated. Public Water System (PWS): Any water system which provides water to at least 25 people for at least 60 days annually. Phosphate. pH (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity): A measure of the acidity of water. A curie is the amount of radiation released by a set amount of a certain compound. Neutron. Potential Energy: The energy that a body has by virtue of its position or state enabling it to do work. Public Notification: An advisory that EPA requires a water system to distribute to affected consumers when the system has violated MCLs or other regulations.Pathogens: Disease-causing pathogens. Phenolphthalein /Total Alkalinity: The relationship between the alkalinity constituents bicarbonate. See Contaminated. Nitrate. they should take to protect their health. bends. Pressure Head: The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. pumping station or distribution system. Pump 5. Pressure: A Bellows-type sensor reacts to a change in pressure. The notice advises consumers what precautions. Pressure Measurement: Bourdon tube. Prevention: To take action. Peak Demand: The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant. Point of Entry: POE. Pollution: The duration of exposure to the contaminant affects the dose of a toxic contaminant in a water supply. pH of Saturation: The ideal pH for perfect water balance in relation to a particular total alkalinity level and a particular calcium hardness level. and Organic Nitrogen: Nutrients in a domestic water supply reservoir may cause water quality problems if they occur in moderate or large quantities. virus or parasite that causes or is capable of causing disease. Pump: A key and a tight fit is the common method used to secure an impeller to the shaft on doublesuction pump. Potable: Good water which is safe for drinking or cooking purposes. Bellows gauge and Diaphragm are commonly used to measure pressure in waterworks systems. Non-Potable: A liquid or water that is not approved for drinking. if any. Pipeline Appurtenance: Pressure reducers. Rinse the electrodes with distilled water should be done with the electrodes after measuring the pH of a sample with a pH meter. Pathogens may contaminate water and cause waterborne disease. waterborne pathogens A pathogen is a bacterium. Electron: Are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. The pH where the Langelier Index equals zero. Permeate: Is the term for water which has passed through the membrane of a reverse osmosis unit.000 PWSs providing water from wells. etc. carbonate. A picocurie is one quadrillionth of a curie. The definition of an acidic solution is a solution that contains a significant number of H+ ions. valves. Polyphosphates: Are chemicals that may be added to remove low levels of iron and manganese. There are more than 170. Pollution: To make something unclean or impure. pH Temperature and Chlorine dosage are the factors that influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most. regulators (which are a type of valve). An operator should calibrate the instrument with a known buffer solution before using a pH meter. PPM: Abbreviation for parts per million.000 to 20. Pre-chlorination: The addition of chlorine to the water prior to any other plant treatment processes. The others drink water from private wells. rivers and other sources to about 250 million Americans. Perikinesis: Is the aggregation resulting from random thermal motion of fluid molecules.
Recorder: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located anywhere in the plant where a flow must be measured and in a central location.. it is generally considered to be unsafe to drink. Two pumps of the same size can be operated alternately to equalize wear and distribute lubricant in bearings. facilities. pipes). Before beginning an excavation. or from the taps of selected consumers. The purpose of a non-regulatory sanitary survey is to identify possible biological and chemical pollutants which might affect a water supply. Rules: The objective of a vulnerability assessment is to determine weakness in the distribution or water system. Salts are Absent: Is a strange characteristic that is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere. or produce other substances Red Water and Slime: Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because of red water and slime complaints.e. Community water system. or destroy a person’s skin or eyes and can be either acidic or basic. chemical feeder. The purpose of the foot valve on a pump is that it keeps the air relief opened. Residual Disinfection/Protection: A required level of disinfectant that remains in treated water to ensure disinfection protection and prevent recontamination throughout the distribution system (i. If a pump is located above the level of water a foot valve must be provided on the suction piping to hold the prime. non-transient non-community water system. Cavitation is caused by a suction line may be clogged or is above the water line. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 197 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The main purpose of the wear rings in a centrifugal double suction pump is that the wear rings maintain a flow restriction between the impeller discharge and suction areas. equipment. operation. EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water. Sand. Continuous leakage from a mechanical seal on a pump indicates that the mechanical seal needs to be replaced. One disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is that it is not selfpriming. Safety: 2 Feet: The distance from the edge of a hole must you place the spoil from an excavation. Ladders and climbing devices by inspected by a qualified individual once a year. The importance of a detailed sanitary survey of a new water source can not be overemphasized. Corrosive-This type of chemical classification may weaken. burn. an “Underground Service Alert” center should be contacted to assist in determining the location of all underground utilities in the work area. The viscosity decreases with most lubricants as the temperature increases. Reservoir: An impoundment used to store water. An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. transient non community water system. examine. Relay Logic: Is the name of a popular method of automatically controlling a pump. Centrifugal pumps do not generate suction unless the impeller is submerged in water. and other devices. Sanitary Survey: Persons trained in public health engineering and the epidemiology of waterborne diseases should conduct the sanitary survey. and maintenance of a public water systems for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the facilities for producing and distributing safe drinking water. Reagent: A substance used in a chemical reaction to measure. Rotameter: Is the name of transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball is often used to measure the rate of flow of a gas or liquid. valve. from water leaving the treatment facility. Raw Water: Water that has not been treated in any way.conditions. Sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. Safe Yield: A possible consequence when the “safe yield” of a well is exceeded and water continues to be pumped from a well is land subsidence around the well will occur. What is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation? The lubricating oil tends to break down quickly requiring frequent replacement. Anthracite and Garnet: Mixed media filters are composed of these three materials. The correct order for placing shorting equipment in a trench is starting at the top move to the bottom of the trench and reverse to remove it. PWS: 3 types of public water systems. Runoff: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of natural processes of runoff. Depending on the regulation. An on-site review of the water sources. Safety Statements: A supervisor should warn an operator about the presence of a confined space by clearly posting the appropriate signage at all entries to a confined space. detect. A possible cause of a scored shaft sleeve is that the packing has broken down or the packing is too tight or over tightened. A reciprocating pump or piston pump should not be operated with the discharge valve in the closed position.
odor. repaired if necessary. Shroud: The front and/or back of an impeller. Scroll and Basket: Are the two basic types of centrifuges used in water treatment. Solar Drying Beds or Lagoons: Are shallow. If a plant produces a large volume of sludge. and type of coagulant used are the most important factors which determine the amount of sludge produced in a treatment of water. Small Water System: 3. SCADA: A remote method of monitoring pumps and equipment. and disinfected. kills algae and oxidizes organic matter. Crystal-grade types of sodium fluoride should be fed with a saturator. Scale: Crust of calcium carbonate. Sedimentation Basin: This location is where the thickest and greatest concentration of sludge will be found. Sectional Map: Is the name of a map that provides detailed drawings of the distribution system’s zones.Sanitizer: A disinfectant or chemical which disinfects (kills bacteria). the sludge could be dewatered. SPADNS: The lab reagent called SPADNS solution is used in performing the Fluoride test. Some times we call these quarter-sections. Soda Ash: Chemical used to raise pH and total alkalinity (sodium carbonate). Twice a year sedimentation tanks should be drained and cleaned if the sludge buildup interferes with the treatment process. or color) of drinking water. Sedimentation: The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. Single Phase Power: Is the type of power is used for lighting systems. thickened. portable power tools and in homes. Softening Water: When the water has a low alkalinity it is advantageous to use soda ash instead of caustic soda for softening water. the result of unbalanced water. Overfeeding must be prevented to protect public health when using a fluoridation system. heaters and pumps. Sludge Reduction: Organic polymers are used to reduce the quantity of sludge. 130 degrees F is the maximum temperature that transmitting equipment is able to with stand. dosage. Chemical often used to soften water. Turbidity of source water. SOC: A common way for a synthetic organic chemical such as dioxin to be introduced to a surface water supply is from an industrial discharge. Scale is caused by high calcium hardness and/or high pH. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 198 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Saturator: A device which produces a fluoride solution for the fluoride process. Solar Drying Beds. Softening: The process that removes the ions which cause hardness in water. Hard insoluble minerals deposited (usually calcium bicarbonate) which forms on pool and spa surfaces and clog filters. Sodium Bicarbonate: Commonly used to increase alkalinity of water and stabilize pH. Ridding a water of organic waste through oxidization by the addition of significant quantities of a halogen. or conditioned to decrease the volume of sludge. Sludge Basins: After cleaning sludge basins and before returning the tanks into service the tanks should be inspected. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Non-enforceable federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. Solid. small-volume storage pond where sludge is concentrated and stored for an extended periods. Sensor: A float and cable system are commonly found instruments that may be used as a sensor to control the level of liquid in a tank or basin. Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda. a by-product chlorine generation and often used to raise pH. Liquid. appliances. or a spill. Shock: Also known as superchlorination or break point chlorination. Sodium Bisulfate: Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity (dry acid). Saturation Index: See Langelier's Index. agricultural drainage. If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. Vapor: 3 forms of matter. Centrifuges and Filter Presses: Are procedures used in the dewatering of sludge. Split Flow Control System: This type of control system is to control the flow to each filter influent which is divided by a weir. The regular use of stain prevention chemicals can prevent scale. small motors.300 or fewer persons.
Thickening. equalization storage. Three-phase Motor: The incoming leads for a three-phase motor all have power.Spray Bottle of Ammonia: An operator should use ammonia to test for a chlorine leak around a valve or pipe. a grab sample. for example dry cleaning. Telemetering: The use of a transmission line with remote signaling to monitor a pumping station or motors. Stationing: The word stationing on a plan drawing refers to a representation of a location from a starting point or reference. when the temperature decreases.g. streams. Generally. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects). rivers. TDS-Total Dissolved Solids: is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular. Generally the operational definition is that the solids (often abbreviated TDS) must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve size of two micrometres. Standpipe: A water tank that is taller than it is wide. Susceptibility Waiver: A waiver that is granted based upon the results of a vulnerability assessment. Conditioning. Sterilized Glassware: Is the only type of glassware that should be used in testing for coliform bacteria. and Dewatering: Are common processes that are utilized to reduce the volume of sludge. Equalization storage is the volume of water needed to supply the system for periods when demand exceeds supply. Sum of all the Atomic Weights of the Elements in a Molecule: Is the molecular weight of a compound. trichloroethylene: A solvent and degreaser used for many purposes. Anaerobic water undesirable for drinking water purposes because of color and odor problems are more likely to occur under these conditions. Stuffing Box: That portion of the pump that houses the packing or mechanical seal. a water storage tank’s interior coating (paint) protect the interior about 3-5 years. Taste and Odor Problems in the Water: May happen if sludge and other debris are allowed to accumulate in a water treatment plant. This process is ideal as long as the water does not contain a large amount of TDS. rivers and lakes. When determining the total dissolved solids. Temperature: This test should be performed immediately in the field. The rate decreases: In general. it is a common groundwater contaminant. Tapping Valve: Is the name of the valve that is specifically designed for connecting a new water main to an existing main that is under pressure. Supernatant: Is the liquid layer which forms above the sludge in a settling basin. lakes. Total dissolved solids are normally only discussed for freshwater systems. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 199 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Taste and Odors: The primary purpose to use potassium permanganate in water treatment is to control taste and odors. Sulfate: Will readily dissolve in water to form an anion. Surface Water Sources: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of Runoff. Surface Water: Water that is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. Spring Pressure: Is what maintains contact between the two surfaces of a mechanical seal. Can be used to accomplish accurate and reliable remote monitoring and control over a long distribution system. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams. ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. although TDS is generally considered not as a primary pollutant (e. Time for Turbidity Breakthrough and Maximum Head Loss: Are the two factors which determine whether or not a change in filter media size should be made. Three-Phase Pumps: Large three-phase pumps employs the use of a magnetic starter. Titration: Method of testing by adding a reagent of known strength to a water sample until a specific color change indicates the completion of the reaction. generally. A stoneline or benchmark. the chemical reaction rate decreases also. TCE. TDS: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. You will see white smoke if there is a leak. since salinity comprises some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. Storage Tanks: Three types of water usage that determine the volume of a storage tank are fire suppression storage. but it is rather used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants. and emergency storage. a sample should be filtered before being poured into an evaporating dish and dried. Demineralization may be necessary in a treatment process if the water has a very high value Total Dissolved Solids.
VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive: The longest term VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive is 9 years. and bromoform. Transient Non-community Water System: Is not required to sample for VOC’s. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. Non-Community Water System: A water system which provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): The accumulated total of all solids that might be dissolved in water. Volatile Organic Chemical: VOC. They still must test their water for microbes and several chemicals. Turbidity: One physical characteristic of water. the higher the total alkalinity. Treated Water: Disinfected and/or filtered water served to water system customers. Toxic substance contaminates a drinking water: Public Safety is the most important concern should an owner/operator allow a toxic substance to contaminate a drinking water.0005 mg/L. Like iron to copper pipe. Transient. Turbidimeter is best suited to perform this measurement. A measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles. the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies. This technique is the best way to compare water treatment filter runs. Valve 20 or 30 Feet Per Inch: Is the typical scale of a Valve and Hydrant map using an intersection method of indexing. Under Pressure in Steel Containers: After chlorine gas is manufactured.S. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of tiny particles. Velocities can be increased to a point that a partial vacuum is created. Velocity Head: The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system.e. For a given quantity of flow. the temperature variation of a sample. Vane: That portion of an impeller that throws the water toward the volute. Turbidimeter: Monitoring the filter effluent turbidity on a continuous basis with an in-line instrument is a recommended practice. this agency responsible for setting drinking water standards and for ensuring their enforcement. a scratched or unclean sample tube in the nephelometer and selecting an incorrect wavelength of a light path U. Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Tubercles: The creation of this condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Valves: A gate valve should be operated in any position between fully open and fully closed. the greater the resistance to pH change. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 200 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Titration: Is the common method of standardization of a solution determination in the lab. VOC’s: The reporting limit for all regulated VOC’s is 0. it is primarily transported in steel containers. The most common class of disinfection by-products created when chemical disinfectants react with organic matter in water during the disinfection process. measure of its resistance to a change in pH. causing electro-chemical reactions. See Disinfectant Byproducts. there will be a reduction in water treatment costs. Turbidity Interferes with Disinfection: The primary reason turbidity of water be minimized. High levels of turbidity may interfere with proper water treatment and monitoring. An MCL for turbidity established by the EPA because turbidity interferes with disinfection. Generally. Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV): Is one of the most popular ways to compare filter runs. See TDS. dichlorobromom-ethane. If high quality raw water is low in turbidity. We have all seen these little rust mounds inside cast iron pipe. Trihalomethanes (THM): Four separate compounds including chloroform. Tubercles are formed due to joining dissimilar metals. Venturi: If water flows through a pipeline at a high velocity. Total Alkalinity: A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water that indicates its buffering ability. It must meet or surpass all drinking water standards to be considered safe to drink. the pressure in the pipeline is reduced. The following conditions may cause an inaccurate measure of turbidity. dibromochloromethane. i. Environmental Protection Agency: In the United States. This characteristic of water changes the most rapidly after a heavy rainfall.
Jerry Durbin. Velocity. radiological. typhoid fever. and furnish quality water to a community. Physical. Volute: The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharge by the impeller. or other microorganism. Course Proctor Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 201 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . capable of being transmitted by water (e. Water Purveyor: The individuals or organization responsible to help provide. bacterium. Pathogens are disease causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Water Hammer: A surge in a pipeline resulting from the rapid increase or decrease in water flow.000 volts is the maximum number of volts that electrical equipment can be insulated with a lower limit of 1 megaohm. caused by a virus. Water Meter: Head loss may occur with the use of a water meter. amoebic dysentery. Waterborne Diseases: A disease. or reservoir. The three main classifications of water meters are Compound. protozoan. biological. The land area from which water drains into a stream.g. Displacement. Vulnerability Assessment: An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals.Voltage: 1. A positive bacteriological sample indicates the presence of bacteriological contamination. Watershed: An area that drains all of its water to a particular water course or body of water. Water hammer exerts tremendous force on a system and can be highly destructive. Water Quality: Name the 4 broad categories of water quality. Peak day demand is the greatest amount of water used for any one day in a calendar year. gastroenteritis). cholera. Water Vapor: A characteristic is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere is does not contain salts. river. Source water monitoring for lead and copper be preformed when a public water system exceeds an action level for lead of copper. Water Meter: A water meter that is removed from service for repair should be handled by sealing the meter to retain water. Waivers: Monitoring waivers for nitrate and nitrite are prohibited.. chemical. Water Level: The probe may be coated by calcium carbonate is a common problem with an electrical probe that is used to measure the level of water. supply.
Cincinnati. Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 12th ed. Hazardous substances data bank: Chlorine. NY: John Wiley & Sons. OH: U. Centers for Disease Control. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Department of Health and Human Services. New York. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 87-116. 6th ed. NIOSH respirator decision logic.S. Technical Information Branch. NIOSH . NIOSH . DC: U. Grant WM .S. 3rd ed. A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. New York. 92-100. Cincinnati. Centers for Disease Control. Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation. Boca Raton. Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer. DOT . Bethesda. Lewis RJ. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.References ACGIH . MD: National Library of Medicine. IL: Charles C Thomas.S. Government Printing Office. Department of Health and Human Services. Forsberg K. 3rd ed. Centers for Disease Control. Trenton. Cincinnati. FL: CRC Press. 4th ed. Clayton F [1981-1982]. Hazardous substance fact sheet: Chlorine. Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. Washington. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. Hughes JP. Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Chlorine. Schenectady. NIOSH [1987b]. Hall RC. 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Centers for Disease Control. 87-108. Clayton G. NY: Genium Publishing Corporation. 1993 Emergency response guidebook. 53. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Material safety data sheet No. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. Code of Federal regulations. ed. OH: U. 73rd ed. Department of Transportation. guide 20. OH: U.S. Toxicology of the eye. . Quincy. Lide DR . DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. OH: U. NJ: New Jersey Department of Health. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Hall RC . Mansdorf SZ .S. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Public Health Service. 94-113. Department of Health and Human Services. Cincinnati. Research and Special Programs Administration. Springfield. Standardization of spirometry -. Genium . Proctor NH. OH: U. Hathaway GJ. Chern RT. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 202 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . American Thoracic Society. Department of Health and Human Services. ATS . NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Public Health Service. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. MA: National Fire Protection Association. and Fischman ML . Myers JR . Cincinnati. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 9th ed. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 941-947 Mickelsen RL.S. Inc. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Am Rev Respir Dis CFR. New York. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 445-447 NFPA .1987 update. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. NJDH . Department of Health and Human Services. NIOSH . DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington. New York. ed. Public Health Service. NIOSH [1987a]. Cincinnati. Public Health Service.S. Mickelsen RL. NLM . Public Health Service. DC: U. Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Centers for Disease Control. Cincinnati. 3rd rev. ACGIH . NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Office of the Federal Register.
5H2O NHCl2 FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(HCO3)2 Fe(OH)3 FeSO4. liquid Al(OH)3 AL2(SO4)3 .Common Water Treatment and Distribution Chemicals Chemical Name Common Name Chemical Formula Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Bentonitic clay Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Chlorine gas Chlorine Dioxide Copper sulfate Dichloramine Ferric chloride Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous bicarbonate Ferrous hydroxide Ferrous sulfate Hydrofluorsilicic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hypochlorus acid Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium dioxide Manganous bicarbonate Manganous sulfate Monochloramine Potassium bicarbonate Potassium permanganate Muriatic acid Copperas Iron sulfate Iron chloride Blue vitriol HTH Slaked Lime Unslaked (Quicklime) Gypsum Activated Carbon Limestone Bentonite Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OCl)2 .7H20 H2SiF6 HCl H2S HOCL Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 MgO2 Mn(HCO3)2 MnSO4 NH2Cl KHCO3 KMnO4 Alum. 4H2O Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 C CO2 H2CO3 Cl2 ClO2 CuSO4 . 14(H2O) NH3 NH4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 203 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
Chemical Name Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorsilicate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium Metaphosphate Sodium phosphate Sodium sulfate Sulfuric acid Common Name Soda ash Salt Chemical Formula Na2CO3 NaCl NaClO2 NaF Na2SiF6 Lye Hexametaphosphate Disodium phosphate NaOH NaOCl NaPO3 Na3PO4 Na2SO4 H2SO4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 204 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
(+1) 0 +1 +2 +3 -4. (+6) +2. +4. +4 -3. (+4). (+7). +4. +4 -3. +3. +4. +6 -1. +1. (+1). +3. (+2). +2. (+3). +5 -2. (+4). +5 +2. +3. (+3) (+1). +5. +4. (+3). +3. +3. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +2. +3. (+2). +6 +2. (+2). +3. (+6). +2.Number Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Rubidium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Valence (-1). +2. (+3). +4. +2. +4. +3 (+2). +3. +2. (+3) +2 (+2). (+6). +1. (+6) +2. +7 +2. (+4). +4. +6 +6 (+2). +4 +2. +5 -2 -1. +5 0 +1 +2 +3 (+2). +4 -3. +3. -2. (+3). (+2). +3. +8 (+2). +3. +5 (+2). -1. (+6) +1. +3 -4. +1. (+2). +4. +1 0 +1 +2 -3. (+4). (+4) (+1). (+4) +1. +5 -2. (+4). (+2). (+5). (+3). +6 -1. +4 (+2). +3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 205 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +2 (+1). +3.
+3.50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium +2. +6. (+3). (+4). (+4). (+4). +4 +3 +3. +4. +3 (+2). +4 +3 (+2). (+5) (-2). +3 (+2). +6 -1. +5 (+2). (+5). +6 +1. (+5). +3. 1952. +6. (+1).). +3 +1. (+4). +2. (+2). (+2). (+6) ? 0 ? +2 +3 +4 +5 (+2). +7 (+2). Handbook Publishers. (+3). +2 +1. (+3). +3 +2. +8 (+1). +4 (-3).. (+5). (+2). Lange (Ed. +4. +3 +3 +3. +3. (+2). +5 -2. +6 (+1). +3 +3 +4 (+3). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 206 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . (+4). 8th Ed. +1. +6 Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. +4 +3 +3 +3 (+2). +4. (+3). +4. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +3. +4 -3. +2. +3. +4. Norbert A. +4. +3. Inc. +5. (+2). +4. +6 (-1). +2.
yellow copperas cream of tartar crocus powder emery powder Epsom salts ethanol fluorspar formalin French chalk galena Glauber's salt gypsum hydrocyanic acid hypo (photography) lime dimethyl ketone oxalic acid ethyl alcohol methyl alcohol aluminum potassium sulfate aluminum oxide sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide nitrohydrochloric acid nitric acid ammonia in alcohol magnesium silicate acetylsalicylic acid sodium bicarbonate isoamyl acetate benzene mercuric chloride cupric oxide graphite (carbon) chlorinated lime copper sulfate copper sulfate sodium borate sulfur aqueous sodium chloride solution antimony trichloride anhydrous stannic chloride mercury chloride phenol carbon dioxide potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium nitrate chromic potassium sulfate lead (VI) chromate ferrous sulfate potassium bitartrate ferric oxide impure aluminum oxide magnesium sulfate ethyl alcohol natural calcium fluoride aqueous formaldehyde solution natural magnesium silicate natural lead sulfide sodium sulfate natural calcium sulfate hydrogen cynanide sodium thiosulfate solution calcium oxide Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 207 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . wood alum alumina antichlor aqua ammonia aqua regia aqua fortis aromatic spirit of ammonia asbestos aspirin baking soda banana oil (artificial) benzol bichloride of mercury black copper oxide black lead bleaching powder blue vitriol bluestone borax brimstone brine butter of antimony butter of tin calomel carbolic acid carbonic acid gas caustic potash caustic soda chalk Chile saltpeter chrome. alum chrome. grain alcohol.Common Used Products Chemical Name acetone acid of sugar alcohol.
jeweler's rubbing alcohol sal ammoniac sal soda salt. table talc or talcum vinegar vitamin C washing soda water glass Chemical Name aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide silver nitrate magnesium oxide mercurous oxide methyl alcohol methyl alcohol hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid methyl salicylate copper acetoarsenite powdered calcium carbonate isoamyl acetate potassium carbonate calcium sulfate graphite potassium carbonate potassium hydroxide hydrogen cyanide tetrasodium pyrophosphate calcium oxide mercury lead tetraoxide potassium sodium tartrate ferric oxide isopropyl alcohol ammonium chloride sodium carbonate sodium chloride potassium binoxalate potassium carbonate potassium nitrate silicon dioxide sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium silicate ammonium hydroxide solution sucrose magnesium silicate impure dilute acetic acid ascorbic acid sodium carbonate sodium silicate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 208 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . table salt of lemon salt of tartar saltpeter silica soda ash soda lye soluble glass spirit of hartshorn sugar.Common Used Products limewater lunar caustic magnesia mercury oxide. black methanol methylated spirits muriatic acid oil of vitriol oil of wintergreen (artificial) Paris green Paris white pear oil (artificial) pearl ash plaster of Paris plumbago potash potassa Prussic acid pyro quicklime quicksilver red lead Rochelle salt rouge.
746 kW = 1 Horsepower LENGTH 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5280 Feet = 1 Mile AREA 144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 43.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) CYLINDER: Volume (Cu.31 Feet of Water 1 Foot of Water = .34 lbs/gallon 1 mg/L = 1 PPM 17.) = 3.13 Feet of Water = 1 Inch of Mercury 454 Grams = 1Pound 1 Gallon of Water = 8. ft.1 mg/L = 1 Grain/Gallon 1% = 10. in % SLOPE = Rise (feet) X 100 Run (feet) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 209 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .785 Liters = 1Gallon 231 Cubic Inches = 1 Gallon 7.14 X Diameter General POUNDS = Concentration (mg/L) X Flow (MG) X 8.83 (Diameter. ft.48 Gallons = 1 Cubic Foot 64. in) Height.55 Cubic Feet per Second = 1 MGD 60 Seconds = 1 Minute 1440 Minutes = 1 Day .433 PSI 1.) = 3.) = Length X Width Volume (cu. in)2 (Distance.560 Square Feet – 1 Acre VOLUME 1000 Milliliters = 1 Liter 3.ft) = Length (ft) X Width (ft) X Height (ft) CIRCLE: Area (sq.000 mg/L 694 Gallons per Minute = MGD 1.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) X Depth (ft) SPHERE: (3.7 Pounds = 1 Cubic Foot Dimensions SQUARE: Area (sq. (A) X Volume (A) = Conc.Math Conversion Factors 1 PSI = 2. (B) X Volume (B) FLOW RATE (Q): Q = A X V (Quantity = Area X Velocity) FLOW RATE (gpm): Flow Rate (gpm) = 2. Ft.14) (Diameter)3 (6) Circumference = 3.32) X 5/9 CONCENTRATION: Conc.34 Percent Efficiency = In – Out X 100 In TEMPERATURE: 0 0 F = (0C X 9/5) + 32 C = (0F .
ft) Surface Area (sq. MEAN OR AVERAGE = Sum of the Values Number of Values TOTAL HEAD (ft) = Suction Lift (ft) X Discharge Head (ft) SURFACE LOADING RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gal/min/sq.000 Number of hours worked per year DETENTION TIME (hrs) = Volume of Basin (gals) X 24 hrs Flow (GPD) BY-PASS WATER (gpd) = Total Flow (GPD) X Plant Effluent Hardness (gpg) Filtered Hardness (gpg) Hardness HARDNESS (mg/L as CaCO3) = A (mls of titrant) X 1000 Mls of Sample Ca HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 2. mg/L) Mg HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 4. mg/L) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 210 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .%) STRENGTH (%) (Volume 1. gal) + (Volume 2.12 (Mg. ft) MIXTURE = (Volume 1.000. gal) (Strength 1. gal) FLUORIDE ION PURITY = (Molecular weight of Fluoride) (100%) (%) Molecular weight of Chemical INJURY FREQUENCY RATE = (Number of Injuries) 1. %) + (Volume 2.5 X (Ca.ACTUAL LEAKAGE = Leak Rate (GPD) Length (mi. gal) (Strength 2.) X Diameter (in) VELOCITY = Distance (ft) Time (Sec) WATER HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 BRAKE HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Efficiency MOTOR HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Eff. X Motor Eff.
) DESIRED PAC = Volume (MG) X Dose (mg/L) X 8. ft) 2. ft) (gpm) FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq./MG) 1 MG PAC (lbs.54 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 211 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ft) Surface Area (sq. GPM 193. ft. ft.1 mg/L LANGELIER INDEX = pH .) Dry Polymer (lbs.63 (Slope) 0. ft.000 (mg/L) Mls of Sample EXCHANGE CAPACITY (grains) = Resin Volume (cu.75 (Diameter. ft Distance.ALKALINITY-TOTAL = Mls of Titrant X Normality X 50. ft) X Backwash Rate (gpm/sq. ft Flow.785 (1/gallon) 1000 (mg/g) X 454 (g/lb./gal) = PAC (mg/L) X 3.pHs Chemical Addition CHEMICAL FEED RATE = Chemical Feed (ml/min) (gpm) 3785 ml/gal CHLORINE DOSE (mg/L) = Chlorine Demand (mg/L) + Chlorine Residual (mg/L) POLYMER % = Dry Polymer (lbs.34 (lbs.) BACKWASH PUMPING RATE = Filter Area (sq.) C Factor Slope = Energy Loss./gal 17.) Filtration FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft) Filter Area (sq.) X Removal Capacity HARDNESS TO GRAIN/GALLON = Hardness (mg/L) X gr.) + Water (lbs.
1996.D.We have over 40 other continuing education correspondence courses available. References Water Treatment. Tall Oaks Publishing Inc. Littleton. Morelli. Basic Principles of Water Treatment. Second Edition Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Colorado. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 212 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ed. C.
Living in the United States. but if you are unable to do so. irrigate. please email all concerns and the completed manual to info@tlch2o. we expect water to flow. Please include your name and address on your manual and make copy for yourself. please visit www. You can also find complete assistance under the Assistance Page. Without it.com.Water Treatment Assignment The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. Introduction Water is an integral part of life. we expect that water to be clean and tasty too. you will learn how the water has made a trip through the hydrologic cycle. If you should need any assistance. You will have 90 days from receipt of this manual to complete in order to receive your Professional Development Hours (PDHs) or Continuing Education Unit (CEU). and how we mimic the purification processes by the use of mechanical and chemical applications. Not only do we expect water to flow. bathe and have fun in. So often. A score of 70 % is necessary to pass this course. the types of source water that is available. Large raw water impoundment Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 213 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . we turn on the faucet and use the water without thinking about the miraculous trip that each drop of water has taken to get to that faucet. I would prefer that you write out your own answer on the provided manual. In this course. We use water to drink. when we turn on the water faucet. type out your own answer key.ABCTLC.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. life would not survive.
please visit www. C. 1. Precipitation: 2. A.The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience.ABCTLC. Runoff: 3. These processes are nature’s way of purifying the water.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. Percolation: 5. it goes through many processes. Give a brief definition of the listed components of the water cycle. The water that you drank today most likely has been drunk before many years ago. Another term used for plants giving off moisture would be: Condensation Precipitation Percolation Transpiration Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 214 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . As the water cycles. The planet never gets any new water. Infiltration: 4. The Hydrologic Cycle The water on the planet today is the same water that has been on the planet since the beginning. Evaporation: 6. instead the water cycles from one place to another. D. B.
list the physical characteristics of water. False 9. A. they are: Source of Water When you go see your doctor due to illness. Evolutional 10. A porous material just above the water table describes this source to be surface water. they need to know the source of your problem so they can properly treat it. Biological C. 8. As water moves over or below the earth surface the quality of the water is classified as the following EXCEPT for: A. we will focus on two categories of source water. In the space provided below. There are three basic types of water rights. Physical B. Ground Water and Surface Water. The same is true when treating water. Radiological E. To simplify this. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 215 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The hydrological cycle shows several attributes of the earth purifying and moving water. Chemical D.7. True B.
Managing Water Quality at the Source 11. In this lesson, you will focus on surface water and the different factors that affect the quality of the water. Many populations have depended on lakes as a source of impounded domestic water supplies. As population increases, list below brief examples of how the supplies are being used?
12. Several common water quality problems in domestic water supply reservoirs may be related to algae blooms. Which of the following summarizes the problems that can occur? A. Taste and odor problems B. Short filter runs at the plant do to clogging C. Increased pH D. Dissolved oxygen depletion E. All of the above Define the following terms: 13. Anaerobic:
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15. During the winter months, which condition is most likely to occur do to cold water conditions on the bottom of the lake? A. Anaerobic B. Aerobic 16. The presence of hydrogen sulfide will produce which type of odor: A. Earthy B. Fishy C. Rotten egg D. Roses 17. What is the definition for Oxidation?
18. What does MCL stand for? A. Maximum Containment Level B. Minimum Contaminant Level C. Maximum Can-drink Level D. Maximum Contaminant Level 19. Which Federal Act would you find the MCL for drinking water? A. SDWA B. OSHA C. NEPDES D. CWA 20. Lakes and reservoirs have intake-outlet structures. In the space provided below, list types of structures and/or screens.
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Coagulation and Flocculation 21. Surface water for domestic use will have some form of impurities. It can be in the form of INORGANIC materials or ORGANIC materials. Given the following illustrations, determine if they are Inorganic or Organic. A. Salt is ____ B. Oxygen is ____ C. Dirt is ____ D. Tree leaves are ____ 22. Which statement describes COLLOIDAL matter? A. Solids that sink to the bottom of a lake B. Solids that are invisible C. Solids that float to the top D. Solids that are very small and repel each other 23. The purpose of using the Coagulation and Flocculation process is to remove the particulate impurities in the water. Which of the two would you use the addition of chemicals? A. Coagulation B. Flocculation 24. What is the purpose of flash mixing? A. Using lightning to shock the water B. To mix the chemical slowly C. To mix the chemical in the water rapidly to prevent clumps D. None of the above 25. List four primary coagulants used in water treatment. A. B. C. D.
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26. Which type of laboratory analysis best simulates the plant process to determine the coagulant dosage? A. Temperature B. pH C. Turbidity D. Jar Test E. Alkalinity 27. Flocculation and Flash Mixing are the same process. A. True B. False 28. Flocculation is a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable floc particles. A. True B. False 29. What is the advantage of minimizing chemical coagulant doses? A. Less sludge is produced and chemical cost are reduced B. Shorter settling times C. Shorter filter runs D. Big clumps floating to the top 30. What is short-circuiting?
Small water treatment package plant
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C. 33. This is done in SEDIMENTATION basins. B. A. B. D. 34. The same happens to the impurities we coagulated and flocculated. A. What is the definition for Detention Time? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 220 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . List some sedimentation basin components. 32. some plants have Pre-Sedimentation. B. Depending on the quality of the source water. 31. It gives us a fancy word for RAIN. A cloud forms and rain begins to FALL towards the earth. Give two reasons for this.Sedimentation We used the term PRECIPITATION in the hydrological cycle. The impurities precipitate and settle to the bottom. A. List possible shapes for a sedimentation basin. C.
35. Sludge concentration is too high D. Sludge concentration is too low C. None of the above 36. Failure to properly maintain the sludge discharge line B. what will happen to the detention time? A. What does frequent clogging of the sludge discharge line indicate? A. If a sedimentation basin sludge depth increases. This stuff belongs at the wastewater plant Vertical Turbine Pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 221 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It will decrease D. It will remain the same B. It will increase C.
List four desirable characteristics of filter media. The more uniform the media. B. A. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 222 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Direct filtration and Conventional. A. A. 40. True B. In the treatment plant we use a mechanical straining for removal. True B. at least once per day. A. False 42. 37. False 41. D. Like a coffee filter that keeps the grounds out of the pot. Colloids C. What is the major difference between a Direct Filtration Plant and a Conventional Plant? 38. True B.Filtration Filtration is the last attempt in removing particulate impurities from the water. All of the above 39. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. Silts and clay B. Biological forms D. C. Floc E. the faster the head loss buildup. There are to classifications of filtration plants. The filtration process removes which type of particles? A. Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis.
GPM/sq ft C. GPM B.W.T. C.R.43. MGD/sq ft 44. How are filter production rates measured? A. Give a brief description of a DECLINING-RATE filter. B. What does S. stand for? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 223 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 45. 46. list three types: A. MGD D. Filter media provides several characteristics.
A. None of the above 48. True B. Floc B. False 52. B. True B. Nitrates C. False 51. Turbidity 50. Giardia lamblia D. A. When the temperature increases. You can use regular pipe fittings when making connections with chlorine containers. Both A & C E. True B. A. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 224 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Hepatitis B C. False 53. 49. A. Hypochlorite compounds tend to lower the pH of the water being disinfected. THM's D. C. Moisture in a chlorination system will combine with the chlorine gas and cause corrosion. Which of the following pathogens are waterborne diseases? A. Shingella B. False 54. A. True B. the pressure of the chlorine gas inside a chlorine container will decrease. What does organic matter form when it reacts with chlorine? A.Disinfection 47. Always work in pairs when looking and repairing chlorine leaks. A. True B. List three benefits of prechlorination.
the longer contact time needed 57. How do water temperature conditions influence the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant? A. The higher the temperature the easier to disinfect the water D. When a chlorine leak exist.55. False 56. True B. Iron B. The lower the water temperature the easier to disinfect the water B. Degree of pathogenic inactivation D. use water to dilute it. Manganese D. The warmer the water. Which of the following chemical must be present for a breakpoint chlorination curve to develop when chlorine is added to water? A. What does the product of C x T provide a measure of? A. What formula would you use to calculate the chlorine feed in pounds per day? Chlorine Gas Windsock Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 225 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The warmer the water the less dissipation rate of chlorine to the atmosphere C. Threat of THM formation 59. Ammonia C. Organic matter 58. Rate of chloramine formation C. Level of disinfectant intensity B. A.
60. H. Give a brief description for the use of a fusible plug in a steel cylinder. G. B. C. What is the maximum rate of chlorine removal in a 150 pound cylinder? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 226 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A. List eight parts that are used for a chlorinator. 62. D. E. 61. F.
They provide a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant D. Gas pressure to high D. What is the most probable cause of leaking joints in gas chlorinator systems? A. Back pressure C. They accurately measure chlorine dosage B. They measure the liquid chlorine remaining in a chlorine container C. Acid corrosion of joints B. Missing gasket 64. They quickly measure and record chlorine residual E.63.How are probes used in the disinfection process? A. All of the above Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 227 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
You have 90 days to successfully complete this course or you will have to pay a $25. Temperature E. Make a copy of all of your work. You will not receive your answer key back. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 228 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Reducing agents D. I would prefer that the completed booklet or a typed page is mailed back to TLC. Corrosion damage from chlorine B. If you successfully pass this course. Please make a copy for yourself. you will receive a certificate for 10 Contact Hours. Microorganisms B. Lack of oxygen D. 10 PDHs or 1 CEU or 10 Training Credits. Why will the engines of emergency vehicles quit operating in the vicinity of a large chlorine leak? A.00 renewal fee.65. Which of the following factors influence chlorine disinfection? A. pH is low C. All the above 66. pH C. Too far gone to look back and see why When you are finished.
Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 Very Difficult Very Difficult 2. Please rate the difficulty of your course. ______________________________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 229 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . What would you do to improve the Course? ______________________________________________________________________ Any other concerns or comments. Please rate the difficulty of the testing process. How did you hear about this Course?__________________________________ 5.Please mail this with your final exam WATER TREATMENT COURSE CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSE CARD DATE:________________ NAME:_________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY ______________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________ E-MAIL_________________________________PHONE_______________________ PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER OF THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER IN THE AREA BELOW. Please rate the subject matter on the exam to your actual field or work. Very Similar 0 1 2 3 4 5 Very Different 4. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 3. 1.
Large butterfly valve on a transmission line Water Intake Screen Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 230 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .
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