WATER TREATMENT

CONTINUING EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE
10 PDH's, 10 Training Hours or 1 CEU upon completion

Copyright Notice ©2006 Technical Learning College (TLC) No part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without TLC’s prior written approval. Permission has been sought for all images and text where we believe copyright exists and where the copyright holder is traceable and contactable. All material that is not credited or acknowledged is the copyright of Technical Learning College. This information is intended for educational purposes only. Most unaccredited photographs have been taken by TLC instructors or TLC students. We will be pleased to hear from any copyright holder and will make good on your work if any unintentional copyright infringements were made as soon as these issues are brought to the editor's attention. Every possible effort is made to ensure that all information provided in this course is accurate. All written, graphic, photographic or other material is provided for information only. Therefore, Technical Learning College accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the application or misuse of any information included herein. Requests for permission to make copies should be made to the following address: TLC P.O. Box 420 Payson, AZ 85547 Information in this document is subject to change without notice. TLC is not liable for errors or omissions appearing in this document.

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Special State Approval Information
This course is approved for 10 contact hours/10 PDHS/1 CEU in most States. There is a 40 hour version of this course. It is called Water Treatment Fundamentals and can be found at www.ABCTLC.com.
Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 10 CEHs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 10 PDHs. California Department of Health Services acceptance, 10 contact hours. Colorado, #06-OW-0029, 1 TUs in Water and Distribution. Georgia, 6 Continuing Education Points, # CE-6-106-TLC-013108-1814. Hawaii Department of Health approval, Public Water System Operators. 1.0 CEU. Indiana, Water Approval PWSTO1-1912, 10 Contact Hours. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Water approval, 10 continuing Education Training Contact Hours. Kentucky, DOW course #ALT-1913 - 10 hours for water operators only. Missouri, Water Approval # 0127336, 10 Renewal Hours, Wastewater 4 Renewal Hours New York Dept. of Health, 10 contact hours. Ohio EPA, Course #D096, Approved for Drinking Water for 10.0 contact hours. Expires 6/26/2009. Oregon, OESAC approval #884, 1.20 CEUs in Drinking Water, and 0.4 CEUs in Wastewater. Expires 12/17/2006. Pennsylvania DEP, 10 hours in Water # 681. Rhode Island, 10 contact hours. Tennessee, Water and Wastewater Certification Board, Approval #R02048, 10 Water Treatment Credit Hours. Utah Department of Environmental Quality requires special form from TLC. Washington WETRC approved 1 CEU. Wyoming DEQ, #373.00 for levels II, III, &IV. 10 Contact Hours “CREDIT is entered into a certified operator’s training record based on the CERTIFICATE NUMBER they list on the roster. FAILURE to provide a certification number or proving an incorrect number may result in no credit given.”

Check with your State to see if this course is accepted for CEU credit.

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Jar Testing
The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. What do these conditions include? A simulation of a water treatment plant’s flash mixing process. Under normal plant conditions a flow is 3.0 MGD and a one-minute fast mixing in the jar test is adequate. If the plant flow increases to 4.0 MGD, how long of fast mix is needed in the jar test? Less than one minute is necessary.

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Course Description
Water Treatment CEU Course
Water Distribution, Well Drillers, Pump Installers, Water Treatment Operators. The target audience for this course is the person interested in working in a water treatment or distribution facility and/or wishing to maintain CEUs for certification license or to learn how to do the job safely and effectively, and/or to meet education needs for promotion. This short CEU course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection and distribution making sure that it meets federal compliance. This course will cover the fundamentals of water treatment beginning with the source of water and ending with the disinfection of the water that meets federal compliance. Task Analysis and Training Needs Assessments have been conducted to determine or set Needs-To-Know for this course. The following is a listing of some of those who have conducted extensive valid studies from which TLC has based this program upon: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the American Boards of Certification (ABC).

Course Goals
I. The Water Hydrological Cycle A. Terminology. B. Define Water’s Characteristics. II. Source of Water and Quality A. Define Ground water. B. Define Surface water. C. Define Quality Characteristics and Terms. III. Physical Processes A. Define Process Objectives. B. Define Concepts and MCLs. C. Define Terminology. D. Define Plant Layout. IV. Sedimentation and Related Processes A. Define Grit Chambers. B. Define Plain Sedimentation. C. Define Coagulation and Flocculation. 1. Chemical. 2. Process design. D. Define Thickening. E. Define Dewatering. F. Define Drying. G. Define Sludge Recovery and Transport. V. Define Filtration and other Treatment Techniques A. Process descriptions. 1. Functions. 2. Structure. 3. Operation. 4. Application. VI. Define Chlorination, Disinfection and Bacteria Testing.

CEU Course Learning Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe the water hydrologic cycle. Describe the source of water and the types of water quality issues. Describe the objectives of physical process of water treatment. Define terminology associated with physical processing of water. Describe the layout of physical processing facilities in water treatment plants. Describe the function, structure, operation, and application of racks, bars, and screens.

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7. 8. 9. 10.

Describe the coagulation and flocculation treatment processes. Describe sedimentation processes. Describe the filtration process. Describe the disinfection process.

Knowledge Obtained by this CEU Course Knowledge of chemical feeders, including startup/shutdown, calibration of feeder and calculation of dosage. 30 Minutes Knowledge of coagulation/flocculation systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of baffle, stationary, and mechanical systems. 20 Minutes Knowledge of sedimentation/clarification systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions of sedimentation basin, solids-contact, and sludge depth determination. 25 Minutes Knowledge of granular activated carbon filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of deep-bed monomedia filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of multi-media gravity filters, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 30 Minutes Knowledge of membrane filtrations systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for operating conditions. 25 Minutes Knowledge of measurement techniques for expansion of backwash and depth of filter media. 15 Minutes Knowledge of alarm testing of disinfection systems. 5 Minutes Knowledge of operation and calibration of chemical feed pumps, e.g., hypochlorinators, chlorine systems, aqueous ammonia feeders, etc. 50 Minutes Knowledge of calculation of disinfectant dosage, including when to add disinfectant. 25 Minutes Knowledge of gas chlorinator operation, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 50 Minutes Knowledge of gas ammoniator systems, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 5 Minutes Knowledge of ozonators, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 35 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control solid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of corrosion control liquid feeders, including startup/shutdown, and correcting for abnormal conditions. 10 Minutes Knowledge of the chemistry of lime, caustic, bicarbonate, phosphates, silicates, and acids interacting with processed water. 40 Minutes Knowledge of stabilization reaction basins and correcting for abnormal conditions. 15 Minutes. Knowledge of electrical cathodic protections devices, including calibration. 10 Minutes Knowledge of calibration of flow meters, in-line turbidmeters, in-line chorine analyzers, and in-line pH meters. 10 Minutes Knowledge of programming alarms, autodialers, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes Knowledge of operation of auto shutdown systems, signal generators, signal receivers, signal transmitters, and SCADA systems. 10 Minutes EPA Operator Rules, Security information and OSHA rule information. 210 Minutes.

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Other Areas Covered Intake Pretreatment Chemical Feed Chemical Mixing/Rapid Mix Coagulation/Flocculation Sedimentation/Clarification Filtration Disinfection Fluoridation Storage Softening Corrosion Control Sludge Disposal Recirculation Systems Instrumentation Maintenance Plumbing/Cross-Connections Laboratory Procedures Perform Specific Tests Operate Moving Equipment Management/Supervision/Reporting Specific Course Goals and Timed Outcomes (Beta Testing ) Eleven students were tested and the average time necessary to complete each task was recorded as the stated in the above objectives and timed outcome section. In the above timed outcome section area, the tasks were measured using times spent on each specific objective goal and final assignment grading of 70% and higher. Sixteen students were given a task assignment survey in which to track their times on the above learning objectives (course content) and utilized an essay style answer sheet to complete their final assignment. All students were given 30 days to complete this assignment and survey. September 2000 Beta Testing Group Statistics Sixteen students were selected for this assignment. All the students held water distribution or water treatment operator certification positions. None of the test group received credit for their assignment. Three students failed the final examination. Three students did not complete the reading assignment. The average times were based upon the outcome of eleven students. Prerequisites None Course Procedures for Registration and Support All of Technical Learning College correspondence courses have complete registration and support services offered. Delivery of services will include, e-mail, web site, telephone, fax and mail support. TLC will attempt immediate and prompt service. When a student registers for a distance or correspondence course, he/she is assigned a start date and an end date. It is the student's responsibility to note dates for assignments and keep up with the course work. If a student falls behind, he/she must contact TLC and request an end date extension in order to complete the course. It is the prerogative of TLC to decide whether to grant the request. All students will be tracked by their social security number or a unique number will be assigned to the student. Instructions for Written Assignments The Water Treatment correspondence course uses a multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank answer key. TLC would prefer that the answers are typed and e-mailed to, info@tlch2o.com. If you are unable to do so, please write inside the booklet and make a copy for yourself and mail me the completed manual. There are a total of 66 questions in this course.

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You can find course assistance on the website under the Assignment Page, under the Course Assistance button. Feedback Mechanism (examination procedures) Each student will receive a feedback form as part of their study packet. You will be able to find this form in the rear of the course or lesson. Security and Integrity All students are required to do their own work. All lesson sheets and final exams are not returned to the student to discourage sharing of answers. Any fraud or deceit and the student will forfeit all fees and the appropriate agency will be notified. Grading Criteria TLC will offer the student either pass/fail or a standard letter grading assignment. If TLC is not notified, you will only receive a pass/fail notice. (Certificate) Recommended Texts The Water Treatment course can be completed without any other text but you may use either a copy of WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION VOLUME ONE AND TWO - Office of Water Programs, California State University Sacramento or WATER TREATMENT - American Water Works Association to assist in completion or understanding of the assignment. Recordkeeping and Reporting Practices TLC will keep all student records for a minimum of seven years. It is your responsibility to give the completion certificate to the appropriate agencies. We will send the required information to Texas, Indiana and Pennsylvania for your certificate renewals. ADA Compliance TLC will make reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Students should notify TLC and their instructors of any special needs. Course content may vary from this outline to meet the needs of this particular group. Mission Statement Our only product is educational service. Our goal is to provide you with the best possible education service possible. TLC will attempt to make your learning experience an enjoyable educational opportunity.

What are a couple of corrosive substances may be found in a laboratory? Hydrochloric and Sulfuric acids HCL & H2SO4

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To provide a forum for the collection and dissemination of current information related to environmental education. Water Operator’s Lab Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 9 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To provide a forum in which students can exchange experiences and ideas related to environmental education. and to maintain an environment that nurtures academic and personal growth. To provide opportunities for TLC students to learn and practice environmental educational skills with members of the community for the purpose of sharing diverse perspectives and experience. To provide TLC students opportunities to apply and understand the theory and skills needed for operator certification.Educational Mission The educational mission of TLC is: To provide TLC students with comprehensive and ongoing training in the theory and skills needed for the environmental education field.

Final Sedimentation Basin Pre-Sedimentation Clarifier Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 10 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Box 420.00 Start and Finish Dates:_________________________You will have 90 days from this date in order to complete this course Name______________________________________Signature____________________ (This will appear on your certificate as above) Address:________________________________________________________________ City______________________________State________Zip___________Email________ Phone: Home ( )_______________Work ( )_____________Fax ( )_____________ Social Security___________________________ Your State may require this information. please write your customer#_________________ Referral’s Name_____________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 11 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Please circle which certification you are applying the course CEU’s. Payson.Contact Hour CEU/PDH Training Registration Water Treatment CEU Course Course Price $50. Operator ID# ________________________________Expiration Date____________ Class/Grade__________________________________ Your certificate will be mailed to you in about two weeks. AZ 85547-0420 ℡Toll Free (866) 557-1746℡ (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 info@tlch2o. Date_________ If you’ve paid on the Internet.com 3 digit code on back of card _____ American Express Visa or MasterCard #__________________________________Exp. Water Treatment Water Distribution Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Groundwater Degree Program Other ___________________________ Technical Learning College P.O.

Solids Handling: Primary Return Water Clarifier and Centrifuge Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 12 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Index New EPA Rules 15 Microbes 18 Radionuclides 19 Inorganic Contaminants 20 Volatile Organic Contaminants 21 Primary Drinking Water Requirements 23 Secondary Drinking Water Regulations 29 SDWA Terms 31 Groundwater and Wells 35 Water Sources 37 Source Water Quality 39 Water Treatment 42 Conventional Treatment 49 Rapid Sand Filtration 51 Backwash Rule 57 Algae 59 Waterborne Pathogens 61 Protozoan Diseases 64 Waterborne Diseases 66 Jar Testing 69 Periodic Chart 79 pH 81 Water Disinfectants 82 Chlorine Section 83 DPD Residual Method 97 Amperometric Titration 98 Chemistry Chlorination 99 Chlorinator Parts 108 Chlorine Dioxide 115 Bacteriological Monitor 127 HPC 133 Total Coliforms 136 Fluoride 137 Water Quality 141 Activated Carbon 147 Corrosion Control 148 Cathodic Protection 149 Alkalinity 151 Water Storage 153 Cross-Connections 155 Centrifugal Pumps 157 Hard Water 163 Water Softening 166 Split Case Centrifugal Pump Vertical Turbine Pumps Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 13 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

infants & young children: nervous system effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 14 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Membrane Filtration Processes Reverse Osmosis Ozone Ultraviolet Radiation DBP Removal Chart Glossary 185 Conversion Factor 209 Assignment 213 Customer Survey 229 169 173 180 181 183 Control Room Disinfectants Contaminant MRDL1 (mg/L)2 MRDL1 (mg/L)2 Potential Health Effects from Sources of Contaminant Ingestion of Water in Drinking Water Chloramines (as Cl2) Chlorine (as Cl2) Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2) MRDLG=41 MRDLG=41 MRDL=4.01 Eye/nose irritation.81 MRDL=0.81 Anemia. stomach Water additive used to discomfort control microbes Water additive used to control microbes MRDLG=0.01 Eye/nose irritation. stomach Water additive used to discomfort. anemia control microbes MRDL=4.

minerals. ICR EPA has collected data required by the Information Collection Rule (ICR) to support future regulation of microbial contaminants.S. and soil erode. EPA decided to move forward with implementing the 10ppb standard for arsenic in drinking water. In October 2001. disinfectants.New EPA Water Rules Arsenic Arsenic is a chemical that occurs naturally in the earth's crust.epa. Drinking water microbial and disinfection byproduct information collected for the ICR is now available in EPA's Envirofacts Warehouse. Studies have linked long-term exposure of arsenic in drinking water to a variety of cancers in humans. EPA revised the standard from 50 parts per billion (ppb). When people either drink this water or eat animals and plants that drink it. an EPA standard limits the amount of arsenic in drinking water. More information on the rulemaking process and the costs and benefits of setting the arsenic limit in drinking water at 10ppb can be found at www. and engineering data to control these contaminants. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 15 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In January 2001. they are exposed to arsenic. although it can also come from industrial sources. including Cryptosporidium. they release arsenic into water supplies.gov/safewater/arsenic. For most people in the U. To protect human health. When rocks. ordering that it fall to 10 ppb by 2006.. and disinfection byproducts. disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens). EPA decided to review the decision to ensure that the final standard was based on sound science and accurate estimates of costs and benefits. eating and drinking are the most common ways that people are exposed to arsenic. The rule is intended to provide EPA with information on chemical byproducts that form when disinfectants used for microbial control react with chemicals already present in source water (disinfection byproducts (DBPs)). After adopting 10ppb as the new standard for arsenic in drinking water.html.

Disinfection byproducts for which regulations have been established have been identified in drinking water. The EPA has established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate bromate at annual average of 10 parts per billion in drinking water. monobromoacetic acid. trichloroacetic acid. The Stage 1 Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproduct Rule standards became effective for trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts listed above in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems.. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when ozone used to disinfect drinking water reacts with naturally occurring bromide found in source water.e.0 parts per million (ppm) Currently trihalomethanes are regulated at a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion for water systems serving over 10. The EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate total trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a maximum allowable annual average level of 80 parts per billion. Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) are a group of chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. bromate. known as HAA5. The standard became effective for the first time in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water systems. dibromochloromethane. decaying vegetation) present in the source water. dichloroacetic acid. bromodichloromethane. the EPA established the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule that requires public water systems to use treatment measures to reduce the formation of disinfection byproducts and to meet the following specific standards: Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) Haloacetic acids (HAA5) Bromate Chlorite 80 parts per billion (ppb) 60 ppb 10 ppb 1. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. are: monochloroacetic acid. Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection byproducts when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. This standard will replace the current standard of a maximum allowable annual average level of 100 parts per billion in December 2001 for large surface water public water systems. haloacetic acids. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 16 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 people under the Total Trihalomethane Rule finalized by the EPA in 1979. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate HAA5 at 60 parts per billion annual average. The trihalomethanes are chloroform. and dibromoacetic acid. and chlorite. Different disinfectants produce different types or amounts of disinfection byproducts. and bromoform. including trihalomethanes. Those standards became effective in December 2003 for small surface water and all ground water public water systems. The regulated haloacetic acids. Disinfection byproducts are formed when disinfectants used in water treatment plants react with bromide and/or natural organic matter (i.Disinfection Byproduct Regulations In December 1998.

This is to improve physical removal of Cryptosporidium. respectively. The Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule was established in December 1998 to control Cryptosporidium. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 17 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .This standard became effective for large public water systems by December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground public water systems back in December 2003.9% and 99. The EPA is also planning to develop other rules to further control pathogens.000 people. EPA has published the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule to regulate chlorite at a monthly average level of 1 part per million in drinking water. Microbial Regulations One of the key regulations developed and implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to counter pathogens in drinking water is the Surface Water Treatment Rule. The EPA has promulgating a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Among its provisions.000 people. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems comply with Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. This standard became effective for large surface water public water systems back in December 2001 and for small surface water and all ground water public water systems back in December 2003. the rule requires that a public water system. including pathogens. The EPA established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for all public water systems and a 99% removal requirement for Cryptosporidium in filtered public water systems that serve at least 10.99%. for systems serving fewer than 10. The new rule will tighten turbidity standards by December 2001. Chlorite is a byproduct formed when chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect water. using surface water (or ground water under the direct influence of surface water) as its source. The Surface Water Treatment Rule specifies treatment criteria to assure that these performance requirements are met. Turbidity is an indicator of the physical removal of particulates. they include turbidity limits. have sufficient treatment to reduce the source water concentration of Giardia and viruses by at least 99. and to maintain control of pathogens while systems lower disinfection byproduct levels to comply with the Stage 1 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. and disinfectant contact time conditions. disinfectant residual.

Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. diarrhea. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. headaches. It causes cryptosporidiosis. or other symptoms. a mild gastrointestinal disease. The above photo is of a SimPlate for HPC multi-dose used for the quantification of HPC in water. However. Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including nonpathogens. cramps. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. and opportunistic pathogens. and cramps).g. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects. The EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste.Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 18 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . such as diarrhea. the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. However. nausea. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. Often referred to as HPC. vomiting. pathogens.

a carrier gas transports them through a separation column and into a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) where individual components are identified. Operation A sample is placed into a heated injection port. Combined Radium 226/228. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 19 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer. As the organics are driven off by heating. and in the air in your home. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. Gas Chromatograph (GC) Separates vaporized sample into individual components. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Beta/photon emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. such as wells.Radionuclides Alpha emitters. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water.

Lead typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings. For advice on avoiding lead. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. Fluoride. including pesticides & herbicides 2. see the EPA’s lead in your drinking water fact sheet. including pain and tenderness of the bones). The EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health.Inorganic Contaminants (IOC) Antimony Asbestos Barium Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Cyanide Mercury Nitrate Nitrite Selenium Thallium Inorganic Contaminants Arsenic. before they erupt from the gums. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride.3. This problem occurs only in developing teeth. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the EPA's standard over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. in its moderate or severe forms.5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2. Dental fluorosis.8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 20 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .7. Synthetic Organic Contaminants. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks. The EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis.4. may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth.4-D 2.

2-Dichloropropane Ethylbenzene Styrene Tetrachloroethylene 1.1-Dichloroethylene cis-1.2-Dichloroethane 1.Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC) Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorobenzene o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1.1.-Trichloroethane 1. thin bottles with the septum tops.2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 21 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Toluene Vinyl Chloride Xylenes Common water sampling bottles VOC bottles are the smaller.4-Trichlorobenzene 1.2-Dichloroethylene trans-1.2-Dicholoroethylene Dichloromethane 1.1.1.

Giardia Cryptosporidium Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 22 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

004 0. discharge from teeth. natural deposits Adults: Kidney problems. 0.3 Cyanide (as free cyanide) Fluoride 0.010 Asbestos (fiber >10 micrometers) Barium Beryllium 7 million 7 MFL fibers per Liter 2 2 0.005 Kidney damage Chromium (total) 0. erosion of natural deposits Corrosion of household plumbing systems. solder Discharge from semiconductor manufacturing. herbicides. circulatory system problems. discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories 4. runoff from waste batteries and paints Discharge from steel and pulp mills. Those with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor if their water systems exceed the copper action level. 6 3. erosion of natural deposits. TT Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage. ceramics. erosion of natural deposits Discharge of drilling wastes.005 0. strong teeth. high blood pressure Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 23 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . wood preservatives.National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Inorganic Chemicals Antimony Arsenic MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Increase in blood cholesterol. electronics. physical or mental plumbing systems. petroleum refining. increased risk of cancer Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Discharge from petroleum refineries.0 Bone disease (pain and Water additive which promotes tenderness of the bones).1 Copper 1. erosion of natural Children may get mottled deposits. discharge from metal refineries.004 Increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps Increase in blood pressure Intestinal lesions Cadmium 0. erosion of 015.2 Nerve damage or thyroid problems Lead zero Discharge from steel/metal factories.0 Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis Action Short term exposure: Level=1.006 0.006 none5 0. animal feed additives. erosion of natural deposits.1 0. fire retardants. decrease in blood glucose Skin damage. fertilizer and aluminum factories Action Infants and children: Delays in Corrosion of household Level=0. aerospace. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories. erosion of natural deposits Decay of asbestos cement in water mains. discharge from metal refineries. Gastrointestinal distress.2 4. leaching from wood preservatives 0. TT6 development. discharge from electrical. and defense industries Corrosion of galvanized pipes.

002 0.002 "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . Hair or fingernail loss.Inorganic Mercury 0.002 Kidney damage Erosion of natural deposits.0005 0. intestine.05 0.life threatening without immediate medical attention. erosion of natural deposits Discharge from petroleum refineries. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. "Blue baby syndrome" in infants under six months . numbness in fingers or toes. discharge from electronics. changes in blood. erosion of natural deposits Runoff from fertilizer use. discharge from refineries and factories.05 0. leaching from septic tanks.life threatening without immediate medical attention. leaching from septic tanks. Symptoms: Infant looks blue and has shortness of breath. runoff from landfills and cropland Runoff from fertilizer use. erosion of natural deposits. discharge from mines Leaching from ore-processing sites. glass. sewage. circulatory problems Hair loss. and pharmaceutical companies Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen) 10 10 Nitrite (measured as 1 Nitrogen) 1 Selenium Thallium 0. sewage. kidney. or liver problems Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 24 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

reproductive difficulties Anemia. liver.075 0.1 0.1 zero zero 0. increased risk of cancer Cardiovascular system problems.005 0.075 zero 0.2-Dichloroethane 1-1Dichloroethylene cis-1.07 0.4-D Dalapon 1.04 zero zero 0. increased risk Discharge from pharmaceutical of cancer and chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories General toxic effects or Leaching from PVC plumbing reproductive difficulties systems. Liver problems.005 0. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Added to water during sewage/wastewater treatment Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Runoff from herbicide used on row crops Discharge from factories.2 0. liver.07 0. or adrenal gland Runoff from herbicide used on problems row crops Minor kidney changes Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way Reproductive difficulties. decrease in blood platelets. increased risk of cancer Reproductive difficulties. anemia.6 0.1 0.Organic Chemicals Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Carbofuran Carbon tetrachloride Chlordane Chlorobenzene 2.003 0.6 0. leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities Residue of banned termiticide zero zero 0.006 0. liver Discharge from rubber and problems. 2Dichloroethylene trans-1.007 0.005 0.005 0. changes in blood chemical factories Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories Liver problems.2 zero TT 7 0.04 .2-Dibromo-3chloropropane (DBCP) o-Dichlorobenzene p-Dichlorobenzene 1. increased risk of chemical factories cancer Reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 25 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . increased risk of cancer Liver or nervous system problems.005 0.002 0.002 0. kidney.0002 0.0002 0.1 0. pineapples. and orchards Liver. kidney or spleen problems.007 Discharger from chemical and agricultural chemical factories Kidney.007 0. increased risk of cancer Problems with blood or nervous system. liver. discharge from chemical factories Reproductive difficulties. increased risk of cancer Eye. kidney or spleen Discharge from industrial damage.07 0.2Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane 1-2Dichloropropane Di(2ethylhexyl)adipate MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Nervous system or blood problems. reproductive difficulties.007 Di(2zero ethylhexyl)phthalate Dinoseb 0. Runoff/leaching from soil increased risk of cancer fumigant used on soybeans.003 zero zero 0.07 0. cotton. or circulatory Discharge from industrial system problems chemical factories Anemia.4 0.4 0.

00005 0.004 0.001 0. 03 increased risk of cancer 0.Dioxin (2.20 Discharge from wood preserving factories Herbicide runoff Herbicide runoff Discharge from rubber and plastic factories. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems.07 0. kidney. kidney.0002 0.7 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney.7 zero 0.02 0.4.002 zero 0.10 0. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Changes in adrenal glands Liver.1 0.04 0. livestock Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples. reproductive difficulties Liver damage.002 TT7 0.07 0. increased risk of cancer Kidney or stomach problems Liver or kidney problems Reproductive difficulties Slight nervous system effects Skin changes. or circulatory problems 0. or thyroid problems.001 0.3.7 0. reproductive difficulties.1Trichloroethane 1 none5 zero 0.2 zero Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Styrene zero 0. or liver problems Liver.05 0.02 0. gardens Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems Stomach problems. reproductive difficulties.1 0.7 zero Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion. vegetables. and tomatoes Runoff from landfills.2 0.5 0.0002 0.7. and circulatory problems Liver problems.4Trichlorobenzene 1.0002 Methoxychlor Oxamyl (Vydate) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 0.1 0.2 Tetrachloroethylene zero Toluene Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) Toxaphene 2. increased risk of cancer Liver problems Problems with blood Liver. increased risk of cancer Kidney problems.004 0.05 0. potatoes. nervous system.5 0. thymus gland problems. leaching from landfills Discharge from factories and dry cleaners Discharge from petroleum factories Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle Residue of banned herbicide Discharge from textile finishing factories Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 26 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .1 0. reproductive or nervous system difficulties. discharge of waste chemicals Heptachlor epoxide zero Hexachlorobenzene zero Hexachlorocyclopen 0.0005 Cataracts Stomach and intestinal problems Nervous system effects Stomach problems. liver.003 0. increased risk of cancer Liver damage. alfalfa.005 1 0. kidney or central nervous system problems.000000 Reproductive difficulties.2.1. lumber.04 0. discharge from chemical factories Runoff from herbicide use Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned insecticide Discharge from industrial chemical factories. immune deficiencies.5-TP (Silvex) 1.05 0.8TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylbenzene Ethelyne dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor zero 0.0004 0. increased risk of cancer Nervous system.05 tadiene Lindane 0. reproductive difficulties. increased risk of cancer Liver or kidney problems. added to water during treatment process Discharge from petroleum refineries Discharge from petroleum refineries Runoff from herbicide use Residue of banned termiticide Breakdown of hepatachlor Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories Discharge from chemical factories Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle.

kidney. Gastroenteric disease n/a Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Human and animal fecal waste Giardia lamblia Heterotrophic plate count zero N/A TT 8 TT8 Legionella zero TT8 5. Legionnaire's Disease. It may indicate the presence of microbes.005 0. discharge from plastic factories Discharge from petroleum factories.0%9 TT8 Found naturally in water. Coli) N/A Turbidity Viruses (enteric) zero TT8 Human and animal fecal waste Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 27 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Xylenes (total) 0. multiplies in heating systems Human and animal fecal waste Soil runoff Total Coliforms zero (including fecal coliform and E. a gastroenteric disease HPC has no health effects. increased risk of cancer Increased risk of cancer Nervous system damage Discharge from industrial chemical factories Discharge from petroleum refineries Leaching from PVC pipes.003 zero zero 10 0. commonly known as pneumonia Used as an indicator that other potentially harmful bacteria 10 may be present Turbidity has no health effects but can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth.002 10 Liver. or immune system problems Liver problems.1. discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides Beta particles and photon emitters MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Decay of natural and manmade deposits Erosion of natural deposits none 5 Gross alpha particle none5 activity Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined) none5 4 Increased risk of cancer millirems per year 15 Increased risk of cancer picocurie s per Liter (pCi/L) 5 pCi/L Increased risk of cancer Erosion of natural deposits MCLG MCL2 1 or TT3 Microorganisms (mg/L) (mg/L) 4 4 Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Giardiasis. but can indicate how effective treatment is at controlling microorganisms.1.005 0.

Cholera Legionella Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 28 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

The EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply.National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste.5-8. Contaminant Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Corrosivity Fluoride Foaming Agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc Secondary Standard 0. However. or color) in drinking water.3 mg/L 0. odor. states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.5 mg/L 0.10 mg/L 250 mg/L 500 mg/L 5 mg/L Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 29 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .0 mg/L 0.5 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L 250 mg/L 15 (color units) 1.0 mg/L noncorrosive 2.05 mg/L 3 threshold odor number 6.

01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent) 8 The Surface Water Treatment Rule requires systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water. or other symptoms.9% killed/inactivated Viruses: 99. no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive).An enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. 7 Each water system must certify. there is no MCLG for this contaminant. 6 Lead and copper are regulated in a Treatment Technique which requires systems to take tap water samples at sites with lead pipes or copper pipes that have lead solder and/or are served by lead service lines. which triggers water systems into taking treatment steps if exceeded in more than 10% of tap water samples.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. 5 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems. and which allows for a proper margin of safety.The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 30 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .3 mg/L. and for lead is 0. as follows: • Acrylamide = 0. Legionella will also be controlled.99% killed/inactivated • Legionella: No limit.0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. • HPC: NO more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter. in writing. MCLGs are nonenforceable public health goals.The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels: • Giardia lamblia: 99.Notes 1 Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) . coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human animal wastes. Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms. Therefore. nausea. MCLs are enforceable standards. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month. but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are inactivated. The margins of safety in MCLGs ensure that exceeding the MCL slightly does not pose significant risk to public health. The action level. There cannot be any fecal coliforms. headaches.015mg/L. 10 Fecal coliform and E. cramps. 9 No more than 5. the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified. 2 Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) . for copper is 1. • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU). 4 Units are in milligrams per Liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. Microbes in these wastes can cause diarrhea.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent) • Epichlorohydrin = 0. systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0. 3 Treatment Technique .

Exposure Contact between a person and a chemical. or other exposure routes. Under section 1452 of the SDWA. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea. including surface water systems. vomiting. II." Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). person-to-person contact. but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people. . to enhance operations and management of drinking water systems.Safe Drinking Water Act Terms Community Water System (CWS). an MCL is defined as "the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system. and other exposure routes may cause giardiasis." MCLs are enforceable standards. Cryptosporidium A protozoan associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents of the area served by the system or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents. In the SDWA. the Administrator shall also promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection as a treatment technique for all public water systems. ground water systems. Contamination Source Inventory. and verifying accuracy and reliability of the information gathered. abdominal pain. source water protection. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 31 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The disease can be transmitted through ingestion of drinking water. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea. The process of identifying and inventorying contaminant sources within delineated source water protection areas through recording existing data. . Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Rule. describing sources within the source water protection area. A rule under development covering wells not included in Class I. and fever that last 1-2 weeks in healthy adults. and other activities to encourage public water system compliance and protection of public health. MCLGs are non-enforceable public health goals. and which allows for an adequate margin of safety. ". and as necessary. the statute reads. collecting and interpreting new information on existing or potential sources through surveys. fatigue. Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR). targeting likely sources for further investigation. III or IV in which nonhazardous fluids are injected into or above underground sources of drinking water. associated with the disease giardiasis. Under section 107 of the SDWA Amendments of 1996. the EPA awards capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance drinking water system infrastructure improvements. Giardia lamblia A protozoan. exposure from person-to-person contact. Exposures are calculated as the amount of chemical available for absorption by a person. Ingestion of this protozoan in contaminated drinking water. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health effect of persons would occur. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF). which can survive in water for 1 to 3 months. and cramps.

(NTU) A unit of measure used to describe the turbidity of water. Radiation can cause adverse health effects. set water quality standards for 8 VOCs and required all community and Non-Transient. generally used in expressions of water use. Organics Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. Per capita Per person. The SDWA was amended in 1986 and again in 1996. The Safe Drinking Water Act was first passed in 1974 and established the basic requirements under which the nation’s public water supplies were regulated. Point-of-Entry Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home where water pipes enter to provide additional treatment of drinking water used throughout the home. such as cancer.1. so limits are placed on radionuclide concentrations in drinking water.The Safe Drinking Water Act. they emit radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons. and 1. In order for there to be risk. which results from interferences in the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. Organic contaminants of concern to drinking water include chlorohydrocarbons. As radionuclides decay.1-dichloroethylene. Radionuclides Elements that undergo a process of natural decay. para-dichlorobenzene. This rule. 1. 1989. if necessary. or blue baby syndrome. Point-of-Use Water Treatment Refers to devices used in the home or office on a specific tap to provide additional drinking water treatment. Nitrates Inorganic compounds that can enter water supplies from fertilizer runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges. and has the authority to enforce the law and related regulations. Carbon Tetrachloride. and others. A public water system that is not a community water system. 1. pesticides. Phase I Contaminants The Phase I Rule became effective on January 9. Nitrates in drinking water are associated with methemoglobanemia. Risk The potential for harm to people exposed to chemicals.2-dichlorothane. vinyl chloride. also called the Volatile Organic Chemical Rule. trichloroethylene. SDWA . State has adopted rules at least as stringent as federal regulations and has been granted primary enforcement responsibility. or VOC Rule. gallons per capita per day (gpcd). The 8 VOCs regulated under this rule are: Benzene. Primacy State. Non-Community water systems to monitor for and. there must be hazard and there must be exposure.Nephelolometric Turbidity Units. There are two types of NCWSs: transient and non-transient. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting the national drinking water regulations while individual states are responsible for ensuring that public water systems under their jurisdiction are complying with the regulations. Non-Community Water System (NCWS). 2-trichlorethane. Turbidity is the cloudiness in water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 32 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . State that has the responsibility for ensuring a law is implemented. treat their supplies for these chemicals.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 33 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . with a clear understanding of where the significant potential sources of contamination are located. This analysis will assist the state in determining which potential sources of contamination are "significant. States must inventory sources of contamination to the extent they have the technology and resources to complete an inventory for a Source Water Protection Area delineated as described in the guidance. the EPA can instead specify a treatment technique. Non-Community Water Systems (T/NT. treatment. as part of the state SWAP approved by the EPA under section 1453 of the SDWA. churches. and that has the potential to release contaminants identified in a state program (contaminants with MCLs plus any others a state considers a health threat) within a source water protection area in an amount which could contribute significantly to the concentration of the contaminants in the source waters of the public water supply. Transient/Non-Transient. Source Water Protection Area (SWPA).NCWS). Transient non-community systems typically are restaurants. Sub watershed. An analysis to determine. factories. states. particularly previous Federal and state inventories of sources. etc. These systems typically are schools. Susceptibility Analysis. large stores. Water systems that are non-community systems: transient systems serve 25 non-resident persons per day for 6 months or less per year. A state management plan under FIFRA required by the EPA to allow states (e. offices.S. hotels." To the Extent Practical. A topographic boundary that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a tributary of a stream. Non-transient systems regularly serve at least 25 of the same non-resident persons per day for more than 6 months per year. viruses and Legionella. whether the source is ground water or surface water or both. The surface area above a sole source aquifer and its recharge area. Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). State Management Plan (SMP) Program. A facility or activity that stores. State Source Water Petition Program. and watershed protection criteria under which filtration may be avoided. The area delineated by the state for a PWS or including numerous PWSs.g. Sole Source Aquifer (SSA) Designation. Treatment Technique A specific treatment method required by the EPA to be used to control the level of a contaminant in drinking water. and promulgated filtration and disinfection requirements for public water systems using surface water sources or by ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water. The rule specifies maximum contaminant level goals for Giardia lamblia. etc. or produces chemicals or elements. In specific cases where EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish an MCL. A state program implemented in accordance with the statutory language at section 1454 of the SDWA to establish local voluntary incentive-based partnerships for SWP and remediation. A treatment technique is an enforceable procedure or level of technical performance which public water systems must follow to ensure control of a contaminant. the susceptibility of the public water systems in the source water protection area to contamination from these sources. uses. The regulations also specify water quality. tribes and U. territories) the flexibility to design and implement approaches to manage the use of certain pesticides to protect ground water.Significant Potential Source of Contamination. All information sources may be used.

S. A watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrologically-defined geographic areas. A topographic boundary area that is the perimeter of the catchment area of a stream. land and territories. Native American lands.Total Coliform Bacteria that are used as indicators of fecal contaminants in drinking water. taking into consideration both ground and surface water flow.The surface and subsurface area surrounding a well or well field. Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA). Watershed. from which overland flow drains to the intake. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 34 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Toxicity The property of a chemical to harm people who come into contact with it. and on all U. The program is designed to prevent underground injection which endangers drinking water sources. Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. A topographic area that is within a line drawn connecting the highest points uphill of a drinking water intake. The program applies to injection well owners and operators on Federal facilities. Watershed Area. supplying a PWS. through which contaminants are reasonably likely to move toward and reach such water well or well field. Watershed Approach.

Groundwater is withdrawn from wells to provide water for everything from drinking water for the home and business. Well with a mineral oil sealed vertical turbine pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 35 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Toxic material spilled or dumped near a well can leach into the aquifer and contaminate the groundwater drawn from that well. When water is pumped from the ground. the dynamics of groundwater flow change in response to this withdrawal. In some places. Wells can be tested to see what chemicals may be present in dangerous quantities. Groundwater flows slowly through water-bearing formations (aquifers) at different rates. Contaminated wells used for drinking water are especially dangerous. to water to irrigate crops to industrial processing water. its rate of flow can be relatively fast but this is exceptional.Groundwater and Wells A well can be easily contaminated if it is not properly constructed or if toxic materials are released into the well. where groundwater has dissolved limestone to form caverns and large openings.

rivers. lie beneath layers of impermeable materials. The level below which all the spaces are filled with water is called the water table. it does not always mirror the flow of water on the surface. Limestone terrain where solution has been very active is termed karst. The piezometric surface is the level to which the water in an artesian aquifer will rise. Limestones are often fractured aquifers. or sometimes artesian aquifers. however. joints or fractures in otherwise solid rock. Groundwater usually flows downhill with the slope of the water table. but here the cracks and fractures may be enlarged by solution. if it contains cracks it can still act as a fractured aquifer. Therefore. Fractured aquifers are rocks in which the groundwater moves through cracks. These are called confined aquifers. has many spaces between its grains.Many terms are used to describe the nature and extent of the groundwater resource. Water in this zone is called soil moisture. however. If the water level rises above the ground surface a flowing artesian well occurs. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 36 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Like surface water. In this case. Here the spaces in the rock and soil contain both air and water. Unconfined aquifers are those that are bounded by the water table. Some very porous materials are not permeable. but the spaces are not large enough to permit free movement of water. Some aquifers. Examples of fractured aquifers include granite and basalt. The water in these wells. The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone. for instance. and water in this saturated zone is called groundwater. groundwater flows toward. the rock is no longer a porous medium. groundwater may move in different directions below the ground than the water flowing on the surface. However. Clay. forming large channels or even caverns. Most of the aquifers of importance to us are unconsolidated porous media such as sand and gravel. lakes and the oceans. A well in such an aquifer is called an artesian well. rises higher than the top of the aquifer because of confining pressure. and eventually drains into streams. Groundwater flow in the aquifers underlying surface drainage basins. Above the water table lies the unsaturated zone. Porous media such as sandstone may become so highly cemented or recrystalized that all of the original space is filled.

Water Sources Before we discuss the types of treatment it is easier to first understand how the source of water arrives. Runoff: Water that drains from a saturated or impermeable surface into stream channels or other surface water areas. Precipitation: The process by which atmospheric moisture falls on to the land or water surface as rain. Condensation: The collection of the evaporated water in the atmosphere. 3. Evaporation: The process by which the water or other liquids become a gas. we must treat the water for human consumption. hail or other forms of moisture. 5. organic compounds. and inorganic compounds. 6. 2. Because of this. snow. Transpiration: Moisture that will come from plants as a byproduct of photosynthesis. 4. Once the precipitation begins water is no longer in its purest form. Infiltration: The gradual flow or movement of water into and through the pores of the soil. Water Cycle Terms 1. Most lakes and rivers are formed this way. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 37 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Water will be collected as surface supplies or circulate to form in the ground. As it becomes rain or snow it may be polluted with organisms.

they come from farm animals. and reservoirs. people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. As with surface water. wild animals and people. but the entire watershed. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. In either case. The water will also contain a relatively low level of bacteria which is not generally a risk to health Insecticides and herbicides (sometimes referred to as pesticides) Are widely used in agriculture. The pipework (including the service pipe) within the boundary of the property is the responsibility of the owner of the property. manganese. sulphates and bicarbonates. chlorides. copper. it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see. Aluminium Aluminium salts are added during water treatment to remove color and suspended solids. Temporary hardness comes out of the water when it's heated and is deposited as scale and fur on kettles. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river. industry. Cysts These are associated with the reproductive stages of parasitic micro-organisms (protozoans) which can cause acute diarrhea type illnesses. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 38 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Lead Lead does not usually occur naturally in water supplies but is derived from lead distribution and domestic pipework and fittings. magnesium and sodium. Your water will normally contain chlorine and varying amounts of dissolved minerals including calcium.Where Does Drinking Water Come From? A clean. These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide. depending on its source. it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water. Cysts are rarely present in the public water supply. Water Hardness There are two types of hardness: temporary and permanent. many older properties still have lead service pipes and internal lead pipework. leisure facilities and gardens to control weeds and insect pests and may enter the water cycle in many ways. Although water suppliers have removed most of the original lead piping from the mains distribution system. not the water supplier. insecticides and herbicides although the maximum amounts of all these substances are strictly limited by the regulations. nitrates. aluminium. drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. such as lakes. They are very resistant to normal disinfection processes but can be removed by advanced filtration processes installed in water treatment works. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources. or may span the borders of many states. These are usually referred to as 'contaminants'. constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. or reservoir. Permanent hardness is unaffected by heating. In rural areas. Other times. coffee makers and taps and appears as a scum or film on tea and coffee. Most of these substances are of natural origin and are picked up as water passes round the water cycle. rivers. Some are present due to the treatment processes which are used make the water suitable for drinking and cooking. lake. when you think about where your drinking water comes from. It is also not uncommon to find traces of iron. Your annual drinking water quality report will tell you where your water supplier gets your water. Particles and rust These come from the gradual breakdown of the lining of concrete or iron mains water pipes or from sediment which has accumulated over the years and is disturbed in some way.

industry or agriculture. etc. at the surface or below it. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 39 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .. etc. Importantly. such as septic systems.).g. arsenic. increasing the tendency for water to move towards the well. dry cleaners. metals. Consequently. fractures or pore spaces between grains) in sediments and rocks below the surface. fuels. but it is not readily accessible or extractable everywhere. will help to minimize damage to subsurface water supplies by spills or improper use of chemicals. beauty shops. D) Create a management plan for the protection zone. The theory is that management of land use around the well. it lowers the water table in the immediate vicinity of the well. gas stations. Some of this water percolates down to the water table (shallowest surface of the groundwater) and recharges the aquifer. a contaminant may enter the aquifer some distance upgradient from you and still move towards your well. E) Plan for the future. by managing the land uses around the wellfield. for example less than 50-75 feet. stormwater runoff. Although it is common practice to associate contamination with highly visible features such as landfills. the recharge area is often the immediate vicinity around the well or "wellhead.Source Water Quality Groundwater Groundwater contributes most of all of the water that is derived from wells or springs." Some wells are recharged in areas that may be a great distance from the well itself. Groundwater moves from areas where the water table is high to where the water table is low. viruses. B) Delineate geologically the protection zone. C) Perform a contaminant use inventory. Groundwater is distributed fairly evenly throughout the crust of the earth. Wellhead Protection Sequence A) Build a community-wide planning team. pesticides.). If the downward percolating precipitation encounters any source of contamination. Contaminants can be conveniently lumped into three categories: microorganisms (bacteria. For shallow wells. Giardia. The concept usually includes several stages. the water may dissolve some of that contaminant and carry it to the aquifer. More than 90 percent of the world's total supply of drinkable water is groundwater. etc. Wellhead Protection Wellhead protection refers to programs designed to maintain the quality of groundwater used as public drinking water sources. It occurs in the natural open spaces (e.) and organic chemicals (solvents. one gallon of pure trichloroethylene. auto repair shops. pesticides applied to highway right-of-ways. Groundwater originates as precipitation that sinks into the ground. When a well is pumping. a common solvent. medical institutions. potential contaminants are widespread and often come from common everyday activities as well. For example. and over water moving (underground) toward the well. photo processing labs. lawn and garden chemicals. it takes only a very small amount of some chemicals in drinking water to raise health concerns. etc. will contaminate approximately 292 million gallons of water. inorganic chemicals (nitrate.

Water is known as the universal solvent because most substances that come in contact with it will dissolve. and carbon dioxide will change because of biological activities. temperature. The discharge from industry could increase volatile organic compounds. and human and animal refuse. Surface water is usually contaminated and unsafe to drink. What’s the difference between lakes and reservoirs? Reservoirs are lakes with man-made dams. decayed vegetation. turbidity. algae. Chemical characteristics are the elements found that are considered alkali. Prescriptive: Rights based upon legal prescription or long use or custom. odor. Changes in the dissolved oxygen. The consumer relates it to scaling of faucets or staining. Radiological characteristics are the result of water coming in contact with radioactive materials. Depending on the region. Riparian: Water rights because property is adjacent to a river or surface water. temperature. Surface Water Some of the rainwater will be immediately impounded in lakes and reservoirs. sulfides or acids. metals. The consumer will become sick or complain about hydrogen sulfide odors.Water Rights Appropriative: Acquired water rights for exclusive use. this is how the consumer judges how well the provider is treating the water. suspended solids. the rotten egg smell. and turbidity. Quality of Water Here are the different classifications or the way water characteristics change as it passes on the surface and below the ground it would be in four categories: Physical characteristics such as taste. Some lakes and reservoirs may experience seasonal turnover. and non metals such as fluoride. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 40 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Runoff could produce mud. some lakes and rivers receive discharge from sewer facilities or defective septic tanks. This could be associated with atomic energy. and some will collect as runoff to form streams and rivers that will then flow into the ocean. This will also interact with the chemical composition of the water. Biological characteristics are the presence of living or dead organisms. leaves.

and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. and toxicity. The lack of dissolved oxygen in water is known as anaerobic conditions. operators have used Potassium Permanganate. Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. Another aspect of quality control is aquatic plants. Depending on the pH(Power of Hydrogen) and alkalinity of the water will determine how these chemicals will react. The type of algae determines the problem it will cause for instance slime. the algae would consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. color. source water may have several restrictions of use as part of a Water Shed Management Plan. Algae growth is the result of photosynthesis. Too much algae will imbalance the lake and this will result to fish kill. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 41 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . as algae absorb this energy it converts carbon dioxide to oxygen. Most treatment plant upsets such as taste and odor. or central nervous systems. Algae can be controlled by using chemicals such as copper sulfate. or industrial and wastewater discharge. and filter clogging is due to algae. Most systems no longer use Chlorine because it reacts with the organics in the water to form Trihalomethanes.Managing Water Quality at the Source Depending on the region. color. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. In some areas it may be restricted from recreational use. Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC or GAC) and Chlorine. corrosion. With out sun light. Certain vegetation removes the excess nutrients that would promote the growth of algae. The ecological balance in lakes and reservoirs plays a natural part in the purification and sustaining the life of the lake. Total Trihalomethanes. This creates aerobic conditions that supply fish with oxygen. discharge or runoff from agriculture. Depending on federal regulations and the amount of copper found natural in water. For example algae and rooted aquatic plants are essential in the food chain of fish and birds. Algae growth is supplied by the energy of the sun. kidneys.

medical lore of India advised. radium. configuration of the existing system. and taste. or it may be purified by filtration through sand and coarse gravel and then allowed to cool. operating requirements and future needs of the service area. microbiological contaminants (Giardia.” The treatment needs of a water system are likely to differ depending on whether the system uses a groundwater or surface water source. people have treated water intended for drinking to remove particles of solid matter. characteristics of the raw water. odor. These include regulatory requirements.C. As early as 2000 B. Groundwater contaminants include naturally occurring inorganic chemicals (such as arsenic. Common surface water contaminants include turbidity. or being heated in the sun or by dipping a heated iron into it.. reduce health risks. color. viruses and bacteria) and low levels of a large number of organic chemicals. When selecting among the different treatment options. cost. radon and nitrate) and a number of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that have recently been detected in localized areas.Water Treatment For thousands of years. Large surface water impound Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 42 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . “Impure water should be purified by being boiled over a fire. fluoride. the water supplier must consider a number of factors. and improve aesthetic qualities such as appearance.

and trash. sand and rocks. sticks. tree limbs. this will cause problems to the treatment plants pumps and equipment. leaves. weeds. The best way to protect the plant is screening.Preliminary Treatment Most lakes and reservoirs are not free of logs. Mechanical bar screen Non-automated bar screen 43 . The spacing of the horizontal bars will rank the size. If not removed. Both require manual cleaning. Mechanical bar screens very in size and use some type of raking mechanism that travels horizontally down the bars to scrap the debris off. gravel. Bar screens are made of straight steel bars at the intake of the plant. The type of screening used depends on the raw water and the size of intake. Wire mesh screens are woven stainless steel material and the opening of the fabric is narrow.

sand and grit are still present. Most designs will have baffles to prevent short-circuiting and scum from entering the effluent. The most common is a chain and flight collector.Pre-Sedimentation Once the water passes the bar screens. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 44 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Sedimentation basins are also used after the flocculation process. This is generally done with clarifiers shaped in either rectangular or round shapes. It could have a screw conveyor or traveling bridge used to collect the sludge. Clarifiers Let’s first look at the components of a rectangular clarifier. This will damage plant equipment and pipes. Most are designed with scrapers on the bottom to move the settled sludge to one or more hoppers at the influent end of the tank.

They move the settled sludge to the hopper in the clarifier for return and they also remove the scum from the surface of the clarifier. The shoes are usually metal and travel across a metal track. The shear pin holds the gear solidly on the shaft so that no slippage occurs. Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 45 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the “flights and chains”. The shafts can be located overhead or below. Some clarifiers may not have scum removal equipment so the configuration of the shaft may very. As the flights travel across the bottom of the clarifier. The drive chain turns the drive sprockets and the head shafts. This means that the gear would simply slide around the shaft and movement of the drive chain would stop. If a heavy load is put on the sludge collector system then the shear pin should break. Remember that the gear moves the drive chain.Flights and Chains The most important thing to consider is the sludge and scum collection mechanism. The flights are usually wood or nonmetallic flights mounted on parallel chains. The motor shaft is connected through a gear reducer to a shaft which turns the drive chain. a shear pin is used. wearing shoes are used to protect the flights. To prevent damage do to overloads.

Rectangular basin flights and chains Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 46 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

the sludge collector mechanism.Clarifiers In some circular or square tanks rotating scrapers are used. The major mechanic parts of the clarifier are the drive unit. Scrapers The most common type has a center pier or column. and the scum removal system. The diagram below shows a typical circular clarifier. Circular clarifier and collector mechanism Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 47 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Backwashing filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 48 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Suspended particles carry an electrical charge which causes them to repel one another. not in just the top few inches. That allows suspended particles to clump together to form more easily filtered particles. A depth filter has four layers of filtration media. Larger suspended particles are removed by the upper layers while smaller particles are removed in the lower layers.within the filter. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 49 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Light. Operating beyond this pressure drop increases the chance of fouling . Traditional treatments rely on expensive. Traditional filter systems use graded silica sand filter media. The reconditioning cycle consists of an up flow backwash followed by a down flow rinse. Backwash is an up flow operation. at about 14 gpm per square foot (34m/hr) of filter bed area that lasts about 10 minutes. The media become progressively finer and denser in the lower layers.called "mud-balling" . Particles are trapped throughout the bed. Conventional technology uses a 30 to 50 mg/L alum dosage to form a large floc that requires extensive retention time to permit settling. construction-intensive processes with lengthy times. That allows a depth filter to run substantially longer and use less backwash water than a traditional sand filter. the pressure drop through the filter increases. larger grains lay toward the bottom of the filter bed and finer grains lay at the top of the filter bed. Since the sand grains all have about the same density.10 psi (34 to 68 kPa) from the beginning of the cycle. When the pressure difference between filter inlet and outlet increases by 5 . the filter should be reconditioned. each of different size and density. coarse material lies at the top of the filter bed. The conventional process uses alum (aluminum sulfate) and cationic polymer to neutralize the charge. Turbidity washes out of the filter bed as the filter media particles scour one another. Alum combines with alkalinity in the raw water to form a white precipitate that neutralizes suspended particles' electrical charge and forms a base for coagulating those particles. Fast rinse lasts about 5 to 10 minutes. As a result.Conventional Treatment Improving the clarity of surface water has always presented a challenge because source quality varies. filtration occurs only within the first few inches of the finer grains at the top of the bed. The down flow rinse settles the bed before the filter returns to service. As suspended particles accumulate in a filter bed.

Feeding chemicals such as alum (aluminum sulfate). mounted on skids. allowing the particles to cling to one another and to the filter media. but without the construction costs and space requirements associated with separately constructed sedimentation basins. filter beds. Small water treatment package plant Coagulation. These are appropriate for small community systems where full water treatment is desired. Suspended particles are usually electrically charged. clear wells. Flocculation and Filtration all with in a 20 foot area Package Plants Representing a slight modification of conventional filtration technology. by 90% compared with filtration alone. etc. ferric chloride. and transported virtually assembled to the operation site. package plants are usually built in a factory. filtered water clarity improvements in the range of 93 to 95% are achievable.Chemical pretreatment is often used to enhance filter performance. Chemical pretreatment may increase filtered water clarity. or a cationic polymer neutralizes the charge. particularly when turbidity includes fine colloidal particles. In addition to the conventional filtration processes. package plants are found as two types: tubetype clarifiers and adsorption clarifiers. If an operator is present to make adjustments for variations in the raw water. measured in NTU. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 50 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

and in the process. which allows the particles to come together. form a larger particle. Large microorganisms including algae and amoebic cysts are readily removed by coagulation and filtration. the fine particles must be coagulated. This is achieved through the use of coagulant chemicals. More than 98% of poliovirus type 1 was removed by conventional coagulation and filtration. and they stay suspended in water. Hence. their charge per volume is significant.86% solution. But since colloidal particles are so small. Which chemical is used depends on the application. as follows: Coagulation At the Water Treatment Plant. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate is a 48. or "stuck together" to form larger particles which can be filtered. Therefore. aluminum sulfate. Coagulant chemicals such as "alum" (aluminum sulphate) work by neutralizing the negative charge. Aluminum Sulfate is the most widely used coagulant in water treatment.Rapid Sand Filtration Also known as rapid-sand filtration. this is the most prevalent form of water treatment technology in use today. Other coagulants are called "cationic polymers". Coagulation is the process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. the like charges on the particles repel each other. This filtration process employs a combination of physical and chemical processes in order to achieve maximum effectiveness. The alum and the water are mixed rapidly by the flash mixer. removal of these particulates by conventional coagulation and filtration is a major component of effective treatment for the removal of pathogens. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 51 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Several recent studies have shown that bacteria and viral agents are attached to organic and inorganic particulates. and will usually be chosen by the engineer designing the water treatment system. which follows the rapid mixing. As well. agglomerate (stick together). the chemically treated water is sent into a basin where the suspended particles can collide. Coagulant chemicals are required since colloidal particles by themselves have tendency to stay suspended in water and not settle out. Bacterial removals of 99% are also achievable. commonly called alum. Flocculation The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses which can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. When solid matter is too small to be removed by a depth filter. Gentle agitation of the water and appropriate detention times (the length of time water remains in the basin) help facilitate this process. which can be thought of as positively charged strings that attract the particles to them. The resulting larger particles will be removed by filtration. In this process. new chemicals have been developed which combine the properties of alum-type coagulants and cationic polymers. This is primarily due to a negative charge on the surface of the particles. is added to the water in the "flash mix" to cause microscopic impurities in the water to clump together. Aluminum Sulfate is also excellent for removing nutrients such as phosphorous in wastewater treatment. All matter has a residual surface charge to a certain degree. and form heavier particles called “floc”. Coagulation is necessary to meet the current regulations for almost all potable water plants using surface water.

silica sand. taste and color. Sludge Zone D." As these floc particles mix in the water. paper. gravity holds the material in place and the flow is downwards. Filters are available in several ratings depending on the size of particles to be removed. screens of various materials. Following flocculation. Provides an equalization basin which evens out fluctuations in concentrations of suspended solids. The filter is periodically cleaned by a reversal of flow and the discharge of back flushed water into a drain. some plants have pre-sedimentation. but would not be recommended for that purpose only. including flocculated particles. Once settled. the particles combine to form a sludge that is later removed from the bottom of the basin. Inlet Zone B. dissolved organics. In these units. odor. The floc particles are removed in these filters. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 52 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Sedimentation Basin Zones A. the velocity of the water is decreased so that the suspended material. Rectangular Basins B. described earlier. bacteria and other microorganisms are caught in the floc structure. Pre-Sedimentation Depending on the quality of the source water. During sedimentation. Outlet Zone Shapes for a Sedimentation Basin A. Activated carbon filters. A. Filtration A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. or plastic material are also common and are often much smaller and cheaper and are disposable. B. Double deck Basins Sedimentation The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. granular synthetic material. and fabrics. To allow larger particles time to settle in a reservoir or lake (sand. Circular Basins C. can settle out by gravity. Cartridge filters made of fabric. Filters for suspended particle removal can also be made of graded sand.The water is slowly mixed in contact chambers allowing the coagulated particles to become larger and stronger and is now called "floc. a sedimentation step may be used. heavy silt) reducing solid removal loads. will also remove turbidity. The water flows by gravity through large filters of anthracite coal. Square Basins D. The rate of filtration can be adjusted to meet water consumption needs. Settling Zone C. The most widely used are rapid-sand filters in tanks. garnet and gravel.

With most of the larger particles settled out, the water now goes to the filtration process. At a rate of between 2 and 10 gpm per square foot, the water is filtered through an approximate 36" bed of graded sand. Anthracite coal or activated carbon may also be included in the sand to improve the filtration process, especially for the removal of organic contaminants, taste, and odor problems. The filtration process removes the following types of particles Silts and clay Colloids Biological forms Floc Four desirable characteristics of filter media A. Good hydraulic characteristics (permeable) B. Does not react with substances in the water (inert and easy to clean) C. Hard and durable D. Free of impurities and is insoluble in water Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis, at least once per day. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. The more uniform the media, the slower head loss buildup. All the water treatment plants that use surface water are governed by the U.S. EPA’s Surface Water Treatment Rules or SWTR. Direct Filtration Plant vs. Conventional Plant The only difference is that the sedimentation process or step is omitted from the Direct Filtration plant. Declining Rate Filters The flow rate will vary with head loss. Each filter operates at the same rate, but can have a variable water level. This system requires an effluent control structure (weir) to provide adequate media submergence. Detention Time Is the actual time required for a small amount of water to pass through a sedimentation basin at a given rate of flow, or the calculated time required for a small amount of liquid to pass through a tank at a given rate of flow. Detention Time = (Basin Volume, Gallons) (24 Hours/day) Flow, Gallons/day Disinfection Chlorine is added to the water at the flash mix for pre-disinfection. The chlorine kills or inactivates harmful microorganisms. Chlorine is added again after filtration for post-disinfection.

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Jar Testing (More information later in manual)
Jar testing traditionally has been done on a routine basis in most water treatment plants to control the coagulant dose. Much more information, however, can be obtained with only a small modification in the conventional method of jar testing. It is the quickest and most economical way to obtain good reliable data on the many variables which affect the treatment process. These include: 1. Determination of most effective coagulant. 2. Determination of optimum coagulation pH for the various coagulants. 3. Evaluation of most effective polymers. 4. Optimum point of application of polymers in treatment train. 5. Optimum sequence of application of coagulants, polymers and pH adjustment chemicals. 6. Best flocculation time. pH Expression of a basic or acid condition of a liquid. The range is from 0-14, zero being the most acid and 14 being the most alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Most natural water has a pH between 6.0 and 8.5. Caustic (NaOH) also called Sodium Hydroxide is a strong chemical used in the treatment process to neutralize acidity, increase alkalinity or raise the pH value. Polymer A type of chemical when combined with other types of coagulants aid in binding small suspended particles to larger particles to help in the settling and filtering processes. Post Chlorine Where the water is chlorinated to make sure to hold a residual in the distribution system. Pre Chlorine Where the raw water is dosed with a large concentration of chlorine. Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine before the filtration process will help: A. Control algae and slime growth B. Control mud ball formation C. Improve coagulation D. Precipate iron Raw Turbidity The turbidity of the water coming to the treatment plant from the raw water source. Settled Solids Solids that have been removed from the raw water by the coagulation and settling processes. Hydrofluosilicic Acid (H2SiF6) a clear, fuming corrosive liquid with a pH ranging from 1 to 1.5. Used in water treatment to fluoridate drinking water.

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Corrosion Control The pH of the water is adjusted with sodium carbonate, commonly called soda ash. Soda ash is fed into the water after filtration. Zinc Orthophosphate A chemical used to coat the pipes in the distribution system to inhibit corrosion. Taste and Odor Control Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is occasionally added for taste and odor control. PAC is added to the flash mix. Water Quality Water testing is conducted throughout the treatment process. Items like turbidity, pH and chlorine residual are monitored and recorded continuously. Some items are tested several times per day, some once per quarter and others once per year. Sampling Collect the water sample at least 6 inches under the surface by plunging the container mouth down into the water and turning the mouth towards the current by dragging the container slowly horizontal. Care should be taken not to disturb the bottom of the water source or along the sides so as not to stir up any settled solids. This would create erroneous errors. Chemical Feed and Rapid Mix Chemicals are added to the water in order to improve the subsequent treatment processes. These may include pH adjusters and coagulants. Coagulants are chemicals, such as alum, that neutralize positive or negative charges on small particles, allowing them to stick together and form larger particles that are more easily removed by sedimentation (settling) or filtration. A variety of devices, such as baffles, static mixers, impellers, and in-line sprays can be used to mix the water and distribute the chemicals evenly. Short Circuiting Short Circuiting is a condition that occurs in tanks or basins when some of the water travels faster than the rest of the flowing water. This is usually undesirable since it may result in shorter contact, reaction, or settling times in comparison with the presumed detention times. Tube Settlers This modification of the conventional process contains many metal “tubes” that are placed in the sedimentation basin, or clarifier. These tubes are approximately 1 inch deep and 36 inches long, split-hexagonal shape, and installed at an angle or 60 degrees or less. These tubes provide for a very large surface area upon which particles may settle as the water flows upwards. The slope of the tubes facilitates gravity settling of the solids to the bottom of the basin, where they can be collected and removed. The large surface settling area also means that adequate clarification can be obtained with detention times of 15 minutes or less. As with conventional treatment, this sedimentation step is followed by filtration through mixed media.

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Adsorption Clarifiers: The concept of the adsorption clarifier package plant was developed in the early 1980’s. This technology uses an up flow clarifier with low-density plastic bead media, usually held in place by a screen. This adsorption media is designed to enhance the sedimentation/ clarification process by combining flocculation and sedimentation into one step. In this step, turbidity is reduced by adsorption of the coagulated and flocculated solids onto the adsorption media and onto the solids already adsorbed onto the media. Air scouring cleans adsorption clarifiers followed by water flushing. Cleaning of this type of clarifier is initiated more often than filter backwashing because the clarifier removes more solids. As with the tube-settler type of package plant, the sedimentation/ clarification process is followed by mixed-media filtration and disinfection to complete the water treatment. Clearwell: The final step in the conventional filtration process, the clear well provides temporary storage for the treated water. The two main purposes for this storage are to have filtered water available for backwashing the filter, and to provide detention time (or contact time) for the chlorine (or other disinfectant) to kill any microorganisms that may remain in the water.

Public education is key to a water treatment facility’s image. This is a difficult balance with new security rules that are in place since 9/11.

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2000 ((1412(b)(14)). The 1996 Amendments also require the EPA to promulgate a Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (for systems serving less than 10. Disease symptoms may include diarrhea. This rule will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water.000 people annually. 2000 ((1412(b)(2)(C)) and also required the EPA to “promulgate a regulation to govern the recycling of filter backwash water within the treatment process of a public water system” by August. This rule proposes to extend protections against Cryptosporidium and other disease-causing microbes to the 11.000 people each. disease outbreaks may result. Treatment technologies such as filtration and disinfection can remove or inactivate microbiological contaminants. More than 4.S. nausea.EPA Filter Backwash Rule The U. and at least 50 deaths were attributed to the cryptosporidiosis outbreak. and fall into the three following categories: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 57 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The EPA has set enforceable drinking water treatment requirements to reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreaks.000 people. Physical removal is critical to the control of Cryptosporidium because it is highly resistant to standard disinfection practice. This rule also establishes filter backwash requirements for certain public water systems of all sizes. The LT1FBR proposal builds on those standards by extending the requirements to small systems. The IESWTR set the first drinking water standards to control Cryptosporidium in large water systems. cramps.000 were hospitalized. If finished water supplies contain microbiological contaminants. and headaches and fatigue.000 people) by November. Background The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires the EPA to set enforceable standards to protect public health from contaminants which may occur in drinking water. The current proposed rule includes provisions addressing both of these requirements. Cryptosporidiosis may manifest itself as a severe infection that can last several weeks and may cause the death of individuals with compromised immune systems. Cryptosporidium caused over 400. The filter backwash requirements will reduce the potential risks associated with recycling contaminants removed during the filtration process.500 small water systems which serve fewer than 10. In 1993. The EPA has determined that the presence of microbiological contaminants is a health concern. LT1 Provisions . by establishing filtration and monitoring requirements for systems serving more than 10. possibly jaundice.000 people in Milwaukee to experience intestinal illness.Apply to systems serving fewer than 10. The 1996 Amendments to SDWA require The EPA to promulgate an Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a Stage 1 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (announced in December 1998). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized the Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and Filter Backwash Rule (LT1FBR) to increase protection of finished drinking water supplies from contamination by Cryptosporidium and other microbial pathogens. What will the LT1FBR require? The LT1FBR provisions will apply to public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water systems.

which may require that modifications to recycle practice be made. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 58 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . • If a system considers making a significant change to their disinfection practice they must develop a disinfection benchmark and receive State approval for implementing the change. and • Unfiltered systems must comply with updated watershed control requirements that add Cryptosporidium as a pathogen of concern. • Direct filtration systems recycling to the treatment process must provide detailed recycle treatment information to the State. • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with individual filter turbidity requirements. and recycle spent filter backwash water. employ 20 or fewer filters to meet production requirements during a selected month. gauges and pumps. Disinfection Benchmarking • Public water systems will be required to develop a disinfection profile unless they perform applicability monitoring which demonstrates their disinfection byproduct levels are less than 80% of the maximum contaminant levels. be made to protect public health. • Conventional systems that practice direct recycle.Apply to all systems which recycle regardless of population served: • Recycle systems will be required to return spent filter backwash water. and. thickener supernatant. Other Requirements • Finished water reservoirs for which construction begins after the effective date of the rule must be covered. Under the filtration basins are tunnels and complex machinery. FBR Provisions . thickener supernatant. one-time recycle self assessment. and liquids from dewatering process prior to the point of primary coagulant addition unless the State specifies an alternative location. which may require modifications to recycle practice. The self assessment requires hydraulic flow monitoring and that certain data be reported to the State. and/or liquids from dewatering process within the treatment process must perform a one month.Turbidity • Conventional and direct filtration systems must comply with specific combined filter effluent turbidity requirements.

Volvox).g.Protoctista are pretty much all microscopic organisms. Pond scum. Fucus). as is the green film found on the bark of trees.000 species) and various Plankton Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 59 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able. Blue-green algae have been grouped with other prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera and renamed cyanobacteria.Types of Algae The simplest algae are single cells (e. With the exception of the larger Algae -. or in a branching thallus form (e. The cells of the colonies are generally similar. the largest algae..seaweeds and kelp -. the diatoms). The more complex brown algae and red algae are chiefly saltwater forms. Green Algae (Gamophyta & Chlorophyta) 7000 species Red Algae (Rhodophyta) 4000 species such as this Coralline Alga (Calliarthron tuberculosum) Other species include Diatoms (Bacillariophyta. The green algae include most of the freshwater forms.g. under certain conditions.g. a green slime found in stagnant water. but some are differentiated for reproduction and for other functions. the more complex forms consist of many cells grouped in a spherical colony (e.. 10.. to ingest food in an animal like manner. accumulation of floating green algae on the surface of stagnant or slowly moving waters.. Kelps. such as ponds and reservoirs. The pond scum. One of the commonest forms is Spirogyra. in a ribbonlike filament (e. is a green alga.g. may attain a length of more than 200 ft (61 m). Spirogyra). the green color of the chlorophyll is masked by the presence of other pigments.

Diatoms look like two shells that fit together. Dinoflagellates have a flagella and can swim in open waters. they are bacteria. They are easy to spot because of their red eye. Its cells lack nuclei and its pigment is scattered. too. They are microscopic and single celled Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 60 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Green algae are the most common algae in ponds and can be multicellular.Major Algae Groups Blue-green algae are the slimy stuff. Green algae cells have nuclei and the pigment is distinct. They are microscopic and single celled. Blue-green algae are not actually algae. Euglenoids are microscopic and single celled. Euglenoids are green or brown and swim with their flagellum.

route. generally a few days to two weeks. It is interesting to note the majority of foodborne diseases occur in the home. For another person to become infected. They can cause illness through exposure to small quantities of contaminated water or food or from direct contact with infected people or animals. The foodborne route is one of the more common methods. Most pathogens are generally associated with diseases that cause intestinal illness and affect people in a relatively short amount of time. viruses and protozoan that cause disease are known as pathogens. failing septic systems. or feces-to-mouth. Waterborne pathogens are different from other types of pathogens such as the viruses that cause influenza (the flu) or the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. The water may not appear to be contaminated because feces has been broken up. How Diseases are Transmitted Cryptosporidium Pathogens that may cause waterborne outbreaks through drinking water have one thing in common: they are spread by the fecal-oral. then put their fingers in a friend’s mouth or Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 61 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . containing pathogens. viruses and protozoa in their stool. Pathogens may get into water and spread when infected humans or animals pass the bacteria. other methods exist for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route. Human or animal wastes in watersheds. These particles. failing sewage treatment plants or cross-connections of water lines with sewage lines provide the potential for contaminating water with pathogens. Influenza virus and tuberculosis bacteria are spread by secretions that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person. Only proper treatment will ensure eliminating the spread of disease. he or she must take that pathogen in through the mouth. infected children in diapers may get feces on their fingers. The individual who eats fecescontaminated food may become infected and ill. may remain in the water and be passed to humans or animals unless adequately treated. Day care centers are another common source for spreading pathogens by the fecal-oral route.Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria. In addition to water. dispersed and diluted into microscopic particles. not restaurants. Here. A frequent source is a food handler who does not wash his hands after a bowel movement and then handles food with “unclean” hands.

nausea and vomiting. Some pathogens will survive for only a short time in water. Coli Bacteria Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 62 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This depends on the temperature of the water and the length of time the pathogens are in the water. The pathogens must survive in the water. Symptoms begin three to five days after exposure. the transmission of disease will be prevented. are other bacterial diseases that can be transmitted through water. The general public and some of the medical community usually refer to diarrhea symptoms as “stomach flu.handle toys that other children put into their mouths. yet is accepted by the general public. These organisms are also an important cause of “travelers’ diarrhea. The illness is frequently over within two to five days and usually lasts no more than 10 days. Chain of Transmission Water is contaminated with feces. A susceptible person must drink the water that contains the pathogen. such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium. viruses or protozoa). So the next time you get the stomach flu. All bacteria in water are readily killed or inactivated with chlorine or other disinfectants. Bacterial Diseases Campylobacteriosis is the most common diarrhea illness caused by bacteria. no disease will result. This contamination may be of human or animal origin. Yersiniosis. By breaking the chain at any point. influenza is an upper respiratory illness and rarely has diarrhea associated with it. especially chicken and unpasteurized milk as well as unchlorinated water. others.” Medical treatment generally is not prescribed for campylobacteriosis because recovery is usually rapid. fever. Other symptoms include abdominal pain. Illness (disease) will occur. Shigellosis. The water is either not treated or inadequately treated for the pathogens present. E. malaise.” Technically. therefore. Legionellosis. The feces must contain pathogens (disease-causing bacteria. Cholera. If the human or animal source is not infected with a pathogen. The pathogens in the water must enter the water system’s intake and in numbers sufficient to infect people. Salmonellosis. may survive for months. stomach flu is a misleading description for foodborne or waterborne illnesses. you may want to think twice about what you’ve digested within the past few days. Campylobacteriosis outbreaks have most often been associated with food. This chain lists the events that must occur for the transmission of disease via drinking water.

malaise. The incubation period is 15-50 days and averages 28-30 days.Viral-Caused Diseases Hepatitis A is an example of a common viral disease that may be transmitted through water. and raw or undercooked mollusks harvested from contaminated waters. including sandwiches and salads that are not cooked or are handled after cooking. food contaminated by infected food handlers. Norwalk Agent Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 63 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . to a severely disabling disease lasting several months (rare). The onset is usually abrupt with fever. followed within a few days by jaundice. Aseptic meningitis. The disease varies in severity from a mild illness lasting one to two weeks. Most viruses in drinking water can be inactivated by chlorine or other disinfectants. loss of appetite. Hepatitis A outbreaks have been related to fecally contaminated water. polio and viral gastroenteritis (Norwalk agent) are other viral diseases that can be transmitted through water. nausea and abdominal discomfort.

fatigue and weight loss. The incubation period is 5-25 days or longer. and end in fewer than 30 days in most cases. Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis is an example of a protozoan disease that is common worldwide but was only recently recognized as causing human disease. Giardia lamblia. Many infections are asymptomatic (no symptoms). bloating. The incubation period is 1-12 days. Effective filtration treatment is therefore critical to removing these organisms from water sources. nausea and vomiting occur less often. Drugs are available for treatment but these are not 100% effective. General malaise. fever.” The cyst can survive in the environment for long periods of time and be extremely resistant to conventional disinfectants such as chlorine. The major symptom in humans is diarrhea. It has also been referred to as “backpacker’s disease” and “beaver fever” because of the many cases reported among hikers and others who consume untreated surface water. with a protective cell wall. frequent loose and pale greasy stools. with an average of 7-10 days. The diarrhea is associated with cramping abdominal pain. abdominal cramps. has been responsible for more community-wide outbreaks of disease in the U. Waterborne outbreaks in the United States occur most often in communities receiving their drinking water from streams or rivers without adequate disinfection or a filtration system. with an average of about seven days. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea. anorexia. They invade and inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. which may be profuse and watery. Giardiasis is a commonly reported protozoan-caused disease. Giardiasis occurs worldwide. called a “cyst. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 64 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . than any other pathogen. Some parasites enter the environment in a dormant form. Symptoms usually come and go.Protozoan Caused Diseases Protozoan pathogens are larger than bacteria and viruses but still microscopic.S. The organism.

fecal-oral. they can cause serious. with the exception of hepatitis A. For those who operate water systems with inadequate source protection or treatment facilities. have one symptom in common: diarrhea. the potential risk of a waterborne disease outbreak is real. While water treatment cannot achieve sterile water (no microorganisms). the importance of properly constructed. They also have the same mode of transmission. All these diseases. self-limiting disease. operating and maintaining the system at a high level on a continuing basis is critical to prevent disease. By understanding the nature of waterborne diseases. being either foodborne or waterborne. operated and maintained public water systems becomes obvious. on occasion. The mode of transmission is fecal-oral. even life threatening illness.Cryptosporidium organisms have been identified in human fecal specimens from more than 50 countries on six continents. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 65 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and the same routes of transmission. either by person-to-person or animal-to-person. Although most pathogens cause mild. the goal of treatment must clearly be to produce drinking water that is as pathogen-free as possible at all times. whether through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact. Particularly vulnerable are persons with weak immune systems such as those with HIV infections or cancer. For those operating systems that currently provide adequate source protection and treatment. There is no specific treatment for Cryptosporidium infections.

cramps. (protozoan) extra intestinal infection Giardiasis Giardia lamblia (protozoan) Animal or human feces Diarrhea. (also. shellfish Diarrhea and vomiting lives in polluted waters) Salmonellosis Salmonella (bacterium) Animal or human feces Diarrhea or vomiting Escherichia coli-. shellfish grown Yellowed skin. shellfish Vomiting. rapid lives in many coastal waters) dehydration. enlarged liver. dysentery. lives in polluted waters fever.Waterborne Diseases Name Causative organism Source of organism Disease Viral gastroenteritis Rotavirus ( lives mostly in young Human feces. and general weakness — lasts one week to months Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Animal or human feces Diarrhea. abdominal pain — low mortality. coli organisms Typhoid Salmonella typhi (bacterium) Human feces. vomiting. urine Inflamed intestine.E. (also. stomach pain — lasts (protozoan) days to weeks E. weight loss. mineral loss — high mortality. severe diarrhea. nausea. enlarged spleen. Coli O157 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 66 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . lasts up to four months Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Human feces Mild diarrhea. Diarrhea or vomiting children) Norwalk-like viruses Human feces. coli O1 57:H7 (bacterium) Human feces Symptoms vary with type caused gastroenteritis Other E. high temperature— sometimes fatal Shigellosis Shigella (bacterium) Human feces Diarrhea Cholera Vibrio choleras (bacterium) Human feces. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Human feces.

line breaks or incidents that might allow ingress of microbial contamination. Health authorities then began investigating possible common sources of Naegleria exposure including drinking water. and residents were advised to drain and clean spas and hyperchlorinate swimming pools. pools.000 residents receive chlorinated drinking water from the municipal supply. Tests by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have detected N. who identified the amoeba in a patient who had died from meningitis.Issue 28 December 2002 Naegleria Deaths In Arizona Residents of the Arizona towns of Peoria and Glendale have been shocked by the deaths of two five-year old boys from amoebic meningitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. bathtubs.000 residents in the rapidly growing town are served by private water companies which mainly rely on groundwater sources. some four miles away. and a flushing program with hyperchlorinated water was carried out to remove possible contamination from the water distribution system.Health Stream Article . This supply is predominantly drawn from surface water sources but is supplemented by groundwater in times of high demand. although periodic chlorination has been used after new connections. however the Glendale boy frequently visited his grandparents' home a few blocks from the other boy's residence in Peoria. Both boys became ill on 9 October and died a few days later on 12 and 13 October respectively. Exposure to the organism is believed to be relatively common but infections resulting in illness are rare. About 100. fowleri in three samples: · one pre-chlorination water sample from a municipal well that was routinely chlorinated · one tank water sample from the suspect unchlorinated groundwater system · the refrigerator filter from the home of the grandparents of one of the boys The chlorinated well is believed unlikely to be the source of infection as chlorination is effective in killing N. This supply was taken off-line on 3 November. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 67 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The source of the infections has not been positively established but suspicion has fallen on a small unchlorinated ground water supply operated by a private company. They attended separate schools. a boil water notice was issued and 6. an Australian pathologist. Naegleria fowleri is a free living amoeba which is common in the environment and grows optimally at temperatures of 35 to 45 degrees C. One of the victims lived in Peoria and the other in the neighboring town of Glendale. fowleri. Supply to the affected area was switched to a chlorinated surface water source. cooking or bathing. the remaining 20. The suspect water supply is drawn from a deep aquifer and is not routinely chlorinated. spas and fountains. Some of these companies chlorinate their groundwater supplies and some do not. As Arizona state law prevents counties from supplying water to areas outside the incorporated municipal zones. The disease was first described in 1965 by Dr Malcolm Fowler.000 of Peoria's 120. Schools and restaurants in the suspect area were also closed.000 consumers were warned not to use unboiled tap water for drinking.

Prior to the incidents in Peoria. it is feasible that the amoeba may penetrate poorly constructed bores or be introduced by occasional contamination events.fowleri from the water supplies. fowleri meningitis causes non-specific symptoms such as fever. N. fowleri infections had not been reported to be associated with groundwater supplies. irritability. Cases of disease have also been recorded in Western Australia.Most reported cases of N. However as the organism may be found in moist soil. and N. Queensland and New South Wales. Investigators found N. The amoeba may then penetrate the cribiform plate. and inhalation of tap water from surface water supplies that have been subject to high temperatures. with only four survivors known among about 100 cases in the US since 1965. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 68 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In early studies. Plans are also underway to install a continuous chlorination plant on the groundwater supply. Local health authorities in Arizona are continuing their investigation into the two deaths with assistance from CDC personnel. and infection occurs through introduction of the organism into the nasal cavities. and the infection cannot be transmitted from person to person. where a number of cases occurred in the 1960s and 70s in several towns served by unchlorinated surface water delivered through long above-ground pipelines. N. The cribiform plate is more permeable in children. confusion. fowleri meningitis are associated with swimming in natural surface freshwater bodies. fowleri has been detected in water supplies in each of these states as well as the Northern Territory. fowleri in the water supply pipelines. a semiporous barrier. but had intra-nasal exposure to tap water through inhaling or squirting water into the nose. Most cases of N. vomiting. Warm water conditions and the absence of free chlorine may then allow it to proliferate in the system. fowleri meningitis are fatal. and spread to the meninges (the membrane surrounding the brain) and often to the brain tissue itself. transmission by contaminated dust was suspected as an infection route but this has since been discounted as the organism does not survive desiccation. The incubation period is usually 2 to 5 days. Tap water may also have been the primary source of infections attributed to swimming pools in these towns. The incidence of disease was greatly reduced by introduction of reliable chlorination facilities along the above-ground pipelines and introduction of chloramination in the 1980s led to virtual elimination of N. Cases are often reported to be associated with jumping or falling into the water. Similar symptoms also occur in viral and bacterial forms of meningitis which are much more common than the amoebic form. The involvement of tap water supplies was first documented in South Australia. high pitched crying and convulsions. drowsiness. About half of the cases in the state did not have a recent history of freshwater swimming. People with immune deficiencies may also be more prone to infection. and some residents have called for the municipality to purchase the private water company and take over its operations. providing conditions where water is forced into the nose at pressure. making them more susceptible to infection than adults. and concluded that the high water temperatures reached in summer provided a suitable environment for growth of the organism. Cases of disease have also been associated with swimming pools where disinfection levels were inadequate.

Coagulation . then simulate this during the jar test. developing the proper procedure is very important.1 This practice covers a general procedure for the evaluation of a treatment to reduce dissolved. turbidity. 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 69 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Terms Flocculation . colloidal. Finished water quality. 1. suspended. will only provide accurate results when properly performed. Again. all depend on the proper application of chemicals to the raw water entering the treatment plant. length of filter runs and overall filter life.A measure of the presence of suspended solid material.Agglomeration of particles into groups thereby increasing the effective diameter. and nonsettleable matter from water by chemical coagulation-flocculation. length of settling time and floc development.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns. as with any coagulant test. Scope 1. for instance. If. followed by gravity settling. to determine the proper coagulant dosage. The procedure may be used to evaluate color. Take time to observe what happens to the raw water in your plant after the chemicals have been added. 1. Because the jar test is intended to simulate conditions in your plant. associated with its use. and hardness reduction.2 The practice provides a systematic evaluation of the variables normally encountered in the coagulation-flocculation process.The Jar Test Jar testing. This rule applies to flocculator speed. starting the test at high rpm would provide misleading results. THE RPM OF THE STIRRER AND THE MINUTES TO COMPLETE THE TEST DEPEND ON CONDITIONS IN YOUR PLANT. continues to be one of the most effective tools available to surface water plant operators.A chemical technique directed toward destabilization of colloidal particles. operate the jar test to simulate conditions in YOUR plant. if any. Turbidity . cost of production. Before you start The jar test. your plant does not have a static or flash mixer. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

therefore making them very difficult to remove. H2. at least momentarily. As can clearly be seen from this relationship. in other words somehow make them “stick” together.Turbidity Particles less about 1 to 10 µm in diameter (primarily colloidal particles) will not settle out by gravitational forces. but their surface properties. decay of this force occurs exponentially with distance. In order to have gravity affect these particles we must somehow make them larger. are in close proximity the nucleus of each atom will weakly attract electrons in the counter atom resulting. In order to remove these small particles we must either filter the water or somehow incorporate gravitational forces such that these particles will settle out. somehow have them come together (conglomerate). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 70 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This idea can be better understood by relating the colloidal particles large surface area to their small volume (S/V) ratio resulting from their very small size. The two primary forces that control whether or not colloidal particles will agglomerate are: Repulsive Force An electrostatic force called the “Zeta Potential” - 4π q d ζ = D Where: ζ = Zeta Potential q = charge per unit area of the particle d = thickness of the layer surrounding the shear surface through which the charge is effective D = dielectric constant of the liquid Attractive Force Force due to van der Waals forces van der Waals forces are weak forces based on a polar characteristic induced by neighboring molecules. in an unsymmetrical arrangement of the nucleus. is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance (1/d6) between the particles. Ar. The most important factor(s) contributing to the stability of colloidal particles is not their mass. van der Waals force. When two or more nonpolar molecules. This force. thereby increasing there size and mass. These particles are the primary contributors to the turbidity of the raw water causing it to be “cloudy”. such as He.

During the flocculation process the particles join together to form flocs.5.a black and white disk divided like a pie in 4 quadrants about 6" in diameter.Ways to Measure Turbidity 1. 3. down to pH 4. If to much alum is added then the opposite effect occurs.e.) Turbidimeter . It important to understand that too much energy. would cause the particles to shear (breakup). The final key to obtaining good flocs is the added energy put into the system by way of rotating paddles in the flocculator tanks. the particles form sub complexes with the Al+3 and gain a positive charge about them. By “pushing” (adding energy) the particles together we can aid in the flocculation process forming larger flocs. During the coagulation process charged hydroxy-metallic complexes are formed momentarily (i. How to Treat Turbidity Supercharge the water supply .e. thereby reducing the size of the particles and would therefore increase the settling time in the clarifier. Other chemical coagulants used are Ferric Chloride and Ferrous Sulfate. Theses complexes are charged highly positive.7. This upset decreases the distance “d” in-turn decreasing the Zeta potential. rotating the paddles too fast. Al(OH)2+. thereby displacing the water layer surrounding the charged particle momentarily. Ferric Chloride works best at lower pH values. and the particles restabilize. By introducing aluminum (Al3+) into the water in the form of Alum (Al2(SO4)3•nH20) we can accomplish the supercharging of the water. The chemical reaction continues until the aluminum ions (Al+3) reach their final form. the larger the flocs.Light is passed through a sample.5. 5.0 . Al(OH)21+ etc). flocculation follows coagulation. therefore upsetting the stable negative charge of the target particles. A sensitive photomultiplier tube at a 90o angle from the incident light beam detects the light scattered by the particles in the sample. The particles are then able to get close enough together for van der Waals forces to take over and the particles begin to flocculate. 4.5. and settle out (note – the flocculated particles settle out separately from the precipitated Al(OH)3 (s)). Al(OH)3 (s). The photomultiplier tube converts the light energy into an electrical signal. Units . Alum works best in the pH range of natural waters. This is the coagulation part of the coagulation/flocculation process.) Secchi Disk . we can upset the charge effect of the particle enough to reduce the Zeta potential (repulsive force) thereby allowing van der Waals forces (attractive forces) to take over. which is amplified and displayed on the instrument. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 71 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the faster they will settle within a clarifier.By supercharging the water supply momentarily with a positive charge.Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) or Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU).) Jackson Candle Test 2. i.5 to 9. Ferrous Sulfate works well in through a range of pH values.

off. rapid mix .1 N solution of NaOH (buffer). 5) Measure the initial pH 6) Add alum and NaOH solutions in equal portions as specified by instructor.Key Equations Al 2 (SO 4 )3 • 14. 7) Mixing protocol: a. Be careful not to disturb the flocs that have settled.3H 2O (4) Apparatus 1) Jar Test Apparatus 2) 6 1500 mL Beakers 3) pH meter 4) Pipettes 5) Conductivity Meter 6) Turbidimeter Procedure 1) Make up a 10-g/L solution of alum. slow mix . settling .15 minutes (20 rpm) c. 9) Measure final pH Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 72 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .3H 2O + 6Na(HCO3 ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.3H 2O + 6CO2 (3) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14. O-2 = 16 mg/mmol.3H 2O + 6Na(OH ) → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 3Na2SO4 + 14.3H 2O + 3H 2SO 4 (2) Al 2 (SO4 )3 • 14.3H 2O + 6H 2O → 2 Al (OH )3 (s ) + 14. Take the sample from the center.30 minutes 8) Measure final turbidity. 4) Measure the temperature and conductivity. 2) Make up a 0. (Na+1 = 23 mg/mmol.1 minute (100 rpm) b. about 2" down for each one liter sample. H+ = 1 mg/mmol) 3) Fill each of the six 1500 mL beakers with one-liter of river water.

oC Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 73 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .g/L Turbidity (NTU) pH-Before Buffer pH-After Temp.Information to be Recorded Initial Turbidity = ? NTU .1 N Beaker Alum (ml) Buffer (ml) Alum .0.

Different Types of Chemical Storage Tanks found in Water Treatment Facilities Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 74 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

4. 8. Do not exceed 20 seconds! 5. Using a syringe. 5cc.1% solution. Mix for 20 seconds. Dilution technique ("make down") is especially critical. Solution polymers and Inorganics (Prepare a 1.) 1.0% solution. 2. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. Required equipment: 250 mL bottles with lids. Add 20 mL of 1. 7. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 75 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . add 2 mL of neat product to bottle. Prepare 0. since it involves compactly coiled large molecules in emulsions.0% solution. Emulsion polymers (Prepare 1. Graduated cylinder (100 mL). Water (it is recommended that the makedown water from the plant be used). Add 180 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. Add 198 mL of water to 250 mL bottle. High speed hand mixer (for emulsion polymers). 5.) 1. 2. Shake vigorously for at least one minute. 6. 4. 1. Add 20 mL of 1 % solution. but preferably overnight.1% solution. If the following procedures are not followed.Preparing Polymers for the Jar Test A successful Jar Test is very reliant upon the proper preparation of the polymers being tested. 5. 3. Insert Braun mixer into water and begin mixing. Syringes (1cc. 2. 6. 3. 10cc). inject 2 mL of neat polymer into vortex.0% polymer solution. 4. the Jar Test results will be very unreliable. Add 180 mL to 250 mL bottle. The polymer must be uncoiled to provide maximum contact with the colloidal particles to be flocculated. Using a syringe. 6. 3. 250 and 500 mL beakers. Allow dilute polymer to age for at least 20 minutes. 7. Shake vigorously for at least 1 minute. Add 198 mL of water to a beaker. prior to activation. Prepare 0.

The jar test is an attempt to duplicate plant conditions. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 76 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

it changes color from purple to yellow or brown. Stock Solutions (Strong Stock Solution) 5 grams potassium permanganate dissolved in 500 ml distilled water.15 no pink 3 1. dose each beaker with the test stock solution in the following manner.75 0. (Test Stock Solution) 4 ml strong stock solution thoroughly mixed in 100 ml distilled water. The final product formed is manganese dioxide (Mn02) an insoluble precipitate that can be removed by sedimentation and filtration. Jar Testing Example If you have a six position stirrer: Using a graduated cylinder.75 0.00 0.etc.10 no pink 2 0. As the permanganate ion is reduced during its reaction with compounds that it oxidizes. coagulant. If it is not all converted and is still purple or pink it will pass through the filter into the clearwell or distribution system.50 0. Each 5 ml of the test stock solution added to a 2000 ml sample equals 1 mg/l.25 0. or the reaction may continue in the system and the same conditions as exist with naturally occurring manganese may cause staining of the plumbing fixtures. which develop on the surface waters and on beds of lakes and rivers under certain conditions of temperature and chemical composition. pH adjustment. This may cause the customer to find pink tap water.20 no pink 4 1. KMn04 is also used to oxidize iron.35 pink Stir the beakers to simulate the turbulence where the KMn04 is to be added and observe the color change. I must caution you that all KMn04 applied must be converted to manganese dioxide (Mn02) form prior to filtration. KMn04 must be used with caution as this material produces an intense purple color when mixed with water. KMn04 is a strong oxidizer which can be used to destroy many organic compounds of both the natural and man made origin. measure 2000 ml of the sample to be tested into each of the six beakers. Dose each beaker to simulate plant practices in pre-treatment.25 no pink 5 1. Do not add carbon or chlorine. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 77 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Jar # KMn04 ml KMn04 mg/l Color 1 0.. manganese and sulfide compounds and other taste and odor producing substances usually due to the presence of very small quantities of secretions given off by microscopic algae.30 pink 6 1.50 0.Potassium Permanganate Jar Test Potassium Permanganate has been used for a number of years in both water & wastewater treatment. Using a graduated pipette.

6(Iron. mg/l Manganese. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 78 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .2 mg/l) = 2. Therefore.5 ml/ 0. the actual dose may be higher. Quick Test A quick way to check the success of a KMn04 application is by adding 1. Its usefulness also extends to algae control as well as many taste odor problems. mg/l) Example: Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l for a water with 0. mg/l = 0. Samples which retain a brown or yellow color indicate that the oxidation process is incomplete and will require a higher dosage of KMn04. If the first jar test does not produce the correct color change. KMn04 Dose. permanganate generally reacts more quickly at pH levels above 7. indicating the presence of oxidized iron and or manganese.0(Manganese. This dose assumes there are no oxidizable compounds in the raw water. mg/l) = 0. mg/l = 0. Jar testing should be done to determine the required dose.64 mg/l Note: The calculated 2.6(iron.As the iron and manganese begin to oxidize. KMn04 used as a disinfectant in pre-treatment could help control the formation of trihalomethanes by allowing chlorine to be added later in the treatment process or after filtration.25 ml of the test stock solution to 1000 ml finished water. KMn04 Dose. As well as being a strong oxidizer for iron and manganese. mg/l) + 2. mg/l = 0.2 mg/l. The manganese concentration is 1.3 mg/l.4 mg/l) + 2.0(Manganese. oxidation is complete. continue with increased dosages. potassium permanganate is an extremely useful chemical treatment.0(1.4 mg/l Kmn04 Dose. mg/l) + 2. If the sample remains pink.4 of iron. care must be taken not to bring pink water to the filter unless you have "greensand". Also. The end point has been reached when a pink color is observed and remains for at least 10 minutes.0. If the sample turns brown there is iron or manganese remaining in the finished water. With proper application. When applying potassium permanganate to raw water. In the preceding table a pink color first developed in beaker #5 which had been dosed with 1.6(0. mg/l = 1.2 mg/l Calculate the KMn04 dose in mg/l.64 mg/l KMn04 dose is the minimum dose. the sample will turn varying shades of brown. To calculate the dosage of KMn04 for iron and manganese removal here is the formula to use. Known Unknown Iron.

How is the Periodic Table Organized? The periodic table is organized with eight principal vertical columns called groups and seven horizontal rows called periods. Semimetals are found in between the metals and nonmetals. and the periods are numbered 1 to 7 from top to bottom. Rb. Na. What are the Eight Groups of the Periodic Table? Group I: Alkali Metals . K. (The groups are numbered I to VIII from left to right. and all the nonmetals are grouped together on the right side of the periodic table.Li. Fr known as alkai metals most reactive of the metals react with all nonmetals except the noble gases contain typical physical properties of metals (ex. Cs.) All the metals are grouped together on the left side of the periodic table. can be cut with a knife Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 79 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . shiny solids and good conductors of heat and electricity) softer than most familiar metals.

but more slowly than the Group I metals solids at room temperature have typical metallic properties harder than the Group I metals higher melting points than the Group I metals Group III: B. Br. Mg. I. At very reactive nonmetals Group VIII: Noble Gases-He. tellurium and polonium are semimetals Group VII: Halogens-F. tin and lead are metals Group V: N. Ra known as alkaline earth metals react with nonmetals. Po oxygen.Group II: Alkaline Earth Metals-Be. Sb. all the others are metals Group IV: C. Ca. Ne. Sn. liquids. Tl boron is a semimetal. Al. Ge. P. S. As. silicon and germanium are semimetals. Cl. Xe. or solids at room temperature Poor conductors of heat Are insulators-very poor conductors of electricity Do not have a high reflectivity or a shiny metallic appearance In solid form generally brittle and fracture easily under stress Do not exhibit photoelectric or thermionic effects Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 80 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . arsenic and antimony are semimetals. sulfur. Ba. Se. Pb carbon is a nonmetal. Kr. In. Te. Ar. Bi nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. and selenium are nonmetals. Ga. Sr. Rn very unreactive Properties of Metals Solids at room temperature Conduct heat very well Have electrical conductivities that increase with decreasing temperature Have a high flexibility and a shiny metallic luster Are malleable-can be beaten out into sheets or foils Are ductile-can be pulled into thin wires without breaking Emit electrons when they are exposed to radiation of sufficiently high energy or when They are heated (known as photoelectric effect and thermionic effect) Properties of Nonmetals May be gases. Si. bismuth is a metal Group VI: O.

a difference of one pH unit represents a tenfold change. The acidity of a water sample is measured on a pH scale. Because the scale is logarithmic. would mean that the acidity is one hundred times greater. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity.6 – slightly acidic because of the carbon dioxide picked up in the earth's atmosphere by the rain. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 81 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Normal rain has a pH of 5. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. represents the neutral point. the acidity of a sample with a pH of 5 is ten times greater than that of a sample with a pH of 6. This scale ranges from 0 (maximum acidity) to 14 (maximum alkalinity). The acidity increases from neutral toward 0. pH = (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity).The pH Scale pH: A measure of the acidity of water. For example. A difference of 2 units. from 6 to 4. and so on. The middle of the scale. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. 7.

Especially after heavy rainstorms. Chlorite Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. You will see an increase of these technologies in the near future. Some people may experience anemia. Bromate Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the EPA's standard. Chloramine Some people who use drinking water containing chloramines well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 82 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard. Disinfection Byproducts (DBPS) Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. Disinfectant alternatives will include Ozone. Chlorine Dioxide Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects. your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. Haloacetic Acids Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Total Trihalomethanes Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver. and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. or central nervous systems.Modern Water Treatment Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. Some people may experience anemia. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the EPA's standard could experience stomach discomfort or anemia. kidneys. and Ultraviolet light. Chlorine Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine well in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 83 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The water will help create acid which will make the leak larger. Never place water on a leaking metal cylinder.Chlorine Section 2 Ton Cylinders The top lines are for extracting the gas. and the bottom lines are for extracting the Cl2 liquid.

150 Pound Chlorine Cylinder Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 84 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Chemical and Physical Properties Physical data 1. and silicon should be avoided. Melting point: -101 degrees C (-149. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 85 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Vapor pressure at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F): 4. Special precautions: Chlorine will attack some forms of plastics.: 7782-50-5 2. and sulfur).86 atm 4. potassium. turpentine.8 degrees F) 6. steam. Contact between chlorine and arsenic. and finely divided metals may cause fires and explosions. activated carbon. alcohols. 4. Prolonged exposures may result in olfactory fatigue. Conditions contributing to instability: Cylinders of chlorine may burst when exposed to elevated temperatures. Vapor density: 2. oxomonosilane. and coatings. iodine. alcohols.9 2. Chlorine is also incompatible with moisture. ammonia.28 degrees F) 3. methane. Contact between chlorine and many combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. hydrocarbons. reducing agents. calcium. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): -34. CAS No. Incompatibilities: Flammable gases and vapors form explosive mixtures with chlorine.2 degrees F) or at high pressures. Chlorine in solution forms a corrosive material. * Synonyms: Bertholite.6 degrees C (-30. molecular chlorine Identifiers 1.: FO2100000 3. 2. hydrazine. carbon disulfide. It condenses to an amber liquid at approximately -34 degrees C (-29. and water.Chlorine * Formula: Cl(2) * Structure: Not applicable.08 to part per million (ppm) parts of air have been reported. Molecular weight: 70. Hazardous decomposition products: None reported. Odor thresholds ranging from 0. and it reacts with carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide to form phosgene and sulfuryl chloride. 3.41 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and a pressure of 6. Solubility: Slightly soluble in water. rubber.800 mm Hg 7. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide and water to form hydrochloric acid. 8. acetylene.5 5. hydrogen. Specific gravity (liquid): 1. DOT label: Poison gas Appearance and odor Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a characteristic pungent odor. bismuth. and chlorides. RTECS No. boron. Reactivity 1. soluble in alkalies. Evaporation rate: Data not available. glycerol. DOT UN: 1017 20 4. propylene.

Stay away from the ends of containers. The ACGIH limits are based on the risk of eye and mucous membrane irritation [ACGIH 1991. * Rationale for Limits The NIOSH limits are based on the risk of severe eye. 1. if this is impossible. For a massive fire in a cargo area. The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 0 (no fire hazard) to chlorine. 2. A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level [29 CFR 1910. 4. * NIOSH REL The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for chlorine of 0. use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 86 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . use water spray or fog. 3. Contain and let large fires involving chlorine burn. Exposure Limits * OSHA PEL The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. Autoignition temperature: Not applicable. Flammable limits in air: Not applicable. p. 254]. Emergency personnel should stay out of low areas and ventilate closed spaces before entering.contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving chlorine. * ACGIH TLV The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned chlorine a threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.9 mg/m(3)) for periods not to exceed 15 minutes. Exposures at the STEL concentration should not be repeated more than four times a day and should be separated by intervals of at least 60 minutes [ACGIH 1994. cool fire exposed containers from the sides with water until well after the fire is out. most combustible materials will burn in chlorine. do not use dry chemical or carbon dioxide.Flammability Chlorine is a non-combustible gas. Table Z-1]. Extinguishant: For small fires use water only.1000. Containers of chlorine may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely.5 ppm mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1 ppm (3 mg/m(3))[NIOSH 1992]. Firefighters should wear a full set of protective clothing and self. however. Keep unnecessary people away. p.5 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 1. withdraw from the area and let the fire burn. 15]. If this is not possible. If fire must be fought. mucous membrane and skin irritation [NIOSH 1992]. Flash point: Not applicable. isolate the hazard area and deny entry.5 ppm (1. Fires involving chlorine should be fought upwind from the maximum distance possible.0 ppm (2.

There is a constant danger that safe water leaving the treatment plant may become contaminated later. The opposite — high organic matter concentrations and high THM levels — is true when rivers or other surface waters are used as the source of the drinking water. including the season and the source of the water. bromodichloromethane. However. Living cells react with chlorine and reduce its concentration while they die. THM concentrations are generally lower in winter than in summer. at the turn of the century. decay products of vegetation) in the water. reaction kinetics complicates interpretation of chlorination data. most of our drinking water supplies are free of the micro-organisms — viruses. because concentrations of natural organic matter are lower and less chlorine is required to disinfect at colder temperatures. There will be no chlorine residual unless there is an excess over the amount that reacts with the organic matter present. chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. The Principal Trihalomethanes are: Chloroform. bacteria and protozoa — that cause serious and life-threatening diseases. Health Effects Laboratory animals exposed to very high levels of THMs have shown increased incidences of cancer. Because chlorinated organic compounds are less effective. Other less common chlorination by-products includes the haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles. convert to chlorinated derivatives. some of which are effective killing agents. One especially important feature of disinfection using chlorine is the ease of overdosing to create a "residual" concentration. several studies of cancer incidence in human populations have reported associations between long-term exposure to high levels of chlorination by-products and an increased risk of certain types of cancer. The amount of THMs formed in drinking water can be influenced by a number of factors. The organic matter and other substances that are present. A particularly important group of compounds with combined chlorine is the chloramines formed by reactions with ammonia.1 to 0. The most common chlorination by-products found in U. because organic matter concentrations are generally low in these sources. particularly chlorination. loss of pressure that permits an inward leak. Also. a typical residual is from 0.g. such as cholera and typhoid fever.. and OCl¯ is called free available chlorine. or plumbing errors. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 87 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . With free available chlorine. This residual concentration of chlorine provides some degree of protection right to the water faucet.S. Chlorine present as Cl. There may be breaks in water mains. The correct excess is obtained in a method called "Break Point Chlorination ". and that which is bound but still effective is combined chlorine. Chlorine By-Products Chlorination by-products are the chemicals formed when the chlorine used to kill diseasecausing micro-organisms reacts with naturally occurring organic matter (e.5 ppm. HOCl. drinking water supplies are the trihalomethanes (THMs). For example. a typical residual is 2 ppm for combined chlorine. This is largely due to the introduction of water treatment.Chlorine (DDBP) Today. THM levels are also low when wells or large lakes are used as the drinking water source.

but indicate the need for further research to confirm their results and to assess the potential health effects of chlorination by.For instance. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 88 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Possible relationships between exposure to high levels of THMs and adverse reproductive effects in humans have also been examined recently. Chlorine storage room. In a California study. The available studies on health effects do not provide conclusive proof of a relationship between exposure to THMs and cancer or reproductive effects. a recent study conducted in the Great Lakes basin reported an increased risk of bladder and possibly colon cancer in people who drank chlorinated surface water for 35 years or more. pregnant women who consumed large amounts of tap water containing elevated levels of THMs were found to have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The bottom vent will allow the gas to ventilate because Cl2 gas is heavier than air. notice the vents at the bottom and top.products other than THMs.

they are very persistent and. and ozone treatment can create other undesirable by-products that may be harmful to health if they are not controlled (e. however. as such. and. Although ozone is a highly effective disinfectant. A third option is removal of the by-products by adsorption on activated carbon beds.g. most importantly. small amounts of chlorine remain in the water and continue to disinfect throughout the distribution system. It is easy to apply. Chlorine Piping and chlorine cylinder yoke Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 89 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . especially against viruses and protozoa. viruses and protozoa. It is extremely important that water treatment plants ensure that methods used to control chlorination by-products do not compromise the effectiveness of water disinfection. THM levels may also be reduced through the replacement of chlorine with alternative disinfectants. When used with modern water filtration practices. Although other disinfectants are available. compounds whose toxicity has not yet been fully determined. it breaks down quickly. Examples of other disinfectants include chloramines and chlorine dioxide. A number of cities use ozone to disinfect their source water and to reduce THM formation. In general. Assessments of the health risks from these and other chlorine-based disinfectants and chlorination by-products are currently under way. Chloramines are weaker disinfectants than chlorine. chlorine is effective against virtually all infective agents — bacteria. chlorine continues to be the choice of water treatment experts. the preferred method of controlling chlorination by-products is removal of the naturally occurring organic matter from the source water so it cannot react with the chlorine to form by-products.Risks and Benefits of Chlorine Current evidence indicates that the benefits of chlorinating our drinking water — reduced incidence of water-borne diseases — are much greater than the risks of health effects from THMs. but it forms chlorate and chlorite. can be useful for preventing re-growth of microbial pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. Chlorine dioxide can be an effective disinfectant. so that small amounts of chlorine or other disinfectants must be added to the water to ensure continued disinfection as the water is piped to the consumer’s tap. bromate). Modifying water treatment facilities to use ozone can be expensive. This ensures that the water remains free of microbial contamination on its journey from the treatment plant to the consumer’s tap..

Effects on Humans: Severe acute effects of chlorine exposure in humans have been well documented since World War I when chlorine gas was used as a chemical warfare agent. Responses for sensations of itching or burning of the nose and eyes. and exposures to 1000 ppm can be fatal. Earlier literature reported that exposure to a concentration of about 5 ppm caused respiratory complaints.2 percent in the control group. Other severe exposures have resulted from the accidental rupture of chlorine tanks.0 ppm for 8 hours showed increased mucous secretions from the nose and in the hypopharynx. These exposures have caused death.0 ppm for 4.0 ppm exposure level [ACGIH 1991]. pleurisy. mucous membranes. skin. 2.5 ppm exposure concentration. and injury to the lens [Grant 1986]. However. but 9. All but six workers had exposures below 1 ppm.9 years was published in 1970. The incidence of fatigue was greater among those exposed above 0. a study was published involving 29 subjects exposed to chlorine concentrations up to 2. and general discomfort were not severe. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 90 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A 1983 study of pulmonary function at low concentrations of chlorine exposure also found transient decreases in pulmonary function at the 1. Exposure to 15 ppm causes throat irritation. Animals surviving sublethal inhalation exposures for 15 to 193 days showed marked emphysema. Six of 14 subjects exposed to 1. 21 had TWAs above 0.0 ppm exposure level. opacification of the cornea. Effects on Animals: Chlorine is a severe irritant of the eyes.Health Hazard Information Routes of Exposure Exposure to chlorine can occur through inhalation. but not at the 0. atrophy of the iris. A study of workers exposed to chlorine for an average of 10. No evidence of permanent lung damage was found. and lungs in experimental animals. There has been one confirmed case of myasthenia gravis associated with chlorine exposure [NLM 1995]. Exposures of 1. especially at the 1. and bronchitis [Hathaway et al. pneumonia. corrosion of the teeth. Summary of toxicology 1. The 1 hour LC(50) is 239 ppm in rats and 137 ppm in mice ()[Sax and Lewis 1989]. but were perceptible.0 ppm for 8 hours produced statistically significant changes in pulmonary function that were not observed at a 0.4 percent had abnormal EKGs compared to 8. and eye or skin contact [Genium 1992].5 ppm level [ACGIH 1991]. many of these effects are not confirmed in recent studies and are of very dubious significance [ACGIH 1991].5 ppm [ACGIH 1991]. Tooth enamel damage may also occur [Parmeggiani 1983]. lung congestion. Chlorine injected into the anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes resulted in severe damage with inflammation.52 ppm. Clayton and Clayton 1982]. Acne (chloracne) is not unusual among persons exposed to low concentrations of chlorine for long periods of time. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and susceptibility to tuberculosis among chronically-exposed workers. exposures to 50 ppm are dangerous. which was associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. 1991]. and pulmonary edema.and 8-hour periods. The lowest lethal concentration reported is 430 ppm for 30 minutes [Clayton and Clayton 1982]. In 1981. ingestion. even if exposure is brief [Sax and Lewis 1989.

Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to low levels of chlorine gas can result in a dermatitis known as chloracne. polymers (synthetic rubber and plastics). lubricants. general excitement. dizziness. excessive salivation. in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents. Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard 29 CFR. those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. use in detinning and dezincing iron. pesticides.g. sore throat. Use in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Use in the paper and pulp. dishwashers. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 91 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . resins. and restlessness. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to low levels of chlorine results in eye. refrigerants. depending on the feasibility of implementation. cosmetics. vegetables. purification. use in the processing of meat. elastomers. automotive antifreeze and antiknock compounds. adhesives. and in the manufacture of rocket fuel. Use as bleaching and cleaning agents. flameproofing. headache. cyanosis. Methods that are effective in controlling worker exposures to chlorine. chemical pneumonia. in special batteries containing lithium or zinc. odor control. and demulsifier in treatment of drinking water. and extraction agent in metallurgy. sneezing. 2. Exposure Sources and Control Methods The following operations may involve chlorine and lead to worker exposures to this substance: The Manufacture and Transportation of Chlorine Use as a chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic and inorganic synthesis. fish.. Contact with the liquid can result in frostbite burns of the skin and eyes [Genium 1992]. disinfectant. nausea. tooth enamel corrosion. nose. cleaning dairy equipment. and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations.1200]). and in hydraulic fluids. and fruit. cleaning powders. Higher concentrations causes difficulty in breathing. use to shrink-proof wool. and as a disinfectant in laundries. Use as a bacteriostat. choking. Emergency Medical Procedures: [NIOSH to supply] Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e. and textile industries for bleaching cellulose for artificial fibers. All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures. Use as a fluxing.Signs and Symptoms of Exposure 1. and bleaching cellulose. violent coughing. and throat irritation. acute tracheobronchitis. severe chest pain. hemoptysis and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis [Genium 1992]. vomiting. use in the manufacture of chlorinated lime. are as follows: Process enclosure Local exhaust ventilation General dilution ventilation Personal protective equipment. laryngeal edema. swimming pools. and in sewage. the location and proper use of emergency equipment. coughing.

Plog BA [1988]. and tank wagons should receive special training in standard safety procedures for handling compressed corrosive gases. Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. 2. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910. paper. NY: Industrial Press. methane. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Cincinnati. acetylene. Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. extreme temperatures changes. potassium. persons not wearing protective equipment and fullyencapsulating. ACGIH [1992]. steam. and sulfur). finely divided metals.Good Sources of Information about Control Methods are as Follows: 1. Empty containers of chlorine should have secured protective covers on their valves and should be handled appropriately. alcohols. move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. Scheff PA [1987].1200]. Workers handling and operating chlorine containers. do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. cylinders. combustible substances (such as gasoline and petroleum products. New York. 6. etc. hydrogen sulfide and water. Notify safety personnel. Chlorine Storage Chlorine should be stored in a cool. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. hydrogen. Inc. activated carbon. 5. glycerol. Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. Containers of chlorine should be protected from exposure to weather. IL: National Safety Council. 3. arsenic. ammonia. vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. Kane JM [1982]. oil. Keep all combustibles (wood. 3. if not. Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. turpentine. Design of industrial ventilation systems. Wadden RA. moisture. Alden JL. iodine. and physical damage. and they should be stored separately from flammable gases and vapors. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 92 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cincinnati. Burton DJ [1986]. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: 1. Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk. Use water spray to reduce vapors. carbon disulfide. hydrazine. 4. propylene. Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. and water. oxomonosilane. bismuth. Spills and Leaks In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine. 7. 21st ed. All pipes and containment used for chlorine service should be regularly inspected and tested. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. silicon. NY: McGraw-Hill. carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. 4. 5. dry.) away from the leak. boron. reducing agents. Remove all sources of heat and ignition. 2. hydrocarbons. New York. Chicago. calcium.

24. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 93 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . State.Special Requirements The U. Reportable Quantity Requirements for Hazardous Releases A hazardous substance release is defined by the EPA as any spilling. or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year or otherwise use 10. the EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. leaking. Notify the community emergency coordinator of the local emergency planning committee (or relevant local emergency response personnel) of any area likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355. Notify the emergency response commission of the State likely to be affected by the release [40 CFR 355.30]. Community Right-to-Know Requirements Employers who own or operate facilities in SIC codes 20 to 39 that employ 10 or more workers and that manufacture 25.40]. [40 CFR 302. corrosivity.]. Emergency Planning Requirements Employers owning or operating a facility at which there are 100 pounds or more of chlorine must comply with the EPA's emergency planning requirements [40 CFR Part 355.S. dumping. Hazardous Waste Management Requirements EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability.40]. injecting. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq. and hazardous waste management may change over time.30] to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to the EPA reporting the amount of chlorine emitted or released from their facility annually. emptying.21-261. employers are required to do the following: Notify the National Response Center immediately at (800) or at (202) 426-2675 in Washington. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical. escaping.C.6]. D. pouring. If an amount equal to or greater than this quantity is released within a 24-hour period in a manner that will expose persons outside the facility. pumping. emitting. leaching.000 pounds or more of chlorine per calendar year are required by EPA [40 CFR Part 372. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning. reportable quantities of hazardous releases. reactivity. discharging. and local authorities [40 CFR The Reportable Quantity of Chlorine is 10 Pounds. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available. employers are required to notify the proper Federal. community right-to-know. or disposing into the environment including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances.

and State and local regulations should be followed to ensure that removal.C. D. Chlorine gas was first used as a chemical weapon at Ypres.Although chlorine is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 94 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Of the 70.S.5 million tons and over 1 million containers of chlorine are shipped in the U. To be certain that chemical waste disposal meets the EPA regulatory requirements.552 American soldiers poisoned with various gasses in World War I. each year.C. area) or toll-free at (800) 424-9346 (outside Washington. the EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above. Chlorine Gas Background: Chlorine gas is a pulmonary irritant with intermediate water solubility that causes acute damage in the upper and lower respiratory tract. D. In addition. the EPA. transport. Providing detailed information about the removal and disposal of specific chemicals is beyond the scope of this guideline.). and disposal of this substance are conducted in accordance with existing regulations. relevant State and local authorities should be contacted for information on any requirements they may have for the waste removal and disposal of this substance. Approximately 10. 1843 were exposed to chlorine gas. The U.S. France in 1915. employers should address any questions to the RCRA hotline at (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington. Department of Transportation.

Although the idea that chlorine causes direct tissue damage by generating free oxygen radicals was once accepted. The cylinders are on a scale that operators use to measure the amount used each day. Cl2 gas does not occur naturally. and (4) individual susceptibility. depending on the chemical species produced. Hypochlorous acid is also highly water soluble with an injury pattern similar to hydrochloric acid. this idea is now controversial.5 parts per million (ppm). the gas settles low to the ground. In the presence of water. from reactions with tissue water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. however. (3) water content of the tissues exposed. noncombustible gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. reacts to form chloramine gas. causing it to remain near ground level and increasing exposure time. distinguishing toxic air levels from permissible air levels may be difficult until irritative symptoms are present. It is a respiratory irritant. and from the generation of free oxygen radicals. Early Response to Chlorine Gas Chlorine gas. The early response to chlorine exposure depends on the (1) concentration of chlorine gas. and it burns the skin. Just a few breaths of it are fatal. but rely on trained emergency response teams to contain leaks. In addition. (2) duration of exposure. although Chlorine can be found in a number of compounds. The chains are used to prevent the tanks from falling over. when mixed with ammonia. Because its density is greater than that of air.3-0. chloramines decompose to ammonia and hypochlorous acid or hydrochloric acid. Cellular injury is believed to result from the oxidation of functional groups in cell components. The odor threshold for chlorine is approximately 0. Operators have the equipment necessary to reduce the impact of a gas leak. The intermediate water solubility of chlorine accounts for its effect on the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 95 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Exposure to chlorine gas may be prolonged because its moderate water solubility may not cause upper airway symptoms for several minutes. The gas comes out of the cylinder through a gas regulator. the density of the gas is greater than that of air. Mechanism of Activity The mechanisms of the above biological activity are poorly understood and the predominant anatomic site of injury may vary. Chlorine gas is stored in vented rooms that have panic bar equipped doors. It is extremely reactive with most elements.Chlorine is a yellowish-green gas at standard temperature and pressure. The cylinders on the right contain chlorine gas. Solubility Effects Hydrochloric acid is highly soluble in water. The predominant targets of the acid are the epithelia of the ocular conjunctivae and upper respiratory mucus membranes. Hypochlorous acid may account for the toxicity of elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid to the human body. Pathophysiology: Chlorine is a greenish-yellow.

Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is thought to occur when there is a loss of pulmonary capillary integrity. trachea. Chlorine Wrenches and Fusible Plugs Simple Chlorine Field Test Kit Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 96 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . They include severe pulmonary edema. and bronchi. manifested as hypoxia.Immediate Effects The immediate effects of chlorine gas toxicity include acute inflammation of the conjunctivae. hyaline membrane formation. multiple pulmonary thromboses. Pathological Findings Pathologic findings are nonspecific. larynx. pneumonia. resulting in pulmonary congestion. The hallmark of pulmonary injury associated with chlorine toxicity is pulmonary edema. nose. Irritation of the airway mucosa leads to local edema secondary to active arterial and capillary hyperemia. Plasma exudation results in filling the alveoli with edema fluid. pharynx. and ulcerative tracheobronchitis.

These results should be kept on file for a health or regulatory agency inspection during a regular field visit. N – diethyl-p-phenylenediame Small portable chlorine measuring kit. Free chlorine residuals need to be checked and recorded daily. The most accurate method for determining chlorine residuals to use the laboratory ampermetric titration method.Using DPD Method for Chlorine Residuals N. You can measure what chlorine levels are being found in your system (especially at the far ends). (Make sure you buy a test kit using the DPD method. simple and inexpensive way to measure chlorine residual is to use a small portable kit with pre-measured packets of chemicals that are added to water. The redder the mixture the “hotter” or stronger the chlorine in solution. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 97 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Measuring Chlorine Residual Chlorine residual is the amount of chlorine remaining in water that can be used for disinfection. and not the outdated orthotolodine method. A convenient.) Chlorine test kits are very useful in adjusting the chlorine dose you apply.

and some organic substances. A secondary benefit. hypochlorous acid. More a laboratory assistant than an instrument. benchtop chlorine-measurement system that does it all: calibration. the AutoCAT 9000 gives you: • High throughput: performs the titration and calculates concentration. iron. Historically the principal analytical problem has been to distinguish between free and combined forms of chlorine. At the pH of most waters. it is essential that proper testing procedures be used with a foreknowledge of the limitations of the analytical determination. initial chlorine-to-nitrogen ratio. sulfide. With ammonia. • Accurate. graphic print output. is the overall improvement in water quality resulting from the reaction of chlorine with ammonia. Both free and combined chlorine may be present simultaneously. The presence and concentrations of these combined forms depend chiefly on pH. Hach’s AutoCAT 9000™ Automatic Titrator is the newest solution to hit the disinfection industry – a comprehensive. absolute chlorine demand. The relative proportion of these free chlorine forms is pH. normally contain only combined chlorine. Combined chlorine formed on chlorination of ammonia. Free chlorine reacts readily with ammonia and certain nitrogenous compounds to form combined chlorine. even electrode cleaning. calculation. Potentially carcinogenic chloro-organic compounds such as chloroform may be formed. manganese.or amine-bearing waters adversely affects some aquatic life. Taste and odor characteristics of phenols and other organic compounds present in a water supply may be intensified. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 98 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Chlorine applied to water in its molecular or hypochlorite form initially undergoes hydrolysis to form free chlorine consisting of aqueous molecular chlorine. and reaction time. Chlorinated wastewater effluents. as well as certain chlorinated industrial effluents. yet convenient: the easiest way to complete ppb-level amperometric titration. • Back titration: USEPA-accepted method for total chlorine in wastewater. chlorine reacts to form the chloramines: monochloramine.Amperometric Titration The chlorination of water supplies and polluted waters serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease-producing microorganisms. temperature. Chlorination may produce adverse effects. real-time graphs. To fulfill the primary purpose of chlorination and to minimize any adverse effects. dichloramine. and hypochlorite ion. • Forward titration: USEPA-accepted methods for free and total chlorine and chlorine dioxide with chlorite. Combined chlorine in water supplies may be formed in the treatment of raw waters containing ammonia or by the addition of ammonia or ammonium salts. all automatically. titration. particularly in treating drinking water. hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion will predominate. and nitrogen trichloride.and temperature-dependent.

The next column. Br-. but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred. Be. Column 18. Electrons may also be displaced within the molecule without being completely transferred away from it. let’s start with this review of basic chemical equations. Oxidation Number The number of electrons that must be added to or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form. Ar.Chemical Equations. Li+. Ca etc. let us look at some common ions. Cl. Such partial loss of electrons likewise constitutes oxidation in its broader sense and leads to the application of the term to a large number of processes which at first sight might not be considered to be oxidation’s.e. Ne. in barium chloride ( BaCl2) the oxidation number of barium is +2 and of chlorine is -1. column 2. for example. i. K etc. as in oxidation of alcohol’s to aldehyde’s. Now. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 99 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ca2+. Mg. halogen addition to a double bond is regarded as an oxidation. Column 17. Kr are inert gases. I-. You can see column one. thus the iron becomes positively charged (is oxidized) by loss of two electrons while the copper receives the two electrons and becomes neutral (is reduced). two electrons (negative charges) are transferred from the iron atom to the copper atom. It is arranged in columns of elements. the two reacting chemicals will go to products C + D etc. H. Beginning The common chemical equation could be A + B --> C + D. cupric ion is the oxidizing agent in the reaction: Fe (metal) + Cu++ --> Fe++ + Cu (metal). etc. Oxidation States and Balancing of Equations Before we breakdown Chlorine and other chemicals. K+. Li.. Br. CH4 + 2 Cl --> CH3Cl + HCl. etc. and the substance which gains electrons is termed the oxidizing agent. here. become ions Be2+. a removed from a hydrogen-containing organic compound by a catalytic reaction with air or oxygen. Mg2+. when two hydrogen atoms. there are 18 columns. both positive ions and negative ions. and is dependent on its place within the periodic table. Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneously (redox reactions). involves partial oxidation of the methane. Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state. Reaction of a hydrocarbon with a halogen. An ion is the reactive state of the chemical. etc. I. Na. Oxidation The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance. This is chemical A + chemical B. Dehydrogenation is also a form of oxidation. each having one electron. Have a look at the “periodic table of the elements”. What you need to memorize is the table of common ions. F. For example. ionize to a negative F-. He. These all become ions as H+. Cl-.

--> NaCl (salt) 3H+ + PO43. For example: Na+ + OH. and vice versa. This is the start of our chemical reactions.--> NaOH (sodium hydroxide) Na+ + Cl.--> H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) 2Na+ + S2O32.Table of Common Ions Positive Ions Valency 1 lithium sodium potassium silver hydronium (or hydrogen) ammonium copper I mercury I Negative Ions Valency 1 fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate bicarbonate bisulphate nitrite chlorate permanganate hypochlorite dihydrogen phosphate F - Valency 2 Li+ Na+ K+ Ag+ H3O+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Hg+ magnesium calcium strontium barium copper II lead II zinc manganese II iron II tin II Valency 2 oxide sulfide carbonate sulfate sulfite dichromate chromate oxalate thiosulfate tetrathionate monohydrogen phosphate Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Cu2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Mn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Valency 3 aluminum iron III chromium Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+ Valency 3 O 2- phosphate PO43- ClBr IOHNO3HCO3HSO4NO2ClO3MnO4OClH2PO4- S2CO32SO42SO32Cr2O7CrO42C2O42S2O32S4O62HPO42- Positive ions will react with negative ions.--> Na2S2O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 100 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

PO43-.charged (not just the O4). Al3+ + Cl.and the 2 from the SO42. and 3 times 2.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Let me give you an easy way of balancing: Al is 3+ SO4 is 2Simply transpose the number of positives (or negatives) for each ion. So. For example. We have equal amounts of positive ions. so we have to ensure that the “ion” is bracketed. the 2 times 3+ = 6+. the number 3 is placed in front of the ion concerned. an ion like PO43. Cl3. That is. aluminum exists in its ionic state as Al3+.--> AlCl (incorrect) Al3+ + 3Cl. to balance the number of chlorine’s (Cl-) required.(phosphate will require an ion of 3+ or an ion of one (+) (but needs three of these) to neutralize the 3.= 6-. reacts with an ion of one (-) then the equation is balanced. However. where the ions have become a compound (a chemical compound). Let us do these examples.You will see from these examples.as 3SO42-. is placed after each “ion” entity. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 101 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . by placing this value of one ion.--> Al2(SO4)3 (correct) Put the three from the Al in front of the SO42.in front of the Al3+. the 2 goes in front of the Al3+ to become 2Al3+. Remember to encase the SO4 in brackets. what you are doing is balancing the charges (+) or (-) to make them zero. in front of the other ion. Al3+ the 3 goes in front of the SO42. and SO42-. Equation becomes: 2Al3+ + 3SO42. Let us again look at: Al3+ + SO42. it will react with many negatively charged ions. On the right hand side of the equation. and equal amounts of negative ions.--> AlCl3 (correct) How did we work this out? Al3+ has three positives (3+) Cl. When the left hand side of the equation is written. and it is this ion that is 2. in front of the other ion.--> Al2(SO4)3. as a whole number. this same number (now in front of each ion on the left side of the equation). that if an ion of one (+). to the other ion.charge on the phosphate. Then on the right hand side of the equation. SO42-. SO42-. examples: Cl-. Now to check.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) Al3+ + SO42. the number is transferred to after the relevant ion. and vice versa.has one negative (-) It will require 3 negative charges to cancel out the 3 positive charges on the aluminum ( Al3+). or cancel each other out. in this case Cl-.--> AlSO4 (incorrect) 2Al3+ + 3SO42. Another example: Al3+ + SO42. You simply place the valency of one ion. Why? Because we are dealing with the sulfate ion. and balance them. becomes 3Cl-. OH-.

on the left side of the equation. The Mg2+ needs to react with a negatively charged ion.--> H2O (water). so the equation is balanced.from the NaOH.+ H+OHSomething More Difficult: Mg(OH)2 + H3PO4 --> ? (equation on left not balanced) Mg2+ 2OH.--> Mg3(PO4)2 Therefore. The equation becomes: 6H+ + 6OH. Cl-.--> ? (equation on left not balanced). so let us rewrite the equation in ionic form. and then placing this number after each ion on the right side of the equation) What is left is the H+ from the H3PO4 and this will react with a negative ion. I therefore have 2H3 reacting with 3(OH)2. this gave us HCl.--> 6H2O The full equation is now balanced and is: 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> Mg3(PO4)2 + 6H2O I have purposely split the equation into segments of reactions.--> 6H2O Where did I get the 6 from? When I balanced the Mg2+ with the PO43-. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 102 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . This is showing you which ions are reacting with each other. we only have the OH.+ 3H+PO43. ( because we originally had (OH)2 attached to the Mg.Another example: NaOH + HCl --> ? Na is Na+. This will have to be the chlorine.+ H+Cl. HCl is H+ + Cl -.--> Mg3(PO4)2 (Remember the swapping of the positive or negative charges on the ions in the left side of the equation. The balancing of equations is simple. or Na+OH.because we need it in ionic form. Once you get the idea of equations you will not need this step.--> NaCl The H+ from the HCl will react with a negative (-) ion this will be the OH. OH is OH-.from the Mg(OH)2 left for it to react with. The complete reaction can be written: NaOH + HCl --> NaCl + H2O. and placing it in front of each ion. so: 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. as 6H+ + 6OH. 6H+ + 6OH. We have equal amounts of all atoms each side of the equation. and H3 attached to the PO4. Originally the one positive canceled the one negative. Reaction is going to be the Na+ reacting with a negatively charged ion. so this gave us NaOH. because at the moment the Na+ is tied to the OH-. I must have required 3Mg(OH)2 to begin with.--> Na+Cl. the equation became 3Mg2+ + 2PO43. You need to learn the valency of the common ions (see tables). and 2H3PO4. So: H+ + OH. So: Na+ + Cl. this will be the PO43-. We have to write this.

(one negative ion) then we require 2 more negatively charged ions (in this case OH-) to counteract the 3 positive charges the Al3+ contains. a recognized ion. place the 3 from the Al3+ in front of the OH-. example OH. and the same number of ions or atoms each side of the equation. Take my earlier hint. place the 1 from the hydroxyl OH. or positives. positives versus negatives. Al3+ + 3OH. each side of the equation. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 103 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . as in 3Mg(OH)2 + 2H3PO4 --> ? Conductivity. now reads 3OH-.in front of the Al3+. Al3+ (the 1 is never written in chemistry equations). now stays the same. You have to have the same number of negatives. you are balancing valency charges. Brackets are used in the right side of the equation because the result is a compound. example Al3+. On the right hand side of the equation. temperature and pH measuring equipment. all numbers in front of each ion on the left hand side of the equation are placed after each same ion on the right side of the equation.The rest is pure mathematics. there are no brackets placed around the OH-.--> Al(OH)3 The 3 is simply written in front of the OH-. (3 positive charges) reacts with another ion. Brackets are also used for compounds (reactants) in the left side of equations. If one ion.

but these are one ton cylinders.Hard to tell. Do you have an eye wash and emergency shower? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 104 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Also notice that this picture is the only eye wash station that we found during our inspection of 10 different facilities. Notice the five gallon bucket of motor oil in the bottom picture.

When a chlorine residual test is taken. It is free chlorine that is much more effective as a disinfecting agent.Chemistry of Chlorination Chlorine can be added as sodium hypochlorite. This is called the chlorine demand.. All other things being equal. Let’s now look at how pH and temperature affect the ratio of hypochlorous acid to hypochlorite ions. either a total or a free chlorine residual can be read. Total chlorine residual = free + combined chlorine residual. Although the ratio of hypochlorous acid is greater at lower temperatures. As the temperature is decreased.): HOCI H + + OCI – Also expressed HOCI → H + + OCI – (hypochlorous acid) (hydrogen) (hypochlorite ion) The hypochlorite ion is a much weaker disinfecting agent than hypochlorous acid. turbidity. Types of Residual If water were pure. Total residual is all chlorine that is available for disinfection. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 105 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . pathogenic organisms are actually harder to kill. the ratio of hypochlorous acid increases. manganese. calcium hypochlorite or chlorine gas. But water is not 100% pure. Under normal water conditions. Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid but a strong disinfecting agent. about 100 times less effective. So let’s look now at how free. the measured amount of chlorine in the water should be the same as the amount added. The amount of hypochlorous acid depends on the pH and temperature of the water. When any of these is added to water. hypochlorous acid will also chemically react and break down into a hypochlorite ion (OCl . Temperature plays a small part in the acid ratio. which will combine chemically with the chlorine. chemical reactions occur as these equations show: Cl 2 + H 2 O → HOCI + HCI (chlorine gas) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (hydrochloric acid) CaOCI + H 2 O → 2HOCI + Ca(OH) (calcium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (calcium hydroxide) NaOCI + H 2 O → HOCI + Na(OH) (sodium hypochlorite) (water) (hypochlorous acid) (sodium hydroxide) All three forms of chlorine produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when added to water. etc. higher water temperatures and a lower pH are more conducive to chlorine disinfection. Naturally. total and combined chlorine are related. once chlorine molecules are combined with these interfering agents they are not capable of disinfection. There are always other substances (interfering agents) such as iron.

Parts 141 and 142. Residual Concentration/Contact Time (CT) Requirements Disinfection to eliminate fecal and coliform bacteria may not be sufficient to adequately reduce pathogens such as Giardia or viruses to desired levels. CT = Concentration (mg/L) x Time (minutes) The effective reduction in pathogens can be calculated by reference to standard tables of required CTs. 1 Ton and 150 pound cylinders.Free chlorine residual is a much stronger disinfecting agent. 1989). since monitoring for very low levels of pathogens in treated water is analytically very difficult. 40 CFR. most water regulating agencies will require that your daily chlorine residual readings be of free chlorine residual. Use of the "CT" disinfection concept is recommended to demonstrate satisfactory treatment. The CT concept. Therefore. and the contact time used is the T10 of the process unit (time for 10% of the water to pass). The residual is measured at the end of the process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 106 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . uses the combination of disinfectant residual concentration (mg/L) and the effective disinfection contact time (in minutes) to measure effective pathogen reduction. any additional chlorine will be considered free chlorine. June 29. Break-point chlorination is where the chlorine demand has been satisfied. The 1 ton is on a scale. as developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Register.

000 L (equivalent to 1 in 10. temperature. and 4-log reduction in viruses. Actual CT values are then compared to required CT values. Users may also calculate and record actual log reductions.1.100 cysts/100 L 4-log .5-log > 100 cysts/100 L > 5-log *Use geometric means of data to determine raw water Giardia levels for compliance.0 to be acceptable. and disinfectant residual. Required CT Value Required CT values are dependent on pH. The tables attached to Appendices A and B shall be used to determine the required CT. TABLE 4. These requirements are based on unpolluted raw water sources with Giardia levels of = 1 cyst/100 L. and a finished water goal of 1 cyst/100. Reduction Ratio = CT actual : CT required Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 107 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .000 risk of infection per person per year). temperature and the disinfectant used.4-log 10 cysts/100 L . along with the appropriate pH. residual concentration.Required Giardia/Virus Reduction All surface water treatment systems shall ensure a minimum reduction in pathogen levels: 3-log reduction in Giardia. The reduction Ratio must be greater than 1. Higher raw water contamination levels may require greater removals as shown on Table 4. Calculation and Reporting of CT Data Disinfection CT values shall be calculated daily using either the maximum hourly flow and the disinfectant residual at the same time.10 cysts/100 L 3-log . Results shall be reported as a reduction Ratio.1 Level of Giardia Reduction Raw Water Giardia Levels* Recommended Giardia Log Reduction < 1 cyst/100 L 3-log 1 cyst/100 L . or by using the lowest CT value if it is calculated more frequently.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 108 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . E. B. This is to prevent a build-up of excessive pressure and the possibility of cylinder rupture due to fire or high temperatures. F. H.Chlorinator Parts A. G. This metal plug will melt at 158 to 165o F. Ejector Check Valve Assembly Rate Valve Diaphragm Assembly Interconnection Manifold Rotometer Tube and Float Pressure Gauge Gas Supply Chlorine measurement devices or Rotometers Safety Information: There is a fusible plug on every chlorine tank. D. C.

spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators. Vacuum regulators shall also be located inside the chlorine room. standby chlorination equipment having the capacity to replace the largest unit shall be provided. In addition. or automatic residual controlled. which is the mechanical gas proportioning equipment. Methods of Control Chlorine feed system shall be automatic proportional controlled. The chlorinator. Standby Provision As a safeguard against malfunction and/or shut-down. The vacuum regulating valve(s) shall have positive shutdown in the event of a break in the downstream vacuum lines. Injectors should be located to minimize the length of pressurized chlorine solution lines. the feed rate of the chlorinator is controlled by a flow proportional signal and a residual analyzer signal to maintain particular chlorine residual in the water. In the automatic residual controlled system. A gas pressure relief system shall be included in the gas vacuum line between the vacuum regulator(s) and the chlorinator(s) to ensure that pressurized chlorine gas does not enter the gas vacuum lines leaving the chlorine room. A manual chlorine feed system may be installed for groundwater systems with constant flow rates. In the compound loop control system. As an alternative to chlorine gas. may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. or compound loop controlled. Anti-siphon valves shall be incorporated in the pump heads or in the discharge piping. the chlorine feeder is used in conjunction with a chlorine residual analyzer which controls the feed rate of the chlorine feeders to maintain a particular residual in the treated water.Chlorination Equipment Requirements For all water treatment facilities. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 109 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A chlorine room is where chlorine gas cylinders and/or ton containers are stored. In the automatic proportional controlled system. The gas pressure relief system shall vent pressurized gas to the atmosphere at a location that is not hazardous to plant personnel. For uninterrupted chlorination. Capacity The chlorinator shall have the capacity to dose enough chlorine to overcome the demand and maintain the required concentration of the "free" or "combined" chlorine. vent line should be run in such a manner that moisture collecting traps are avoided. chlorine gas vacuum lines should be run as close to the point of solution application as possible. the equipment adjusts the chlorine feed rate automatically in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant pre-established dosage for all rates of flow. gas chlorinators shall be equipped with an automatic changeover system. it is permissible to use hypochlorite with positive displacement pumping. chlorine gas under pressure shall not be permitted outside the chlorine room. from the chlorine room. For new and upgraded facilities.

Equipment shall be in close proximity to the access door(s) of the chlorine room. Tag the cylinder ”empty” and store upright and chained. floor area less than 3m2). Consideration should also be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where such cylinders are in use. Securing Cylinders All chlorine cylinders shall be securely positioned to safeguard against movement. protective clothing. Chlorine leak detection equipment should be connected to a remote audible and visual alarm system and checked on a regular basis to verify proper operation.g. As a minimum. Safety Equipment The facility shall be provided with personnel safety equipment including the following: Respiratory equipment. eyewash.Weigh Scales Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all plants using chlorine gas to permit an accurate reading of total daily weight of chlorine used. eye protection. General Safety Regulation . At large plants. Ton containers may not be stacked. Leak detection shall be provided for the chlorine rooms. scales of the recording and indicating type are recommended.Selection of Respiratory Protective Equipment. cylinder and/or ton repair kits. Chlorine Leak Detection Automatic chlorine leak detection and related alarm equipment shall be installed at all water treatment plants using chlorine gas. the chlorine gas leakage shall be contained within the chlorine room itself in order to facilitate a proper method of clean-up. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 110 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . gloves. safety shower. the ammonia will create a white colored smoke. Respiratory equipment shall be provided which has been approved under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. During an emergency if the chlorine room is unoccupied. a platform scale shall be provided. Chlorine leak detection equipment may not be required for very small chlorine rooms with an exterior door (e. You can use a spray solution of Ammonia or a rag soaked with Ammonia to detect a small Cl2 leak.. If there is a leak. Scales shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Leak detection equipment shall not automatically activate the chlorine room ventilation system in such a manner as to discharge chlorine gas.

and corrosion resistant and mechanically ventilated enclosure. In very large facilities. The chlorine gas storage room shall have provision for ventilation at thirty air changes per hour. The vents to the outside shall have insect screens. There should also be a 'panic bar' on the inside of the chlorine room door for emergency exit. the air being of such temperature as to not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. and be made of clear wire reinforced glass. Air inlets should be louvered near the ceiling. Heating Chlorine rooms shall have separate heating systems. the gas cylinders and/or the ton containers up to the vacuum regulators shall be housed in a gas-tight. and arranged to prevent the uncontrolled release of spilled gas. Viewing glass windows and panic button on the inside of door should also be provided. The air outlet from the room shall be 150 mm above the floor and the point of discharge located to preclude contamination of air inlets to buildings or areas used by people. The hot water heating system for the building will negate the need for a separate heating system for the chlorine room. if forced air system is used to heat the building. Access All access to the chlorine room shall only be from the exterior of the building. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 111 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cylinders or containers shall be protected to ensure that the chlorine maintains its gaseous state when entering the chlorinator. Windows should be at least 0. Scrubbers For facilities located within residential or densely populated areas. a separate storage room may be provided to simply store the chlorine gas cylinders. Separate switches for fans and lights shall be outside the room at all entrance or viewing points. with no connection to the line. and a clear wire-reinforced glass window shall be installed in such a manner as to allow the operator to inspect from the outside of the room.Chlorine Room Design Requirements Where gas chlorination is practiced. Storage of Chlorine Cylinders If necessary. The chlorine cylinder storage room shall have access either to the chlorine room or from the plant exterior. The chlorinator may or may not be located inside the chlorine room. well illuminated. consideration shall be given to provide scrubbers for the chlorine room. Visual inspection of the chlorination equipment from inside may be provided by the installation of glass window(s) in the walls of the chlorine room.20 m2 in area. The chlorine room shall be located at the ground floor level. The heat should be controlled at approximately 15oC. Ventilation Gas chlorine rooms shall have entirely separate exhaust ventilation systems capable of delivering one (1) complete air change per minute during periods of chlorine room occupancy only. entry into the chlorine rooms may be through a vestibule from outside.

Chlorine Questions and Answer Review Downstream from the point of post chlorination. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 112 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Also.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal. How is the effectiveness of disinfection determined? From the results of coliform testing. How often should chlorine storage ventilation equipment be checked? Daily.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. These side reactions complicate the use of chlorine for disinfecting purposes. True How does one determine the ambient temperature in a chlorine room? Use a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room.Chlorine Demand Chlorine combines with a wide variety of materials. Even brief exposure to 1. Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Their demand for chlorine must be satisfied before chlorine becomes available to accomplish disinfection. what should the concentration of a free chlorine residual be in a clear well or distribution reservoir? 0. True or False.5 mg/L.

it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with a stronger disinfectant. when fed in excess of stoichiometric amount needed. the preferred method of generation is to entrain chlorine gas into a packed reaction chamber with a 25% aqueous solution of sodium chlorite (NaClO2). Any installed ozonation system must include adequate ozone leak detection alarm systems. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide may be used for either taste and odor control or as a pre-disinfectant. This limits usable residuals of chlorine dioxide at the end of a process unit to less than 0. Ozone does not provide a system residual and should be used as a primary disinfectant only in conjunction with free and/or combined chlorine. In the production of chloramines. Ozone may also be used as an oxidant for removal of taste and odor or may be applied as a predisinfectant. Total residual oxidants (including chlorine dioxide and chlorite.Alternate Disinfectants Chloramine Chloramine is a very weak disinfectant for Giardia and virus reduction. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 113 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ozone Ozone is a very effective disinfectant for both Giardia and viruses. but excluding chlorate) shall not exceed 0.5 mg/L ClO2/chlorite/chlorate allowed in finished water. ozone may also produce its own oxygenated byproducts such as aldehydes. It is best utilized as a stable distribution system disinfectant. Warning: Dry sodium chlorite is explosive and can cause fires in feed equipment if leaking solutions or spills are allowed to dry out. the ammonia residuals in the finished water. chlorite and chlorate) during periods of extreme variations in the raw water supply.30 mg/L during normal operation or 0. Ozone does not produce chlorinated byproducts (such as trihalomethanes) but it may cause an increase in such byproduct formation if it is fed ahead of free chlorine. Chlorine dioxide provides good Giardia and virus protection but its use is limited by the restriction on the maximum residual of 0. Where chlorine dioxide is approved for use as an oxidant. residual levels measured through the chamber and an average ozone residual calculated. and an ozone offgas destruction system. ketones or carboxylic acids.5 mg/L. an accurate T10 value must be obtained for the contact chamber. should be limited to inhibit growth of nitrifying bacteria.50 mg/L (including chlorine dioxide. Ozone CT values must be determined for the ozone basin alone.

(AWWA) 4500-Cl G Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl H Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl I Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. only) Chlorine Residual by Low Level Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 18th. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Included in Standard Methods Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method II (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Ferrous Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. only) Chlorine Dioxide by the Amperometric Method I Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl E Included in Standard Methods 4500-Cl F Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. only) Included in Standard Methods 4500-ClO2 E Included in Standard Methods Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 114 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.Additional Drinking Water Methods (non EPA) for Chemical Parameters Method Method Focus - Title Order Number Source 4500-Cl B Chloride by Silver Nitrate Titration Chloride by Potentiometric Method Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 D Chlorine Dioxide by the DPD Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. only) Chlorine Residual by Iodometric Electrode Technique (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.D 4500-Cl D Chlorine Residual by Amperometric Titration (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by DPD Colorimetric Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) 4500-Cl. 18th. only) Chlorine Residual by Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method (Stage 1 DBP use SM 19th Ed. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th. 18th. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn. 18th & 19th Ed. 18th. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) 4500-ClO2 C Included in Standard Methods American Water Works Assn. 19th & 20th Editions Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. (AWWA) American Water Works Assn.

0 ppm. The following are the common analytical methods for chlorine dioxide: DPD glycine Method Type: Colorimetric Chlorophenol Red Colorimetric Direct Absorbance Colorimetric Iodometric Titration Titrametric Amperometric Titration Titrametric How It Works Glycine removes Cl2. new methods that are specific for chlorine dioxide are being developed. These titrations are repeated on the sparged sample. In addition. Consequently. The direct measurement of ClO2 is determined between 350 and 450 nM. ClO2 bleaches chlorophenol red indicator. Two aliquots are taken one is sparged with N2 to remove ClO2. The degree of bleaching is proportional to the concentration of ClO2. The pH is lower to 2. Oxidizers 0.0 ppm 100 to 1000 ppm Color. whose intensity is proportional to the ClO2 concentration.5 to 5. KI is added to the other sample at pH7 and titrated to a colorless endpoint. numerous test kits are readily available that can be adapted to measure chlorine dioxide. the color allowed to reform and the titration continued.Chlorine Dioxide Methods Most tests for chlorine dioxide rely upon its oxidizing properties. Range 0. turbidity Simple > 1 ppm < 1ppm Interferences None Oxidizers Complexity Equipment Required EPA Status Simple Moderate Spectrophotometer or Colorimeter Not approved Yes Moderate Titration equipment High Amperometric Titrator Approved Not approved Marginal Not approved Yes Approved Recommendation Marginal Marginal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 115 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .1 to 1. ClO2 forms a pink color.

fatal pulmonary edema. amber-colored liquid. Always store the empty in an upright. Yoke-type connectors should be used on a chlorine cylinder's valve assuming that the threads on the valve may be worn. The chemical equations best describes this reaction is Cl2 + H2O --> H+ + Cl. approved gasket on the connector.is the hypochlorite ion and the both of these two species are known as free available chlorine. * IDLH 10 PPM Physical and chemical properties of chlorine.200 pound chlorine cylinder: Secure each cylinder in an upright position. Monochloramine.5 times heavier than water and gaseous chlorine is about 2. warn and evacuate people in adjacent areas. It can be readily compressed into a clear. and mouth. chlorine gas should be used only in a well ventilated area so that any leaking gas cannot concentrate. Burning of eyes. they are the two main chemical species formed by chlorine in water and they known by collectively as hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion. In addition to protective clothing and goggles. and trichloramine are also known as Combined Available Chlorine. Solid Chlorine is about 1. nose. Emergency procedures in the case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. a noncombustible gas. nausea and vomiting. coughing. Never store near heat. pneumonia. * OSHA PEL 1 PPM . One reason for not adding it directly to the chamber is that the chamber has very little mixing due to low velocities.000 PPM The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for chlorine is 1 ppm (3 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3))) as a ceiling limit. The connection from a chlorine cylinder to a chlorinator should be replaced by using a new. the OCL. headaches and dizziness. it rapidly hydrolyzes. HOCl and OCl-. be sure that no one enters the leak area without adequate self-contained breathing equipment.Chlorine Exposure Limits This information is necessary to pass your certification exam. the chlorine pressure reducing valve should be located downstream of the evaporator when using an evaporator. This is the liquid chlorine supply line and it is going to be made into Chlorine gas. and a strong oxidizer. When chlorine gas is added to water. and skin blisters. Atomic number of Chlorine is 17. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. secure position with proper signage. Notify local emergency response team. Hypochlorous acid is the most germicidal of the chlorine compounds with the possible exception of chlorine dioxide. choking. attach the protective bonnet over the valve and firmly secure each cylinder. On a 1 or 2 ton cylinder.5 times heavier than air. Here are several safety precautions when using chlorine gas. sneezing. Cl is the elemental symbol and Cl2 is the chemical formula. Approved method for storing a 150 . Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 116 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A worker's exposure to chlorine shall at no time exceed this ceiling level. Always follow your manufacturer’s instructions. Here are several symptoms of chlorine exposure. dichloramine. A little Cl2 will corrode the teeth and then progress to throat cancer. Cl2 + NH4. A yellowish green.+ HOCl. Chlorine is added to the effluent before the contact chamber (before the clear well) for complete mixing. In water treatment.IDLH 10 PPM and Fatal Exposure Limit 1.

Such a program must include respirator selection. periodic workplace monitoring. sleeves. at a minimum. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of chlorine exceeds prescribed exposure limits. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users. and (4) during emergencies. and regular respirator maintenance. some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure.Respiratory Protection Section Conditions for Respirator Use Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. inspection. the regular training of personnel. (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels.. complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.134]. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 117 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to chlorine. consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a]. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve chlorine. gloves. Not recommended. degradation may occur. users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. However. the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.. Respiratory Protection Program Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that.g. and cleaning. The resistance of various materials to permeation by both chlorine liquid and chlorine gas is shown below: Material Breakthrough Time (hr) Chlorine Liquid Responder Chlorine gas butyl rubber neoprene Teflon viton saranex barricade chemrel responder trellchem HPS nitrile rubber H (PE/EVAL) polyethylene polyvinyl chloride. butyl) produced by different manufacturers. respirator fit testing. an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator. used. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with chlorine.g. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed. Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Material is estimated (but not tested) to provide at least four hours of protection. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e. To evaluate the use of these PPE materials with chlorine. (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e. Personal Protective Equipment Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected. In addition.

especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments. Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day..Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long. caustic.g. workers should wear work uniforms. aprons. or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes. In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel e. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk. minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent. SCBA Fit Test Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 118 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness. coveralls. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. encapsulating suits).

it degrades over time. Product Stability The oxidizing nature of this substance means that it should be handled with extreme care. As NaOCl is relatively unstable. • Chlorine-producing reaction when solution pH falls below 6. • Exposure of the solution to sunlight. There are Three Ways in Which NaOCl Solutions Degrade • Chlorate-forming reaction due to age. set of equipment installation configurations and operating conditions. temperature. copper or nickel. There are Many Factors that Effect the Stability of a NaOCl Solution • Initial solution strength. such as iron. light and minor reduction in pH.Recommendations for Preparing/Handling/Feeding Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions As a result of the pressures brought to bear by Health and Safety requirements. One of these alternative forms is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). or metal oxides are brought into contact with the solution. • pH solution. The handling and storage of NaOCl presents the plant with a new and sometimes unfamiliar. • Temperature of the solution. some users of gas have chosen to seek alternative forms of disinfectants for their water and wastewater treatment plants. • Oxygen-producing reaction that occurs when metals. This is often purchased commercially at 10 to 15% strength. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 119 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Some iron bacteria use dissolved iron in the water as a food source. bacteria growth will coat the inside of the well casing. iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria (as well as other bacteria) can exist naturally in groundwater. They include: Slime growth Rotten egg odor Increased staining. as little as 0. iron bacteria are probably present. Iron bacteria aggravate the problem by creating an environment that encourages the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the well. To thrive. creating problems such as: Reduced well yield Restricted water flow in distribution lines Staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Plugging of water treatment equipment “Rotten egg” odor. Iron bacteria leave this slimy by-product on almost every surface the water is in contact with. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 120 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . iron bacteria require 0. However. Slime Growth The easiest way to check a well and water system for iron bacteria is to examine the inside surface of the toilet flush tank. The iron naturally present in the water can be the cause.Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock chlorination is a relatively inexpensive and straightforward procedure used to control bacteria in water wells. Sulfate-reducing bacteria prefer to live underneath the slime layer that the iron bacteria form. Ideal Conditions for Iron Bacteria Water wells provide ideal conditions for iron bacteria. Many types of bacteria can contaminate wells. Bacteria may be introduced during drilling of a well or when pumps are removed for repair and laid on the ground. Rotten Egg Odor Sulfate-reducing bacteria can cause a rotten egg odor in water.01 mg/L dissolved iron and a temperature range of 5 to 15°C. but the most common are iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Although not a cause of health problems in humans. If you see a greasy slime or growth. the water flowing in will also bring in nutrients that enhance bacterial growth. Note: All iron staining problems are not necessarily caused by iron bacteria.5-4 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. Signs of Iron and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria There are a number of signs that indicate the presence of iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria. water piping and pumping equipment. When a well is pumped. A well creates a direct path for oxygen to travel into the ground where it would not normally exist.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 121 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . To accomplish this. a large volume of super chlorinated water is siphoned down the well to displace all the water in the well and some of the water in the formation around the well. For wells greater than 100 feet deep or with a larger casing diameter. Checklist to Determine an Iron or Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Problem Greasy slime on inside surface of toilet flush tank Increased red staining of plumbing fixtures and laundry Sulfur odor Reduced well yield Restricted water flow Mixing a Chlorine Solution Add a half gallon of bleach to a clean pail with about 3 gallons of water. To be effective. This is generally sufficient to disinfect a 4 inch diameter well 100 feet deep or less. increase the amount of bleach proportionately. Use the following checklist to determine if you have an iron or sulfate-reducing bacteria problem. through the wellbore and the distribution system) is exposed to water which has a concentration of chlorine strong enough to kill iron and sulfate reducing bacteria. use 2 to 4 gallons of bleach added directly to the well. Please note that many dug wells are difficult or impossible to disinfect due t o their unsanitary construction. The last two problems can be signs of other problems as well. you must use enough chlorine to disinfect the entire cased section of the well and adjacent water-bearing formation. Others produce small amounts of sulfuric acid which can corrode the well casing and pumping equipment. Bacteria collect in the pore spaces of the formation and on the casing or screened surface of the well. It can create a staining problem where one never existed before or make an iron staining problem worse as time goes by. the entire system (from the water-bearing formation. Effectiveness of Shock Chlorination With shock chlorination. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Shock Chlorination Method Shock chlorination is used to control iron and sulfate-reducing bacteria and to eliminate fecal coliform bacteria in a water system.Some of these bacteria produce hydrogen sulfide as a by-product. resulting in a “rotten egg” or sulfur odor in the water. The first three are very specific problems related to these bacteria. If you have a dug well with a diameter greater than 18 inches. Increased Staining Problems Iron bacteria can concentrate iron in water sources with low iron content. shock chlorination must disinfect the following: The entire well depth The formation around the bottom of the well The pressure system Some water treatment equipment The distribution system. To be effective.

0 . This is to dislodge and remove the bacterial slime. monitor the water discharge for sediment. Store sufficient water to meet farm and family needs for 8 to 48 hours.3 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal.8 1.6 8 (200) 4. subtract the non-pumping water level from the total depth of the well. the pump may have to be removed and chemical solutions added to the well and vigorous agitation carried out using special equipment. In more severe cases. (30 cm) per 1 ft.1 . but it will hold it in check. A clean galvanized stock tank or pickup truck box lined with a 4 mil thick plastic sheet is suitable. The recommended amount of water to use is twice the volume of water present in the well casing.095 . (30 cm) per 1 ft. you may have to repeat the procedure each spring and fall as a regular maintenance procedure.7 . To control the iron bacteria.4 10. If your well has never been shock chlorinated or has not been done for some time. applied two or three times.36 .1 5.2 6 (150) 2.2 19. extra 1000 L 3. You might also consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean and flush the well before chlorinating in order to remove any buildup on the casing. Pump the recommended amount of water (see Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM) into clean storage.042 7.74 127 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate your well.7 286 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 122 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . When pumping out the chlorinated solution.The procedure described below does not completely eliminate iron bacteria from the water system. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Casing Diameter Volume of Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite L needed L need Dry weight1 Water needed per 1 ft.9 . This should be done by a drilling contractor.16 27. (30 cm) per 1 ft. before you notice a significant improvement in the water. To measure how much water is in the casing. (30 cm) of water in the casing of water of water of water (in) (mm) (gal. extra 1000 L 1. Caution: If your well is low yielding or tends to pump any silt or sand.091 15. it may be necessary to use a stronger chlorine solution. See the example below.21 . Shock Chlorination Procedure for Small Drilled Wells A modified procedure is also provided for large diameter wells.) (L) (L) (L) (g) 4 (100) 1. you must be very careful using the following procedure because over pumping may damage the well.

This will ensure all the plumbing fixtures are chlorinated. to prevent damage. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution before placing it in the well. Make sure to direct the water away from sensitive plants or landscaping. Since a dry chemical is being used. and you are using 12% industrial sodium hypochlorite. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 123 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .12% industrial sodium hypochlorite and 70% high test hypochlorite are available from: • Water treatment suppliers • Drilling contractor • Swimming pool maintenance suppliers • Dairy equipment suppliers • Some hardware stores.091 L per ft. The longer the contact time. Calculating Amount of Chlorine Example If your casing is 6 in. Well pits are no longer legal to construct. Shock Chlorination — Well Maintenance Siphon this solution into the well. washing machine.091 L x 100 ft. Casing diameter_______ Chlorine strength_______ L needed per 1 ft. Caution: Chlorine is corrosive and can even be deadly. the better the results. you will use 0. If your well is located in a pit. Using Table 1. The small amount of chlorine in the distribution system will not harm the septic tank. Allow the hot water tank to fill completely. of water in casing = _______ L of chlorine. furnace humidifier) until the water coming out has a chlorine odor. calculate the amount of chlorine you will need for your well. Use a drilling contractor who has the proper equipment and experience to do the job safely. you must make sure there is proper ventilation during the chlorination procedure. Open an outside tap and allow the water to run until the chlorine odor is greatly reduced. you will require . Calculate the amount of chlorine that is required.1 L of 12% chlorine. If you have 100 ft. Amount of Chlorine Required to Obtain a Chlorine Concentration of 1000 PPM. Consult your water treatment equipment supplier to find out if any part of your water treatment system should be bypassed. Leave the chlorine solution in the well and distribution system for 8 to 48 hours. Flush the chlorine solution from the hot water heater and household distribution system. of water_______ x _______ ft. Open each hydrant and faucet in the distribution system (including all appliances that use water such as dishwasher. of water in the casing. of water in the casing. Mix the chlorine with the previously measured water to obtain a 1000 ppm chlorine solution. Backwash and regenerate any water treatment equipment. = 9.

16 L =_________ ______ft. x 4. Any floating debris should be removed from the well and the casing should be scrubbed or hosed to disturb the sludge buildup. =_______ ________ft.6 g =________ 8 (200) _______ft. x 0. This circulates the chlorinated water through the pressure system and back down the well. =_______ ________ft. x 286 g =________ Since a dry chemical is being used. Continue for at least 15 minutes. Calculate the amount of chlorine you require per foot of water in the casing and add directly into the well.1 gal. Calculating Water and Chlorine Requirements for Shock Chlorination Complete the following table using your own figures to determine how much water and chlorine you need to shock chlorinate your well. Pump 200 gal.095 L =________ _______ft.36 L =________ _______ft. consider hiring a drilling contractor to thoroughly clean the well prior to chlorinating. (30 cm) L per 1 ft. (30 cm) (in) (mm) in the casing of water of water of water 4 (100) _______ft. _______ft. x 27. x 7.7 L =________ _______ft. Follow these steps to shock chlorinate a large diameter bored well. This is dangerous. needed per Dry weight 1 ft. it should be mixed with water to form a chlorine solution prior to placing it in the well. x 1.74 L =_________ ______ft. The chlorinated water is used to force some of the chlorine solution into the formation around the well.4 gal. x 15. Siphon the 200 gal. x 3. x 2. x 127 g =________ 36 (900)2 extra 200 gal. Complete the procedure as described in Steps 5 to 9 for drilled wells. x 0. x 0. of water L per 1 ft.If you have an old well that has not been routinely chlorinated.042 L =________ _______ft.4 kg of 70% calcium hypochlorite) into the 200 gal. x 0. =_______ ________ft. x 0. of stored water. Don't mix acids with chlorine.7 L =_________ ______ft.091 L =________ ______ft.2 gal.3 g =________ 24 (600)2 extra 200 gal. (30 cm) per 1 ft. Casing Volume of 5 1/4% 12% Industrial 170% Diameter Water Needed Domestic Sodium High Test Chlorine Bleach Hypochlorite Hypochlorite Imperial gal. Modified Procedure for Large Diameter Wells Due to the large volume of water in many bored wells the above procedure can be impractical. x 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 124 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . _______ft. bleach and water solution prepared in Steps 1 and 2 into the well. (1000 L) of water into a clean storage tank at the well head.2 g =________ 6 (150) _______ft. x 0.21 L =________ _______ft.) Circulate chlorine added to the water in the well by hooking a garden hose up to an outside faucet and placing the other end back down the well.8 L =________ _______ft. x 1. (Note that the 70% hypochlorite powder should be dissolved in water to form a solution before placing in the well. Mix 20 L of 5 1/4% domestic chlorine bleach (or 8 L of 12% bleach or 1. x 0. A more practical way to shock chlorinate a bored well is to mix the recommended amount of chlorine right in the well.

What Should I do if my Well Water is Contaminated with Bacteria? First. they are no longer considered sanitary construction. Anytime work is performed on the plumbing or pump. Spring water supplies are the most frequently contaminated. Concentrations of chlorine ranging from 50 to 200 mg/1 are used in the shock chlorination process." The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24 hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready to be used again. rather the well is acting to funnel contaminants down into the groundwater. the entire water system should be disinfected with chlorine. Simply pulling the pump out of the well. This is 100 to 400 times the amount of chlorine found in "city water. Studies have found that over 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria. Although well pits were the common method of construction several years ago. Keeping the plumbing system clean is an important part of maintaining a sanitary water supply. Improving protection of a well or spring from the inflow of surface water is an important option to consider if the supply is contaminated with bacteria. setting it on the grass to work on it. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 125 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine is called shock chlorination. with over 70 percent containing coliform bacteria. don't panic'! Bacterial contamination is very common. It is important to remember that the groundwater is not necessarily contaminated in these cases. At no time should the water be exposed to the ground surface. A properly protected well is evidenced by the well casing extending above the surface of the ground and the ground sloping away from the well to prevent water from collecting around the casing. A properly protected spring is developed underground and the water channeled to a sealed spring box. and returning it to the well is enough to contaminate the well with bacteria.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 126 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Periodic shock chlorination also may be effective in reducing an iron bacteria problem. The amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined by the amount of water standing in the well. Table 3 lists the amount of chlorine laundry bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) that is needed for wells. If in doubt. it is better to use more chlorine than less.

Colilert is easy to read. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 127 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . as positive coliform samples turn yellow. and when E. coli is present. Simply add the Colilert reagent to the sample. incubate for 24 hours.Bacteriological Monitoring Section Colilert tests simultaneously detects and confirms coliforms and E. and read results. coli in water samples in 24 hours or less. samples fluoresce under UV light.

IDEXX’s HPC method is used for the quantification of heterotrophic plate counts in water. The MPN values generated by the SimPlate for HPC method correlate with the Pour Plate method using Total Plate Count Agar incubated at 35o for 48 hours as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th Edition.SimPlate for HPC Multi Dose Method. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 128 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The number of fluorescing wells corresponds to a Most Probable Number (MPN) of total bacteria in the original sample.

Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the testing laboratory within six hours (in an ice chest). Indicator bacteria signal possible fecal contamination and therefore. fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. Check for a reddish-brown slime inside a toilet tank or where water stands for several days. Carefully open the sample container and hold the outside of the cap. They are used to monitor for pathogens because of the difficulties in determining the presence of specific disease-causing microorganisms. Mailing bacteria samples is not recommended because laboratory analysis results are not as reliable. Run the water for five minutes to clear the water lines and bring in fresh water. Indicators in common use today for routine monitoring of drinking water include total coliforms. Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check the lab's schedule. a de-chlorination agent. Notice the white powder inside the bottle. A water test is not needed for identification. The coliform bacteria group is used as an indicator organism to determine the biological quality of your water. Take the sample from an inside faucet with the aerator removed. often referred to as a Standard Sample. coli). The routine microbiological analysis of your water is for coliform bacteria. Be careful not to wash-out this chemical while sampling. That is Sodium Thiosulfate. occur in high densities in their natural environment and are easily cultured in relatively simple bacteriological media. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 129 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 100 mls. Notice the custody seal on the bottle.Bacteriological Monitoring Most waterborne disease and illnesses have been related to the microbiological quality of drinking water. the potential presence of pathogens. Do not touch or contaminate the inside of the bottle or cap. Fill the container and replace the top. Iron bacteria forms an obvious slime on the inside of pipes and fixtures. Sterilize by spraying a 5% Clorox or alcohol solution or flaming the end of the tap with disposable butane lighter. The presence of an indicator or pathogenic bacteria in your drinking water is an important health concern. Indicator bacteria are usually harmless. Bacteria Sampling Water samples for bacteria tests must always be collected in a sterile container. Standard Sample Coliform Bacteria Bac-T Bac-T Sample Bottle.

Please indicate in the space provided on the laboratory form the type of sample. The three (3) types of samples are: 1. Noncommunity and nontransient noncommunity public water systems will sample at the same frequency as a like sized community public water system if: 1. Repeat: Samples collected following a ‘coliform present’ routine sample. It serves 25 or more daily population and utilizes surface water as a source or ground water under the direct influence of surface water as its source. 2. Collection should be in accordance with an approved sampling plan. Routine Coliform Sampling The number of routine samples and frequency of collection for community public water systems is shown in Table 3-1. EPA and your local environmental or health division: Methods The MMO-MUG test. However.S.000 daily population and has ground water as a source. The number of repeat samples to be collected is based on the number of routine samples you normally collect. It has more than 1. Examples would be a sample collected after repairs to the system and before it is placed back into operation or a sample collected at a wellhead prior to a disinfection injection point. Types of Water Samples It is important to properly identify the type of sample you are collecting. the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. coli and report their presence or absence. and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Routine: Samples collected on a routine basis to monitor for contamination. Special: Samples collected for other reasons. noncommunity water systems with less than 1.Coliform Bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. If coliforms are present. The sample results will be reported by the laboratories as simply coliforms present or absent. Noncommunity and nontransient. Laboratory Procedures The laboratory may perform the total coliform analysis in one of four methods approved by the U.000 daily population and groundwater as a source will sample on a quarterly basis. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 130 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the laboratory will analyze the sample further to determine if these are fecal coliforms or E. 3. or 2. a product marketed as Colilert is the most common.

d. four (4) repeat samples must be collected.000 70 70. 2.001 to 600. Within five (5) service connections downstream from the original sampling location. c.001-2. 4.500 2 2.701 to 7.000 40 41.000 100 130.201 to 21.Samples per month up to 1. Elsewhere in the distribution system or at the wellhead.500 9 8.000 210 600. it must collect five (5) routine samples the following month or quarter regardless of whether an MCL violation occurred or if repeat sampling was coliform absent.100 4 4. if necessary.001 to 96.001 to 41.000 1 1.900 10 12. the repeat samples must be collected from the same sampling location over a four-day period or on the same day.001 to 50.000 30 33.900 5 4. For systems collecting two (2) or more routine samples per month. 5. 3. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 131 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .500 20 21.700 7 6.000 90 96.001 to 220.001 to 70.000 240 Repeat Sampling Repeat sampling replaces the old check sampling with a more comprehensive procedure to try to identify problem areas in the system.501-3. All repeat samples are included in the MCL compliance calculation.801 to 6.No.000 50 50.301 to 4.600 8 7.800 6 5.001 to 320.001 to 450. b.300 3 3. The follow-up for repeat sampling is: 1. of Samples per System Population Persons served .000 150 320. three (3) repeat samples must be collected. If the system has only one service connection.901 to 5.001 to 33. 6. Whenever a routine sample is total coliform or fecal coliform present a set of repeat samples must be collected within 24 hours after being notified by the laboratory.001 to 59.001 to 780.001 to 83.000 180 450.901 to 17.501 to 12.000 120 220.101 to 4. The original sampling location of the coliform present sample.000 25 25. If only one routine sample per month or quarter is required. Repeat samples must be collected from: a. If a system which normally collects fewer than five (5) routine samples per month has a coliform present sample.000 80 83.601 to 8.200 15 17.000 60 59. Within five (5) service connections upstream from the original sampling location.001 to 130.501 to 25.

The first is for total coliform.coli.. If you plan to shock the entire system. These standards are known as maximum contaminant levels (MCL). You conduct the monitoring to make sure your water is in compliance with the MCL. the second is an acute risk to health violation characterized by the confirmed presence of fecal coliform or E.Positive or Coliform Present Results What do you do when your sample is positive or coliform present? When you are notified of a positive test result you need to contact either the Drinking Water Program or your local county health department within 24 hours or by the next business day after the results are reported to you. Quebec Colony Counter Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 132 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. Conduct a cross connection program to identify all connections with non-potable water sources. calculate the total gallonage of storage and distribution. Some examples of typical corrective measures to coliform problems are: 1. risk assessments and factors. 6. the water is safe to drink with no threat to human health. Shock chlorination of a ground water well. 5. Eliminate all of these connections or provide approved back flow prevention devices. review your operation and be sure to maintain a detectable residual (0. Conduct routine distribution line flushing. The MCLs are based on extensive research on toxicological properties of the contaminants. Install blowoffs on all dead end lines. short term (acute) exposure and long term (chronic) exposure. Perform routine cleaning of the storage system.). 3. If you continuously chlorinate. It is very important to initiate the repeat sampling immediately as the corrective measures will be based on those results. The recommended dose of 5% household bleach is 2 cups per 100 gallons of water in the well..2 mg/l free chlorine) at all times in the distribution system. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLS) State and federal laws establish standards for drinking water quality. Under normal circumstances when these standards are being met. There are two types of MCL violations for coliform bacteria. 2. After you have contacted an agency for assistance you will be instructed as to the proper repeat sampling procedures and possible corrective measures for solving the problem. This list provides some basic operation and maintenance procedures that could help eliminate potential bacteriological problems. etc. 4. When a particular contaminant exceeds its MCL a potential health threat may occur. This should be done anytime the bell is opened for repair (pump replacement. Upgrade the wellhead area to meet current construction standards as set your state environmental or health agency. The Drinking Water Program contracts with many of the local health departments to provide assistance to water systems.

.Boil mixture of nutrient agar and nutrient broth for 15 minutes. and colony morphology easily can be discerned and compared to published descriptions. submerged colonies often are slower growing and are difficult to transfer. 2. or single cells.Pour approximately 15 ml of medium in each Petri dish. let medium solidify. chains. Colonies can be transferred quickly. 3.Heterotrophic Plate Count Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) --. *Duplicate samples Computing and Reporting: Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 133 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Pipet 0. starting with the highest dilution. clusters. 6. Pour Plate Method The colonies produced are relatively small and compact. then cool for about 20 minutes. 3.formerly known as the standard plate count.Count all colonies on selected plates promptly after incubation. Material i ) Apparatus Glass rod Erlenmeyer flask Graduated Cylinder Pipet Petri dish Incubator ii ) Reagent and sample Reagent-grade water Nutrient agar Sample Procedure* 1. Spread Plate Method All colonies are on the agar surface where they can be distinguished readily from particles and bubbles.1 ml of each dilution onto surface of pre-dried plate. 2. consider only plates having 30 to 300 colonies in determining the plate count. showing less tendency to encroach on each other than those produced by surface growth. 5. Colonies may arise from pairs.Incubate plates at 35oC for 48h. 4. all of which are included in the term "colony-forming units" (CFU). Methods There are three methods for standard plate count: 1. is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria and measuring changes during water treatment and distribution in water or in swimming pools.Distribute inoculum over surface of the medium using a sterile bent glass rod. Membrane Filter Method This method permits testing large volumes of volume of low-turbidity water and is the method of choice for lowcount waters. On the other hand.

In contrast. Thoroughly mix all samples by rapidly making about 25 complete up-and-down movements. Pre-dry plates inverted so that there is a 2 to 3 g water loss overnight with the lids on. 0.05 g of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. 0. 1.3 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate.5 g of yeast extract.5 g of soluble starch. Sample Application: Uncover pre-dried agar plate. 0. dilution. Preparation of Spread Plates: Immediately after agar sterilization. Prepare at least duplicate plates for each volume of sample or dilution examined. b) If plates from all dilutions of any sample have no colony. use the plate(s) having a count nearest 300 colonies. 2) Ethanol: As needed for flame sterilization. Pipet: Glass. pour 15 mL of R2A agar into sterile 100 x 15 Petri dishes. Minimize time plate remains uncovered. Adjust pH to 7. 0.2 with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate before adding agar. 0. autotrophic organisms use inorganic carbon sources. After an incubation period. let agar solidify. Quebec Colony Counter Hand Tally Counter Reagents: 1) R2A Agar: Dissolve and dilute 0. date and any other information before sample application. Sterilize before using. The Heterotrophic Plate Count provides a technique to quantify the bacteriological activity of a sample. 0.3 g of sodium pyruvate.1 or 0. 0. Heat to dissolve agar and sterilize at 121 C for 15 minutes. report the count as less than 1/actual volume of sample in dish estimated CFU/ml. Use pre-dried plates immediately or store up to two weeks in sealed plastic bags at 4 degrees C.5 mL sample onto surface of pre-dried agar plate. and 15. 3. Heterotrophic Plate Count (Spread Plate Method) Heterotrophic organisms utilize organic compounds as their carbon source (food or substrate).1 mL.0 g of agar to 1 L. a)If there is no plate with 30 to 300 colonies. and one or more plates have more than 300 colonies. c) Avoid creating fictitious precision and accuracy when computing CFU by recording only the first two left-hand digits.5 g of glucose. Sample Preparation: Mark each plate with sample type.5 g of casamino acids. Pipet 0. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 134 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .CFU/ml = colonies counted / actual volume of sample in dish. The R2A agar provides a medium that will support a large variety of heterotrophic bacteria. a bacteriological colony count provides an estimate of the concentration of heterotrophs in the sample of interest. Laboratory Equipment: 100 x 15 Petri Dishes Turntable Glass Rods: Bend fire polished glass rod 45 degrees about 40 mm from one end.5 g of proteose peptone No. Sterilize before using.

1 mL divided by 100). distribute the sample over surface of the medium by rotating the dish by hand on a turntable. Compute bacterial count per milliliter by the following equation: CFU mL = colonies counted actual volume of sample in dish. Data Table for Samples Sample ID Volume of Sample. use the plate(s) with a count closest to 300. which plates meet these criteria. Using a sterile bent glass rod. Based on these criteria. Put cover back on Petri dish and invert for duration of incubation time. Let the sample be absorbed completely into the medium before incubating.1 mL of a 100:1 and 10000:1 dilution of a sample both turned up with no colonies formed. Feel free to justify your comments using statistical analysis. 3. Counting and Recording: After incubation period. Use hand tally counter to maintain count. Calculate the CFU per mL for each plate. the reported result would be <1 divided by the largest sample volume 0. 2. comment on your final results for each sample type as well as the quality of your application of this analysis technique. promptly count all colonies on the plates. use your calculated results to report the CFU per mL for each sample. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the largest sample volume used. report the count as less than one (<1) divided by the sample volume put on that plate (remember to account for any dilution of that sample.001 mL (0. mL To report counts on a plate with no colonies. uncover plate and place on Quebec colony counter. To count. The aim of diluting samples is to produce a plate having 30 to 300 colonies. The final reported result for the sample is <1000 CFU per mL. mL Colonies Counted per plate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 135 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . In the conclusion of your lab report. Also. Example: if 0. Count all colonies on the plate. Incubate at 28 degrees C for 7 days. regardless of size.) If plates of all dilutions for a sample have no colonies. If no sample produces a plate with a count in this range. Report the number of colony forming units (CFU) found on each plate. comment on the general accuracy of this analytical technique and the factors that affect its accuracy and or applicability. Remove Petri dishes from incubator for counting.Record Volume of Sample Used. Assignment: 1.

Any violation of the MCL for total coliforms. Violation of the MCL for nitrate. no more than five (5) percent may be Positive. Acute Risk to Health (Fecal Coliforms and E. Check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. check with your state drinking water section or health department for further instructions. In other words. A routine analysis shows total and fecal coliform or E. the second positive result (repeat or routine) in a month or quarter results in an MCL violation. Coli) An acute risk to human health violation occurs if either one of the following happen: 1. For systems which collect 40 or more samples per month. coli present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates total coliform present. no more than one sample per month may be positive. A public notice is also required whenever a water system fails to comply with its monitoring and/or reporting requirements or testing procedure. Each public notice must contain certain information. as defined by the rules. The timing and place of posting of the public notice depends on whether an acute risk is present to users. This will inform users when there is a problem with the system and give them information. The following are acute violations: 1. Public Notice A public notice is required to be issued by a water system whenever it fails to comply with an applicable MCL or treatment technique or fails to comply with the requirements of any scheduled variance or permit. This type of contamination can pose an immediate threat to human health and notice must be given as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours after notification from your laboratory of the test results. An acute health risk violation requires the water system to provide public notice via radio and television stations in the area. For systems which collect fewer than 40 samples per month. depending on your water system type and state rule. 3. 2. coli present. A routine analysis shows total coliform present and is followed by a repeat analysis which indicates fecal coliform or E. Certain language maybe mandatory for both these violations and is included in your state drinking water rule. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 136 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 2. when fecal coliforms or E. be issued properly and in a timely manner and contain certain mandatory language.Total Coliforms This MCL is based on the presence of total coliforms and compliance is on a monthly or quarterly basis. Any outbreak of waterborne disease. coli are present in the distribution system.

Solution feeders shall be of the positive displacement type and constructed of material compatible with the fluoride solution being fed. The fluoride solution should be added to the water supply at a point where the fluoride will not be removed by any following treatment processes and where it will be mixed with the water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 137 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 3. It is undesirable to inject the fluoride compound or solution directly on-line unless there are provisions for adequate mixing. Alarm signals are recommended to detect faulty operation of equipment. 5. Vacuum dust filters shall be installed with the hoppers to prevent dust from rising into the room when the hopper is filled. 7. and. Feeders shall be provided with anti-siphon valves on the discharge side. positive anti-siphon breakers other than valves shall be provided. 9. and be capable of feeding over the entire pumpage range of the plant.Fluoride Some water providers will add Fluoride to the water to help prevent cavities in children. 2. Dissolving chambers are required for use with dry feeders. a suitable weighing mechanism shall be provided to check the daily amount of chemical feed. Where a dry feeder of the volumetric or gravimetric type is used. Hoppers should be designed to hold a 24 hour supply of the fluoride compound and designed such that the dust hazard to operators is minimized. A "day tank" capable of holding a 24 hour supply of solution should be provided. All equipment shall be sized such that it will be operated in the 20 to 80 percent range of the scale. The following chemical feed practices apply: 1. The construction material of the dissolving chamber and associated piping shall be compatible with the fluoride solution to be fed. Chemical Feed The equipment used for feeding the fluoride to water shall be accurately calibrated before being placed in operation. Too much Fluoride will mottle the teeth. and the dissolving chambers shall be designed such that at the required rate of feed of the chemical the solution strength will not be greater than 1/4 of that of a saturated solution at the temperature of the dissolving water. 6. and at all times shall be capable of maintaining a rate of feed within 5% of the rate at which the machine is set. 4. The weight of the daily amount of fluoride fed to water shall be accurately determined. 11. 8. Wherever possible. 10.

Alternate Compounds Any one of the following fluoride compounds may be used: 1. the fluoride content of the raw and fluoridated water determined by laboratory analysis. 3. Other fluoride compounds may be used if approved by the EPA. The storage area should be in close proximity to the feeder. the daily weight of fluoride compound in stock. and. and the storage area shall be marked "FLUORIDE CHEMICALS ONLY". 3. whereby the fluoride feed rate is automatically adjusted in accordance with the flow changes to provide a constant preestablished dosage for all rates of flow. or (2) automatic/ residual controlled. 4. and the operation of the feeding equipment is to be controlled. On new installations or during start-ups of existing installations. whereby a continuous automatic fluoride analyzer determines the residual fluoride level and adjusts the rate of feed accordingly. kept relatively dry. the daily weight of fluoride compound in the feeder. Hydrofluosilicic acid. 3. the daily reading of the water meter which controls the fluoridation equipment or that which determines the amount of water to which the fluoride is added. Sampling In keeping the fluoride records. 2. if using bagged chemical. Control of the feed rate shall be automatic/ proportional controlled. with the frequency of measurement as follows: (i) treated water being analyzed continuously or once daily. the following sampling procedures are required: 1. Sodium fluoride. EPA may require other information that is deemed necessary. the daily volume of water fluoridated. 5. Chemical Storage and Ventilation The fluoride chemicals shall be stored separately from other chemicals.Metering Metering of the total water to be fluoridated shall be provided. weekly samples of raw and treated water for a period of not less than four consecutive weeks. 6. These records shall include: 1. to allow circulation of air and to keep the containers off the floor. 2. In addition to the reports required. A sample of raw water and a sample of treated water shall be forwarded to an approved independent laboratory for fluoride analysis once a month. whereby the feed rate is controlled by a flow proportional signal and residual analyzer signal to maintain a constant residual. or. Record of Performance Accurate daily records shall be kept. 2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 138 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . and provided with pallets. or compound loop controlled. the daily weight of the fluoride compound fed to the water. and (ii) raw water being analyzed at least once a week. Sodium silicofluoride.

Personal protective equipment shall be used during the clean-up. and. or other similar safety devices. 6. Repair and Maintenance Upon notifying the appropriate local board of health. all equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned and stored in an area free of fluoride dusts. After use. Records shall be maintained and submitted during the period that the equipment is not in operation. At all installations. Chemical respirators. 2. chemical safety face shields. and protective clothing shall be worn by all personnel when handling or being exposed to the fluoride dust. rubber gloves. but shall be placed in operation immediately after the repair or replacement is complete. All protective devices. anti-siphon devices. 7. 4. Individual dust respirators. 3. chemical safety goggles and acid proof aprons shall be worn where acids are handled. boots. Wet or damp cleaning methods shall be employed wherever practicable. This shall be done either by use of day tanks or containers. rubber gloves. 5. All equipment shall be maintained at a high standard of efficiency. and appropriate covers shall be maintained over all fluoride solutions. Safety features shall also be provided to prevent spills and overflows. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 139 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 8. shall be inspected periodically and maintained in good operating condition. over-riding flow switches. and all areas and appliances shall be kept clean and free of dust. determining the length and duration of impulses. and hands shall be washed after the equipment is stored. a fluoridation program may be discontinued when necessary to repair or replace equipment. sizing of pump and feeders. Rubber articles shall be washed in water. safety features are to be considered and the necessary controls built into the installation to prevent an overdose of fluoride in the water. whether for routine or emergency use.Safety The following safety procedures shall be maintained: 1.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 140 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

making sure it represents the customer’s actual concern. Collecting and Identifying Particulates Typically. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 141 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ←Granular Rust Under a microscope. When samples have low turbidity. A container may be left with the customer for sample collection during normal tap use. household plumbing.Water Quality What’s That Stuff in the Tap Water? by Jameel Rahman and Gary A. No. Particulates can also accumulate in the toilet tank. Burlingame is the supervisor of water quality and research. which can be stored in a Plexiglas Petri dish. preferably 75×. Particulate matter can be extracted from water samples by using nitrocellulose membrane filters. examine the particulate matter captured on a filter. by permission. Copyright 2003. American Water Works Association. illuminate the particulates from above with a fiber-optic light. the water supplier—at least in customers’ eyes—is usually “guilty until proven innocent.burlingame@phila. For optimum observation. 2 (February 2003).45 µm filter can be used if the water’s colloidal matter doesn’t clog the filter before enough particulate material is collected for analysis. Vol. water distribution systems. and water treatment. Contact Burlingame at gary. Use a zoom microscope with at least 40×. Sometimes enough material for analysis can be collected from faucet aerators. Although particles can come from cold or hot water systems. Enough particulate matter can usually be captured with a water sample of approximately 250 mL. 29. The most important step in solving a particulate complaint is to collect as much suspect material as possible. Burlingame Jameel Rahman is a retired analytical chemist supervisor for the Materials Testing Laboratory at the Philadelphia Water Department.gov or (215) 685-1417. A 0. the suspended matter customers complain about is particulate in form. larger volumes will need to be filtered. where Gary A. Reprinted from Opflow.” The Philadelphia Water Department has standardized procedures in place that can identify offending materials and help pinpoint their source. magnification to identify matter on the membrane filter disk. Almost every water utility employee responsible for solving customer problems has fielded a complaint about particles in a bathtub or faucet aerator.

used in gaskets. They can show porosity but appear dull compared to anthracite particulates. and may be colorful. Glass chips are transparent. Fibers used in apparel are round. With fine-tipped tweezers. and do not smear the filter disk with black when a drop of toluene is applied. They can be colorful but usually appear translucent to whitish. relatively large. Usually the source of such particulates is disintegrating plastic. Heat Identification Activated carbon particulates are black and usually coated with debris. AC particulates will burn instantaneously with a glitter and no visible smoke or residue. and often are visible to the unaided eye. Color formed by chemical reactions can be seen by the unaided eye. Plastic burns with a smoke. Mica particulates have a characteristic platelet shape and shine under reflected light. large. 10 per filter. Most often they are polypropylene plastic. Remove a few particulates and burn them. but fibers found in water typically have a strip shape. Man-made fibers. which display a shiny luster under reflected light. stickiness. by touching them with a sharp needle and observing their physical properties. have significant length. Visual Identification Sand particulates have a characteristic vitreous appearance and irregular shape with smooth facets. use infrared spectroscopy (IR). Pick up a few particulates and burn them in a Bunsen burner flame. Disintegrated plastic particulates are usually white. Disintegrated rubber gasket particulates are usually black. You will need to understand the common soil minerals in your area to identify them. can be observed under the microscope. Often these particulates are ethylene-propylene-diene monomer. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 142 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . found in all colors and with a characteristic wrinkled strip shape. or a corroding component of the plumbing system. indicating a common source. Relatively large amounts of similar particulates often indicate a problem within a plumbing system. If these tests still fail to identify the debris. or solubility in a solvent. A characteristic evolution of a gas. rubber burns with a black smoke. several. remove sufficient particulates from the disk and further identify them by IR.Some particulates can be identified by their appearance and. such as pump packing. or further delineation is required. perform simple chemical tests on the filter. If pressed with a needle. they flex. sometimes. a rubber gasket. such as carbon dioxide from scale particulates or marble. or numerous. Pick up a few particulates on the tip of a wetted platinum wire and burn them in the blue part of a Bunsen burner flame. Identify them further by IR. such as softness. fibers are not present in large numbers — at most. Particulates can be quantified as few. and may be present in large numbers. Usually. If particulates cannot be identified by their appearance. may have smooth facets with sharp edges. are present in single strands.

the presence of patina is indicated. Large particulates may have yellow and black streaks or inclusions. If the particulates turn scarlet red. are usually brittle.2 g of rhodizonic acid disodium salt in 100 mL of distilled water. add a drop of (1+1) hydrochloric acid (500 mL of 11. Patina is hydrated basic copper carbonate and has a greenish color. Rust particulates will interfere with this test if it is performed on the rust-coated filter. To prepare the sodium rhodizonate reagent.8 tartrate-buffer solution followed by a drop of 0. Scales can form in water heaters. dissolve 0.5N hydrochloric acid [HCl] solution plus 500 mL of distilled water) to the filter. To confirm rust.9 g of sodium bitartrate and 1. and can be easily pulverized. These irregularly shaped particulates result from corrosion of copper and copper alloys. Add a drop of (1+1) HCl followed by a drop of ammonia. If tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide form under the microscope. Yellow staining indicates the presence of ferric chloride. Brick-red staining confirms the presence of potassium ferrithiocyanate. If lead particulates are suspected. they are relatively large in size compared to most other particulates on the filter disk. Calcium carbonate can develop as a white scale through evaporation of hard water or can occur as a particulate of limestone or calcite.2 percent solution of freshly prepared sodium rhodizonate.Acid Identification Rust particulates are usually abundant and are easy to identify with their typically brown and rough irregular shapes. To confirm their presence.test plate. while fine rust particulates form a uniform brown film on the filter disk. Large Rust Particles Lead solder particulates are gray and may have a whitish coating.5 g of tartaric acid in 100 mL of distilled water. Add a drop of 2 percent solution of potassium thiocyanate on the yellow area where HCl was added. Prepare a pH 2. add a drop of pH 2. Appearance of a blue precipitate or blue color confirms the presence of patina particulates. lead solder is present. Remove a few particulates and place them in the cavity of a spot. add a drop of (1+1) HCl from a Pasture pipette.8 buffer solution by dissolving 1. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 143 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Often.

To differentiate between various black particulates. Anthracite. Each compound has a unique infrared absorption spectrum. and polyethylene. IR can differentiate between plastic materials. Visually. they should no longer be sticky and may behave like a black powder. Add a drop of HCl (1+1) on the particulates and observe the evolution of carbon dioxide under the microscope. and with the aid of heat. or phosphates. When portions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by such vibrations. Infrared Spectroscopy When particulates cannot be completely identified by the above means. Touch the particulates with a needle in the area where toluene was added. but their stickiness and extreme softness differentiates them from other black particulates. and 10 mg of sample is all that is commonly needed to produce a good infrared absorption spectrum. Grease particulates are black and may be shiny. and various compounds can be identified by comparing absorption band positions in the IR spectrum of an unknown compound to band positions of known compounds. The usually brittle plastic fragments can be powdered easily. use IR to identify organic and inorganic materials. which an infrared spectrometer records. but various types of plastics can occur in water systems. Let the toluene evaporate or use an oven to expedite drying. Add a drop of toluene. they will leave a solid residue. Atoms in a molecule are in constant motion. barium sulfate. silicates.Limestone can come from water treatment processes. calcium sulfate. changing bond angles by bending and bond lengths by stretching. including polypropylene. an IR absorption band spectrum appears. These particulates can be removed from the filter disk and burned in a crucible. Inorganic compounds include calcium carbonate. Particulates are removed with fine-tipped tweezers one by one from the filter disk and transferred to a small vial for dissolving in a solvent or to a small agate mortar for grinding and mixing with KBr for making a potassium bromide (KBr) pellet. you might suspect a particulate is plastic in nature. organic materials are identified by scanning a pellet or a film of the sample cast on a KBr plate. the particulates are classified as pipe-coating of an asphaltic nature. metal oxides. and rubber particulates are insoluble in the solvents used. They are usually present as tiny heaps on the filter disk because of their softness and hydrophobic nature. They are soft and sticky when touched with a needle and can be smeared easily on the disk. If the disk becomes smeared with black around the particulates. Anthracite particulates appear shiny compared with other black particulates and do not smear the filter disk if a drop of toluene is applied. add a drop of toluene or chloroform to the filter disk under the microscope. Solvent Identification Asphalt pipe-coating compounds are black. lead carbonate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 144 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The brisk evolution of gas confirms the presence of carbonates. polyvinyl chloride. Inorganic materials are identified by IR scanning of the KBr pellet of the sample alone. activated carbon. Among these motions only certain vibrations absorb infrared radiation of specific energy. grease will dissolve and a black color will spread around the particulates. All greases may not behave this way.

cast a film of the sample on a KBr plate and scan it. and scan the pellet. After obtaining a reasonably strong infrared spectrogram. When this issue made the TV news. prompting water heater manufacturers to give rebates to customers for dip-tube replacements.Zeolite Particles from a Water Softener Most plastics are readily soluble in hot o-dichlorobenzene. customers in Philadelphia and across the country complained about white particulates clogging faucet aerators. aluminum oxides. the dip-tube manufacturer admitted to changing materials to a less-durable plastic. December 1998). can be identified by common chemical analyses. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the particulates to be polypropylene. If the sample is insoluble. and copper and silicate particulates. Eventually. it can be analyzed for various elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For example. Standard Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses available in most full-service water testing laboratories can be used to identify particulates when sufficient material is available. the sample is identified by manual means or a computer search of a commercially available online IR library. evaporate the solvent completely and transfer the particulates to an agate mortar. a plastic not used in the distribution system. If soluble. manganese dioxides. calcium carbonates. hydrated aluminum oxide can occur as white slurry and be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry after dissolving in mineral acids. including iron oxides. After a sample is dissolved in a mineral acid. A variety of materials. During the late 1990s. Philadelphia was in a good position to explain the situation to customers because our procedure was already in place for testing and characterizing particulates. Similarly. try dissolving the sample in this solvent first. make a KBr pellet. granules of lead solder can also be analyzed by wet chemical or instrumental methods. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 145 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The only common source for this plastic was found to be the dip tubes in residential gas hot-water heaters (see Opflow.

45 µm Colloidal < 1.0 µm but > 0.45 µm Particulate > 1.Dip Tube Particles Table 1. Suspended matter classified by size Soluble < 0.0 µm Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 146 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Potential sources for particulate matter found in tap water Particulate Activated carbon fines Asphaltic lining fragments Backfill sand Calcium carbonate scale X Cast iron rust Cement lining fragments Copper fragments X Glass chips Greases and lubricants X Lead fragments X Manganese dioxide deposits Man-made fibers On-site treatment device media Plastic fragments X Rubber gasket fragments X Soil minerals. mica From Customer Plumbing From Water Supplier Piping X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 2.

herbicides and pesticides. a process in which dissolved contaminants adhere to the surface of the carbon particles. It is also somewhat ineffective in removing natural organic matter due to the competition from other contaminants for surface adsorption and the limited contact time between the water and the carbon.Granular Activated Carbon / Powdered Activated Carbon Along with aeration. adsorbed contaminants can be replaced by other contaminants with which GAC has a greater affinity so their presence might interfere with removal of contaminants of concern. Powdered activated carbon consists of finely ground particles and exhibits the same adsorptive properties as the granular form. It removes contaminants through adsorption. The main disadvantage is that some contaminants require large doses of PAC for removal. Bacterial growth on the carbon is another potential problem. creates no headloss. does not encourage microbial growth and has relatively small capital costs. PCBs. GAC can be used as a replacement for existing media (such as sand) in a conventional filter or it can be used in a separate contactor such as a vertical steel pressure vessel used to hold the activated carbon bed. one gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to that of a football field. The addition of PAC can improve the organic removal effectiveness of conventional treatment processes and also remove tastes and odors. raw water with frequently changing contaminant levels can result in treated water of unpredictable quality. Excessive bacterial growth may cause clogging and higher bacterial counts in the treated water. Advantages of PAC are that it can be used on a short-term or emergency basis with conventional treatment. solvents. Several operational and maintenance factors affect the performance of granular activated carbon. or slough off. The disinfection process must be carefully monitored in order to avoid this problem. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 147 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . After a period of a few months or years. As a result. A significant drop in the contaminant level in influent water can cause a GAC filter to desorb. whether or not they are targeted for removal. creating a vast network of pores with a very large internal surface area. Also. Contaminants in the water can occupy adsorption sites. Activated carbon is carbon that has been exposed to very high temperature. because GAC is essentially an equilibrium process. granular activated carbon (GAC) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are suitable treatments for removal of organic contaminants such as VOCs. depending on the concentration of the contaminants. PAC is normally applied to the water in a slurry and then filtered out. adsorbed contaminants. the surface of the pores in the GAC can no longer adsorb contaminants and the carbon must be replaced.

all discussed below. coatings and linings. The EPA has banned the use of lead solders. resulting in disagreeable tastes. lead is the corrosion product of greatest concern. The highest level of lead in consumers’ tap water will be found in water that has been standing in the pipes after periods of nonuse (overnight or longer). In the past. corrosion inhibitors. the simplest short-term or immediate measure that can be taken to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water is to let the water run for two to three minutes before each use. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 148 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Drinking water contaminated with certain metals (such as lead and cadmium) can harm human health. as hot water tends to leach lead more readily than cold.Corrosion Control Corrosion is the deterioration of a substance by chemical action. Therefore. copper and iron might be found in water when metals in water distribution systems corrode. Using lead-free solders. slimes and further corrosion. Long-term measures for addressing lead and other corrosion by-products include pH and alkalinity adjustment. zinc. Corrosion also reduces the useful life of water distribution systems and can promote the growth of microorganisms. Because it is widespread and highly toxic. Lead. cadmium. fluxes and pipes in the installation or repair of any public water system. Also. drinking water should not be taken from the hot water tap. odors. This is because standing water tends to leach lead or copper out of the metals in the distribution system more readily than does moving water. and cathodic protection. such as silver-tin and antimony-tin is a key factor in lead corrosion control. solder used in plumbing has been 50% tin and 50% lead.

Because these anodes are more active. and back to the rectifier through another insulated copper wire. where as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes partially dissolve each year and must be replaced over time. The direct current then flows from the anode through the soil to the piping system. Therefore. There are Two Types of Cathodic Protection: Ø Sacrificial Anodes (Galvanic Systems) Ù Impressed (Induced) Current Systems How Does Cathodic Protection Work ? Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal more electrically active than the steel piping system. corrosion takes place only at the anodes and not at the piping system. high silicon cast iron. which acts as the cathode. The direct current is then sent through an insulated copper wire to anodes that are buried in the soil near the piping system. problems can arise which can produce unexpected. components and equipment exposed to aqueous environments.Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection protects steel from corrosion which is the natural electrochemical process that results in the deterioration of a material because of its reaction with its environment. if proper considerations are not given. Metallic structures. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 149 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Ceramic anodes are not consumed. a rectifier and the soil. or graphite. the system is protected while the attached anode is “sacrificed. it is often necessary to utilize either impressed current or sacrificial anode cathodic protection (CP) in combination with coatings as a means of suppressing the natural degradation phenomenon to provide a long and useful service life. the corrosive current will exit from them rather than the piping system. Typical anode materials are ceramic. Impressed or Induced Current Systems An impressed current Cathodic protection system consists of anodes. However. soil or seawater can be subject to corrosive attack and accelerated deterioration. As a result of the electrochemical properties of the impressed current Cathodic protection system. premature failure. The rectifier converts the alternating current to direct current.” Sacrificial anodes can be attached to existing piping system or coated steel for a pre-engineered Cathodic protection system. Thus. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the system. Depleted anodes must be replaced for continued Cathodic protection of the piping system. cathodes. An asphalt coating is not considered a suitable dielectric coating.

a metal or alloy reacting more vigorously than that corroding specimen. 2. Initial investments are higher and can pay off only in long run and economic only for large structures 5. Any foreign structure coming within this field will cause interference problem. In this system the protection current is "Forced" through the environment to the structure (cathode) by means of an external D. The sacrificial anodes are connected directly to the structure. Does not involve expensive accessories like rectifier unit. Does not involve maintenance work 3. protection current cannot be altered or increased as may be needed in case of cathode area extension (unprotected) or foreign structure interference (physical contact). It can be high silicon chromium cast iron anodes. Possibility of over protection should be avoided as it will affect the life of the paint. If carefully designed it can render protection for anticipated period. 6. 7. Shut down of D. Reversal of anode cathode connection at D..C. 6. etc. this system offers freedom of installation design and location 2. supply for a long times allows structure to corrode again. 2. 3. 2. The anodes have to be distributed all over the structure (as throwing power is lower) and therefore have design limitations in certain applications. Installation is simple 5. Variations in protection current requirements can be adjusted to some extend (to be incorporated at design stage) Disadvantages 1.Sacrificial Anode System In this system. Advantages 1. Fewer anodes can protect large structure 3. Since the driving voltage is large. Needs trained staff for maintenance of units and for monitoring 4. Advantages 1. source will be harmful as structure will dissolve anodic 3. acts as an anode and the corroding structure as a whole is rendered Cathodic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 150 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . graphite anodes or lead silver alloy anodes. source. aluminum or zinc which are anodic with respect to the protected structure.C. Economical for small structures Disadvantages 1. These anodes are made of materials such as magnesium. Power cost must be incorporated in all economic consideration. Impressed Current System The impressed current anode system on the other hand has several advantages over the sacrificial anode systems. 4. The driving voltage is small and therefore the anodes have to be fitted close to the structure or on the structure.C. thereby increasing the weight or load on the structure. Needs no external power source. Obviously we need some material to function as anodes. Once designed and installed.

pH is not the only factor in the corrosion equation. Typical coating maintenance doses range from 2 to 12 mg/1. glassy phosphates and bimetallic phosphates. sodium silicates and mixtures of phosphates and silicates. while pHs between 6. low hardness. Care must be taken. zinc is added in conjunction with orthophosphates or polyphosphates. Generally. Sodium silicates have been used for over 50 years to inhibit corrosion. In some cases. The effectiveness depends on the water pH and carbonate concentration. however. Sodium silicates are particularly effective for systems with high water velocities. For this reason. caustic soda (NaOH or sodium hydroxide). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 151 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . They offer advantages in hot water systems because of their chemical stability. essentially baking soda). alkalinity is a measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids. and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. an increase in pH and alkalinity can decrease corrosion rates and help form a protective layer of scale on corrodible pipe material.4.0 to reduce the availability of hydrogen ions as electron receptors. Chemicals commonly used for pH and alkalinity adjustment are hydrated lime (CaOH2 or calcium hydroxide). Corrosion Inhibitors Inhibitors reduce corrosion by forming protective coatings on pipes. low alkalinity and a pH of less than 8. Glassy phosphates.0 can be associated with pitting corrosion. However. soda ash (Na2CO3 or sodium carbonate). These chemicals have proven successful in reducing corrosion in many water systems. Some studies have suggested that systems using only pH to control corrosion should maintain a pH of at least 9. they are often used in boilers of steam heating systems. Glassy phosphate has an appearance of broken glass and can cut the operator. effectively reduce iron corrosion at dosages of 20 to 40 mg/l. water pH less than 6.5 is associated with uniform corrosion. The phosphates used as corrosion inhibitors include polyphosphates. such as sodium hexametaphosphate. Generally.Alkalinity and pH Adjustment Adjusting pH and alkalinity is the most common corrosion control method because it is simple and inexpensive. to maintain pH at a level that will control corrosion but not conflict with optimum pH levels for disinfection and control of disinfection by-products. carbonate and alkalinity levels affect corrosion as well. The most common corrosion inhibitors are inorganic phosphates.5 and 8. orthophosphates. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in water.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 152 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Just the name alone can give you an idea of its purpose. hydropneumatic tanks and surge tanks. it should stay quiet. These tanks serve multiple purposes in the distribution system. Most of the water is then near the ground. The shock waves created when hydrants.When released in a confined space. and application. Something has to give. as the liquid in the pipes slows down more gradually. This stored energy can be converted to pressure potential energy or kinetic energy for delivery to homes. A Surge tank should not be used for water storage. The release the surge usually finds is an elevated tank. trapping the kinetic energy of moving water within the confined space of a piping system.turn on your tap. such as standpipes. elevated tanks and reservoirs. but the surge doesn't always find this release quickly enough.Water Storage Section Water storage facilities and tanks vary in size. it puts most of its water high up. If you turn the tap off more slowly. Distribution operators are aware of this phenomenon! It's called WATER HAMMER. seeking a point of release.ENERGY . There are different types that are used in the water distribution systems. and maybe even several. such as a water distribution system. then turn it off very quickly. building a cylindrical water tower is inefficient. • • • SURGE tanks RESERVOIRS ELEVATED tanks Water towers and Standpipes Surge Tanks What really causes water main breaks . it's your pipe fittings. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 153 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . where it has lots of gravitational potential energy. Try it at home . shape. By making the tower wider near the top. This banging can be heard as water hammer. or pumps are opened and closed quickly. often times. Since height is everything. The goal of the water tower or standpipe is to store water high in the air. These shock waves can create a turbulence that travels at the speed of sound. valves. You should hear a bang.

Aren’t you glad to work in a nice plant? This is a good reason never to complain. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 154 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Normal day for a Distribution Worker after a Water Hammer broke a water main.

This can happen when a water main breaks or when a fire hydrant is used. The nonpotable water line may contain waste water or other liquids that are not safe to drink. Common causes of backpressure involve connecting plumbing to a pump or to steam and/or air pressure. Backflow. Backflow from cross connections can cause serious illness. Backsiphonage and Backpressure • Cross connection occurs when a potable water line and a nonpotable water line connect. A large Fireline RP backflow Preventer • • Backpressure occurs when water pressure in a building or fixture is greater than the water pressure in the water supply. The water may drain from a building back to the potable water line. biofilms and pathogens interact in pipes and service reservoirs to affect health-related and aesthetic dimensions of water quality at consumer's taps. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 155 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . you will attain an understanding of the mechanisms by which water flow. Hopefully. Substantial changes in water quality can occur as drinking water is transported through a distribution system from the point of major treatment and/or disinfection to consumer's taps. Backflow is the waste water that enters potable water lines through a cross connection. Such pressure drops can cause siphoning of waste water or other fluids into the potable water line. This condition can force waste water or other fluids back into the potable water line. Backsiphonage occurs when a water main or a plumbing system in a building lose water pressure.Cross-Connections.

Common Cross-Connections Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 156 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Some small pumps with single-suction impellers have only a casing wearing ring and no impeller ring. During pump operation. The double-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from two directions. These flingers prevent water from the stuffing box from flowing along the shaft and entering the bearing housing. Impellers are also classified as CLOSED or OPEN. Closed impellers have side walls that extend from the eye to the outer edge of the vane tips. The single-suction impeller allows liquid to enter the eye from one side only. Shaft sealing systems are found in every pump. The amount of leakage that can occur without limiting pump efficiency determines the type of shaft sealing selected. Centrifugal pumps are also classified as HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL. Open impellers do not have these side walls. Seal piping is installed to cool the shaft and the packing. The impellers used on centrifugal pumps may be classified as SINGLE SUCTION or DOUBLE SUCTION. each impeller acts separately. they may be either SINGLE STAGE or MULTISTAGE. discharging to the suction of the next stage impeller. and to seal the rotating joint between the shaft and the packing against air leakage. to lubricate the packing. depending upon the position of the pump shaft. A lantern ring spacer is inserted between the rings of the packing in the stuffing box. Recirculating lines are installed on some centrifugal pumps to prevent the pumps from overheating and becoming vapor bound in case the discharge is entirely shut off or the flow of fluid is stopped for extended periods. As a rule. For example. This arrangement is called series staging. Water flinger rings are fitted on the shaft between the packing gland and the pump bearing housing. The web of the ring is perforated so that the water can flow in either direction along the shaft (between the shaft and the packing). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 157 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . A multistage pump has two or more impellers housed together in one casing. This leakage must be controlled for two reasons: (1) to prevent excessive fluid loss from the pump. Seal piping leads the liquid from the discharge side of the pump to the annular space formed by the lantern ring. and (2) to prevent air from entering the area where the pump suction pressure is below atmospheric pressure. a certain amount of leakage around the shafts and casings normally takes place. In this type of pump. the casing wearing ring is fitted into the end plate. They can vary from simple packing to complicated sealing systems. A single-stage pump has only one impeller.Centrifugal Pump Section Centrifugal pumps may be classified in several ways.

(3) clogged water seal passages. The basic causes may be (1) operation of the pump to excess capacity and insufficient discharge pressure. (6) the wrong direction of rotation (this may occur after motor overhaul). such as might be caused by a partially closed valve or some other obstruction in the discharge line. (2) air leakage in the stuffing boxes. Properly installed mechanical seals eliminate leakoff on idle (vertical) pumps. or (3) misalignment. (3) mechanical defects. (4) excessive suction lift. If a centrifugal pump DOES NOT DELIVER ANY LIQUID. Some of the reasons for the use of mechanical seals are as follows: 1. The sealing slows down the rate of leakage. or sleeves. may encounter with centrifugal pumps. such as worn wearing rings. (3) insufficient pump speed. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 158 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . as an Operator. together with the probable causes are discussed in the following paragraphs. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient pump speed. (2) air leakage into the stuffing boxes in pumps operating at less than atmospheric pressure. (8) ruptured suction line. (3) excessive discharge pressure. the trouble may be caused by (1) insufficient priming. Water contamination of the engine lubrication oil. If a pump DOES NOT DEVELOP DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE. Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing on centrifugal pumps. or (8) mechanical defects. (5) clogged impeller passages. (7) clogged suction screen (if used). This is a major problem in engine-mounted water pumps. (2) air or gas in the liquid being pumped. (7) excessive discharge pressure. or (5) excessive heat in the liquid being pumped. or sleeves. Leakage is checked by the compression of packing rings that causes the rings to deform and seal around the pump shaft and casing. (4) insufficient liquid on the suction side. impellers. the trouble will probably be indicated by overheating of the motor. If a centrifugal pump delivers some liquid but operates at INSUFFICIENT CAPACITY. 2. the trouble may be caused by (1) air leakage into the suction line. (4) excessive suction lift. The packing is lubricated by liquid moving through a lantern ring in the center of the packing. impellers. Leakoff causes two types of seal leakage: a. (2) insufficient speed of the pump. (5) insufficient liquid on the suction side. If a motor-driven centrifugal pump DRAWS TOO MUCH POWER. or (4) reversed rotation of the impeller (3-phase electric motor-driven pumps). stuffing box packing. such as worn wearing rings. or other mechanical defects. (6) clogged impeller passages. (2) too high viscosity or specific gravity of the liquid being pumped. or (9) loss of suction pressure. a bent shaft. Leaking causes bearing failure by contaminating the oil with water.Packing is the most common and oldest method of sealing. b. It does not stop it completely since a certain amount of leakage is necessary during operation. This design prevents the leak (water) from bypassing the water flinger and entering the lower bearings. If a pump WORKS FOR A WHILE AND THEN FAILS TO DELIVER LIQUID. stuffing box packing. excessively tight stuffing box packing. Pump Troubleshooting Some of the operating troubles you. worn wearing rings. Loss of treated fresh water which causes scale buildup in the cooling system.

Open the discharge valve to “load” the pump. Prime the pump (fill casing with the liquid being pumped) and be sure that all air is expelled through the air cocks on the pump casing. it will score the shaft. This gives the packing time to run-in and swell. Let it operate for about 30 minutes before you adjust the packing gland for the desired amount of leak-off. be sure the pump is rotating in the correct direction. centrifugal pumps are usually trouble-free. or has deep ridges in it. such as the type of pump. 6. Secure the pump. Tighten the adjusting nuts one flat at a time. or otherwise unbalanced impeller. condition of the shaft sleeve. 2. When operating a centrifugal pump. it should be sent to the machine shop for a finishing cut to smooth the surface. To ensure the longest possible service from pump packing. (2) a bent shaft. the suction line may be clogged. The quickest way to wear out the packing is to forget to open the water piping to the seals or stuffing boxes. If it is very rough. proceed as follows: 1. it will have to be renewed. Some of the most common corrective maintenance actions that you may be required to perform are discussed in the following sections. maintained and operated. If the packing is allowed to dry out. If you have to flatten the packing with a hammer to make it fit. If any of these conditions exist.VIBRATION of a centrifugal pump is often caused by (1) misalignment. 5. Next. Repacking Lubrication of the pump packing is extremely important. You may then begin to adjust the packing gland. stop the pump and continue troubleshooting according to the technical manual for that unit. 3. If the discharge pressure is not normal when the pump is up to its proper speed. start the pump. Rapid wear of the packing will be caused by roughness of the shaft sleeve (or shaft where no sleeve is installed). make certain the shaft or sleeve is smooth when the packing is removed from a gland. Maintenance of Centrifugal Pumps When properly installed. If the shaft is rough. Insufficient suction pressure may also cause vibration. Shut the pump discharge valve. as well as noisy operation and fluctuating discharge pressure. and set up the packing gland lightly. YOU ARE NOT USING THE RIGHT SIZE. be sure there is always a slight trickle of water coming out of the stuffing box or seal. If the pump is electrically driven. be sure the packing fits uniformly around the stuffing box. eroded. Allow a liberal leak-off for stuffing boxes that operate above atmospheric pressure. Open all valves in the pump suction line. Restart the pump. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 159 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It is also possible that air is being drawn into the suction line or into the casing. When replacing packing. (3) a clogged. If the pump fails to build up pressure when the discharge valve is opened and the pump comes up to normal operating speed. It is absolutely necessary to use the correct packing. and hours in use. or an impeller may be broken. Pack the box loosely. 4. How often the packing in a centrifugal pump should be renewed depends on several facts. particularly in pumps that handle hot or volatile liquids. or (4) lack of rigidity in the foundation.

If you pull up the packing gland unevenly (or cocked). Mechanical seals eliminate the problem of excessive stuffing box leakage. Mechanical shaft seals must not be positioned by setscrews. and various cooling systems). Mechanical seals are ideal for pumps that operate in closed systems (such as fuel service and air-conditioning. chilled-water. they are simply replaced. Shaft sleeves are chamfered (beveled) on outboard ends for easy mechanical seal mounting. When the seals wear out. You should replace a mechanical seal whenever the seal is removed from the shaft for any reason or whenever leakage causes undesirable effects on equipment or surrounding spaces. Do not touch a new seal on the sealing face because body acid and grease or dirt will cause the seal to pit prematurely and leak. it will cause the packing to overheat and score the shaft sleeves. The type of material used for the seal faces will depend upon the service of the pump. Most water service pumps use a carbon material for one of the seal faces and ceramic (tungsten carbide) for the other. which causes failure of pump and motor bearings and motor windings. They also ensure adequate circulation of the liquid at the seal faces to minimize the deposit of foreign matter on the seal parts. They not only conserve the fluid being pumped but also improve system operation. Once you have the desired leak-off. Mechanical shaft seals serve to ensure that position liquid pressure is supplied to the seal faces under all conditions of operation. Be sure to tighten the same amount on both adjusting nuts. Mechanical shaft seals are positioned on the shaft by stub or step sleeves. Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are rapidly replacing conventional packing as the means of controlling leakage on rotary and positive-displacement pumps. Mechanical Seal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 160 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . check it regularly to make certain that sufficient flow is maintained.Wait about 30 minutes between adjustments.

Multi-stage Bowl Assemblies Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 161 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Common Elements of Vertical Turbine Pumps Vertical Turbine Pump Being Removed (notice line shaft) Closed Pump Impeller Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 162 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

The precipitation process most frequently used is generally known as the lime process or lime soda process. Ion exchange processes can typically be used for direct treatment of groundwater. distillation. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 163 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .Hard Water Section Water contains various amounts of dissolved minerals. Distillers Various sizes of distillers are available for home use. The principal disadvantage is that operating costs are considerably higher. Because of the special facilities required and the complexity of the process. Consumers frequently complain about problems attributes to hard water. Lime softening can be used for treatment of either groundwater or surface water sources. the process normally must be preceded by conventional treatment. The principal problem with a distiller are that a small unit can produce only 2-3 gal (7. electrodialysis. and effects of hard water and the hard water treatment or softening process that remove the hardness-causing minerals.or large-size water systems where all treatment can be accomplished at a central location. Distillers are effective in killing all microorganisms. They all work on the principle of vaporizing water and then condensing the vapor. For treatment of surface water. Water Distillers have a high energy cost (approximately 20-30 cents per gallon).5 -11 Lt) a day. This process will provide softened water at the lowest cost. This process has the advantages of a considerably lower initial cost and ease of use by small systems or by large systems at multiple locations. such as the formation of scale in cooking utensils and hot water heaters. it is generally applicable only to medium. so long as turbidity and iron levels are not excessive. some of which impart a quality known as hardness. and freezing. Some organic chemicals are also removed. dissolved solids such as salt. It has no taste. In this document we will discusses the occurrence. but those that are move volatile are often vaporized and condensed with the product water. Of these. asbestos fibers. metals. Softening can also be accomplished using membrane technology. It is considered "dead" water because the process removes all extra oxygen and energy. and other particles are removed. and that the power cost for operation will be substantially higher than the operating cost of other types of treatment devices. They must be carbon filtered before and/or after to remove volatile chemicals. The other commonly used method of softening involves the ion exchange process. Diet should be rich in electrolytes as the aggressive nature of distilled water can "leech" electrolytes from the body. minerals. It is still second only to reverse osmosis water for health. In the process. membrane methods seem to have the greatest potential.

however. and others. We will show two different classifications of the relative harness of water: Comparative classifications of water for softness and hardness Classification Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard * Per Sawyer (1960) + Per Briggs and Ficke (1977) mg/L as CaCO3 * 0 – 75 75 – 150 150 – 300 Over 300 mg/L as CaCO3+ 0 – 60 61 – 120 121 – 180 Over 180 Source: Adapted from sawyer 1960 and Briggs and Ficke 1977. The calcium-magnesium distinction is based on the minerals involved. and is also a function of the contact time between water and limestone deposits. in terms of milligrams per liter as CaCO3. (positive ions having valence of 2). divalent.Occurrence of Hard Water Hard water is caused by soluble. Because groundwater is in contact with these formations for a longer period of time than surface water. regardless of the salts associated with it. The principal chemicals that cause water hardness are calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). is based on hardness from either the bicarbonate salts of calcium or the normal salts of calcium and magnesium involved in causing water hardness. depending on other qualities of the water and on the hardness to which they have become accustomed. barium. This is due to different geologic formations. Types of Hardness Hardness can be categorized by either of two methods: calcium versus magnesium hardness and carbonate versus non-carbonate hardness. metallic cations. are usually present in large enough concentrations to contribute significantly to the total hardness. Likewise. Hardness caused by calcium is called calcium hardness. aluminum. The degree of hardness that consumer consider objectionable will vary. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 164 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium and magnesium are normally the only significant minerals that cause harness. which include calcium sulfate (CaSO4). iron. hardness caused by magnesium is called magnesium hardness. so it is generally assumed that Total harness = Calcium hardness + Magnesium hardness The carbonate-noncarbonate distinction. Expressing Hardness Concentration Water hardness is generally expressed as a concentration of calcium carbonate. Strontium. groundwater is normally harder than surface water. Magnesium is dissolved as water passes over and through dolomite and other magnesium-bearing minerals. Water hardness varies considerably in different geographic areas of the contiguous 48 states.

although it is a very rare condition. many customers prefer softer water. Calcium and magnesium combined with nitrate may also contribute to noncarbonate hardness. Scale that forms on the inside of water pipes will eventually reduce the flow capacity or possibly block it entirely. carbonate hardness is sometimes called “Temporary hardness. Hardness ions form precipitates with soap. When hard water is heated. Calcium and magnesium combined with carbonate (CO3) also contribute to carbonate hardness. and magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2. Noncarbonate hardness is a measure of calcium and magnesium salts other than carbonate and bicarbonate salts. faucets. These precipitates form the familiar chalky deposits on teapots. In particular. which are calcium bicarbonate. Because it can be removed by heating. To counteract these problems. and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Left to dry on the surface of glassware and plumbing fixtures. synthetic detergents have been developed and are now used almost exclusively for washing clothes and dishes. scale forms much faster.” such as the familiar bathtub ring.Carbonate hardness is caused primarily by the bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium. Total hardness = Carbonate hardness + Noncarbonate hardness When hard water is boiled. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 165 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . carbon dioxide (CO2) is driven off. Scale that forms within appliances and water meters causes wear on moving parts. Ca(HCO3)2. For carbonate and noncarbonate hardness. hard water leaves unsightly white scale known as water spots. usually calcium carbonate. it is sometimes called “Permanent hardness. magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). (1 mm) of scale on the heating surfaces of a hot water heater creates an insulation effect that will increase heating costs by about 10 percent.04 in. These salts ate calcium sulfate. as well as reduced efficiency in washing and laundering. These detergents have additives known as sequestering agents that “tie up” the hardness ions so that they cannot form the troublesome precipitates. magnesium hydroxide scale will deposit in hot water heaters that are operated at normal temperature of 140-150oF (60-66oC).” Because noncarbonated hardness cannot be removed or precipitated by prolonged boiling. Effect on Soap The historical objection to hardness has been its effect on soap. including showers doors. A coating of only 0. and sink tops. when the magnesium hardness is more than about 40 mg/l (as CaCO3). Although modern detergents counteract many of the problems of hard water.” Objections to Hard Water Scale Formation Hard water forms scale. calcium chloride. Causing unsightly “curd. Bicarbonate salts of calcium and magnesium then settle out of the water to form calcium and magnesium carbonate precipitates. which causes a variety of problems.

and other equipment in which it is used. however. a strong solution of sodium chloride (salt) is passed through the filter to replace the sodium that has been lost. These chemicals combine with the calcium and magnesium in the water to make insoluble compounds that settle to the bottom of the water tank. In the lime soda process. prohibit or restrict the use of ion exchange equipment on drinking water. and high levels can clog pipes. soda ash and lime are added to the water in amounts determined by chemical tests. the sodium ions in the zeolite are exchanged for the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. The most common way to soften household water is to use a water softener. As the water passes through the filter. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. or manual. The principal methods of softening water are the lime soda process and the ion exchange process. You may want to consider installing a separate faucet for unsoftened water for drinking and cooking. It forms scale in pipes. Calcium and magnesium in water create hard water. Softeners may also be safely used to remove up to about 5 milligrams per liter of dissolved iron if the water softener is rated for that amount of iron removal. the water filters through minerals called zeolites. Water softening units also remove iron. and the water is softened. In the ion exchange process. After household softeners become exhausted. boilers. Some cities and towns. The use of two exchange materials makes it possible to remove both metal and acid ions from water. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit connected into the water supply line.Water Softening Is a method of removing from water the minerals that make it hard. Hard water does not dissolve soap readily. Softeners are automatic. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 166 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . semi-automatic. pending the results of studies on how people are affected by the consumption of the added sodium in softened water.

Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically. you should check your water softener once a week to be sure the salt level is always at least one quarter full. calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to the charged resin beads. Semi automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration. they need to be recharged. The principle behind water softening is really just simple chemistry. For a monthly fee the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. a green-sand filter is a better method. Sodium ions from the water softening salt reactivate the resin beads so they can continue to do their job. it must be recharged. Without sufficient softening salt. there are companies that provide a water softening service. When the resin beads in your softener become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. A water softener contains resin beads which hold electrically charged ions." The diagram shows the exchange that takes place during the water softening process. brining and rinsing. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing. your water softener is less efficient. As a rule. It's the resulting removal of calcium and magnesium ions that produces "soft water. When hard water passes through the softener. In many areas. Regeneration is usually started by a preset time clock. Typical Water Softener Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 167 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . When the resin is filled to capacity. some units are started by water use meters or hardness detectors.Using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised.

Nollet’s First Osmosis Machine Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 168 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

water is forced to move through a membrane from a concentrate solution to a dilute solution. to be used. more stringent regulations. In some cases. resulting in ever-increasing uses in many industries.Membrane Filtration Processes In 1748. and removal of the fine solids. This was the discovery of osmosis. it can also allow secondary sources. Description of Membrane Filtration Processes In the simplest membrane processes. the French physicist Nollet first noted that water would diffuse through a pig bladder membrane into alcohol. There is great potential for the continuing wide use of membrane filtration processes in potable water treatment. scientists have attempted to develop membrane that would be useful in industrial processes. continual improvements and new developments have been made in membrane technology. Over the years. In particular. are: • Pressure-driven processes • Electric-driven processes Pressure-Driven Processes The four general membrane processes that operate by applying pressure to the raw water are: • Microfiltration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 169 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . membranes have been used for desalinization. water softening. based on the driving force used to make the process work. Types of Membrane Filtration Processes The two general classes of membrane processes. removal of dissolved inorganic and organic chemicals. but it wasn’t until the late 1950s that membranes were produced that could be used for what is known as reverse osmosis. membrane technology enables some water systems having contaminated water sources to meet new. a process in which water from a dilute solution will naturally pass through a porous membrane into a concentrate solution. water is forced through a porous membrane under pressure while suspended solids. In potable water treatment. Since that time. large molecules or ions are held back or rejected. In reverse osmosis. such as brackish groundwater. especially as technology improves and costs are reduced.

RO is discussed in more detail later. UF membranes can be designed to pass material that weighs less than or equal to a certain molecular weight. in recent years. The RO also works with most organic chemicals.Microfiltration Microfiltration (MF) is a process in which water is forced under pressure through a porous membrane. and radionuclides and microorganisms. Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration (UF) is a process that uses a membrane with a pore size generally below 0. In addition. This process has not been generally applicable to drinking water treatment because it either does not remove substances that require removal from potable water. These RO membranes have very low MWC pore size that can reject ions at very high rates. including chloride and sodium. microfiltration has been proposed as a filtering method for particles resulting from the direct filtration process. Nanofiltration Nanofiltration (NF) is a process using a membrane that will reject even smaller molecules that UF. such as in electronic manufacturing.1 µm. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 170 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Although UF does not generally work well for removal of salt or dissolved solids. The current primary use of MF is by industries to remove very fine particles from process water. The formed particles were then removed by rapid sand filters. Traditionally. it can be used effectively for removal of most organic chemicals. The smaller pore size is designed to remove colloids and substances that have larger molecules. RO membranes are susceptible to clogging or binding unless the water being processed is already quite clean. Water from this process is very pure due to the high reject rates. The process has been used primarily for water softening and reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS). this size is relatively large compared with the other membrane filtration processes. The process has been use primarily in the water industry for desalinization of seawater because the capital and operating costs are competitive with other processes for this service. However. Industrial water uses such as semiconductor manufacturing is also utilizes the RO process. This capability will undoubtedly increase the use of NF for potable water treatment. this direct filtration process has used the injection of coagulants such as alum or polymers into the raw water stream to remove turbidity such as clay or silts. especially for small particles that could contain bacterial and protozoan life. This weight is called the molecular weight cutoff (MWC) of the membrane. NF operates with less pressure that reverse osmosis and is still able to remove a significant proportion of inorganic and organic molecules. which are called high-molecular-weight materials. Reverse Osmosis Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a membrane process that has the highest rejection capability of all the membrane processes.45 µm are normally used. Membranes with a pore size of 0. In particular. the process has also been used as a pretreatment for other membrane processes. or the problem substances can be removed more economically using other processes. This was done to improve filtering efficiency.

Membrane Configurations Hollow Fiber Spiral Wound Plate and Frame Tubular Electric-Driven Processes There are two membrane processes that purify a water stream by using an electric current to move ions across a membrane. These processes are • Electrodialysis • Electrodialysis reversal Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 171 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

The current carries the ions through a membrane from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated one. So far. As a result. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 172 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The reversal in polarity reverses the flow of ions between demineralizing compartments. Carbon Vessels used to remove tastes and odors from water. except that the polarity of the direct current is periodically reversed.Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is a process in which ions are transferred through a membrane as a result of direct electric current applied to the solution. Electrodialysis Reversal Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) is a process similar to ED. EDR can often be used with little or no pretreatment of feedwater to prevent fouling. ED and EDR have been used at only a few locations for drinking water treatment. which provides automatic flushing of scale-forming materials from the membrane surface.

in this case . Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 173 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . called reverse osmosis. or RO. incoming water is pressurized with a pump to 200 . If pressure is applied to the more concentrated solution.400 psi (1380 . RO Skid After filtration to remove suspended particles. 2500 kg/m. and virtually 100% of colloidal and suspended matter. The membrane must be physically strong enough to stand up to high osmotic pressure .2760 kPa) depending on the RO system model. This flow produces a measurable pressure.passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a relatively dilute solution toward a more concentrated solution. and if that pressure exceeds the osmotic pressure. Most membranes are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide composites cast into a thin film. This exceeds the water's osmotic pressure. either as a sheet or fine hollow fibers. removes up to 98% of dissolved minerals. The membrane is constructed into a cartridge called a reverse osmosis module. water flows through the membrane from the more concentrated solution toward the dilute solution.water. A portion of the water (permeate) diffuses through the membrane leaving dissolved salts and other contaminants behind with the remaining water where they are sent to drain as waste (concentrate). This process. RO produces high quality water at low cost compared to other purifications processes.in the case of sea water.Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a liquid . called osmotic pressure.

which occurs in nature. the need for pretreatment increases as systems become larger and operate at higher pressures. at which point osmosis ceases. The component parts include a pure or relatively pure water solution and a saline or contaminated water solution. the pure solution passes through the membrane until the osmotic pressure becomes equalized. and a container or transport mechanism of some type. The dissolved solids are usually further restricted based on their respective electrical charge. it is described here in greater detail. Because reverse osmosis is the principal membrane filtration process used in water treatment. the higher the osmotic pressure. The higher the content of dissolved solids. In osmosis. This pressure differential is determined by the total dissolved solids content of the saline solution or contaminated solution on one side of the membrane. osmosis is frequently seen. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 174 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Each element that may be dissolved in the solution contributes to the osmotic pressure. In living things. and most gases. The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring. naturally occurring in living things. separated by a semi-permeable membrane. The elements that pass through include water. while blocking others. The semi-permeable membrane is so designated because it permits certain elements to pass through. Generally. in that the molecular weight of the element affects the osmotic pressure. It also affects the module's life because many water-borne contaminants can deposit on the membrane and foul it. one must begin by understanding the process of osmosis. and as permeate quality requirements become more demanding.Pretreatment is important because it influences permeate quality and quantity. usually smaller molecules of dissolved solids. To understand Reverse Osmosis.

Each envelope is sealed at the incoming and exiting edge. This permits flows and pressures to be developed to the point that ample processed or purified water is produced. Thus. bacteriological or mineralogical fouling. impedes or even prevents the purification process. osmosis would have to be reversed. Meanwhile. Additionally. while keeping the membrane surface relatively free from particulate. when sufficient flows are maintained. Several decades ago. Hence the formula for calculating osmotic pressure is very complex. serves to carry away the impurities removed by the membrane. as the raw water flows along the "brine channel" or coarse medium provided to facilitate good flow characteristics. It may also be called brine if it is coming from a salt water source. In order to transform this process into one that purifies water. it travels. The concentrate. colloidal. The design features a perforated tube in the center of the element. including brackish water and seawater. This concentrated raw water is called the reject stream or concentrate stream. These ideas were crystallized.000 PPM typically has an osmotic pressure of about 376 PSI (26. Common tap water as found in most areas may have an osmotic pressure of about 10 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch). This is important. and suitable synthetic membrane materials would have to be developed. called the product or permeate tube.75 Bar). to reach the point at which osmosis stops for tap water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 175 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . thicker cast layer of Polysulfone. The membrane material itself is a special thin film composite (TFC) polyamide material. and becomes the product or result of the purification process. and fueled by U. ways of configuring the membranes would have to be engineered to handle a continuous flow of raw and processed water without clogging or scaling the membrane material. a pressure of 376 PSI would have to be applied to the seawater side of the membrane. Government funding. The permeate or product water is collected from the end of each membrane element.S. Seawater at 36. usable membrane materials and designs resulted. cast in a microscopically thin layer on another. This design enabled the engineers to construct a membrane element that could contain a generous amount of membrane area in a small package. Thus when water penetrates or permeates though the membrane. and to permit the flow of raw water to pass along the length of the membrane. as buildup on the membrane surface. and to stop osmosis in seawater. around the spiral and collects in the permeate tube. Government scientists had the idea that the principles of osmosis could be harnessed to purify water from various sources. higher molecular weights result in higher osmotic pressures. approximate osmotic pressures are usually sufficient to design a system. aided by a fine mesh called the permeate channel. called fouling. thus keeping the membrane surface clean and functional. and wound around this tube are one or more "envelopes" of membrane material. U. opening at the permeate tube. Each sheet of membrane material is inspected at special light tables to ensure the quality of the membrane coating. The microporous support layer is cast on sheets of paper-like material that are made from synthetic fibers such as polyester. a pressure of 10 PSI would have to be applied to the saline solution.S.68 Bar. before being assembled into the spiral wound element design. One of the membrane designs was the spiral wound membrane element.Generally. or about 1. it gets more and more concentrated. However. called the microporous support layer. and manufactured to the required tolerances.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 176 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . then the amount of permeate or product water is reduced. The affect of temperature is that with higher temperatures. flux (permeate flow) increases.000 PPM. Factors that affect the pressure required include raw water temperature. in that salt passage decreases (reducing the TDS in the permeate or product water). while high rejection membranes under the same conditions produce drinking water TDS of below 300 PPM. For example. starting with seawater of 36. Typically. Reverse Osmosis (R/O) systems are designed for raw water temperatures of 25° C (77° F). the concentrations of TDS increase as it passes along the membrane’s length. a membrane with a rejection rate of 99% (usually based on Na (Sodium)) will allow only 1% of the concentration of dissolved solids to pass through into the permeate. Thus with seawater osmotic pressure of 376 PSI. and so forth. raw water TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). the inverse occurs. or prevented from passing through the membrane. Higher temperatures or lower temperatures can be accommodated with appropriate adjustments in the system design. standard rejection membranes produce permeate below 500 PPM. with each membrane in series seeing progressively higher dissolved solids levels. These include optimum flows and pressures. and operating pressure required is lower.000 PPM would have 100 PPM remaining. There are many considerations when designing R/O systems that competent engineers are aware of. Of course. the salt passage increases. and membrane fouling. and to produce a reasonable amount of purified water. Membranes are available in "standard rejection" or "high rejection" models for seawater and brackish water. The rejection rate is the percentage of dissolved solids rejected. Hence product water from a source containing 10. With lower temperatures. membrane age. the osmotic pressure is generally doubled. prefiltration and other pretreatment considerations.To achieve Reverse Osmosis. while operating pressures increase. In general. Or if operating pressures do not increase. optimum recovery rates (the percentage of permeate from a given stream of raw water). and usually multiple membranes are employed. the osmotic pressure must be exceeded. as the raw water is processed. a typical system operating pressure is about 800 PSI.

Packaged skid with instrumentation. including multi-media filtration and one or more stages of cartridge filtration. to provide sufficient protection for the membranes. prefiltration in one or more stages. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 177 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . a pressure regulating valve. well designed systems employ multiple stages of prefiltration. and softening unit. Other types of post treatment may include carbon filters. tailored to the application. and possibly some form of post treatment. or similar).Membrane systems in general cannot handle the typical load of particulate contaminants without prefiltration. R/O pressure vessels. Post treatment should usually include a form of sterilization such as Chlorine. various gauges and flow meters. sized and driven appropriately for the flow and pressure required. or Ozone. or mineral injection for some applications. pH adjustment. Ultra-Violet (U-V). Bromine. UV. Usually the last stage would be 5m or smaller. a pressure pump suited to the application. relief valve(s) and/or safety pressure switches. a membrane array including one or more membranes installed in one or more pressure tubes (also called pressure vessels. Often. chemical injection of one or more pretreatment agents may be added. R/O systems typically have the following components: A supply pump or pressurized raw water supply.

such as salts. This is more desirable than the hot water produced by evaporation technologies. resulting in stable. commonly known as a "Clean In Place" (CIP) system. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. reducing maintenance and down time. Additional advancements in pretreatment have been made in recent years. Energy consumption is usually some 70% less than for comparable evaporation technologies. Component parts have been improved as well. concentrate or brine flow meter. are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged. However. long lived membrane elements. and hence its use has become more and more widespread. allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it.8° F may occur due to pumping and friction in the piping). This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 178 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . systems installed in critical applications should be equipped with a permeate or product flow meter. while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. Reverse Osmosis delivers product water or permeate having essentially the same temperature as the raw water source (an increase of 1° C or 1. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place. the more likely it will be rejected. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases. The larger the charge and the larger the particle. salts. Another feature found in better systems is a provision to clean the membranes in place. which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane. taste or properties of the fluid. and the most common force is pressure from a pump. dyes. multiple pressure gauges to indicate the pressure before and after each filtration device and the system operation pressure in the membrane loop. such as organics. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as ions from a solution. particles.Clean-In-Place Some very low cost R/O systems may dispense with most of the controls and instruments. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. also known as hyperfiltration. a reject. Advancements have been made in membrane technology. Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream. sugars. proteins. preferably both before and after the membrane array. the larger the driving force. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove salts and other impurities in order to improve the color. Reverse osmosis. is the finest filtration known. The higher the pressure. further extending membrane life and improving performance. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol. For these and other reasons. the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases. The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane. R/O Systems can be designed to deliver virtually any required product water quality. Such a system may be built right into the R/O system or may be provided as an attachment for use as required. sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane. R/O is usually the preferred method of desalination today. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as cross-flow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria. while rejecting the contaminants that remain. Reverse Osmosis has proved to be the most reliable and cost effective method of desalinating water. and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons.

heavy metals. phosphates. herbicides. detergents. carbon and/or carbon block technology. It is the best tasting because it is oxygen-rich. arsenic. bacteria. fluoride. turbidity. Common packaged filters Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 179 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . chlorine and THM's. A Reverse Osmosis System removes virtually all: bad taste. virus. produces pure water that is clearly the body's choice for optimal health. parasites. sodium. calcium. insecticides. odor. nitrates. cadmium. magnesium. organic compounds. pesticides. radioactivity and asbestos. lead. cysts. aluminum. when properly configured with sediment. dissolved solids. sulfates.Reverse Osmosis. inorganic minerals.

Each water has its own ozone demand. Oxygen tank is necessary to generate O3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 180 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . or of THM and other inorganics.0 ppm. Contact time. and manganese. and while it may destroy some THMs. and even sterilization. because of the possibility of formation of other carcinogens (such as aldehydes or phthalates) it falls into the same category as other disinfectants in that it can produce DBPs.5 ppm to 5. Ozone is a light blue gas at room temperature. it is not shipped and must be manufactured on-site. ozone breaks down into oxygen and nascent oxygen.Ozone Ozone (O3) is probably the strongest oxidizing agent available for water treatment. Although it is widely used throughout the world. O3 → O2 + O It is the nascent oxygen that produces the high oxidation and disinfections. As a result. It has a self-policing pungent odor similar to that sometimes noticed during and after heavy electrical storms. is has no found much application in the United States. Ozone is obtained by passing a flow or air of oxygen between two electrodes that are subjected to an alternating current in the order of 10. In use. 3O2 + electrical discharge → 2O3 Liquid ozone is very unstable and can readily explode. Ozone is not practical for complete removal of chlorine or chloramines. Further. iron. it may produce other when followed by chlorination. Ozone acts as a complete disinfectant. in the order of 0. temperature. It is an excellent aid to the flocculation and coagulation process. taste.000 volts.000 to 20. and pH of the water are factors to be determined. and will remove practically all color. It does not form chloramines or THMs. odor.

As water enters the sterilizer. A sun lamp.0 gpm for each inch of the lamp. A mercury vapor lamp is one in which an electric arc is passed through an inert gas. The UV lamp that can be used for the disinfection of water depends upon the low-pressure mercury vapor lamp to produce the ultraviolet energy. Quartz is used in this case since practically none of the UV rays are absorbed by the quartz. too much will cause sunburn. This in turn will vaporize the mercury contained in the lamp. The water flow around the quartz tube. The basic design flow of water of certain UV units is in the order of 2. for example. Further. allowing all of the rays to reach the water. depending upon the quantity of water to be treated. The lamp itself does not come intro contact water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 181 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . it is given a tangential flow pattern so that the water spins over and around the quartz sleeves. Of course. Ordinary glass cannot be used since it will absorb the UV rays. sends out UV rays that when properly controlled result in a suntan. the units are designed so that the contact or retention time of the water in the unit is not less than 15 seconds. and this radiation is so powerful that all life on earth would be destroyed if these ray were not scattered by the atmosphere and filtered out by the layers of ozone gas that float some 20 miles above the earth. leaving little for disinfection. The lamp is placed inside a quartz tube. and the water is in contact with the outside of the quartz tube. and it is a result of this vaporization that UV rays are produced. In this way the microorganisms spend maximum time and contact with the outside of the quartz tube and the source of the UV rays. The UV sterilizer will consist of a various number of lamps and tubes.Ultraviolet Radiation The enormous temperatures on the sun create ultraviolet (UV) rays in great amounts. This radiation can be artificially produced by sending strong electric currents thorough various substances.

it is said to be effective in the removal of THM precursors and THMs. but in combination with ozone. molds. the water to be disinfected must be clean. and yeasts. The lamp must be replaced when it loses about 40% to 50% of its UV output. The water must also be colorless and must be free of any colloids. Also. Ultraviolet radiation is an excellent disinfectant that is highly effective against viruses. and free of any suspended solids.500 hours. Alone. and odor. It is used to remove traces of ozone and chloramines from the finished water. The germicidal effect of UV is thought to be associated with its absorption by various organic components essential to the cell’s functioning. which is about 1 year’s time. manganese. For effective use of ultraviolet. The UV manufacturer will of course stipulate which pretreatment may be necessary. in any installation this is determined by means of a photoelectric cell and a meter that shows the output of the lamp. taste. and it does not form THMs. and it is safe to use. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 182 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . such substances as excesses of chlorides. UV radiation will not remove precursors. and with it own alarm that will be activated when the penetration drops to a present level. it leaves no residual. It adds no chemicals to the water. bicarbonates. and sulfates affect absorption of the ultraviolet ray. These parameters will probably require at least filtration of one type or another. Each lamp is outfitted with its own photoelectric cell. although a water may appear to be clear.Most manufacturers claim that the UV lamps have a life of about 7. iron. These are conditions that must be met.

reverse osmosis. aeration. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 183 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . If it is decided that removal of precursors is needed. GAC-UV GAC GAC UV? Use of Fe2+ in coagulation. This may aid with a decision as to whether or not precursors should be removed before these disinfectants are added to water. GAC or combinations of others processes. Phthalates None known Disinfectant By-product Removal Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). controlled coagulation. research to date indicates that this removal can be attained through the application of controlled chlorination plus coagulation and filtration. RO. ionexchange GAC GAC Chloramine (NHxCly) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) Permanganate (KMnO4) Ozone (O3) Ultraviolet (UV) The table indicates that most of the disinfectants will leave a by-product that is or would possibly be inimical to health. nanofiltration. aeration. resins.Removal of Disinfection By-products Disinfectant Chlorine (HOCl) Disinfectant Byproduct Trialomethane (THM) Chloramine Chlorophenol Probably no THM Others? Chlorites Chlorates No THMs Aldehydes. Carboxylics.

Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 184 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

e. This is normally an undesirable effect. 0.2 mg/L: Should be the target value for the free chlorine residual in the distribution system. the unnatural act of reversing the normal direction of the flow of liquid.used to treat water. for an example. Minimum 1 inch or twice the diameter whatever is greater. The molecular formula of Alum is Al2(SO4)3~14H2O. Air Gap or Vacuum Breaker: A potable water line should be equipped with an air gap or vacuum breaker when connected to a chemical feeder for fluoride. gases.g. water quality problems may make the water unappealing for domestic use without costly water treatment procedures. and chloramine. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. An operator should not mix acid and water or acid to a strong base. Is a permeable layer of the subsurface that allows the movement of groundwater. As: Is the chemical symbol of Arsenic. Continuous positive pressure in a distribution system is essential for preventing a backflow event. Activated Charcoal: Is a treatment technique that is not included in the grading of a water facility. gases. There is limited experience and scientific knowledge about the by-products and risks associated with the use of alternatives. Backflow 12 inches: Is the required distance above ground that a double check backflow or RP assembly needs to be installed. Backflow or Cross-connection Failure: Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. Alternative Disinfectants: Disinfectants . To reverse the natural and normal directional flow of a liquid. Aluminum Sulfate: Is the chemical name for Alum. Atom: The general definition of an ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge. 10 ppm: Is the IDLH for Cl2 gas according to the NIOSH manual. needs to be installed 12 inches above the ground. Anaerobic conditions: When anaerobic conditions exist in either the metalimnion or hypolimnion of a stratified lake or reservoir. or substances to flow back into the distribution system. gases. The difference between a reduced pressure principle backflow device and a double check backflow device is that RP has a relief valve. or solid substances back in to the public potable (drinking) water supply. Most ammonia in water is present as the ammonium ion rather than as ammonia. Acid Rain: Acid rain a result of airborne pollutants. chlorine dioxide. Absence of Oxygen: The complete absence of oxygen in water described as Anaerobic. Electron is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle.other than chlorination (halogens) . An operator must ensure when installing a pressure vacuum breaker backflow device that it must be at least 12 inches about the highest downstream outlet. Backflow: The definition of ‘backflow ’is a reverse flow condition that causes water or mixtures of water and other liquids. Backflow: A double check valve backflow assembly provides effective protection from both backpressure and backsiphonage of pollution only. ultraviolet radiation. Needs to be tested on an annual basis. Accuracy: Is how closely an instrument measures the true or actual value. Aquifer: An underground geologic formation capable of storing significant amounts of water. Backflow Prevention: To stop or prevent the occurrence of. It is a cationic polymer. Air Hood: Is the most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes. See Cross-connection control. This is different than 12 inches above the ground. Acid: Slowly add the acid to water while stirring. Acid and a Base is Mixed: When an acid and a base are mixed an explosive reaction occurs and decomposition products are created under certain conditions. Ammonia: A chemical made with Nitrogen and Hydrogen and used with chlorine to disinfect water. ozone. Most of these problems are associated with Reduction in the stratified waters. Air Gap: A physical separation space that is present between the discharge vessel and the receiving vessel. a kitchen faucet. Anaerobic: An abnormal condition in which color and odor problems are most likely to occur.Water Treatment Glossary Excellent operator certification study tool.1 year is the maximum time period between having a backflow device tested by a certified backflow tester. Backsiphonage Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 185 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Backwash: A surface wash system should be activated prior to the start of the backwash. including on and in the human body. Shigella. Cadmium: A contaminant that is usually not found naturally in water or in very small amounts. This chemical causes skin burns on contact. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 186 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . one-celled animals too small to be seen by the naked eye. Bromine: Has a limited use for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Backwashing: Backwash the filters more frequently can be used to increase water production if an increase in raw water turbidity and coagulation feed rate creates additional loading on the filter. However minimum positive pressure must be maintained in mains to protect against backflow or backsiphonage from cross-connections. Ceiling Area: The specific gravity of ammonia gas is 0. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. CaOCl2. On a centrifugal pump. Buffer: Chemical that resists pH change. Carbonate. Vibri Cholera and Cholera. Cathodic Protection: Guards against stray current corrosion. this gas will accumulate first at the ceiling are. Cl2 gas will settle on the floor. Bacteria: Are small. Bromine: This chemical disinfectant has been used only on a very limited scale for water treatment because of its handling difficulties. Bypass Valve: Is the name of a type of valve that reduces the differential pressure across a closed disk making the main valve easier to open and close. Bacillus. It is the method by which the liquid substance may be forced by excess pressure over or into a higher point. Humans would be unable to live without the bacteria that inhabit the intestines and assist in digesting food. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause disease in normal. healthy humans. Cathodic Protection: Cathodic protection interrupts corrosion by supplying an electrical current to overcome the corrosion-producing mechanism. sodium bicarbonate. Salmonella. Minimum water pressure must be maintained to ensure adequate customer service during peak flow periods.condition usually causes reduced pressure or negative pressure on the service or supply side. Magnesium.g. Examples include. lubrication. e.60. Capillary Fringe: The material immediately above the water table may contain water by capillary pressure in the small void spaces. Cathodic Protection: An operator should protect against corrosion of the anode and/or the cathode by painting the copper cathode. usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels. Calcium Ion: Is divalent because it has a valence of +2. Battery: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. it is that force which throws water from a spinning impeller. Breakpoint Chlorination: The process of chlorinating the water with significant quantities of chlorine to oxidize all contaminants and organic wastes and leave all remaining chlorine as free chlorine. Backsiphonage: A liquid substance that is carried over a higher point. Caustic Soda: Also known as sodium hydroxide and is used to raise pH. Carbon Dioxide Gas: The pH will decrease and alkalinity will change as measured by the Langelier index after pumping carbon dioxide gas into water. Bacteria are found everywhere. Ca: Is the chemical symbol for calcium. Back-up Disinfection units: If a chlorination system goes out of operation you are required to have back-up. Calcium Hardness: A measure of the calcium salts dissolved in water. If released. This is one of the chemical disinfectants (HALOGEN) that kills bacteria and algae. Calcium. and a residual is difficult to obtain. Centrifugal Force: That force when a ball is whirled on a string pulls the ball outward. Equipment that utilizes water for cooling. washing or as a solvent always susceptible to a crossconnection. and Iron: Are the three elements that cause hardness in water. Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because the bacteria may cause red water and slime. Benching: A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps.4H2O: Is the molecular formula of Calcium hypochlorite. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide: Chemicals that are responsible for the alkalinity of water.

or massive pulmonary edema. CL2 A Fusible Plug: Is considered a safety device on a Cl2 cylinder.Centrifugal Pump: A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft and enclosed in a casing. Protozoa are resistant to chlorine because they have thick coats. throat cancer will occur. Cl2 Demand: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. metered. breathing problems. Chlorine is extremely reactive. Chelation: A chemical process used to control scale formation in which a chelating agent "captures" scale-causing ions and holds them in solution. Chlorine: Is a chemical used to disinfect water. what should be the minimum concentration of free chlorine residual in the distribution system? 0. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant. introduced into a stream of injector water and then conducted as a solution to the point of application. Also. bronchitis. The opposite is true for when the temperature increases. Protozoa are removed from drinking water by filtration. The amount of chlorine available for sanitization after the chlorine demand has been met. CL2 Free Concentration: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. Also known as chlorine residual. Chlorine is added to swimming pools to keep the water safe for swimming. Chlorine. Free: Chlorine available to kill bacteria or algae. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. tightness in the throat. or chronic lung conditions. but less than 0. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. Some public water system’s drinking water treatment plants use chlorine in a gas form because of the large volumes required.1 mg/l after a contact time of fifteen minutes as measured by iodmetic method of a sample at a temperature of twenty degrees in conformance with Standard methods. when the temperature decreases.5 mg per liter (approximately 0. The chlorine gas is controlled. The rotating impeller creates pressure in the liquid by the velocity derived from centrifugal force. Chlorine gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to chlorine. Chloramines: A group of chlorine and ammonia compounds formed when chlorine combines with organic wastes in the water. Populations at special risk from chlorine exposure are individuals with pulmonary disease. bacteria and viruses. After 24 hours the minimum Cl2 concentration should be 10 mg/L. and edema of the lungs. Check Valve: It allows water to flow in only one direction. Chemical Reaction Rate: In general. Chloramines are not effective as disinfectants and are responsible for eye and skin irritation as well as strong chlorine odors (also known as Combined Chlorine). As little as 2. CL2 10 mg/L: Small water storage tanks are commonly disinfected with a solution containing a Cl2 concentration of 50 mg/L.0001 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. means the amount of chlorine required to produce a free chlorine residual of 0. Chlorine is very effective against algae. Chemical Oxidizer: KMnO4 is used for taste and odor control because it is a strong oxidizer which eliminates many organic compounds. Chlorine Demand: Amount of chlorine required to react on various water impurities before a residual is obtained. Chlorine is available as solid tablets for swimming pools. having an inlet and a discharge connection. Cl2 Cylinder is Increased: If the temperature of a full Cl2 cylinder is increased by 50o F or 30o C. Chlorine Feeding: Chlorine may be delivered by vacuum-controlled solution feed chlorinators. Chloramination: Treating drinking water by applying chlorine before or after ammonia. This creates a persistent disinfectant residual called chloramines.085 percent by volume) in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. constriction of the chest.2 mg/L: If you are disinfecting to preserve water potability. Chlorination: The process in water treatment of adding chlorine (gas or solid hypochlorite) for purposes of disinfection. the chemical reaction rate also decreases. After long exposure. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of chlorine gas in air. and when it comes in contact with microorganisms in water killing them. reflex spasm in the larynx. CL2 0.2 mg/l CL2 Gas Exposure: Chlorine gas causes suffocation. a rupture may occur. Death is possible from asphyxia. shock. Cl2 Expands in Volume: Happens to Cl2 when the temperature of a Cl2 cylinder increases. CL2 Chronic Exposure Corrosion of the Teeth: May occur due to chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas. the minimum concentration of free Cl2 residual in the distribution system. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 187 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

CL2: 200 mg/l is a generally acceptable concentration of Cl2 solution that should be prepared to wash the inside of a storage facility. it primarily transported and packaged as a liquefied gas under pressure in steel containers. Platinum. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this areaNature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs. CL2: Determine the ambient temperature in a Cl2 room by using a regular thermometer because ambient temperature is simply the air temperature of the room. constriction of the chest. CL2: Cl2 combines with a wide variety of materials. CL2: If an operator places water on a leaking Cl2 cylinder. Be sure that no one enters the leak area without an adequate self-contained breathing apparatus. Cl2 Gas will Accumulate: If a Cl2 leak occurs. first loosen the packing gland around the valve. CL2: A device that has a transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball and is often used to measure the rate of a gas or liquid is called a Rotameter. proceeding upwind. which must be prevented if possible. CL2: Free available Cl2 is very effective in killing bacteria. Normal breathing will cause coughing. CL2: Before entering a Cl2 room to check on a leak don a self-contained breathing apparatus and check to see that the ventilation system is working. CL2: Cl2 gas is highly corrosive in moist conditions. causing acute discomfort that warns of the presence of the toxicant.01 percent by volume may be tolerated for several hours. CL2: Cl2 as with H2S gas produces olfactory fatigue. CL2: Chronic exposure to low concentrations of Cl2 gas may cause corrosion of the teeth. and tap the valve gently with your hand. corrosion will occur and the leak will get larger. the concentration of a free Cl2 residual should be 0. Their demand for Cl2 must be satisfied before Cl2 becomes available to accomplish disinfection. CL2 Gaskets: Replace according to manufacturers recommendations should be done with the gaskets when making a new connection on a chlorine feed system. CL2 Gas Safety: Gas leak is the primary safety concern when using chlorine gas as opposed to calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. CL2: A burning sensation in the eyes and throat: Is the most likely type of symptom one could expect upon exposure to a very small percentage of Cl2 in the air. proceeding upwind. a victim will sense a sudden stricture in this area—nature’s way of signaling to prevent passage of the gas to the lungs.5 mg per liter in the atmosphere causes death in minutes. CL2: Breakpoint chlorination means adding Cl2 to the water until the Cl2 demand is satisfied. and edema of the lungs. CL2: After Cl2 gas is manufactured. As little as 2. The respiratory tract is rapidly irritated by exposure to 10-20 ppm of Cl2 gas in air. CL2: Cl2 gas should only be used under a fume hood. CL2: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and concentration of the disinfectant residual. These side reactions complicate the use of Cl2 for disinfecting purposes. CL2: Of an operator cannot open the valve on a Cl2 cylinder because it is too tight. the Cl2 gas will accumulate on the floor. CL2: 17 is the atomic number of Cl2. CL2: Store an empty Cl2 cylinder upright. Normal breathing will cause coughing. The only metals that are TOTALLY inert to moist Cl2 gas are Gold. which must be prevented if possible. but less than 0. The victim must attempt to get out of the area of the leak. CL2: The effectiveness of disinfection determined from the results of coliform testing. tightness in the throat.000 ppm of Cl2 can be fatal.5 mg/L in a clear well or distribution reservoir. CL2: Downstream from the point of post chlorination.CL2 Gas IDLH: As soon as Cl2 gas enters the throat area. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. and to take only very short breaths through the mouth. and Tantalum. the victim must attempt to do two things: get out of the area of the leak. CL2: Even brief exposure to 1. CL2: As soon as CL2 gas enters the throat area. CL2: The Cl2 storage ventilation equipment be checked on a daily basis. CL2: Cl2 combines with water to form both hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. CL2: Cl2 gas reacts with water producing a strongly oxidizing solution causing damage to the moist tissue lining the respiratory tract when the tissue is exposed to Cl2. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 188 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . tagged as empty. At this point. Chlorine gas causes suffocation.

biological.5 times heavier than water and gaseous Cl2 is about 2. and a strong oxidizer. pH and Low Turbidity: Are factors which are important in providing good disinfection using chlorine. which are unsanitary. Compliance Period: A 3-calendar year time-frame within a compliance cycle. Coliform Bacteria: Are bacteria that are normally found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Can be readily compressed into a clear. Clear Well: Is a large underground storage facility sometimes made of concrete. Contaminant: Any natural or man-made physical. A positive sample is a bad thing and indicates that you have bacteria contamination. Coliform bacteria are present in high numbers in animal feces. the organic material decomposes releasing heat very rapidly. A clear well or a plant storage reservoir is usually filled when demand is low. Colorimetric Measurement: A means of measuring and unknown chemical concentration in water by measuring a sample's color intensity. which is at a level that may have an adverse effect on public health. CL2: When determining a Cl2 use rate. CL2: The purpose of an evaporator is to convert liquid Cl2 to gaseous Cl2 for use by gas chlorinators.CL2: The first step when removing a hypochlorinator from service is to turn off the water supply pump. Coagulation: The best pH range for coagulation is between a pH of 5 and 7.5 times heavier than air. The operator needs to increase the detention time to maintain good disinfection of the water. the scale or meter should be read at the same time each day. CL2: The purpose of the bottom valve on a 1-ton Cl2 cylinder is to remove liquid Cl2. CL2: When hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences. CL2: The water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). CL2: The fusible plug on a 150-pound Cl2 cylinder is designed to soften and melt at high temperatures. ClO2: Is the molecular formula of Chlorine dioxide. Adequate and appropriate disinfection effectively destroys coliform bacteria. Cl2 is about 1. and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. or dangerous to employees. Composite Sample: Is a water sample that is a combination of a group of samples collected at various intervals during the day. A noncombustible gas. CL2: The physical and chemical properties of Cl2 are: A yellowish green. CL2: When Cl2 is inhaled in high concentrations it causes emphysema and damage to the pulmonary blood vessels. also known as chloramines. Contact Time. or radiological substance or matter in water. and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them. To pollute or infect something. CL2: Where other factors are constant. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill = C x T. hazardous. Contact Time: If the water temperature decreases from 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C). They are an indicator of potential contamination of water. chemical. is that the ejector draws in additional water for dilution of the hypochlorinate solution. To reduce the quality of the Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 189 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Colloidal Suspensions: Because both iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen to form insoluble compounds they are not found in high concentrations in waters containing dissolved oxygen except as colloidal suspensions of the oxide. amber colored liquid. Mixing is an important part of the coagulation process you want to complete the coagulation process as quickly as possible. Each compliance cycle consists of 3 compliance periods. Allow a longer contact time to maintain good disinfection of the water. Condensation: Is the process called that changes water vapor to tiny droplets or ice crystals. Contains the Element Carbon: Is a simple definition of an organic compound. nonflammable and liquefied gas with an unpleasant and irritating smell. Coliform Testing: The effectiveness of disinfection is usually determined by Coliform bacteria testing. CL2: The purpose of the ejector on a hypochlorinator. Contamination: To make something bad. Compliance Cycle: A 9-calendar year time-frame during which a public water system is required to monitor. Combined Chlorine: The reaction product of chlorine with ammonia or other pollutants. Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions.

Corrosion: Is the gradual decomposition or destruction of a material as it chemically reacts with water and is often referred to as corrosion. Might be the source of an organic substance causing taste and odor problems in a water distribution system. leaves. CWS: Community Water System. Control Taste and Odor Problems: KMnO4 Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizer is commonly used to control taste and odor problems. protozoa.000 feet in length should be 8 inches. the mixing of good water with a polluting substance like a chemical substance. For example. Dissolved Oxygen: Can be added to zones within a lake or reservoir that would normally become anaerobic during periods of thermal stratification. The EPA has determined that these DBPs can cause cancer. Dangerous Chemicals: The most suitable protection when working with a chemical that produces dangerous fumes is to work under an air hood. Distribution 8 inches: The minimum pipe diameter for a dead end line exceeding 2. Surface water sources. and other parasites. Reverse Osmosis and Freezing: Processes can be used to remove minerals from the water. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 190 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cross-contamination: The mixing of two unlike qualities of water.potable (drinking) water and create an actual hazard to the water supply by poisoning or through spread of diseases. and/or remove pathogenic bacteria. Copper: Is the chemical name for the symbol Cu. viruses. other metal surfaces and concrete surfaces in a destructive manner. Corrosivity: The Langelier Index measures corrosivity. Detection Lag: Is the period of time between the moment of change in a chlorinator control system and the moment when the change is sensed by the chlorine residual indicator. Disinfectant Residual: The CT values for disinfection are used to determine the disinfection efficiency based upon time and disinfectant residual. The electrical current used in a DC system may come from a battery. Disinfect: To kill and inhibit growth of harmful bacterial and viruses in drinking water. Types of source water are required by law to treat water using filtration and disinfection are groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Desiccant: When shutting down equipment which may be damaged by moisture. resistant to chlorine disinfection. Detention Time: The minimum detention time range recommended for flocculation is 5 – 20 minutes for direct filtration and up to 30 minutes for conventional filtration. Cryptosporidium: A disease-causing parasite. Distillation. The effectiveness of disinfection determined by the results of coliform testing. Decibels: Is the unit of measurement for sound. This container should contain a desiccant. destroy. Corrosion is caused by improperly balanced water or excessive water velocity through piping or heat exchangers. Coupon: A coupon placed to measure corrosion damage in the water mains. It may be found in fecal matter or contaminated drinking water. Diatomaceous Earth: Is a fine silica material containing the skeletal remains of algae. soil) present in raw water during the water treatment process. the unit may be protected by sealing it in a tight container.g. Acid feed is the most common method of scale control in a membrane demineralization treatment system. Direct Current: A source of direct current (DC) may be used for standby lighting in a water treatment facility. Disinfection by-products (DBPs): The products created due to the reaction of chlorine with organic materials (e. Disinfection: The treatment of water to inactivate. Depolarization: Is the removal of hydrogen from a cathode. Demineralization Process: Mineral concentration of the feed water is the most important consideration in the selection of a demineralization process.The removal of metal from copper. Decompose: To decay or rot. Dental Caries Prevention in Children: Is the main reason that fluoride is added to a water supply. Decomposition of Organic Material: The decomposition of organic material in water produces taste and odors. Cross-connection: A physical connection between a public water system and any source of water or other substance that may lead to contamination of the water provided by the public water system through backflow.

and is simple to operate and maintain. Emergency Response Team: Get out of the area and notify your local emergency response team is the first should be done first in case of a large uncontrolled chlorine leak. Flocculation Basin: Is a compartmentalized basin with a reduction of speed in each compartment. Effectiveness of Chlorination: The factors which influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most are pH. Faucet with an Aerator: When collecting a water sample from a distribution system. Indicator organisms may be accompanied by pathogens. it is considered an indicator organism. Enhanced Coagulation: The process of joining together particles in water to help remove organic matter. Flocculation: The process of bringing together destabilized or coagulated particles to form larger masses that can be settled and/or filtered out of the water being treated. Electrical: An operator using a voltage meter to test electrical equipment should first.Double Suction Pump: One advantage of a double suction pump is a reduction in the thrust load that the bearings must carry. flocculation. odor. Direct filtration method is similar to conventional except that the sedimentation step is omitted. Flood Rim: The point of an object where the water would run over the edge of something and begin to cause a flood. Electrical: If grease comes in contact with the winding of a motor the winding insulation may deteriorate. Filtration: A series of processes that physically removes particles from water. Dry Acid: A granular chemical used to lower pH and or total alkalinity. To become a new public water system. and filtration. F: Is the chemical symbol of Fluorine. Diatomaceous earth method uses a thin layer of fine siliceous material on a porous plate. An operator waits for the overload to cool.1 gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area. E. A water treatment step used to remove turbidity. make sure the main switch is off and the voltage tester is rated to handle the voltage expected in the circuit. but do not necessarily cause disease themselves. and biological action treatment methods are filtration processes that involves a number of interrelated removal mechanisms. and seawater. has a flow of 0. sedimentation. Filter Clogging: An inability to meet demand may occur when filters are clogging. These are considered evidence of water contamination. For water quality analyses purposes. Escherichia coli : Is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine. Effectiveness of the Chlorine Decreases: Will occur during disinfection in source water with excessive turbidity. This set-up or basin will give the best overall results. Electron: Is the name of a negatively charged atomic particle. Finished Water: Treated drinking water that meets minimum state and federal drinking water regulations. and Financial Capacity make up the elementary business plan. Floc Shearing: Is likely to happen to large floc particles when they reach the flocculation process. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 191 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . taste and color. This type of filtration medium is only used for water with low turbidity. Coli. Eccentric Valve: The plug on an eccentric valve contacts the valve seat when the valve is closed. Demineralization is primarily used to remove total dissolved solids from industrial wastewater. adsorption. then tries to start the motor again. Filtration Methods: The conventional type of water treatment filtration method includes coagulation. the operator should first check the fuse. Electricity: Rubber may be used to prevent the flow of electricity through a wire. If the motor does not start. municipal water. Sedimentation. Fecal Coliform: A group of bacteria that may indicate the presence of human or animal fecal matter in water. dissolved organics. a virus that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Electrical Resistance: Resistance of electrical equipment is affected by many variables including the thickness of the insulation and its total mass area. Elementary Business Plan: Technical Capacity. Slow sand filtration process does not require pretreatment. Electrical Problem: Moisture will cause the deterioration of oil in a transformer. a faucet with an aerator should not be used as a sample location. Managerial Capacity. an owner shall file an elementary business plan for review and approval by the Department. Turbidity and Temperature. Enterovirus: A virus whose presence may indicate contaminated water. Electrical: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running.

Gt : Represents (Detention time) x (mixing intensity) in flocculation. Head: The measure of the pressure of water expressed in feet of height of water. Formation of Tubercles: This condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Hepatitis.Flow must be Measured: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located in a central location. Static (water at rest) and Residual (water at flow conditions). Fluoride: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. contaminated water. Giardia Lamblia: A pathogenic parasite. Sodium silicofluoride and Hydrofluosilicic acid.Graphic Information System: Detailed information about the physical locations of structures such as pipes. a free chlorine residual of at least 10 mg/L should be maintained in the clear well or distribution reservoir immediately downstream from the point of post-chlorination. which may be found in.433 PSI. H2SO4: Is the molecular formula of Sulfuric acid. Hazards of Polymers: Slippery and difficult to clean-up are the most common hazards associated with the use of polymers in a water treatment plant. Grab Sample: Is a type of sample that should be collected to analyze for coliform bacteria. chlorine is used in the form of free chlorine or as hypochlorite ion. Hard Water: Hard water causes a buildup of scale in household hot water heaters. Flux: The term flux describes the rate of water flow through a semipermeable membrane. The water flux decreases through a semipermeable membrane means that the mineral concentration of the water is increasing. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 192 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . It is the creation of mounds of rust inside the water lines. This chemical must not be overfed due to a possible exposure to a high concentration of the chemical. Globe Valve: The main difference between a globe valve and a gate valve is that a globe valve is designed as a controlling device. or Typhoid: Are diseases that may be transmitted through the contamination of a water supply but not AIDS. pH and Low Turbidity: These are factors that are important in providing good disinfection when using chlorine. 1 PSI = 2. valves. All the other valves are in the rotary classification. Free Chlorine: In disinfection. pH and Temperature. Good Contact Time. This is called Mottling. There are various types of heads of water depending upon what is being measured. Health Advisory: An EPA document that provides guidance and information on contaminants that can affect human health and that may occur in drinking water. and manholes within geographic areas with the use of satellites. And is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation. These are the substances is most commonly used to furnish fluoride ions to water: Sodium fluoride. Hertz: Is the term is used to describe the frequency of cycles in an alternating current (AC) circuit. Fluoride Feeding System: Always review fluoride feeding system designs and specifications to determine whether locations for monitoring readouts and dosage controls are convenient to the operation center and easy to read and correct. A snap shot of a certain location and time. Free Chlorine Residual gives the best Disinfection: Is the reason for chlorinating past the breakpoint is to provide protection in case of backflow. Headworks: The facility at the "head" of the water source where water is first treated and routed into the distribution system. Heat Damage to Air Compressor: An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. Free Chlorine Residual: Regardless of whether pre-chloration is practiced or not. The most important safety considerations to know about fluoride chemicals is that all fluoride chemicals are extremely corrosive.31 feet of water or 1 foot of head equals about a half a pound of pressure or . Giardiasis. Frequency must a Remote Operator inspect a Grade 1 or grade 2 Water Treatment Plant: Monthly or as necessary a remote operator inspect a grade 1 or grade 2 water treatment plant or distribution system that produces and distributes groundwater. Gate Valve: Is the most common type of valve used in isolating a small or medium sized section of a distribution system and is the only linear valve used in water distribution. but which EPA does not currently regulate in drinking water. GIS .

HF: Is the molecular formula of Hydrofluoric acid. or allowing only with great difficulty. Inorganic Contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals. Hypochlorite and Organic Material: Heat and a possible fire may happen when hypochlorite is brought into contact with an organic material. but can also get into water through farming. there will be black stains on the walls below the water level and a black coating over the top portion of the sand filter bed. Iron Fouling: You should look for an orange color on the resin and backwash water when checking an ion exchange unit for iron fouling Iron: The elements iron and manganese are undesirable in water because they cause stains and promote the growth of iron bacteria. Initial monitoring year: An initial monitoring year is the calendar year designated by the Department within a compliance period in which a public water system conducts initial monitoring at a point of entry. Iron and Manganese in water may be detected by observing the color of the of the filter media. Insoluble Compounds: Are types of compounds cannot be dissolved. Hydrophobic: Does not mix readily with water. The water is becoming corrosive in the distribution system causing rusty water if the Langelier index indicates that the pH has decreased from the equilibrium point. Ion Exchange: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. The hardness of the source water affects the amount of water an ion exchange softener may treat before the bed requires regeneration. When significant levels of dissolved oxygen are present. Hypochlorous and Hydrochloric Acids: Chlorine combines with water to form hypochlorous and hydrochloric acids. the movement of water.. and opportunistic pathogens. Iron and Manganese: In water can be usually detected by observing the color of the inside walls of filters and the filter media. neither corroding nor scaling).Heterotrophic Plate Count Bacteria: A broad group of bacteria including non-pathogens. EPA has set legal limits on 15 inorganic contaminants. viruses and other microorganisms. The energy terms that are used to describe the operation of a pump are pressure and head. pathogens. Kill=C x T: Where other factors are constant. iron and manganese exist in an oxidized state and normally precipitate into the reservoir bottom sediments. chemical manufacturing. Infectious Pathogens/Microbes/Germs: Are considered disease-producing bacteria. and asbestos. Mathematically derived factor obtained from the values of calcium hardness. Hydrogen Sulfide or Chlorine: These chemicals can cause olfactory fatigue. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 193 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . total alkalinity. Impervious: Not allowing. Hydrochloric and Hypochlorous Acids: Are the compounds that are formed in water when chlorine gas is introduced. they may be an indicator of poor general biological quality of drinking water. Intake Facilities: One of the more important considerations in the construction of intake facilities is the ease of operation and maintenance over the expected lifetime of the facility. nitrates. HOCL and HCL or free available chlorine. The presence of iron and manganese in water promote the growth of Iron bacteria. and pH at a given temperature. Maintaining a free chlorine residual and regular flushing of water mains may control the growth of iron bacteria in a water distribution system.e. Impeller: A rotating set of vanes designed to impart rotation to a mass fluid. These contaminants are naturally-occurring in some water. Often referred to as HPC. and other human activities. If the raw water is pre-chlorinated. When iron or manganese reacts with dissolved oxygen (DO) insoluble compound are formed. Kinetic Energy: The ability of an object to do work by virtue of its motion. Iron Bacteria: Perhaps the most troublesome consequence of iron and manganese in the water is they promote the growth of a group of microorganism known as Iron Bacteria. A Langelier index of zero indicates perfect water balance (i. Every intake structure must be constructed with consideration for operator safety and for cathodic protection. the disinfecting action may be represented by: Kill=C x T. High Turbidity Causing an Increased Chlorine Demand: May occur or be caused by the inadequate disinfection of water. Only when a water sample has been acidified then you can perform the analysis beyond the 48 hour holding time. Langelier Index: Is a measurement of Corrosivity.

The two flat surfaces are of such tolerances as to prevent the passage of water between them. the key to the lock-out device the key should be held by the person who is working on the equipment. In a lime softening process. the water system must treat the water so that it meets the MCL.Leaching: A chemical reaction between water and metals that allows for removal of soluble materials. An MCL for turbidity was established by the EPA because turbidity does not allow for proper disinfection. When an operator adds lime to water. M-Endo Broth: The media shall be brought to the boiling point when preparing M-Endo broth to be used in the membrane filter test for total coliform. Motor: If a motor is rated for 10 amps the overload relays that should be used are 10 to 11 amps. Measure Corrosion Damage: A coupon is a strip of metal and is placed to measure corrosion damage in the distribution system in a water main. especially one that causes disease. the operator should check first the Motor overload control. Lead and Copper: Initial tap water monitoring for lead and copper must be conducted during 2 consecutive 6-month periods. Microbiological: Is a type of analysis in which a composite sample unacceptable. An operator waits for the overload to cool.000 or fewer persons. And a possible result of over greasing a bearing is that there will be extreme friction in the bearing chamber.300 persons and 50. and the goal is not legally enforceable. one of which rotates on the shaft. Magnesium Hardness: Measure of the magnesium salts dissolved in water – it is not a factor in water balance. LOTO: In a good lock-out/tag out program. Moisture: If a material is hygroscopic it must it be protected from water. Motor Overload Control: The overload control on a motor has tripped and the motor has stopped running. The tag is an identification device and the lock is a physical restraint. Microbial: Any minute. Lines: Lines in the distribution system should be flushed on a regular basis. then tries to start the motor again. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 194 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Megger: Is used to test the insulation resistance on a motor. Lime Soda Softening: In a lime soda softening process. Mechanical Seal: A mechanical device used to control leakage from the stuffing box of a pump. Medium Water System: More than 3. simple. Microbe. Microbial Contaminants: Microscopic organisms present in untreated water that can cause waterborne diseases. mg/L: Milligrams per liter. Methane: Is classified as an organic compound. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs): The maximum allowable level of a contaminant that federal or state regulations allow in a public water system. Mottling: High levels of fluoride may stain the teeth of humans. excess lime is frequently added to remove Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate. Usually made of two flat surfaces. If the motor does not start. Magnetic Starter: Is a type of motor starter should be used in an integrated circuit to control flow automatically. If the MCL is exceeded. single-celled form of life. to the pH of the water is raised to 11. The minimum hardness which can be achieved by the lime-soda ash process is 30 to 40 mg/L as calcium carbonate. Calcium and magnesium become less soluble. Held in place with spring pressure. The flushing should be done at night and the water pressure in the distribution system must be at least 25 PSI. mL: milliliter Moisture and Potassium Permanganate: The combination of moisture and potassium permanganate produces heat. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant at which there would be no risk to human health. MCL for Turbidity: Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. Motor 3600 rpms: Is the maximum synchronous speed of an electric motor that has a frequency of 60 Hz. A possible cause for a mechanical noise coming from a motor is there is an unbalance of a rotating mechanical part. The hardness due to noncarbonate hardness is most likely to determine the choice between lime softening and ion exchange to remove hardness. if a piece of equipment is locked out. This goal is not always economically or technologically feasible. Lime: Is a chemical that may be added to water to reduce the corrosivity.0.

NaOCl: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hypochlorite. Ozone does not provide a Residual in the Distribution System: One of the major drawbacks to using ozone as a disinfectant. Powered activated carbon frequently used for taste and odor control because PAC is non-specific and removes a broad range of compounds. or NH4Cl2: These chemicals may be used as alternative disinfectants. New Public Water System: Community water systems and non-transient non-community water systems that begin operations on or after October 1. NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit): A measure of the clarity or cloudiness of water. factories. Non-Transient. NH3: Is the molecular formula of Ammonia. or PAC. Some examples are schools. Muriatic Acid: An acid used to reduce pH and alkalinity. Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Are pairs of elements and major plant nutrients that cause algae to grow. Powdered activated carbon. Nitrates may also occur naturally in some waters. Also used to separate combined chlorine and convert it into free chlorine. Oligotrophic: A reservoir that is nutrient-poor and contains little plant or animal life. NO3-: Is the molecular formula of the Nitrate ion. upon combination with chlorine. Ozone. usually of woven fiber. leading to trihalomethane formation.MSDS: Is a safety document must an employer provide to an operator upon request. Chlorine Dioxide or Chloramine O3. Mud Balls in Filter Media: Is a possible result of an ineffective or inadequate filter backwash. placed in rings around the shaft of a pump and used to control the leakage from the stuffing box. Non-point source pollution: Air pollution may leave contaminants on highway surfaces. O3: Is the molecular formula of ozone. snubbers and an air cushion chamber are examples of surging and overrange protection devices. Powdered activated carbon may be used with some success in removing the precursors of THMs Packing: Material. Jar tests and threshold odor number testing determines the appli-cation rate for powdered activated carbon. This nonpoint source pollution adversely impacts reservoir water and groundwater quality. One precautions should be taken in storing PAC is that bags of carbon should not be stored near bags of HTH. Overrange Protection Devices: Mechanical dampers. Also used to remove stain and scale. Non-carbonate Hardness: Is the portion of the total hardness in excess of the alkalinity. Notification and Safety of the Public: Is the most important concern to an owner/operator if a toxic substance contaminates a drinking water. Non-Community Water System: A water system which supplies water to 25 or more of the same people at least six months per year in places other than their residences. Over time. NTNCWS: Non-transient non-community water system. PAC: A disadvantage of using PAC is it is very abrasive and requires careful maintenance of equipment. NH4+: Is the molecular formula of the Ammonium ion. and hospitals which have their own water systems. Organic Precursors: Natural or man-made compounds with chemical structures based upon carbon that. Nitrates: A dissolved form of nitrogen found in fertilizers and sewage by-products that may leach into groundwater and other water sources. NaOH: Is the molecular formula of Sodium hydroxide. 1999 must comply with Article 6. ClO2. commonly used for in a water treatment plant for taste and odor control. Normality: It is the number of equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. Capacity Development Requirements for a New Public Water System. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 195 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Oxidizing: The process of breaking down organic wastes into simpler elemental forms or by products. Osmosis: Osmosis is the process by which water moves across a semi permeable membrane from a low concentration solute to a high concentration solute to satisfy the pressure differences caused by the solute. office buildings. Nitrate and nitrite are prohibited: The Department will not grant a nitrate or nitrite waiver. nitrates can accumulate in aquifers and contaminate groundwater. Noncarbonate Ions: Water contains Noncarbonate ions if it cannot be softened to a desired level through the use of lime only. Oxygen Deficient Environment: Name one of the most dangerous threats to an operator upon entering a manhole. Removes tastes and odors by adsorption only.

The others drink water from private wells. Pump 5.000 to 20. Pressure Head: The height to which liquid can be raised by a given pressure. virus or parasite that causes or is capable of causing disease. and Organic Nitrogen: Nutrients in a domestic water supply reservoir may cause water quality problems if they occur in moderate or large quantities. Perikinesis: Is the aggregation resulting from random thermal motion of fluid molecules. bends.Pathogens: Disease-causing pathogens. Prevention: To take action. A picocurie is one quadrillionth of a curie. Pollution: To make something unclean or impure. pH (Power of Hydroxyl Ion Activity): A measure of the acidity of water. Potable: Good water which is safe for drinking or cooking purposes. carbonate. A pH of more than 7 is on the basic (alkaline) side of the scale with 14 as the point of greatest basic activity. at a particular temperature. PPM: Abbreviation for parts per million. Peak Demand: The maximum momentary load placed on a water treatment plant. Proton. Pneumatic systems are not reliable over transmission lines greater than 1000 feet: Is the primary characteristic which limits the use of a pneumatic data transmission system. Pb: Is the chemical symbol of Lead. Pre-chlorination: The addition of chlorine to the water prior to any other plant treatment processes. A curie is the amount of radiation released by a set amount of a certain compound. Potential Energy: The energy that a body has by virtue of its position or state enabling it to do work. Pressure: A Bellows-type sensor reacts to a change in pressure. Phosphate. Polyphosphates: Are chemicals that may be added to remove low levels of iron and manganese. There are differing standards for PWSs of different sizes and types. Public Water System (PWS): Any water system which provides water to at least 25 people for at least 60 days annually. Point of Entry: POE. rivers and other sources to about 250 million Americans. The pH where the Langelier Index equals zero. waterborne pathogens A pathogen is a bacterium. pH Temperature and Chlorine dosage are the factors that influence the effectiveness of chlorination the most.000 hours: Is the typical operating life of a mechanical seal. Pathogens may contaminate water and cause waterborne disease. Permeate: Is the term for water which has passed through the membrane of a reverse osmosis unit. Neutron. Non-Potable: A liquid or water that is not approved for drinking. A pH of less than 7 is on the acid side of the scale with 0 as the point of greatest acid activity. Electron: Are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom. valves. pCi/L: Picocuries per liter. Nitrate. etc. Pipeline Appurtenance: Pressure reducers. Pollution: The duration of exposure to the contaminant affects the dose of a toxic contaminant in a water supply. Public Notification: An advisory that EPA requires a water system to distribute to affected consumers when the system has violated MCLs or other regulations. A mechanical seal is the best seal to use for a pump operating under high suction head Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 196 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . The definition of an acidic solution is a solution that contains a significant number of H+ ions. Pump: A key and a tight fit is the common method used to secure an impeller to the shaft on doublesuction pump. An operator should calibrate the instrument with a known buffer solution before using a pH meter. Alkalinity and pH tell an operator with regards to coagulation how to determine the best chemical coagulant to be used. Pump Discharge Valve Off: Is when should a reciprocating pump or piston pump not be operated. Bellows gauge and Diaphragm are commonly used to measure pressure in waterworks systems. Pressure Measurement: Bourdon tube. The notice advises consumers what precautions.000 PWSs providing water from wells. See Contaminated. if any. There are more than 170. Phenolphthalein /Total Alkalinity: The relationship between the alkalinity constituents bicarbonate. pH of Saturation: The ideal pH for perfect water balance in relation to a particular total alkalinity level and a particular calcium hardness level. they should take to protect their health. regulators (which are a type of valve). The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with 7 being the mid point or neutral. Stop something before it happens. and hydroxide can be based on the P and T alkalinity measurement. Rinse the electrodes with distilled water should be done with the electrodes after measuring the pH of a sample with a pH meter. pumping station or distribution system.

A reciprocating pump or piston pump should not be operated with the discharge valve in the closed position. an “Underground Service Alert” center should be contacted to assist in determining the location of all underground utilities in the work area. Sanitary Survey: Persons trained in public health engineering and the epidemiology of waterborne diseases should conduct the sanitary survey. What is the most common type of damage caused by heat generated during operation? The lubricating oil tends to break down quickly requiring frequent replacement. The viscosity decreases with most lubricants as the temperature increases. chemical feeder. Salts are Absent: Is a strange characteristic that is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere. it is generally considered to be unsafe to drink. Safety: 2 Feet: The distance from the edge of a hole must you place the spoil from an excavation. from water leaving the treatment facility. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 197 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . pipes). Cavitation is caused by a suction line may be clogged or is above the water line. Rules: The objective of a vulnerability assessment is to determine weakness in the distribution or water system. operation. Relay Logic: Is the name of a popular method of automatically controlling a pump.e. burn. Community water system. equipment. transient non community water system. Centrifugal pumps do not generate suction unless the impeller is submerged in water. valve. and maintenance of a public water systems for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the facilities for producing and distributing safe drinking water. or from the taps of selected consumers. non-transient non-community water system. or destroy a person’s skin or eyes and can be either acidic or basic. PWS: 3 types of public water systems. The importance of a detailed sanitary survey of a new water source can not be overemphasized. Safety Statements: A supervisor should warn an operator about the presence of a confined space by clearly posting the appropriate signage at all entries to a confined space. Depending on the regulation. One disadvantage of a centrifugal pump is that it is not selfpriming. If a pump is located above the level of water a foot valve must be provided on the suction piping to hold the prime. and other devices. An air compressor generates heat during the compression cycle. Continuous leakage from a mechanical seal on a pump indicates that the mechanical seal needs to be replaced. or produce other substances Red Water and Slime: Iron bacteria are undesirable in a water distribution system because of red water and slime complaints. The purpose of a non-regulatory sanitary survey is to identify possible biological and chemical pollutants which might affect a water supply. Anthracite and Garnet: Mixed media filters are composed of these three materials. Corrosive-This type of chemical classification may weaken. A possible cause of a scored shaft sleeve is that the packing has broken down or the packing is too tight or over tightened. Safe Yield: A possible consequence when the “safe yield” of a well is exceeded and water continues to be pumped from a well is land subsidence around the well will occur. An on-site review of the water sources. The main purpose of the wear rings in a centrifugal double suction pump is that the wear rings maintain a flow restriction between the impeller discharge and suction areas. Reagent: A substance used in a chemical reaction to measure. examine. EPA requires water systems and states to take samples from source water. Rotameter: Is the name of transparent tube with a tapered bore containing a ball is often used to measure the rate of flow of a gas or liquid. Raw Water: Water that has not been treated in any way. Recorder: A recorder that measures flow is most likely to be located anywhere in the plant where a flow must be measured and in a central location. facilities. Sand.. Sample: The water that is analyzed for the presence of EPA-regulated drinking water contaminants. Before beginning an excavation. Ladders and climbing devices by inspected by a qualified individual once a year. The correct order for placing shorting equipment in a trench is starting at the top move to the bottom of the trench and reverse to remove it. The purpose of the foot valve on a pump is that it keeps the air relief opened. Two pumps of the same size can be operated alternately to equalize wear and distribute lubricant in bearings. Residual Disinfection/Protection: A required level of disinfectant that remains in treated water to ensure disinfection protection and prevent recontamination throughout the distribution system (i.conditions. Reservoir: An impoundment used to store water. Runoff: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of natural processes of runoff. detect.

The regular use of stain prevention chemicals can prevent scale. thickened. dosage. Overfeeding must be prevented to protect public health when using a fluoridation system. or conditioned to decrease the volume of sludge. Hard insoluble minerals deposited (usually calcium bicarbonate) which forms on pool and spa surfaces and clog filters. Sectional Map: Is the name of a map that provides detailed drawings of the distribution system’s zones. appliances. the result of unbalanced water. Secondary Drinking Water Standards: Non-enforceable federal guidelines regarding cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste. small motors. SCADA: A remote method of monitoring pumps and equipment. small-volume storage pond where sludge is concentrated and stored for an extended periods. Sodium Bisulfate: Chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity (dry acid). If a plant produces a large volume of sludge. SOC: A common way for a synthetic organic chemical such as dioxin to be introduced to a surface water supply is from an industrial discharge. Sedimentation: The process of suspended solid particles settling out (going to the bottom of the vessel) in water. Split Flow Control System: This type of control system is to control the flow to each filter influent which is divided by a weir. Liquid. SPADNS: The lab reagent called SPADNS solution is used in performing the Fluoride test. Scroll and Basket: Are the two basic types of centrifuges used in water treatment. Saturation Index: See Langelier's Index. Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda. agricultural drainage. kills algae and oxidizes organic matter. Shroud: The front and/or back of an impeller. repaired if necessary. and disinfected. 130 degrees F is the maximum temperature that transmitting equipment is able to with stand. Sodium Bicarbonate: Commonly used to increase alkalinity of water and stabilize pH. Turbidity of source water. Sludge Basins: After cleaning sludge basins and before returning the tanks into service the tanks should be inspected. Twice a year sedimentation tanks should be drained and cleaned if the sludge buildup interferes with the treatment process. If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. a by-product chlorine generation and often used to raise pH. Ridding a water of organic waste through oxidization by the addition of significant quantities of a halogen. Softening Water: When the water has a low alkalinity it is advantageous to use soda ash instead of caustic soda for softening water.300 or fewer persons. Sedimentation Basin: This location is where the thickest and greatest concentration of sludge will be found. Scale is caused by high calcium hardness and/or high pH. Centrifuges and Filter Presses: Are procedures used in the dewatering of sludge. odor. Some times we call these quarter-sections. Vapor: 3 forms of matter. Scale: Crust of calcium carbonate. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 198 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Soda Ash: Chemical used to raise pH and total alkalinity (sodium carbonate). Softening: The process that removes the ions which cause hardness in water. the sludge could be dewatered. Solid. Chemical often used to soften water. portable power tools and in homes. Saturator: A device which produces a fluoride solution for the fluoride process. Sensor: A float and cable system are commonly found instruments that may be used as a sensor to control the level of liquid in a tank or basin. Small Water System: 3. or a spill. and type of coagulant used are the most important factors which determine the amount of sludge produced in a treatment of water. Solar Drying Beds or Lagoons: Are shallow. Sludge Reduction: Organic polymers are used to reduce the quantity of sludge. heaters and pumps. Solar Drying Beds. Single Phase Power: Is the type of power is used for lighting systems.Sanitizer: A disinfectant or chemical which disinfects (kills bacteria). Crystal-grade types of sodium fluoride should be fed with a saturator. Shock: Also known as superchlorination or break point chlorination. or color) of drinking water.

TCE. a grab sample. when the temperature decreases. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects). You will see white smoke if there is a leak. ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. Stuffing Box: That portion of the pump that houses the packing or mechanical seal. rivers and lakes. Standpipe: A water tank that is taller than it is wide. although TDS is generally considered not as a primary pollutant (e. Stationing: The word stationing on a plan drawing refers to a representation of a location from a starting point or reference. a water storage tank’s interior coating (paint) protect the interior about 3-5 years. it is a common groundwater contaminant. and emergency storage. lakes. generally. Three-Phase Pumps: Large three-phase pumps employs the use of a magnetic starter. Demineralization may be necessary in a treatment process if the water has a very high value Total Dissolved Solids. trichloroethylene: A solvent and degreaser used for many purposes. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 199 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . for example dry cleaning. Can be used to accomplish accurate and reliable remote monitoring and control over a long distribution system. Supernatant: Is the liquid layer which forms above the sludge in a settling basin. The rate decreases: In general. This process is ideal as long as the water does not contain a large amount of TDS. TDS: Ion exchange is an effective treatment process used to remove iron and manganese in a water supply. Storage Tanks: Three types of water usage that determine the volume of a storage tank are fire suppression storage. Generally.Spray Bottle of Ammonia: An operator should use ammonia to test for a chlorine leak around a valve or pipe. Time for Turbidity Breakthrough and Maximum Head Loss: Are the two factors which determine whether or not a change in filter media size should be made.g. When determining the total dissolved solids. Thickening. Generally the operational definition is that the solids (often abbreviated TDS) must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve size of two micrometres. rivers. Taste and Odors: The primary purpose to use potassium permanganate in water treatment is to control taste and odors. Conditioning. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams. Telemetering: The use of a transmission line with remote signaling to monitor a pumping station or motors. Three-phase Motor: The incoming leads for a three-phase motor all have power. A stoneline or benchmark. since salinity comprises some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. Sum of all the Atomic Weights of the Elements in a Molecule: Is the molecular weight of a compound. TDS-Total Dissolved Solids: is an expression for the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid which are present in a molecular. Surface Water Sources: Surface water sources such as a river or lake are primarily the result of Runoff. Total dissolved solids are normally only discussed for freshwater systems. Equalization storage is the volume of water needed to supply the system for periods when demand exceeds supply. streams. Titration: Method of testing by adding a reagent of known strength to a water sample until a specific color change indicates the completion of the reaction. Tapping Valve: Is the name of the valve that is specifically designed for connecting a new water main to an existing main that is under pressure. Surface Water: Water that is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff. a sample should be filtered before being poured into an evaporating dish and dried. Susceptibility Waiver: A waiver that is granted based upon the results of a vulnerability assessment. Temperature: This test should be performed immediately in the field. Spring Pressure: Is what maintains contact between the two surfaces of a mechanical seal. Anaerobic water undesirable for drinking water purposes because of color and odor problems are more likely to occur under these conditions. equalization storage. Sulfate: Will readily dissolve in water to form an anion. and Dewatering: Are common processes that are utilized to reduce the volume of sludge. Taste and Odor Problems in the Water: May happen if sludge and other debris are allowed to accumulate in a water treatment plant. Sterilized Glassware: Is the only type of glassware that should be used in testing for coliform bacteria. the chemical reaction rate decreases also. but it is rather used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants.

it is primarily transported in steel containers. It must meet or surpass all drinking water standards to be considered safe to drink. Tubercles: The creation of this condition is of the most concern regarding corrosive water effects on a water system. Toxic substance contaminates a drinking water: Public Safety is the most important concern should an owner/operator allow a toxic substance to contaminate a drinking water. Non-Community Water System: A water system which provides water in a place such as a gas station or campground where people do not remain for long periods of time. Volatile Organic Chemical: VOC. Velocity Head: The vertical distance a liquid must fall to acquire the velocity with which it flows through the piping system. dichlorobromom-ethane. VOC’s: The reporting limit for all regulated VOC’s is 0. A measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles. the higher the total alkalinity. the pressure in the pipeline is reduced. this agency responsible for setting drinking water standards and for ensuring their enforcement.Titration: Is the common method of standardization of a solution determination in the lab. Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV): Is one of the most popular ways to compare filter runs. Transient. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. An MCL for turbidity established by the EPA because turbidity interferes with disinfection. The following conditions may cause an inaccurate measure of turbidity. The cloudy appearance of water caused by the presence of tiny particles. The most common class of disinfection by-products created when chemical disinfectants react with organic matter in water during the disinfection process. dibromochloromethane. If high quality raw water is low in turbidity. a scratched or unclean sample tube in the nephelometer and selecting an incorrect wavelength of a light path U. Turbidity is undesirable because it causes health hazards. VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive: The longest term VOC waiver that a public water system using groundwater could receive is 9 years. For a given quantity of flow. Transient Non-community Water System: Is not required to sample for VOC’s. the temperature variation of a sample. High levels of turbidity may interfere with proper water treatment and monitoring. They still must test their water for microbes and several chemicals. Vane: That portion of an impeller that throws the water toward the volute. the greater the resistance to pH change. i. Treated Water: Disinfected and/or filtered water served to water system customers. Generally. See TDS. This technique is the best way to compare water treatment filter runs. We have all seen these little rust mounds inside cast iron pipe. Turbidity Interferes with Disinfection: The primary reason turbidity of water be minimized. and bromoform. Turbidimeter is best suited to perform this measurement. measure of its resistance to a change in pH. Velocities can be increased to a point that a partial vacuum is created. Venturi: If water flows through a pipeline at a high velocity. This characteristic of water changes the most rapidly after a heavy rainfall. Like iron to copper pipe. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 200 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .e.0005 mg/L.S. Valves: A gate valve should be operated in any position between fully open and fully closed. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): The accumulated total of all solids that might be dissolved in water. Tubercles are formed due to joining dissimilar metals. Environmental Protection Agency: In the United States. Trihalomethanes (THM): Four separate compounds including chloroform. causing electro-chemical reactions. Under Pressure in Steel Containers: After chlorine gas is manufactured. there will be a reduction in water treatment costs. Total Alkalinity: A measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of water that indicates its buffering ability. See Disinfectant Byproducts. the velocity head will vary indirectly as the pipe diameter varies. Turbidimeter: Monitoring the filter effluent turbidity on a continuous basis with an in-line instrument is a recommended practice. Valve 20 or 30 Feet Per Inch: Is the typical scale of a Valve and Hydrant map using an intersection method of indexing. Turbidity: One physical characteristic of water.

Jerry Durbin. Water Vapor: A characteristic is unique to water vapor in the atmosphere is does not contain salts. capable of being transmitted by water (e. Source water monitoring for lead and copper be preformed when a public water system exceeds an action level for lead of copper. Water Meter: A water meter that is removed from service for repair should be handled by sealing the meter to retain water. caused by a virus. gastroenteritis). or other microorganism. Vulnerability Assessment: An evaluation of drinking water source quality and its vulnerability to contamination by pathogens and toxic chemicals. supply. Waivers: Monitoring waivers for nitrate and nitrite are prohibited. or reservoir.000 volts is the maximum number of volts that electrical equipment can be insulated with a lower limit of 1 megaohm. A positive bacteriological sample indicates the presence of bacteriological contamination. and furnish quality water to a community. Peak day demand is the greatest amount of water used for any one day in a calendar year. typhoid fever. Water Meter: Head loss may occur with the use of a water meter. Physical..g. Course Proctor Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 201 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . amoebic dysentery. river. Water Level: The probe may be coated by calcium carbonate is a common problem with an electrical probe that is used to measure the level of water. protozoan. cholera. bacterium. The land area from which water drains into a stream. biological. Displacement. The three main classifications of water meters are Compound. Volute: The spiral-shaped casing surrounding a pump impeller that collects the liquid discharge by the impeller.Voltage: 1. chemical. Watershed: An area that drains all of its water to a particular water course or body of water. Water hammer exerts tremendous force on a system and can be highly destructive. Water Purveyor: The individuals or organization responsible to help provide. Pathogens are disease causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Water Hammer: A surge in a pipeline resulting from the rapid increase or decrease in water flow. Waterborne Diseases: A disease. Water Quality: Name the 4 broad categories of water quality. radiological. Velocity.

S. Chern RT. Technical Information Branch. Department of Health and Human Services. 1993 Emergency response guidebook. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Springfield. New York. ACGIH [1994]. Am Rev Respir Dis CFR. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. MA: National Fire Protection Association. Centers for Disease Control. Research and Special Programs Administration. ed.S. 73rd ed. Hall RC. Public Health Service. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DC: U. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Clayton G. 3rd ed. Quincy. Centers for Disease Control. Public Health Service. New York. Forsberg K. Grant WM [1986]. OH: U. DC: U. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. Hall RC [1987]. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. Boca Raton. IL: Charles C Thomas. Cincinnati. and Fischman ML [1991]. Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Mansdorf SZ [1993]. NIOSH [1995]. Department of Health and Human Services. 6th ed. DOT [1993]. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. ed.S. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.S. Myers JR [1991]. Centers for Disease Control. Hazardous substance fact sheet: Chlorine. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Office of the Federal Register. Hathaway GJ. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 445-447 NFPA [1986]. Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. OH: U. Mickelsen RL. Cincinnati. NIOSH [1987a]. Cincinnati. 87-116.References ACGIH [1991]. NJ: New Jersey Department of Health. NIOSH respirator decision logic. Government Printing Office. American Thoracic Society. OH: U. Lewis condensed chemical dictionary. NIOSH [1992]. 4th ed.1987 update. Genium [1992]. 53. Material safety data sheet No. Washington. Department of Transportation. MD: National Library of Medicine. Hazardous substances data bank: Chlorine. OH: U. Public Health Service. NJDH [1992]. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Lide DR [1993]. Cincinnati.S. Code of Federal regulations. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 3rd rev. New York. Schenectady.S. Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation. Department of Health and Human Services. ATS [1987]. Hughes JP. Centers for Disease Control. Department of Health and Human Services. Proctor NH. NLM [1995]. 12th ed. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Centers for Disease Control. guide 20. FL: CRC Press. NY: Genium Publishing Corporation. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Standardization of spirometry -. Cincinnati. NIOSH [1987b]. Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. OH: U. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. Inc. 87-108. Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer.S. Lewis RJ. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Chlorine. Toxicology of the eye. Clayton F [1981-1982]. Cincinnati. Public Health Service. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 941-947 Mickelsen RL. 94-113. 9th ed. 92-100. NIOSH [1994]. Trenton. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 202 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Cincinnati. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 3rd ed. [1993]. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Washington. Bethesda.

Common Water Treatment and Distribution Chemicals Chemical Name Common Name Chemical Formula Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia Ammonium Bentonitic clay Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Chlorine gas Chlorine Dioxide Copper sulfate Dichloramine Ferric chloride Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous bicarbonate Ferrous hydroxide Ferrous sulfate Hydrofluorsilicic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hypochlorus acid Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium dioxide Manganous bicarbonate Manganous sulfate Monochloramine Potassium bicarbonate Potassium permanganate Muriatic acid Copperas Iron sulfate Iron chloride Blue vitriol HTH Slaked Lime Unslaked (Quicklime) Gypsum Activated Carbon Limestone Bentonite Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OCl)2 . liquid Al(OH)3 AL2(SO4)3 .7H20 H2SiF6 HCl H2S HOCL Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 MgO2 Mn(HCO3)2 MnSO4 NH2Cl KHCO3 KMnO4 Alum. 4H2O Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 C CO2 H2CO3 Cl2 ClO2 CuSO4 . 5H2O NHCl2 FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(HCO3)2 Fe(OH)3 FeSO4. 14(H2O) NH3 NH4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 203 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Chemical Name Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorsilicate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium Metaphosphate Sodium phosphate Sodium sulfate Sulfuric acid Common Name Soda ash Salt Chemical Formula Na2CO3 NaCl NaClO2 NaF Na2SiF6 Lye Hexametaphosphate Disodium phosphate NaOH NaOCl NaPO3 Na3PO4 Na2SO4 H2SO4 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 204 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

+4. (+4). +3. +6 -1.Number Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Rubidium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Valence (-1). (+2). (+3) +2 (+2). +3 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 205 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . +3. +4. (+5). -2. -1. (+4). +6 +6 (+2). +4 -3. (+3). +8 (+2). (+6) +2. +4. +2. +4. +5 -2. +6 -1. (+2). +2. +2. (+6) +2. (+2). +4. (+4) +1. +3. (+6). +3. (+6) +1. +1. (+3). +5 (+2). +3. (+4). (+7). +3 (+2). +5 -2. +3. +2 (+1). +4 -3. +3. +6 +2. (+2). +7 +2. (+2). (+4). (+1) 0 +1 +2 +3 -4. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +2. +4. (+4) (+1). (+1). +1. (+3). +2. (+3). +1 0 +1 +2 -3. +3. +2. +4. (+3). (+6). +4. +3. +3. +5 +2. +4 -3. +4 (+2). +1. (+3) (+1). (+4). +5 0 +1 +2 +3 (+2). (+2). +3 -4. +5. +3. +3. +4 +2. +5 -2 -1.

+6 (-1). (+2). +3 (+2). (+3). 8th Ed. +6 -1.). +6. +8 (+1). +2. +5 (+2). (+4). +6 (+1). (+4). +5 -2. 1952. +6 Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. +4 +3 (+2). +3. +3. (+1). +4 +3 +3 +3 (+2). +6 +1. (+5). +3 +2. +3 +3 +4 (+3). +3 +3 +3. +3. +2 +1. (+3). +5. (+5). +3 (+2). Norbert A.. (+5). (+2). (+5) (-2). (+6) ? 0 ? +2 +3 +4 +5 (+2). +4. +4 (-3). Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 206 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium +2. +4. (+2). (+4). +3. +7 (+2). (+2). Inc. Handbook Publishers. +7 0 +1 +2 +3 +3. +1. (+3). +4 +3 +3. +3 +1. +3. +4. (+4). (+2). +4. (+3). +2. +4. +4. Lange (Ed. +6. +2. +4. (+4). +4 -3.

alum chrome. grain alcohol.Common Used Products Chemical Name acetone acid of sugar alcohol. wood alum alumina antichlor aqua ammonia aqua regia aqua fortis aromatic spirit of ammonia asbestos aspirin baking soda banana oil (artificial) benzol bichloride of mercury black copper oxide black lead bleaching powder blue vitriol bluestone borax brimstone brine butter of antimony butter of tin calomel carbolic acid carbonic acid gas caustic potash caustic soda chalk Chile saltpeter chrome. yellow copperas cream of tartar crocus powder emery powder Epsom salts ethanol fluorspar formalin French chalk galena Glauber's salt gypsum hydrocyanic acid hypo (photography) lime dimethyl ketone oxalic acid ethyl alcohol methyl alcohol aluminum potassium sulfate aluminum oxide sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide nitrohydrochloric acid nitric acid ammonia in alcohol magnesium silicate acetylsalicylic acid sodium bicarbonate isoamyl acetate benzene mercuric chloride cupric oxide graphite (carbon) chlorinated lime copper sulfate copper sulfate sodium borate sulfur aqueous sodium chloride solution antimony trichloride anhydrous stannic chloride mercury chloride phenol carbon dioxide potassium hydroxide sodium hydroxide calcium carbonate sodium nitrate chromic potassium sulfate lead (VI) chromate ferrous sulfate potassium bitartrate ferric oxide impure aluminum oxide magnesium sulfate ethyl alcohol natural calcium fluoride aqueous formaldehyde solution natural magnesium silicate natural lead sulfide sodium sulfate natural calcium sulfate hydrogen cynanide sodium thiosulfate solution calcium oxide Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 207 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Common Used Products limewater lunar caustic magnesia mercury oxide. jeweler's rubbing alcohol sal ammoniac sal soda salt. table salt of lemon salt of tartar saltpeter silica soda ash soda lye soluble glass spirit of hartshorn sugar. table talc or talcum vinegar vitamin C washing soda water glass Chemical Name aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide silver nitrate magnesium oxide mercurous oxide methyl alcohol methyl alcohol hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid methyl salicylate copper acetoarsenite powdered calcium carbonate isoamyl acetate potassium carbonate calcium sulfate graphite potassium carbonate potassium hydroxide hydrogen cyanide tetrasodium pyrophosphate calcium oxide mercury lead tetraoxide potassium sodium tartrate ferric oxide isopropyl alcohol ammonium chloride sodium carbonate sodium chloride potassium binoxalate potassium carbonate potassium nitrate silicon dioxide sodium carbonate sodium hydroxide sodium silicate ammonium hydroxide solution sucrose magnesium silicate impure dilute acetic acid ascorbic acid sodium carbonate sodium silicate Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 208 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . black methanol methylated spirits muriatic acid oil of vitriol oil of wintergreen (artificial) Paris green Paris white pear oil (artificial) pearl ash plaster of Paris plumbago potash potassa Prussic acid pyro quicklime quicksilver red lead Rochelle salt rouge.

in) Height.785 Liters = 1Gallon 231 Cubic Inches = 1 Gallon 7.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) CYLINDER: Volume (Cu. Ft.32) X 5/9 CONCENTRATION: Conc.1 mg/L = 1 Grain/Gallon 1% = 10. in % SLOPE = Rise (feet) X 100 Run (feet) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 209 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . ft.) = Length X Width Volume (cu.000 mg/L 694 Gallons per Minute = MGD 1.48 Gallons = 1 Cubic Foot 64.Math Conversion Factors 1 PSI = 2.34 Percent Efficiency = In – Out X 100 In TEMPERATURE: 0 0 F = (0C X 9/5) + 32 C = (0F .34 lbs/gallon 1 mg/L = 1 PPM 17. (A) X Volume (A) = Conc.7 Pounds = 1 Cubic Foot Dimensions SQUARE: Area (sq.433 PSI 1.ft) = Length (ft) X Width (ft) X Height (ft) CIRCLE: Area (sq. ft.31 Feet of Water 1 Foot of Water = . in)2 (Distance.14 X Radius (ft) X Radius (ft) X Depth (ft) SPHERE: (3.83 (Diameter.55 Cubic Feet per Second = 1 MGD 60 Seconds = 1 Minute 1440 Minutes = 1 Day .13 Feet of Water = 1 Inch of Mercury 454 Grams = 1Pound 1 Gallon of Water = 8.560 Square Feet – 1 Acre VOLUME 1000 Milliliters = 1 Liter 3.746 kW = 1 Horsepower LENGTH 12 Inches = 1 Foot 3 Feet = 1 Yard 5280 Feet = 1 Mile AREA 144 Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 43.14) (Diameter)3 (6) Circumference = 3. (B) X Volume (B) FLOW RATE (Q): Q = A X V (Quantity = Area X Velocity) FLOW RATE (gpm): Flow Rate (gpm) = 2.14 X Diameter General POUNDS = Concentration (mg/L) X Flow (MG) X 8.) = 3.) = 3.

X Motor Eff.%) STRENGTH (%) (Volume 1.000 Number of hours worked per year DETENTION TIME (hrs) = Volume of Basin (gals) X 24 hrs Flow (GPD) BY-PASS WATER (gpd) = Total Flow (GPD) X Plant Effluent Hardness (gpg) Filtered Hardness (gpg) Hardness HARDNESS (mg/L as CaCO3) = A (mls of titrant) X 1000 Mls of Sample Ca HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 2.5 X (Ca. gal) FLUORIDE ION PURITY = (Molecular weight of Fluoride) (100%) (%) Molecular weight of Chemical INJURY FREQUENCY RATE = (Number of Injuries) 1. MEAN OR AVERAGE = Sum of the Values Number of Values TOTAL HEAD (ft) = Suction Lift (ft) X Discharge Head (ft) SURFACE LOADING RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gal/min/sq. gal) (Strength 2.000. gal) (Strength 1. mg/L) Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 210 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . gal) + (Volume 2. %) + (Volume 2.ACTUAL LEAKAGE = Leak Rate (GPD) Length (mi.ft) Surface Area (sq. mg/L) Mg HARDNESS as mg/L CaCo3 = 4. ft) MIXTURE = (Volume 1.) X Diameter (in) VELOCITY = Distance (ft) Time (Sec) WATER HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 BRAKE HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Efficiency MOTOR HORSEPOWER = Flow (gpm) X Head (ft) 3960 X Pump Eff.12 (Mg.

ft) X Backwash Rate (gpm/sq.) X Removal Capacity HARDNESS TO GRAIN/GALLON = Hardness (mg/L) X gr.) Filtration FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq. ft) (gpm) FILTRATION RATE = Flow Rate (gpm) (gpm/sq.) C Factor Slope = Energy Loss. ft Distance./MG) 1 MG PAC (lbs. GPM 193.34 (lbs. ft.) BACKWASH PUMPING RATE = Filter Area (sq.) Dry Polymer (lbs./gal) = PAC (mg/L) X 3. ft.000 (mg/L) Mls of Sample EXCHANGE CAPACITY (grains) = Resin Volume (cu. ft.) + Water (lbs. ft Flow./gal 17. ft) Filter Area (sq.54 Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 211 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .785 (1/gallon) 1000 (mg/g) X 454 (g/lb.1 mg/L LANGELIER INDEX = pH .) DESIRED PAC = Volume (MG) X Dose (mg/L) X 8.63 (Slope) 0.pHs Chemical Addition CHEMICAL FEED RATE = Chemical Feed (ml/min) (gpm) 3785 ml/gal CHLORINE DOSE (mg/L) = Chlorine Demand (mg/L) + Chlorine Residual (mg/L) POLYMER % = Dry Polymer (lbs.75 (Diameter. ft) Surface Area (sq. ft) 2.ALKALINITY-TOTAL = Mls of Titrant X Normality X 50.

Morelli. ed. Basic Principles of Water Treatment. Littleton. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 212 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Colorado. Second Edition Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Tall Oaks Publishing Inc. 1996.D.We have over 40 other continuing education correspondence courses available. C. References Water Treatment.

please email all concerns and the completed manual to info@tlch2o. we expect that water to be clean and tasty too. irrigate. So often. You can also find complete assistance under the Assistance Page.Water Treatment Assignment The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. and how we mimic the purification processes by the use of mechanical and chemical applications. In this course. type out your own answer key. You will have 90 days from receipt of this manual to complete in order to receive your Professional Development Hours (PDHs) or Continuing Education Unit (CEU). bathe and have fun in. We use water to drink. Please include your name and address on your manual and make copy for yourself. If you should need any assistance.com. Introduction Water is an integral part of life. Not only do we expect water to flow. we turn on the faucet and use the water without thinking about the miraculous trip that each drop of water has taken to get to that faucet. A score of 70 % is necessary to pass this course. you will learn how the water has made a trip through the hydrologic cycle.ABCTLC. Without it. I would prefer that you write out your own answer on the provided manual.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC. please visit www. we expect water to flow. Living in the United States. but if you are unable to do so. life would not survive. the types of source water that is available. when we turn on the water faucet. Large raw water impoundment Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 213 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

Another term used for plants giving off moisture would be: Condensation Precipitation Percolation Transpiration Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 214 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . B. it goes through many processes. 1. Give a brief definition of the listed components of the water cycle. C. instead the water cycles from one place to another. Percolation: 5. As the water cycles. Evaporation: 6. Precipitation: 2. A. The planet never gets any new water. D. The Hydrologic Cycle The water on the planet today is the same water that has been on the planet since the beginning. The water that you drank today most likely has been drunk before many years ago. These processes are nature’s way of purifying the water. please visit www. Runoff: 3.The Water Treatment Assignment is available in Word on the Internet for your Convenience. Infiltration: 4.ABCTLC.com and download the assignment and e mail it back to TLC.

A porous material just above the water table describes this source to be surface water. Evolutional 10. list the physical characteristics of water. To simplify this. they need to know the source of your problem so they can properly treat it. Physical B. Radiological E. Ground Water and Surface Water. As water moves over or below the earth surface the quality of the water is classified as the following EXCEPT for: A. In the space provided below. False 9.7. Biological C. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 215 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . There are three basic types of water rights. Chemical D. A. 8. they are: Source of Water When you go see your doctor due to illness. The hydrological cycle shows several attributes of the earth purifying and moving water. we will focus on two categories of source water. The same is true when treating water. True B.

Managing Water Quality at the Source 11. In this lesson, you will focus on surface water and the different factors that affect the quality of the water. Many populations have depended on lakes as a source of impounded domestic water supplies. As population increases, list below brief examples of how the supplies are being used?

12. Several common water quality problems in domestic water supply reservoirs may be related to algae blooms. Which of the following summarizes the problems that can occur? A. Taste and odor problems B. Short filter runs at the plant do to clogging C. Increased pH D. Dissolved oxygen depletion E. All of the above Define the following terms: 13. Anaerobic:

14. Aerobic:

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15. During the winter months, which condition is most likely to occur do to cold water conditions on the bottom of the lake? A. Anaerobic B. Aerobic 16. The presence of hydrogen sulfide will produce which type of odor: A. Earthy B. Fishy C. Rotten egg D. Roses 17. What is the definition for Oxidation?

18. What does MCL stand for? A. Maximum Containment Level B. Minimum Contaminant Level C. Maximum Can-drink Level D. Maximum Contaminant Level 19. Which Federal Act would you find the MCL for drinking water? A. SDWA B. OSHA C. NEPDES D. CWA 20. Lakes and reservoirs have intake-outlet structures. In the space provided below, list types of structures and/or screens.

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Coagulation and Flocculation 21. Surface water for domestic use will have some form of impurities. It can be in the form of INORGANIC materials or ORGANIC materials. Given the following illustrations, determine if they are Inorganic or Organic. A. Salt is ____ B. Oxygen is ____ C. Dirt is ____ D. Tree leaves are ____ 22. Which statement describes COLLOIDAL matter? A. Solids that sink to the bottom of a lake B. Solids that are invisible C. Solids that float to the top D. Solids that are very small and repel each other 23. The purpose of using the Coagulation and Flocculation process is to remove the particulate impurities in the water. Which of the two would you use the addition of chemicals? A. Coagulation B. Flocculation 24. What is the purpose of flash mixing? A. Using lightning to shock the water B. To mix the chemical slowly C. To mix the chemical in the water rapidly to prevent clumps D. None of the above 25. List four primary coagulants used in water treatment. A. B. C. D.

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26. Which type of laboratory analysis best simulates the plant process to determine the coagulant dosage? A. Temperature B. pH C. Turbidity D. Jar Test E. Alkalinity 27. Flocculation and Flash Mixing are the same process. A. True B. False 28. Flocculation is a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable floc particles. A. True B. False 29. What is the advantage of minimizing chemical coagulant doses? A. Less sludge is produced and chemical cost are reduced B. Shorter settling times C. Shorter filter runs D. Big clumps floating to the top 30. What is short-circuiting?

Small water treatment package plant

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34. B. C. 31. The same happens to the impurities we coagulated and flocculated.Sedimentation We used the term PRECIPITATION in the hydrological cycle. A. A cloud forms and rain begins to FALL towards the earth. B. It gives us a fancy word for RAIN. C. A. What is the definition for Detention Time? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 220 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Depending on the quality of the source water. A. some plants have Pre-Sedimentation. This is done in SEDIMENTATION basins. 32. D. List some sedimentation basin components. 33. The impurities precipitate and settle to the bottom. Give two reasons for this. List possible shapes for a sedimentation basin. B.

If a sedimentation basin sludge depth increases. This stuff belongs at the wastewater plant Vertical Turbine Pump Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 221 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . None of the above 36. It will remain the same B. Failure to properly maintain the sludge discharge line B. What does frequent clogging of the sludge discharge line indicate? A.35. Sludge concentration is too low C. It will decrease D. what will happen to the detention time? A. It will increase C. Sludge concentration is too high D.

C. Evaluation of overall filtration process performance should be conducted on a routine basis. Direct filtration and Conventional. In the treatment plant we use a mechanical straining for removal. Like a coffee filter that keeps the grounds out of the pot.Filtration Filtration is the last attempt in removing particulate impurities from the water. 37. D. the faster the head loss buildup. A. B. Colloids C. List four desirable characteristics of filter media. True B. What is the major difference between a Direct Filtration Plant and a Conventional Plant? 38. There are to classifications of filtration plants. False 41. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 222 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . Floc E. at least once per day. A. The more uniform the media. 40. All of the above 39. A. True B. False 42. The filtration process removes which type of particles? A. Biological forms D. Poor chemical treatment can often result in either early turbidity breakthrough or rapid head loss buildup. A. True B. Silts and clay B.

R. How are filter production rates measured? A. Filter media provides several characteristics. MGD/sq ft 44. GPM/sq ft C. GPM B. 46.W. Give a brief description of a DECLINING-RATE filter. MGD D. C. 45. What does S. list three types: A. B. stand for? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 223 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .T.43.

A. True B. Moisture in a chlorination system will combine with the chlorine gas and cause corrosion. False 51. A. None of the above 48. Hypochlorite compounds tend to lower the pH of the water being disinfected. False 54. False Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 224 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . What does organic matter form when it reacts with chlorine? A. Floc B. Shingella B. A. 49. Turbidity 50. THM's D. True B. Which of the following pathogens are waterborne diseases? A. C. A. True B. Always work in pairs when looking and repairing chlorine leaks.Disinfection 47. Hepatitis B C. the pressure of the chlorine gas inside a chlorine container will decrease. True B. Giardia lamblia D. False 53. You can use regular pipe fittings when making connections with chlorine containers. A. False 52. A. List three benefits of prechlorination. True B. When the temperature increases. B. Both A & C E. Nitrates C.

The warmer the water. The higher the temperature the easier to disinfect the water D. Level of disinfectant intensity B. True B. What does the product of C x T provide a measure of? A. Organic matter 58. When a chlorine leak exist. What formula would you use to calculate the chlorine feed in pounds per day? Chlorine Gas Windsock Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 225 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . the longer contact time needed 57. use water to dilute it. Threat of THM formation 59. Iron B. False 56. Manganese D. How do water temperature conditions influence the effectiveness of chlorine as a disinfectant? A.55. Degree of pathogenic inactivation D. A. Ammonia C. Rate of chloramine formation C. Which of the following chemical must be present for a breakpoint chlorination curve to develop when chlorine is added to water? A. The warmer the water the less dissipation rate of chlorine to the atmosphere C. The lower the water temperature the easier to disinfect the water B.

What is the maximum rate of chlorine removal in a 150 pound cylinder? Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 226 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . C. D. 61. H. E. B. A. List eight parts that are used for a chlorinator. 62.60. Give a brief description for the use of a fusible plug in a steel cylinder. G. F.

Acid corrosion of joints B. Missing gasket 64. They provide a direct measure of the disinfecting power of the disinfectant D. They accurately measure chlorine dosage B. What is the most probable cause of leaking joints in gas chlorinator systems? A. Gas pressure to high D. They quickly measure and record chlorine residual E.63.How are probes used in the disinfection process? A. Back pressure C. All of the above Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 227 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . They measure the liquid chlorine remaining in a chlorine container C.

I would prefer that the completed booklet or a typed page is mailed back to TLC. Lack of oxygen D. pH is low C. All the above 66.65. You will not receive your answer key back. pH C. Which of the following factors influence chlorine disinfection? A. Temperature E. You have 90 days to successfully complete this course or you will have to pay a $25.00 renewal fee. Please make a copy for yourself. you will receive a certificate for 10 Contact Hours. Make a copy of all of your work. Microorganisms B. If you successfully pass this course. Too far gone to look back and see why When you are finished. 10 PDHs or 1 CEU or 10 Training Credits. Reducing agents D. Corrosion damage from chlorine B. Why will the engines of emergency vehicles quit operating in the vicinity of a large chlorine leak? A. Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 228 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .

How did you hear about this Course?__________________________________ 5. Very Similar 0 1 2 3 4 5 Very Different 4. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 3. Please rate the difficulty of your course. ______________________________________________________________________ Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 229 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 . 1. Very Easy 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 Very Difficult Very Difficult 2.Please mail this with your final exam WATER TREATMENT COURSE CUSTOMER SERVICE RESPONSE CARD DATE:________________ NAME:_________________________________ SOCIAL SECURITY ______________ ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________ E-MAIL_________________________________PHONE_______________________ PLEASE COMPLETE THIS FORM BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER OF THE APPROPRIATE ANSWER IN THE AREA BELOW. Please rate the subject matter on the exam to your actual field or work. Please rate the difficulty of the testing process. What would you do to improve the Course? ______________________________________________________________________ Any other concerns or comments.

Large butterfly valve on a transmission line Water Intake Screen Water Treatment 8/13/2006 ©TLC 230 (928) 468-0665 Fax (928) 468-0675 .