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Understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three
states of matter: solid, liquid and gas
Solid
Have a fixed shape
Particles are vibrating on the spot
Liquid
Can flow as the particles can move around one another
Takes the shape of the container it is in
Gas
Move rapidly and are independent of one another, colliding with each other and with the walls of the container
Diffuse rapidly and exert pressure on the objects they collide with
Is much less dense than either the solid or the liquid
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Describe how the inter-conversion of solids, liquids and gases are achieved and recall the
names used for these inter-conversions

Evaporation: conversion from liquid to gas at room temperature
Boiling: conversion from liquid to gas at boiling point
Sublimation: conversion of a solid to a gas or vice versa without passing through the liquid phrase
E.g. iodine, naphthalene and solid carbon dioxide (dry ice)
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Describe the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these
inter-conversions.

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Describe simple experiments leading to the idea of the small size of particles and their
movement including:
i. Dilution of coloured solutions

Dilution of CuSO4 solution

ii. Diffusion experiments
Diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
Factors that affect diffusion:
Temperature
o In hot water, rate of diffusion is faster as the molecules gain more kinetic energy

Density
o Lighter particles travel faster than heavier particles



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Understand the terms atom and molecule
A molecule
Is a particle of matter composed of two or more atoms held together in a particular arrangement by strong
chemical bonds
Molecules have a neutral electrical charge that is generally stable. Examples of molecules include molecules of
water (HO) and oxygen (O)
An atom
Is the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of that element and is a fundamental piece of
matter; it is made up of three fundamental particles (neutrons, protons and electrons).
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Understand the differences between elements, compounds and mixtures
An element
Is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom
For example, the element hydrogen is made from atoms containing a single proton and a single electron. If you
change the number of protons an atom has, you change the type of element it is

A mixture
Is a substance made by combining two or more different materials in such a way that no chemical reaction
occurs
A mixture can usually be separated back into its original components

A chemical compound
Is a substance composed of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by
mass
When a compound is formed from its components, a chemical change takes place through chemical reactions.
Elements form compounds to become more stable, which happens when the maximum numbers of possible
electrons are in the outermost energy level (normally two or eight valence electrons)
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Describe techniques for the separation of mixtures, including simple distillation, fractional
distillation, filtration, crystallisation and paper chromatography
Decantation:
o Quick method used to separate a mixture of a liquid and a heavier solid
o Allows the solid to sink and settle before pouring out the liquid
o Cannot be used with lighter solids
o Example:
Separating sand and water
Filtration:
o Method used to separate suspensions
o Mixture is poured into a funnel fitted with a piece of filter paper
o Tiny holes in filter paper allow liquid to pass through but solid particles are too large to do so
Residue:
Solid particles that stays on the paper
Filtrate:
Liquid which passes through
o Example:
Separating mud and water
Centrifugation:
o Is used when we want to separate small amounts of suspension
o The suspension of solid in liquid is poured into a centrifuge tube and is spun around very fast in a
centrifuge
o The spinning motion forces the solid to the bottom of the tube
o The liquid can then be poured off from the solid
o Example:
Separating cream from milk to make skimmed milk
Evaporation:
o Is used to separate solutions
o The solution is heated so that the solvent evaporates, and the solid is left behind
o Example:
Obtaining salt from salt water
Crystallization:
o Used to separate dissolved solids from a solution
o By cooling down a hot concentrated solution:
In a heated solvent, more solute can be dissolved than in a cool solvent


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The solution has to be heated to get rid of some water
This makes the solution concentrated
When the solution cools, the solvent can no longer hold as much solute
The excess solute will be separated out as crystals
o Slow evaporation of solution at room temperature:
At room temperature, the solvent will still evaporate
As more solvent evaporates, the solution becomes more concentrated
After the solution is saturated, excess solutes will form crystals
The longer the crystals take to form, the larger they will be as solute particles require time to
arrange themselves in regular shaper in order to form crystals
If dust is exposed to the solution, the crystals will be smaller
o Example:
Obtaining sugar from sugar solution
Distillation:
o Is used to obtain the liquid from a solution after evaporation
o Condenses the hot vapour formed during evaporation by using:
A cold surface
A condenser
This condenses steam more efficiently
Consists of two tubes
o One inside another
o The outer tube contains cool water
o The inner tube contains steam
o The steam can condense easily in the inner tube
o Evaporation + Condensation = Distillation
o Example:
Obtaining water from salty water
Using a separating funnel:
o Is used to separate immiscible liquids
o The liquids form layers
The liquid with the higher density will form the lower layer
o The liquid with the higher density can be separated by removing the stopper and opening the tap.
The lower layer will run through the tap
o Example:
Separate oil and water


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Fractional Distillation
o Is used to separate miscible liquids
o For the separation to work, the liquids in the mixture should have a difference of 10C in their boiling
points
o The mixture will be heated
o The liquid with the lower boiling point will evaporate, rise up the fractionating column and enter the
condenser.
o The gas will condense and become liquid again in the second beaker
o Example:
Separate ethanol and water (ethanol has a lower boiling point)

Sublimation:
o Used to separate a solid from a solid where one sublimes while the other does not
o The mixture of the two solids is heated
o Only one of the solids will change to vapour
o Example:
Separating iodine from sand (iodine sublimes)
Chromatography:
o Used to identify substances in a mixture
o A mixture is put on a strip of paper, one centimetre away from one of the shorter edge
o The edge with the ink is then dipped in water without putting the ink into the water
o The water will then travel along the strip of paper carried the mixture which will then split into the
different substances
o The substances do not necessarily have to be coloured
Colourless substances can be made to show up by spraying the paper with a locating agent,
which then reacts with each of the colourless substances in order to produce a coloured product


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o The movement of each substance in the mixture depends on:
The solubility of the substance in the solvent
The substance moves with the solvent easily if the substance is very soluble in the
solvent
The absorption of the substance on the filter paper
Some solids are able to attract other substances strongly and hold them on their
surfaces
o This is called adsorption
The substances will not move with the solvent easily if the substance in the mixture is
absorbed strongly by the filter paper
o We call the solids which are able to attract other substances strongly and hold them on their surface
adsorbents
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Recall that atoms consist of a central nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons,
surrounded by electrons, orbiting in shells

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Recall the relative mass and relative charge of a proton, neutron and electron
Particle Mass Charge
Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron Almost 0 (1/1848) -1

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Shell/Orbit


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Understand the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass
(Ar)
The atomic number
Is the number of protons in the atom, also called proton number; it is the smaller of the two numbers shown in
most periodic tables
The mass number or atomic mass
Is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; it is the bigger number of the two numbers
shown in most periodic tables
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element which have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of
neutrons; therefore they have the same atomic number but a different mass number.
Properties of Isotopes:
Isotopes have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons in their outermost
shell.
They have different physical properties e.g. melting point, boiling point, colour, density and rate of diffusion.
Isotopes are used all around the world in agriculture, medicine and even as smoke detectors. Radioactive
Isotopes are used in medicine for diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer. This medicine is called
nuclear medicine. They are used in agriculture as pesticides.
Relative Atomic Mass
The relative atomic mass of an element is the average mass of its atoms compared to an atom of Carbon 12. This
is done as atoms are very small and so it would be very complicated to calculate their average mass.
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Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element from the relative abundances of its
isotopes
How to calculate relative atomic mass:
Example for Chlorine:
75% Chlorine 35, 25% Chlorine 37
RAM (Relative Atomic Mass) = 75% * 35 + 25% * 37 = 35.5
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Understand that the Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in order of atomic
number
The Periodic Table
The periodic table is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number. All metals are on the left
hand side of the step ladder and all non-metals are on the right
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Deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the
Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The vertical columns are called groups and they tell us about the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
There are 8 groups
The horizontal rows are called periods. The periods number tells us the number of shells present around the
nucleus. The first period only has two elements
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Deduce the number of outer electrons in a main group element from its position in the
Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The vertical columns are called groups and they tell us about the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
There are 8 groups
All the elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell giving them the
same or very similar chemical properties.
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Calculate relative formula masses (Mr) from relative atomic masses (Ar)
Ar (O) = 16
Mr (O2) = 2 x 16 = 32
Mr (NO2) = (1 x 14) + (2 x 16)
= 14 + 32
= 46
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Understand the use of the term mole to represent the amount of substance
d
Ke is its relative atomic mass, or relative formula mass, in grams
Ar (C) = 12
Mr (C) = 12
Mass of one mole of carbon is 12 g
Mass of two moles of carbon is 24g
Mass of one mole of a compound = Mr (g)
E
One mole of any substance has 6.023 x 10 atoms, ions, molecules
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Carry out mole calculations using relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative formula mass
(Mr)
n: number of moles (moles)
m: mass (g)
Mr: relative molecular mass (g)
Number of Moles = Mass Relative Molecular Mass
n = m Mr
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Write word equations and balanced chemical equations to represent the reactions studied
in this specification
Use the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) in chemical equations to represent solids, liquids,
gases and aqueous solutions respectively
Formation Reactions
o Burning elements with oxygen
Carbon + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)
o Formation of compounds from their elements
Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride


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2 Na (s) + Cl2 (g) 2 NaCl (s)
Combustion Reactions
o Complete combustion will form CO2 and H2O
CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O
o Incomplete combustion will produce CO and H2O
2 CH4 + 3 O2 2 CO + 4 H2O
Acid Reactions
o Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen
o Acid + Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
o Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
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Understand how the formulae of simple compounds can be obtained experimentally,
including metal oxides, water and salts containing water of crystallisation

Weigh the crucible and lid
Weigh the crucible, lid and magnesium
o Mass of magnesium = Mass of the crucible, lid and magnesium Mass of the crucible and lid
Heat the magnesium till it is full oxidized
o When the contents no longer glow as the lid is lifted
Weigh the crucible, lid and magnesium oxide
o Mass of magnesium oxide = Mass of the crucible, lid and magnesium oxide Mass of the crucible and lid
o Mass of oxygen combined = Mass of magnesium oxide Mass of magnesium
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Calculate empirical and molecular formulae from experimental data
The empirical formula of a compound contains the simplest ratio of atoms in that compound
Calculating the empirical formula from masses:
Write down the symbols of each element
Write down the masses of each element
Divide each mass by the atomic mass of each element
Determine the simples whole number ratio
Write down the empirical formula of the compound
Calculating the empirical formula from percentages:
Write down the symbols of each element
Write down the percentage of each element
Write down the masses of each element
o This is done by simply assuming that the compound weighs 100g
Divide each mass by the atomic mass of each element
Determine the simples whole number ratio
Write down the empirical formula of the compound
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Calculate reacting masses using experimental data and chemical equations
Calculate the number of moles of the given species
o Number of Moles = Mass Relative Molecular Mass
Calculate the number of moles of the required species
o This can be done by using mole ratio which is the ratio taken from the balancing numbers
Calculate the reactant mass
o Mass = Number of Moles x Relative Molecular Mass
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Carry out mole calculations using volumes and molar concentrations
Molar Volume
n: number of moles (moles)
V: volume of gas (cm)
Vr: molar volume (24 000 cm)


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Number of Moles = Volume of Gas Molar Volume
n = V Vr
One mole of any gas has a fixed volume at a given temperature and pressure
The molar volume of any gas is 24 000 cm at room temperature and pressure
Room temperature is considered 25C
Room pressure is 1 atm
Solutions
n: number of moles (moles)
C: concentration (mol/L)
V: volume (dm)
Number of Moles = Concentration x Volume
n = C x V
The number of moles pertains to the amount of solute
The volume pertains to the amount of solution

Calculations only for Gases
To find the volume of a gas, simply use volume ratios taken from the balancing numbers

Example:
2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (g)
30 cm + 10 cm

Ratio of oxygen to water is 1:2
Volume of oxygen is 10 cm
Therefore, volume of water is 20 cm

Volume of gases left at the end of the reaction = 30 cm
That is because there was 10 cm excess of hydrogen

Calculations in Solutions
To find the concentration or volume of a solution, simply use the following equation


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(C1V1) (C2V2) = n1 n2
However, the mole ratio on the right hand side of the equation can be taken from the balancing numbers

Example:
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
30 cm + 10 cm

C (NaOH) = ?
V (NaOH) = 0.25 dm

C (HCl) = 0.1 mol/dm
V (HCl) = 0.2 dm
(C1V1) (C2V2) = n1 n2
(C1 x 0.25) (0.1 x 0.2) = 1 1
C1 = 0.02 0.25
= 0.08 mol/dm
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Describe the formation of ions by the gain or loss of electrons
An ion
Is a charged particle which is formed when an atom loses or gains electrons (the number of electrons is not
equal to the number of protons)
o An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and so has a positive overall charge. This
is called a positive ion
o An atom that gains electrons has more electrons than protons and so has a negative overall charge. This
is called a negative ion
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Understand oxidation as the loss of electrons and reduction as the gain of electrons
Oxidation
Is
Loss of electrons

Reduction
Is
Gain of electrons
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Recall the charges of common ions in this specification
Name of the Atom Symbol Formula of the ion
Sodium Na Na
Magnesium Mg Mg
Aluminium Al Al
Chlorine Cl Cl
Bromine Br Br
Sulfur S S
Strontium Sr Sr
Nitrogen N N
Helium He He
Iodine I I
Barium Ba Ba
Caesium Cs Cs
Boron B B

Carbonate CO
Sulphate SO
Ammonium NH
Nitrate NO
Hydroxide OH
Phosphate PO4
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Deduce the charge of an ion from the electronic configuration of the atom from which the
ion is formed
How to find the charge of an ion
The charge of an ion depends on which group the atom belongs to:
Group 1 +1
Group 2 +2
Group 3 +3
Group 5 -3
Group 6 -2
Group 7 -1
Group 0 no charge (already have full outer shell)
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Explain, using dot and cross diagrams, the formation of ionic compounds by electron
transfer, limited to combinations of elements from Groups 1, 2, 3, and 5, 6, 7



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Understand ionic bonding as a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged
ions
An Ionic Bond
Is a strong electrostatic force between oppositely charged ions
It is a compound that contains a metallic element and a non-metallic element
Is formed either through the gain or loss of electrons
It is formed in order for the atoms to become stable
o They try to obtain an inert gas configuration
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Understand that ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points because of strong
electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions.
Properties of ionic compounds:
1. Most ionic compounds are soluble in water.
2. In solid state they do not conduct electricity due to the presence of ions. However when molten or liquid, they
can conduct electricity due to the movement of ions
3. They have high melting and boiling points because of strong electrostatic forces of attraction between
oppositely charged ions
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Describe the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of a pair of electrons between
two atoms
A covalent bond is formed between two or more non-metals by the sharing of electrons
Understand covalent bonding as a strong attraction between the bonding pair of electrons
and the nuclei of the atoms involved in the bond
The two atoms involved in bonding show a strong attraction between the bonding pair of electrons and the nuclei of the
atoms involved in the bond
Explain, using dot and cross diagrams, the formation of covalent compounds by electron
sharing for the following substances:
i. Hydrogen

ii. Chlorine

iii. Hydrogen Chloride

iv. Water



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v. Methane

vi. Ammonia

vii. Oxygen

viii. Nitrogen

ix. Carbon Dioxide

x. Ethane

xi. Ethene
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Recall that substances with simple molecular structures are gases or liquids, or solids with
low melting points
Explain why substances with simple molecular structures have low melting points in terms
of the relatively weak forces between the molecules



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Properties of Simple Covalent Structures:
Most substances that contain simple covalent molecules have low melting and boiling points and are therefore
liquids or gases at room temperature. This is because the covalent bonds within the molecules are strong but the
bonds between molecules are weak and easy to break.
For example water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, chlorine and hydrogen.
They are also soft and brittle and cannot conduct electricity.
Strong bonds within intramolecular molecules
Weak bonds within intermolecular molecules
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Explain the high melting points of substances with giant covalent structures in terms of
the breaking of many strong covalent bonds
In some substances such as sand, diamond and graphite, millions of atoms are joined together by covalent bonds. The
bonds in these substances do not form molecules but vast networks of atoms called giant covalent structures.
All the bonds are covalent, so giant covalent structures have very high melting and boiling points and are usually hard as
it requires a lot of energy to break many strong covalent bonds
Sand
Structure of Sand

Sand is made up of the mineral quartz which is silicon dioxide. It has a giant covalent structure made up of silicon and
oxygen atoms.
Diamond
Structure of Diamond



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Properties of Diamond
All the electrons in the outer shell of each carbon atom are involved in forming covalent bonds.
Diamonds cannot conduct electricity because there are no free electrons or ions to carry a charge.
Graphite
Structure of Graphite

Properties of Graphite
In graphite, only three of the four electrons in the outer shell of each carbon atom are involved in covalent bonds.
Graphite is soft and slippery; layers can easily slide over each other as the weak forces of attraction between these
layers can be easily broken. This is why graphite is often used as a lubricant.
Graphite conducts electricity and so it is the only non-metal to do so. This is because each layer has delocalized
electrons from each carbon atom which can carry a charge.
Allotropes of Carbon
Both diamond and graphite are made up of carbon atoms. Different forms of the same element are called
allotropes. These allotropes of carbon have different properties because the atoms are bonded in different
arrangements which create different giant structures
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Describe a metal as a giant structure of positive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalized
electrons
Structure of metals
The atoms in a pure metal are in tightly-packed layers, which form a regular lattice structure
The outer electrons of the metals atoms separate from the atoms and create a sea of electrons`
These electrons are delocalized and so are free to move through the whole structure
The metal atoms become positively charged ions and are attracted to the sea of electrons
This attraction is called metallic bonding


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Explain the malleability and electrical conductivity of a metal in terms of its structure and
bonding
Why are metals strong?
Metals will usually be strong and not brittle. This is because when a metal is hit, the layers of metal ions are able to slide
over each other and so the structure does not shatter
The metallic bonds do not break because the delocalized electrons are free to move throughout the structure which also
explains why metals are malleable and ductile
Malleable: easy to shape.
Ductile: can be drawn into wires
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Understand an electric current as a flow of electrons or ions
An electric current is a flow of electrons or ions
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Understand why covalent compounds do not conduct electricity
Covalent compounds do not conduct electricity due to the absence of free electrons as electrons are shared
When dissolved in water, they don`t Iorm ions
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Understand why ionic compounds conduct electricity only when molten or in solution
Properties of ionic compounds:
1. In solid state they do not conduct electricity due to the presence of ions. However when molten or liquid, they
can conduct electricity due to the movement of ions
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Describe simple experiments to distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes
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Recall that electrolysis involves the formation of new substances when ionic compounds
conduct electricity
In electrolysis, the substance that the current passes through and splits up is called the electrolyte

The electrolyte contains positive and negative ions:
Anions (negative ions) move to the anode (positive electrode) and lose electrons (oxidation)
Cations (positive ions) move to the cathode (negative electrode) and gain electrons (reduction)

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Describe simple experiments for the electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of molten salts
such as lead (I I ) bromide

If you pass electricity through the molten salts:
Lead accumulates at the negative electrode
Bromine accumulates at the positive electrode
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Write ionic half-equations representing the reactions at the electrodes during electrolysis
Lead Bromide Lead + Bromine
PbBr (l) Pb (l) + Br (g)

At the negative electrode: At the positive electrode:
Reduction Oxidation
Pb + 2 e Pb Br2 + 2 e
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Understand the terms group and period
The Periodic Table
The vertical columns are called groups and they tell us about the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
There are 8 groups.
The horizontal rows are called periods. The periods number tells us the number of shells present around the
nucleus. The first period only has two elements.
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Recall the positions of metals and non-metals in the Periodic Table
All metals are on the left hand side of the step ladder and all non-metals are on the right
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Explain the classification of elements as metals or non-metals on the basis of their
electrical conductivity and the acid-base character of their oxides
Electrical conductivity of metals is high as the electrons are free to conduct electricity.
Non-t
All metals form oxides which are basic in nature.
All non-metals form oxides which are acidic in nature.
Examples:
Sodium + Oxygen Sodium Oxide
Sodium Oxide + Water Sodium Hydroxide (basic)
Carbon + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide + Water Carbonic Acid (acidic)
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Understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical
properties
All the elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell giving them the same or
very similar chemical properties
This is mainly because the atoms of the elements gain/lose electrons in a similar manner
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Recall the noble gases (Group 0) as a family of inert gases and explain their lack of
reactivity in terms of their electronic configurations
Group 0 (Inert Gases)
Helium- Hot air balloons
Neon- Advertising signs/neon lights
Argon- Bulbs
Krypton- Advertising signs
Xenon- Flash gun in cameras
of electrons which make them very unreactive which is why
they are the inert gases. They are stable due to their full outer shell of electrons and so
elements
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Describe the reactions of these elements with water and understand that the reactions
provide a basis for their recognition as a family of elements
Reactivity of Alkali Metals
Sodium
Observation of Sodium in water:
o It was fizzing.
o It was floating on the surface of water.
o Saw fumes/smoke/a gas was given off.
o It became smaller and smaller in size.
o It was moving around on the surface of water.
o After the reaction the resultant solution turned the universal indicator blue.
Conclusion:
o Sodium is very reactive.
o It has a very low density since it floats on the water.
o The gas produced was hydrogen
Test for Hydrogen
Place a lighted splint in a test-tube of gas
If you hear a squeaky pop, hydrogen is present


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o Alkali Metals in water produce alkaline solutions which turn universal indicator solution blue
Chemical Reaction:
o 2Na + 2HO 2NaOH + H
o Sodium + Water Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Potassium
Observation of Potassium in water:
o The reaction with Potassium was much more vigorous than Sodium.
o Potassium was skidding on the surface of water.
o A gas was given off.
o It was fizzing.
o Potassium was floating on the surface of water and getting smaller in size.
o It burnt with a lilac flame.
o When universal indicator was added to the resulting solution, it turned blue.
Conclusion:
o Potassium is very reactive, even more reactive than Sodium and it also burns with a lilac flame (purple
flame)
o It has a very low density since it floats on the water.
o The gas produced was hydrogen
Test for Hydrogen
Place a lighted splint in a test-tube of gas
If you hear a squeaky pop, oxygen is present
o Alkali Metals in water produce alkaline solutions which turn universal indicator solution blue
Chemical Reaction:
2K + 2HO 2KOH + H
Potassium + Water Potassium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
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Recall the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 1
Group 1 (Alkali Metals)
Li Lithium
Na - Sodium
K - Potassium


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Rb - Rubidium
Cs - Caesium
Fr Francium
Reactivity of Group 1 Elements
The reactivity of group 1 elements increase as you go down the group as the size of the atom increases and
there are also more shells around the nucleus so the outermost electron has very little nuclear attraction and it
can easily be lost in chemical reactions
This group is also the most reactive group as it has one electron in the outermost shell and so it is very unstable
and needs to react
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Recall the colours and physical states of the elements at room temperature
Fluorine is pale yellow (gas)
Chlorine is greenish yellow (gas)
Bromine is reddish brown (liquid)
Iodine is purple (solid)
Astatine is black (solid)
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Make predictions about the properties of other halogens in this group
All Halogens are:
Non-metals and so do not conduct electricity
Brittle and crumbly when solid
Poisonous and smelly
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Understand the difference between hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid
The difference between hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid:
Hydrogen Chloride ', ions and so it is not acidic in nature (Hydrogen chloride gas
does not turn blue litmus red)


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However Hydrochloric Acid is produced when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water. Hydrochloric Acid
dissociated to give H ions which are responsible for the acidic nature (they turn blue litmus paper red) making
Hydrochloric Acid, acidic in nature
HCl (g) + HO = HCl (aq)

H Cl
(Dissociation is the temporary or reversible process in which a molecule or ion is broken down into smaller molecules or
ions)
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Explain, in terms of dissociation, why hydrogen chloride is acidic in water but not in
methylbenzene
HCl in Water
o Particles dissociate to produce H ions
Resulting solution is acidic in nature
HCl in Methylbenzene
o Particles do not dissociate to produce H ions
Resulting solution is not acidic in nature
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Recall the relative reactivities of the elements in Group 7
Reactivity of Group 7 Elements
In group 7 (halogens) the reactivity of the elements decreases as you go down the group (Fluorine is the most
reactive and Iodine is the least).
This is because as you go down the group, the atomic size increases and so it is difficult for the atom to attract
electrons as the shieldy effect increases and so the nuclear attraction decreases. Therefore Fluorine is the most
reactive halogen and iodine is the least reactive halogen.
Fluorine water will be able to displace all the other halogens and undergo all displacement reactions
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Describe experiments to show that a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive
halogen from a solution of one of its salts
As the colour of the solution is taken from the atom and not the ion, we are able to see, which element gets displaced
Fluorine + Potassium Bromide Potassium Fluoride + Bromine
o Solution turns reddish brown
Therefore, bromine got displaced
Therefore, fluorine is more reactive than bromine
Chlorine + Potassium Iodide Potassium Chloride + Iodine
o Solution turns purple
Therefore, iodine got displaced
Therefore, chlorine is more reactive than iodine
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand these displacement reactions as redox reactions.
d
Oxidation
Is
Loss of electrons
Reduction
Is
Gain of electrons
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the gases present in air and their approximate percentage by volume
Gas Amount in Air (%)
Nitrogen 78.1
Oxygen 21.0
Argon 0.9
Carbon Dioxide 0.04
__________________________________________________________________________________________




Page 31 of 81

Describe how experiments involving the reactions of elements such as copper, iron and
phosphorus with air can be used to determine the percentage by volume of oxygen in air
Showing that air contains about one-fifth oxygen
Using Copper
2 Cu (s) + O2 (g) = 2 CuO (s)
Using Iron
4 Fe (s) + 3 O2 (g) = 2 Fe2O3 (s)


Using Phosphorous

Phosphorous shoulders in air to produce two different phosphorous oxides
__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 32 of 81

Describe the laboratory preparation of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide
Making Oxygen in the Lab
Catalytic Decomposition
Splitting up using a catalyst

Hydrogen Peroxide Manganese Oxide Water + Oxygen
2 H2O2 (aq) MnO2 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g)


Test for Oxygen
Place a glowing splint into a test tube of gas
If the splint re-ignites, oxygen is present
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the reactions with oxygen in air of magnesium, carbon and sulfur, and the acid
base character of the oxides produced
Burning Elements in Oxygen
Burning Magnesium
o Burns in air with a bright white flame
o Gives a white, powdery ash of magnesium oxide
o Extremely bright in pure oxygen
Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium Oxide
2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)
Burning Sulfur
o Burns in air with a tiny, almost invisible, blue flame


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o Poisonous, colourless sulfur dioxide gas is produced
o Bright blue flame in oxygen
Sulfur + Oxygen Sulfur Dioxide
S (s) + O2 (g) 2 SO2 (g)
Burning Carbon
o Burns when heated very strongly in air or oxygen
o Burns with a small yellow-range flame
o Sometimes produces sparks
o Colourless carbon dioxide gas is produced
Carbon + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)
Metal and Non-Metal Oxides
D those that do, tend to form alkaline solutions
o Magnesium Oxide + Water Magnesium Hydroxide
o MgO (s) + H2O (l) Mg(OH)2 (s and aq)
Non-metal oxides often react with water to form acidic solutions common exceptions are water and carbon
monoxide
o Water + Sulfur Dioxide Sulfurous Acid
o H2O (l) + SO2 (g) H2SO3 (aq)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the laboratory preparation of carbon dioxide from calcium carbonate and dilute
hydrochloric acid
Making Carbon Dioxide in the Lab
Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water
CaCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)




Page 34 of 81

Test for Carbon Dioxide
o Add some lime water to a test tube filled with gas
o Shake the test tube
o If the solution turns milky, carbon dioxide is present

Calcium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate + Water
Ca(OH)2 (aq) + CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l)

Calcium Carbonate + Carbon Dioxide + Water Calcium Hydrgencarbonate
CaCO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) Ca(HCO3)2 (aq)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the formation of carbon dioxide from the thermal decomposition of metal
carbonates such as copper (I I ) carbonate

CuCO3 CuO + CO2
Copper Carbonate Copper Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
Green Black
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the properties of carbon dioxide, limited to its solubility and density
Properties of Carbon dioxide
Colourless
Odourless
Denser than air
Slightly soluble in water
__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 35 of 81

Explain the use of carbon dioxide in carbonating drinks and in fire extinguishers, in terms
of its solubility and density
Uses of Carbon Dioxide
Used in carbonated drinks
o As it dissolves in water under pressure
Used in fire extinguishers
o As the dense gas sinks into the flames and prevents any more oxygen from reaching them
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the reactions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide with water to produce acidic
solutions
Carbon Dioxide
o Water + Carbon Dioxide Carbonic Acid
o H2O (l) + CO2 (g) H2CO3 (aq)
Sulfur Dioxide
o Water + Sulfur Dioxide Sulfurous Acid
o H2O (l) + SO2 (g) H2SO3 (aq)

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are pollutant gases which contribute to acid
rain, and describe the problems caused by acid rain
Non-Metal Oxides and the Environment
Acid rain is caused when water and oxygen in the atmosphere react with sulfur dioxide to produce sulfuric acid, or with
various oxides of nitrogen to give nitric acid
Sulfur dioxide mainly comes from power stations and factories burning fossil fuels
Oxides of nitrogen are produced from motor vehicles
Problems:
Erosion of limestone and metals
Kills fish in lakes
Contribute to the death of plants
__________________________________________________________________________________________


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Describe the reactions of dilute hydrochloric and dilute sulfuric acids with magnesium,
aluminium, zinc and iron
Bubbles of gas released
Hydrochloric Acid
o Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen
o Aluminium + Hydrochloric Acid Aluminium Chloride + Hydrogen
o Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid Zinc Chloride + Hydrogen
o Iron + Hydrochloric Acid Iron Chloride + Hydrogen
Sulfuric Acid
o Magnesium + Sulfuric Acid Magnesium Sulfate + Hydrogen
o Aluminium + Sulfuric Acid Aluminium Sulfate + Hydrogen
o Zinc + Sulfuric Acid Zinc Sulfate + Hydrogen
o Iron + Sulfuric Acid Iron Sulfate + Hydrogen
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the combustion of hydrogen
Test for Hydrogen
Place a lighted splint in a test-tube of gas
If you hear a squeaky pop, oxygen is present
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the use of anhydrous copper (I I ) sulfate in the chemical test for water
Water turns white anhydrous copper (II) sulfate blue
Anhydrous copper (II) sulfate lacks water of crystallization and is white. Dropping water onto it replaces the water of
crystallization, and turns it blue
CuSO4 (s) + 5 H2O (l) CuSO4 5 H2O (s)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe a physical test to show whether water is pure.
Pure water freezes at exactly 0 C and boils at exactly 100 C at 1 atmospheric pressure
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on the reactions of the
metals and their compounds: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium,
aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver and gold


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When metals react in similar ways, we say that they have similar chemical properties
When metals react with water, the gas formed burns with a squeaky pop
o When metals react with water, they always form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas
o Metal + Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Metal + Cold Water Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen
If the metal is more reactive than aluminium
Heated Metal + Steam Metal Oxide + Hydrogen
If the metal is more reactive than tin
When metals react with water, the solution is alkaline
o When metals react with water, the solution turns red litmus paper blue
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how reactions with water and dilute acids can be used to deduce the following
order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and
copper
When metals react with acid, the gas formed burns with a squeaky pop
o When metals react with acid, they always form a metal salt and hydrogen gas
o Metal + Water Salt + Hydrogen
If the metal is at least as reactive as lead
Potassium

Most Reactive
Sodium

Lithium


Calcium


Magnesium


Aluminium


Carbon


Zinc


Iron


Tin


Lead


Hydrogen


Copper


Mercury


Silver


Gold


Platinum

Least Reactive


Page 38 of 81


Hydrochloric acid makes metal chloride
Sulphuric acid make metal sulphate
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Deduce the position of a metal within the reactivity series using displacement reactions
between metals and their oxides, and between metals and their salts in aqueous solutions
When metals react with oxygen, they always form a metal oxide
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide

Competition for Oxygen
Involves the reaction of a metal with the oxide of another metal
o This results in the two metals competing for the oxygen
The more reactive metal finishes up with the oxygen (as a metal oxide)
If the more reactive metal starts as the oxide, then no reaction takes place
Potassium

Most Reactive
Sodium

Lithium


Calcium


Magnesium


Aluminium


Carbon


Zinc


Iron


Tin


Lead


Hydrogen


Copper


Mercury


Silver


Gold


Platinum

Least Reactive


Page 39 of 81


Extracting Metal with Oxygen
Consists of two competition reactions
o A metal oxide is reacted with charcoal
If the charcoal (carbon) is more reactive, it will remove the oxygen from the metal oxide and
leave a trace of metal in the reaction vessel

Displacing Metals from Solution
An ionic solution is collected in a test tube
o A metal is placed in the solution
If the metal is more reactive than the metallic element in the ionic solution, it displaces the
metallic element
The electrons move from the metal to the ions
o The metal atoms become ions
o The metallic ions become atoms


Page 40 of 81






Page 41 of 81

Word Equation
Copper (II) Sulphate + Iron Copper + Iron Sulphate
Chemical Equation
CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
Ionic Equation
Cu (aq) + SO4 (aq) + Fe (s) Cu (s) + SO4 (aq) + Fe (aq)
Spectator Ions
Sulphate - SO4 (aq)
Ionic Equation with Spectator Ions
Cu (aq) + Fe (s) Cu (s) + Fe (aq)
Ion-Electron Equations
Oxidation
The iron atoms lose electrons to form iron ions
Fe (s) Fe (aq) + 2 Electrons
Reduction
The copper ions gain electrons to form copper atoms
Cu (aq) + 2 Electrons Cu (s)
The iron atoms lose electrons which are gained by the copper ions

If metal atoms and metal ions (in a metal salt) are mixed together, the more reactive metal will always end up as metal
ions and the less reactive metal will always end up as metal atoms
Reactive Metal + Less Reactive Metal Salt Less Reactive Metal + Reactive Metal Salt

Elements near the top of the electrochemical series lose electrons and form ions very readily
Elements near the bottom of the electrochemical series stay as atoms or if they are ions, they gain electrons very readily
for form atoms

The more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal
__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 42 of 81

Understand oxidation and reduction as the addition and removal of oxygen respectively
Any metal element reacting to form a compound is an example of oxidation
When a metal reacts, the only thing it can do is lose electrons and become a metal oxide
Loss of electrons is called oxidation
When metals react, we say they are oxidised
Gain of electrons is called reduction
Reduction and oxidation reactions always take place together

Hydrogen being displaced from a solution of sulfuric acid by zinc
Oxidation
o Zn Zn + 2e
Reduction
o 2H + 2e H2
REDOX
o 2H + Zn H2 + Zn
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand the terms redox, oxidising agent and reducing agent
REDOX (Reduction-Oxidation)
o Reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction
Oxidising Agent
o A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction
The oxidizing agent becomes reduced in the process
Reducing Agent
o A substance that loses electrons in a redox chemical reaction
The reducing agent becomes oxidised in the process
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the conditions under which iron rusts
Iron rusts in the presence of oxygen and moisture
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how the rusting of iron may be prevented by grease, oil, paint, plastic and
galvanising
A coating on the surface of an iron object will protect it from rusting by preventing the contact between the iron, oxygen
and water.



Page 43 of 81

Galvanising
o The process of coating iron and steel objects in a layer of zinc
Tin-Plating
o The process of coating iron and steel object in a layer of tin
Electroplating
o The process of applying a metal (most often gold) to adhere to the surface of another metal using
electrical current
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand the sacrificial protection of iron in terms of the reactivity series.
The galvanized iron does not rust even after the zinc coating has been broken because electrons always flow from more
reactive metals to less reactive metals. Therefore, all the zinc must get oxidised before the iron can start getting
oxidised.

The tin-plated iron rusts fast after the tin coating has been broken because electrons always flow from more reactive
metals to less reactive metals. Therefore, the iron will get oxidised before the tin gets oxidised.

__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 44 of 81

Describe simple tests for the cations:
i. Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ using flame tests
Flame tests are used to show the presence of certain metal ions in a compound
A platinum or nichrome wire is cleaned by dipping it into concentrated hydrochloric acid and then holding it in a
hot Bunsen flame
d
The wire is dipped back into the acid, then into a tiny sample of the solid you are testing, and back into the flame
o Li Red flame
o Na Strong, persistent orange flame
o K Lilac (pink) flame
o Ca Orange-red (brick red) flame
ii. NH4+ using sodium hydroxide solution and identifying the ammonia evolved
Sodium hydroxide reacts with ammonium salts (either solid or in solution) to produce ammonia gas
o In the cold
There is just enough ammonia gas produced for you to be able to smell it
o When warmed
You can test the gas coming off with a piece of damp red litmus paper
Ammonia is alkaline and turns the litmus paper blue
NH4 (s or aq) + OH (aq) NH3 (g) + H2O (l)
NH4Cl (s) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + NH3 (g) + H2O (l)
No precipitate, but a smell of ammonia
iii. Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ using sodium hydroxide solution
Cu (aq) + 2OH (aq) Cu(OH)2 (s)
CuSO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) Cu(OH)2 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq)
If copper (II) ions are present, a blue precipitate is formed
Fe (aq) + 2OH (aq) Fe(OH)2 (s)
FeSO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) Fe(OH)2 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq)
If iron (II) ions are present, a green precipitate is formed
Fe (aq) + 3 OH (aq) Fe(OH)3 (s)
FeCl3 (aq) + 3 NaOH (aq) Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3NaCl (aq)
If iron (III) ions are present, an orange-brown precipitate is formed
__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 45 of 81

Describe simple tests for the anions:
i. Cl, Br and I using dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution

Make a solution of your suspected chloride, bromide or iodide
Add enough nitric acid to make the solution acidic
o This is to remove the other substances which might also produce precipitates with silver nitrate solution
Then, add some silver nitrate solution
Ag (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl (s)
A white precipitate (of silver chloride) shows the presence of chloride ions
Ag (aq) + Br (aq) AgBr (s)
A pale cream precipitate (of silver bromide) shows the presence of bromide ions
Ag (aq) + I (aq) AgI (s)
A yellow precipitate (of silver iodide) shows the presence of iodide ions
ii. SO42 using dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution
Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with a sulphate solution to produce a white precipitate
Make a solution of the suspected sulphate
Add enough hydrochloric acid to make the solution acidic
o This is to remove the other substances which might also produce precipitates with barium chloride
solution
Then, add some barium chloride solution
If a white precipitate is produced, the suspected solution contains sulphate ions
Ba (aq) + SO4 (aq) BaSO4 (s)
iii. CO32 using dilute hydrochloric acid and identifying the carbon dioxide evolved
Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with a solid carbonate to produce carbon dioxide
In a test tube, add a little dilute hydrochloric acid to the suspected solid carbonate
Look for bubbles of gas produced in the cold
Test the gas with lime water to show that it is carbon dioxide
If the limewater turns milky, the suspected solid contains carbonate ions
CO3 (s) + 2H (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
ZnCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
__________________________________________________________________________________________



Page 46 of 81

Describe simple tests for the gases:
i. Hydrogen
Place a lighted splint into a test tube of gas
If you hear a squeaky pop, hydrogen is present
ii. Oxygen
Place a glowing splint into a test tube of gas
If the glowing splint re-ignites, oxygen is present
iii. Carbon Dioxide
Add some of the gas to a test tube of lime water
Shake the test tube
If the lime water turns milky, carbon dioxide is present
iv. Ammonia
Add hydrogen chloride gas to a test tube of the solution
If a white smoke is released, ammonia is present
o The white smoke is ammonium chloride

Ammonia turns damp red litmus paper blue
v. Chlorine
Chlorine is the only gas which has a bleaching effect
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Explain the terms homologous series, hydrocarbon, saturated, unsaturated, general
formula and isomerism
Homologous Series
o A family of chemical compounds which have the same general formula and similar chemical properties
but show a gradual change in physical properties such as melting point and boiling point
o Successive members differ by CH2
Hydrocarbons
o Are organic compounds which contain only hydrogen and carbon
Saturated
o The molecule has no carbon to carbon double bonds
The molecule only has carbon to carbon single bonds
o The molecule has the maximum number of atoms


Page 47 of 81

No more atoms can be added to the molecule
Unsaturated
o The molecule has at least one carbon to carbon double bond
o Atoms can still be added to the molecule
General Formula
o Is a way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound
o For the Homologous Series it shows the relationship between the number of C atoms and H atoms in the
compounds
Isomerism
o Is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different
forms owing to their different arrangement of atoms
Structural Isomers
o Have different structural formulae because their atoms are linked together in different ways
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2
Alkanes
Simplest family of organic compounds
Saturated compounds
o Compounds with only single carbon to carbon bonds
Names of all members end in ane
o Methane
o Ethane
o Propane
o Butane
o Pentane
o Hexane
o Heptane
o Octane
General formula
o CnH2n+2
Are all flammable
Show a gradual change in melting and boiling point
o First four members are gases at room temperature
o Next thirteen members are liquids at room temperature


Page 48 of 81

All the other members are solids at room temperature
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Draw displayed formulae for alkanes with up to five carbon atoms in a molecule, and
name the straight-chain isomers
Number
of
Carbon
Atoms
Number
of
Hydrogen
Atoms
Name
Molecular
Formula
Full Structural Formula Shortened Structural Formula
1 4 Methane CH4

CH4
2 6 Ethane C2H6

CH3CH3
3 8 Propane C3H8

CH3CH2CH3
4 10 Butane C4H10

CH3CH2CH2CH3
5 12 Pentane C5H12

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
6 14 Hexane C6H14

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
7 16 Heptane C7H16

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
8 18 Octane C8H18

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3


Page 49 of 81

C4H10

Butane
Methylpropane

C5H12

Pentane
2 Methylbutane
2, 2 Dimethylpropane


The alkanes have covalent bonding
They have a simple molecular structure
Their melting and boiling points will be low because only the intermolecular forces of attraction between their
molecules are broken when they melt or boil
Both, the melting point and boiling points increases as the size of the molecule increases

__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 50 of 81

Recall the products of the complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes
Combustion (or burning) is the process which takes place in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and
water vapour
Burning Methane

o Observation:
Soot collected inside the funnel
Anhydrous cobalt chloride paper turned from blue to pink
Anhydrous copper sulphate turns from colourless to blue
Limewater turns cloudy

o Methane + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water Vapour
o CH4 + 2 O2 = CO2 + 2 H2O

Burning a Candle

o Wax + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water Vapour

Burning Hexane
o Hexane + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water Vapour
o 6 C6H14 + 19 O2 = 12 CO2 + 14 H2O



Page 51 of 81

Incomplete Combustion
Takes place when there is not enough oxygen present

CH4 + 1.5 O2 = CO + 2 H2O
CH4 + O2 = C + 2 H2O

Carbon Monoxide
Is a toxic gas because it combines with haemoglobin in the blood and prevent oxygen from reaching the cells
o Thus, it causes respiratory disorders
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the reaction of methane with bromine to form bromomethane in the presence of
UV light.
Halogenation
Is the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms in an organic compound by a halogen atom
This reaction does not take place in the dark but only in the presence of UV light
o When excess of methane is reacted with chlorine, the products are chloromethane and hydrogen
chloride
o When excess of methane is reacted with bromine, the products are bromomethane and hydrogen
bromide









Page 52 of 81

Bromination of Methane

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that alkenes have the general formula CnH2n
Alkenes
Unsaturated compounds
o Compounds with at least on carbon to carbon double bond
Names of all members end in ene
o Ethene
o Propene
o Butene
o Pentene
o Hexene
o Heptene
o Octene
General formula
o CnH2n
__________________________________________________________________________________________



Page 53 of 81

Draw displayed formulae for alkenes with up to four carbon atoms in a molecule, and
name the straight-chain isomers
Number
of
Carbon
Atoms
Number
of
Hydrogen
Atoms
Name
Molecular
Formula
Full Structural Formula Shortened Structural Formula
2 4 Ethene C2H4

CH2=CH2
3 6 Propene C3H6

CH3CH=CH2
4 8 But-1-ene C4H8

CH3CH2CH=CH2
4 8 But-2-ene C4H8

CH3CH=CHCH3
5 10
Pent-1-
ene
C5H10

CH3CH2CH2CH=CH2
5 10
Pent-2-
ene
C5H10

CH3CH2CH=CHCH3
6 12 Hex-1-ene C6H12

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2
6 12 Hex-2-ene C6H12

CH3CH2CH2CH=CHCH3
6 12 Hex-3-ene C6H12

CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH3
__________________________________________________________________________________________


Page 54 of 81

Describe the addition reaction of alkenes with bromine, including the decolorising of
bromine water as a test for alkenes
Test for Unsaturation
Add a few drops of bromine water to a test tube containing hydrocarbons
Place a stopper in the test tube and shake
o Saturated compounds show no colour change
o Unsaturated compounds turn bromine water from orange to colourless
d

Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes and cycloalkanes because of the carbon to carbon double bond
When an alkene reacts, this double bond can split open, allowing other substances to add on to the alkene
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the use of the indicators litmus, phenolphthalein and methyl orange to
distinguish between acidic and alkaline solutions
Indicators Colours in Acid Colours in Base
Litmus Blue - Red Red - Blue
Phenolphthalein Colourless - Milky/Cloudy Colourless - Pink
Methyl Orange Orange - Red Orange - Yellow
__________________________________________________________________________________________




Page 55 of 81

Understand how the pH scale, from 0-14, can be used to classify solutions as strongly
acidic, weakly acidic, neutral, weakly alkaline or strongly alkaline
PH scale
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the use of universal indicator to measure the approximate pH value of a solution
The Universal Indicator is a mixture of indicators. Each universal indicator colour is given a PH value so that you can
measure the approximate PH value of the solution. It is more accurate than other indicators as you can tell if the

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Define acids as sources of hydrogen ions, H+, and alkalis as sources of hydroxide ions,
OH
Properties of Acids, Alkalis and Bases
ACIDS
Taste sour
Corrode metals
Are electrolytes
React with bases to form salt and water
pH is less than 7
Turns blue litmus paper to red
o All acids produce H (hydrogen) ions in solution e.g.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Sulphuric acid (HSO)
Nitric acid (HNO)
Acetic acid (CHCOOH)
ALKALIS
o Are water soluble bases
o All Alkalis produce OH (hydroxide) ions in solution e.g.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Ammonium hydroxide (NHOH)
Strong Acid Weak Acid Strong Alkali Weak Alkali Neutral


Page 56 of 81

BASES
o Are any substances that neutralizes an acid
Produce OH ions in water
Tastes bitter and chalky
Are electrolytes
Feel slippery and soapy
React with acids to form salt and water
pH is more than 7
Turns red litmus paper to blue.
o Bases are any substance that neutralizes an acid e.g.
Calcium oxide (CaO)
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO)
Most metal oxides and carbonates
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Predict the products of reactions between dilute hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acids;
and metals, metal oxides and metal carbonates (excluding the reactions between nitric
acid and metals)
Method of preparation Reactants Salt formed Other products
Acid + Alkali Sodium Hydroxide + Nitric Acid Sodium Nitrate Water
Acid + Metal Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid Zinc Chloride Hydrogen
Acid + Metal Carbonate Sodium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride
Water and Carbon
Dioxide
Acid + Base Sulphuric Acid + Copper (II) Oxide Copper (II) sulphate Water

Metal + Acid = Salt + Hydrogen
Carbonate + Acid = Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
Acid + Base = Salt + Water
Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water
__________________________________________________________________________________________



Page 57 of 81

Recall the general rules for predicting the solubility of salts in water:
i. All common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble
ii. All nitrates are soluble
iii. Common chlorides are soluble, except silver chloride
iv. Common sulfates are soluble, except those of barium and calcium
v. Common carbonates are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and
ammonium
Soluble and Insoluble salts
Soluble Insoluble
All Na, K, NH (Ammonium) salts
All nitrates
All chlorides AgCl (Silver chloride)
PbCl (Lead chloride)
All sulphates CaSO (Calcium sulphate)
BaSO (Barium sulphate)
PbSO (Lead Sulphate)
Na, K, NH carbonates
All other carbonates, hydroxides and oxides
Na, K, NH hydroxides and oxides
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how to prepare soluble salts from acids
How to make Soluble Salts
Experiment 1
Metal + Acid = Salt + Hydrogen
1. Add metal to acid and stir.
2. Filter to remove excess metal. (Ensure that all acid is used up)
3. Heat to concentrate the solution. (The evaporating dish should be filled to 2/3rds)


Page 58 of 81

4. Leave to cool and crystallise. For dry crystals: use paper towels, oven or hairdryer, the faster the cooling of the
solution-the smaller the crystals and vice-versa
5. Test for hydrogen gas: Put a lighted splint into the test-tube. The gas will burn with a squeaky pop.

Do not use this method when:
The metal in the salt is very reactive e.g. sodium
The metal does not react with acids e.g. copper or silver
The salt does not dissolve in water

Experiment 2
Carbonate + Acid = Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
1. Add carbonate to acid and stir.
2. Filter to remove excess carbonate.
3. Heat to concentrate the solution. (The evaporating dish should be filled to 2/3rds)
4. Leave to cool and crystallise. For dry crystals: use paper towels, oven or hairdryer, the faster the cooling of the
solution-the smaller the crystals and vice-versa.
5. Test for Carbon Dioxide: Add limewater to the test tube containing the gas. The limewater will turn milky.

Do not use this method when:
The salt does not dissolve in water
The carbonate does dissolve in water


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Experiment 3
Reacting an oxide (insoluble base) with an acid
Insoluble bases are usually oxide or hydroxides of metals
Acid + Base = Salt + Water
1. Add oxide to acid and stir until no more dissolves
2. Filter to remove extra oxide
3. Heat to concentrate the solution
4. Leave to cool and crystallize

Do not use this method when:
If the base is soluble (an alkali)
If the salt is insoluble in water
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how to prepare insoluble salts using precipitation reactions
Precipitation Method
1. Mix solutions until no more precipitate forms
2. Filter to remove precipitate
3. Wash the precipitate
4. Dry the precipitate

__________________________________________________________________________________________


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Describe how to carry out acid-alkali titrations.
Acid-Alkali Titration
Acid + Alkali = Salt + Water

1. Fill a burette up to the zero mark with acid
2. Use a pipette to place 25cm of alkali in a beaker or conical flask. Add 2 drops of indicator (phenolphthalein) to
the alkali.
3. Run acid from the burette, a little at a time, until the indicator shows that the solution is neutral. It will turn
colourless from pink. Note the volume of acid added.
4. Repeat 1, 2 and 3 without the indicator.
5. Transfer the neutralised solution to an evaporating basin.
6. Heat to concentrate the solution.
7. Leave to crystallise.


Acids and Alkalis are both electrolytes which mean that they are solutions which conduct electricity

__________________________________________________________________________________________



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Recall that chemical reactions in which heat energy is given out are described as
exothermic and those in which heat energy is taken in are endothermic
All reactions are exothermic (give out heat) in one direction and endothermic (take in heat) in the other
If the temperature is increased
o Equilibrium shifts to decrease the temperature
o Equilibrium shifts in the endothermic direction
If the temperature is decreased
o Equilibrium shifts to increase the temperature
o Equilibrium shifts in the exothermic direction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe simple calorimetry experiments for reactions such as combustion, displacement,
dissolving and neutralization in which heat energy changes can be calculated from
measured temperature changes


Combustion Displacement, Dissolving and Neutralization
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand the use of H to represent molar enthalpy change for exothermic and
endothermic reactions
When chemical reactions occur, as well as the formation of the products - the chemical change, there is also a
heat energy change which can often be detected as a temperature change.
This means the products have a different energy content than the original reactants
If the products contain less energy than the reactants, heat is released or given out to the surroundings and the
change is called exothermic. The temperature of the system will be observed to rise in an exothermic change.
o Examples:
The burning or combustion of hydrocarbon fuels e.g. petrol or candle wax.
The burning of magnesium, reaction of magnesium with acids, or the reaction of sodium with
water
The neutralisation of acids and alkalis


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Using hydrogen as a fuel in fuel cells
If the products contain more energy than the reactants, heat is taken in or absorbed from the surroundings and
the change is called endothermic. If the change can take place spontaneously, the temperature of the reacting
system will fall but, as is more likely, the reactants must be heated to speed up the reaction and provide the
absorbed heat.
o Examples:
The thermal decomposition of limestone
The cracking of oil fractions
The difference between the energy levels of the reactants and products gives the overall energy change for the
reaction
At a more advanced level the ,,
o ,-ve) for exothermic reactions i.e. heat energy is given out and lost from the system to the
surroundings which warm up.
o ,reactions i.e. heat energy is gained by the system and taken in from
the surroundings which cool down OR, as is more likely, the system is heated to provide the energy
needed to effect the change
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Represent exothermic and endothermic reactions on a simple energy level diagram



__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that the breaking of bonds is endothermic and that the making of bonds is
exothermic
Energy is required to break bonds
o Therefore, the breaking of bonds is endothermic
Energy is released when bonds are formed
o Therefore, the making of bonds are exothermic
In a chemical reaction you need to put energy in to break bonds in the reactants, you get energy out when new
bonds are formed to make the products
If you get out more energy than you have to put in, then overall the reaction is exothermic
If you have to put in more energy than you get out, then the reaction is endothermic



Page 63 of 81


__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe experiments to investigate the effects of changes in surface area of a solid,
concentration of solutions, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction
Surface Area of a Solid
In the reaction between calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water
Calcium carbonate may be used in the form of marble chips
The reaction rates can be compared using large marble chips, and the same mass of small marble chips
The reaction can be followed by plotting the loss of mass against time

Concentration of Solutions
In the reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Chloride + Sulfur Dioxide + Sulfur + Water
Solid sulfur (S(s)) is formed in the flask
Increasing the concentration of sodium thiosulfate means that the solid sulfur will be produced more quickly
and there will be less time before the cross can no longer be seen


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Temperature
In the reaction between sodium thiosulfate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Chloride + Sulfur Dioxide + Sulfur + Water

Solid sulfur (S(s)) is formed in the flask
Increasing the temperature of sodium thiosulfate means that the solid sulfur will be produced more quickly and
there will be less time before the cross can no longer be seen
Use of a Catalyst
Hydrogen peroxide is stable at room temperature
The presence of a catalyst may cause it to decompose
Hydrogen Peroxide Oxygen + Water
The rate of the reaction can be followed by recording the volume of oxygen produced
The catalyst used is Manganese(IV) oxide - MnO2(s)
Using more catalyst will show an increase in reaction rate
This is because more catalyst will have a greater surface area for the reaction to take place

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of solutions,
pressure of gases, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction
Activation Energy
o The amount of energy needed to start a reaction
Catalyst
o A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up


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Concentration
o The number of molecules of a substance in a given volume
Enzyme
o A biological catalyst
Rate of Reaction
o The change in the concentration over a certain period of time

Effect of Surface Area on Rate of Reaction
o The larger the surface area, the faster the rate of reaction
Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction
o The higher the concentration of a dissolved reactant, the faster the rate of reaction
Effect of Pressure on Rate of Reaction
o As the pressure of gaseous reactants increases, the rate of reaction increases
Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction
o The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction
Effect of Catalyst on Rate of Reaction
o In the presence of a catalyst, the rate of reaction increases
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand the term activation energy and represent it on a reaction profile
Activation Energy
o The minimum amount of energy needed for the particles to react
o Depends on:
The frequency of collisions between particles
The energy with which particles collide

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Explain the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of solutions,
pressure of gases and temperature on the rate of a reaction in terms of particle collision
theory
Effect of Surface Area on Rate of Reaction
o Any reaction involving a solid can only take place at the surface of a solid
If the solid is split into several pieces, the surface area increases


Page 66 of 81

This means that there is an increased area for the reactant particles to collide with
o The smaller the pieces, the larger the surface area
This means more collisions and a greater chance of reaction
Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction
o The higher the concentration of a dissolved reactant, the faster the rate of reaction
At a higher concentration, there are more particles in the same amount of space
This means that the particles are more likely to collide and therefore more likely to react
Effect of Pressure on Rate of Reaction
o As the pressure of gaseous reactants increases, the rate of reaction increases
As the pressure increases, the space in which the gas particles are moving becomes smaller
The gas particles become close together, increasing the frequency of collisions
o This means that the particles are more likely to react
Effect of Temperature on Rate of Reaction
o The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction
At higher temperatures, particles have more energy
This means they move faster and are more likely to collide with other particles
o When the particles collide, they do so with more energy, and so the number of
successful collisions increases
Effect of Catalyst on Rate of Reaction
o Catalysts are substances that change the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction
o Catalyst never produce more product
They just produce the same amount more quickly
Different cataly
energy
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand that a catalyst speeds up a reaction by providing an alternative pathway with
lower activation energy
Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant molecules
This effectively means the activation energy is reduced
Therefore at the same temperature, more reactant molecules have enough kinetic energy to react compared to
the uncatalysed situation and so the reaction speeds up with the greater chance of a 'fruitful' collision
o A catalyst does NOT change the energy of the molecules, it reduces the threshold kinetic energy needed
for a molecules to react
Although a true catalyst does take part in the reaction, it does not get used up and can be reused with more
reactants, it may change chemically on a temporary basis but would be reformed as the reaction products also
form


Page 67 of 81


__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that some reactions are reversible and are indicated by the symbol in equations
Reversible reactions occur when the backwards reaction (products reactants) takes place relatively easily under
certain conditions; the products turn back into the reactants
In some reactions, the products of the reaction can react to reform the original reactants such reactions are reversible
(the symbol in an equation shows it is reversible)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe reversible reactions such as the dehydration of hydrated copper (I I ) sulfate and
the effect of heat on ammonium chloride
On heating the blue solid, hydrated copper (II) sulphate, steam is given off and the white solid of anhydrous
copper (II) sulphate is formed
When the white solid is cooled and water added, blue hydrated copper (II) sulphate is reformed
o Blue Hydrated Copper (II) Sulphate + Heat White Anhydrous Copper(II) Sulphate + Water
o CuSO4.5H2O(s) CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(g)
The dehydration decomposition to give the white solid is the forward reaction and the 're-hydration' to reform
the blue crystals is the backward reaction
o The 5H2O in the formula of hydrated copper(II) sulphate is called the water of crystallisation and forms
part of the crystal structure when copper(II) sulphate solution is evaporated and crystals form
o This crystal structure is broken down on heating and the water is given off
The thermal decomposition is endothermic as heat is absorbed to drive off the water
The reverse reaction is exothermic i.e. on adding water to white anhydrous copper (II) sulphate the mixture
heats up as the blue crystals reform
The reverse reaction is used as a simple chemical test for water i.e. white anhydrous copper (II) sulphate turns
blue

On heating strongly above 340C, the white solid ammonium chloride, thermally decomposes into a mixture of
two colourless gases ammonia and hydrogen chloride
On cooling the reaction is reversed and solid ammonium chloride reforms
o Ammonium Chloride + Heat Ammonia + Hydrogen Chloride
o NH4Cl (s) +Heat NH3 (g) + HCl (g)


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The thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride is the forward reaction, and the formation of ammonium
chloride is the backward reaction
Reversing the reaction conditions reverses the direction of chemical change, typical of a reversible reaction
Thermal decomposition means using 'heat' to 'break down' a molecule into smaller ones.
The decomposition is endothermic (heat absorbed or heat taken in) and the formation of ammonium chloride is
exothermic (heat released or heat given out)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand the concept of dynamic equilibrium
A dynamic equilibrium exists when a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances
move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change
There will be a mixture of all the reactants and products
Both reactions are still reacting, but at the same rate. So the amount of each substance in the equilibrium will
stay the same
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Predict the effects of changing the pressure and temperature on the equilibrium position
in reversible reactions
Concentration
o If the concentration of the reactants is increased, the equilibrium will move to reduce the increased
concentration of the reactants
It does this by moving right and turning reactants into products
o If the concentration of the reactants is reduced, the equilibrium will move to increase the reduced
concentration of the reactants
It does this by moving left and turning products into reactants
Temperature
o If the temperature is increased, the equilibrium will move to reduce the increased temperature
It does this by moving in the direction of the endothermic reaction
o If the temperature is reduced, the equilibrium will move to increase the reduced temperature
It does this by moving in the direction of the exothermic reaction
Pressure
o If the pressure is increased, the equilibrium will move to reduce the increased pressure
It does this by moving to the side with less gas molecules
o If the pressure is reduced, the equilibrium will move to increase the reduced pressure
It does this by moving to the side with more gas molecules
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Explain how the methods of extraction of the metals in this section are related to their
positions in the reactivity series
For metals less reactive than carbon
Extract the metal with oxygen


Page 69 of 81

o A metal oxide is reacted with charcoal
If the charcoal (carbon) is more reactive, it will remove the oxygen from the metal oxide and
leave a trace of metal in the reaction vessel

For metals more reactive than carbon
Extract the metal from its ore using electrolysis
o Electricity passes through the melted ore separating the metal from the oxygen
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe and explain the extraction of aluminium from purified aluminium oxide by
electrolysis, including:
Aluminium is more reactive than carbon and hence is extracted from its ore using electrolysis
The ore of aluminium is called bauxite which is impure aluminium oxide
Bauxite is purified, then dissolved in molten cryolite
Electricity is then passed through the melted ore separating the aluminium from the oxygen

i. The use of molten cryolite as a solvent and to decrease the required operating
temperature
Cryolite is an ore of aluminium
It lowers the melting point of bauxite from over 2000 C to about 900 C
o This saves time, money and energy
ii. The need to replace the positive electrodes
Aluminium is denser than the alumina/cryolite solution and so it falls to the bottom of the cell where it can
be tapped off as pure liquid metal
Oxygen is given off at the positive carbon anode
Carbon dioxide is also given off at the carbon anode because hot oxygen reacts with the carbon anode to
form carbon dioxide gas.



Page 70 of 81

The carbon anodes slowly disappear because each molecule of carbon dioxide which is given off takes a little
piece of carbon away with it
The carbon anodes need to be replaced when they become too small
iii. The cost of the electricity as a major factor
The one major cost that makes this process more expensive than the extraction of iron is electricity
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Write ionic half-equations for the reactions at the electrodes in aluminium extraction
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is an ionic compound
When it is melted the Aland O ions are free to move and conduct electricity
Electrolysis of the alumina/cryolite solution gives aluminium at the cathode and oxygen at the anode

At the anode
Oxidation
6 O - 12 e 3 O2
At the cathode
Reduction
Al + 12e 4 Al
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe and explain the main reactions involved in the extraction of iron from iron ore
(haematite), using coke, limestone and air in a blast furnace
The main iron ore is called haematite
o Haematite is iron (III) oxide - Fe2O3
The iron ore contains impurities, mainly silica (silicon dioxide)
o Limestone (calcium carbonate) is added to the iron ore which reacts with the silica to form molten
calcium silicate in the blast furnace
The calcium silicate (called slag) floats on the liquid iron
Since iron is below carbon in the reactivity series, iron in the ore is reduced to iron
metal by heating with carbon (coke)
o It is actually carbon monoxide which does the reducing in the blast furnace


Page 71 of 81



Hot air is blasted into the furnace causing coke (carbon) to burn rapidly and raise the temperature to 2000 C
o Carbon + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Heat
o C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)
The carbon dioxide then reacts with hot carbon to form carbon monoxide
o Carbon Dioxide + Carbon Carbon Monoxide
o CO2 (g) + C (s) 2 CO (g)
Carbon monoxide then reduces iron in the ore to iron metal
o Carbon Monoxide + Iron (III) Oxide Carbon Dioxide + Iron
o 3 CO (g) + Fe2O3 (s) 3 CO2 (g) + 2 Fe (l)

The temperature where the reduction takes place is above 1500 C
Iron falls to the bottom of the furnace where the temperature is 2000 C
Iron is liquid at this temperature and is tapped off periodically

Limestone is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and it is added to the blast furnace to remove the impurities in
the iron ore
Calcium carbonate is decomposed by heat in the furnace to give calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide
o This is called thermal decomposition
Calcium Carbonate Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)


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The main impurity is silica (sand or rock) which is silicon dioxide
o Silicon dioxide is solid at the furnace temperature and the furnace would become blocked if it
was not removed
o Silicon dioxide reacts with calcium oxide to form calcium silicate (called slag) which is liquid in
the furnace
o Slag flows to the bottom of the furnace where it floats on the liquid iron and is easily removed
Calcium Oxide + Silicon Dioxide Calcium Silicate
CaO (s) + SiO2 (s) CaSiO3 (l)
The slag (CaSiO3) is allowed to cool until it becomes a solid and is used for road construction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Explain the uses of aluminium and iron, in terms of their properties
Properties and Uses of Iron
Iron is one of the three magnetic elements (the others are cobalt and nickel)
Cast iron is very brittle (it cracks easily) but it has a greater resistance to corrosion than either pure iron or steel
o Cast iron is used for manhole covers on roads and pavements and as engine
blocks for petrol and diesel engines
Pure iron is called wrought iron
o Wrought iron is malleable and is mainly used in ornamental work for gates
Iron is also the catalyst in the Haber Process
The large majority of iron from the blast furnace is made into steel

Properties and Uses of Aluminium
Is strong, malleable and has a low density
Is resistant to corrosion
Is a good conductor of heat and electricity
Can be polished to give a highly reflective surface

Low density and strength make it ideal for construction of aircraft, lightweight vehicles, and ladders
o An alloy of aluminium called duralumin is often used instead of pure aluminium because of its improved
properties
Easy shaping and corrosion resistance make it a good material for drink cans and roofing materials
Corrosion resistance and low density leads to its use for greenhouses and window frames
Good conduction of heat leads to its use for boilers, cookers and cookware
Good conduction of electricity leads to its use for overhead power cables hung from pylons (low density gives it
an advantage over copper)
High reflectivity makes it ideal for mirrors, reflectors and heat resistant clothing for fire fighting
__________________________________________________________________________________________


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Recall that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
Crude Oil
Oil as it comes out of the ground before it has been treated in any way
Is a very complicated mixture of chemical compounds, most of which are alkanes
o Is a mixture of hydrocarbons
Obtained from an oil well
Is a black liquid which cannot be used without first being treated in an oil refinery
Is thought to have been made from the remains of marine plants and animals that dies millions of years ago
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into
fractions
Fractional Distillation
Is a process used to separate a mixture of liquids that have different boiling points
o When a mixture is heated, liquids with a low boiling point evaporate and turn to vapour
o Liquids with a higher boiling point remain as liquid
o The vapour can then be separated from the liquid
Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
Oil is heated to about 450 C and pumped into the bottom of a tall tower called a fractionating column, where it
vapourizes
The column is very hot at the bottom but much cooler at the top
As the vapourised oil rises, it cools and condenses
o Heavy fractions (containing large molecules) have a high boiling point and condense near the bottom of
the column
o Lighter fractions (containing small molecules) have a lower boiling point and condense further up the
column
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the names and uses of the main fractions obtained from crude oil: refinery gases,
gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen


Page 74 of 81


__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the trend in boiling point and viscosity of the main fractions
Flammability
Ability to catch fire easily
Viscosity
The property by which a liquid resists movement
The runniness of a liquid

Characteristic First Fraction Last Fraction
Boiling Point Low High
Colour Light/Colourless Dark/Black
Flammability High Flammability Low Flammability
Ease of Evaporation High Low
Viscosity Low High
Molecule Size Small Large
__________________________________________________________________________________________


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Recall that incomplete combustion of fuels may produce carbon monoxide and explain
that carbon monoxide is poisonous because it reduces the capacity of the blood to carry
oxygen
Incomplete Combustion
Takes place when there is not enough oxygen present
CH4 + 1.5 O2 CO + 2 H2O
CH4 + O2 C + 2 H2O
Carbon Monoxide
Is a toxic gas because it combines with haemoglobin in the blood and prevent oxygen from reaching the cells
o Thus, it causes respiratory disorders
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that, in car engines, the temperature reached is high enough to allow nitrogen and
oxygen from air to react, forming nitrogen oxides
Acid Rain
Caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
o Sulfur oxide is formed by the burning coal, oil and gas
o Nitrogen oxide is formed by the combination of nitrogen and oxygen in cars
This is because the temperature is very high
Hence, nitrogen and oxygen from the air reacts forming nitrogen oxides
Makes the soil and plants weaker
o By leaching out the potassium, magnesium and calcium ions which the plans need for food
Destroys the roots of trees
o By dissolving insoluble compounds like aluminium to release aluminium ions
Kills fish
o Acids rain poisons fish
o
This prevents intake of oxygen causing them to suffocate
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that fractional distillation of crude oil produces more long-chain hydrocarbons
than can be used directly and fewer short-chain hydrocarbons than required



Page 76 of 81














__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe how long-chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter-chain alkanes by
catalytic cracking, using silica or alumina as the catalyst and a temperature in the range
of 600-700 C



Page 77 of 81

Catalytic Cracking
The breaking down of large alkane molecules into smaller molecules
o Alkanes and alkenes are formed
The alkene molecules are more useful than the alkane molecules
Requires a high temperature and a catalyst
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that an addition polymer is formed by joining up many small molecules called
monomers
Polymers
Are very large molecules made up of thousands of small molecules called monomers joined together
E.g.
o Plastics
o Synthetic fibres
Polymerisation
The chemical reaction where monomers link forming polymers
Addition Polymers
Unsaturated molecules can join together to make polymers
During polymerization, the double bonds in the molecules open up, and immediately join with neighbouring
molecules to form a long chain with only single bonds
For this, high pressure and/or a catalyst is used to split the double bond
d
Repeating Unit
Is the monomer without its double bond
Polymerization Reaction of Polythene
__________________________________________________________________________________________




Page 78 of 81

Draw the repeat unit of addition polymers, including poly(ethene), poly(propene) and
poly(chloroethene)
Monomer Name
Ethene
Monomer Molecular Formula
C2H4
Monomer Structure

Polymer Name
Polythene
Polymer Structure

Repeating Unit


Monomer Name
Propene
Monomer Molecular Formula
C3H6
Monomer Structure

Polymer Name
Polypropene
Polymer Structure

Repeating Unit


Monomer Name
Chloroethene or Vinyl Chloride
Monomer Molecular Formula
C2H3Cl
Monomer Structure

Polymer Name
Polychloroethene or PVC
Polymer Structure

Repeating Unit

__________________________________________________________________________________________






Page 79 of 81

Deduce the structure of a monomer from the repeat unit of an addition polymer

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall that nitrogen from air, and hydrogen from natural gas or the cracking of
hydrocarbons, are used in the manufacture of ammonia
Some of the nitrogen and hydrogen react to form ammonia
At the same time, some of the ammonia breaks down into nitrogen and hydrogen
Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia
N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) NH3
The hydrogen is obtained from natural gas or the cracking of hydrocarbons
Nitrogen is obtained from the air
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process, including the essential
conditions:
Industrial Conditions
High pressure (200 atmospheres)
Quite high temperature (450C)
An iron catalyst

i. A temperature of about 450 C
This is an exothermic reaction (gives out heat)
Monomer Repeating Unit


Page 80 of 81

A low temperature would actually increase the amount or yield of ammonia, but it would be at the cost of a
much slower rate of reaction
A higher temperature would have a faster rate of reaction but, unfortunately, the amount of ammonia produced
would be lower
In practice, a compromise temperature of 450C is used
o This gives a reasonable yield reasonably quickly
Any nitrogen or hydrogen that has not been converted into ammonia can be recycled to reduce costs

ii. A pressure of about 200 atmospheres
A high pressure us used because it increases the amount of ammonia made
There are four gas molecules on the left-hand side of the equation; one nitrogen and three hydrogen molecules
There are only two ammonia molecules on the right-hand side
Increasing the pressure encourages the forward reaction which increases the amount of ammonia because there
are fewer molecules on the right-hand side of the equation
Ideally, the highest possible pressure should be used; however it is too expensive to build a plant which can
withstand pressures greater than 200 atmospheres
iii. An iron catalyst
An iron catalyst is used to speed up the rate of reaction and so reduce the cost of producing ammonia
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Understand how the cooling of the reaction mixture liquefies the ammonia produced and
allows the unused hydrogen and nitrogen to be recirculated
When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure
Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the temperature of the mixture is lowered
enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid
The nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be recycled
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Recall the use of ammonia in the manufacture of nitric acid and fertilizers
Ammonia can be oxidized to produce nitric acid


Page 81 of 81

Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen in the air over a hot platinum catalyst
o 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g)
The nitrogen oxide is cooled, and then reacted with water and more oxygen to form nitric acid
o 4 NO (g) + 3 O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) 4 HNO3 (g)

The nitric acid can be neutralized with ammonia to make ammonium nitrate
Ammonia can also be reacted with sulphuric acid to make ammonium sulphate
Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate are popular fertilizers