much (mách) Ŵ mucho
so much (sóu mach) Ŵ LanLo
Loo much (Lchu mach) Ŵ demaslado
very llLLle (llLl) Ŵ muy poco
so llLLle (sóu llLl) Ŵ Lan poco
Loo llLLle (Lchu llLl) Ŵ demaslado poco
more (mór) más
much more (mách móor) Ŵ mucho más
far more (fár móor) Ŵ mucho más
less (les) menos
much less (mách les) Ŵ mucho menos
far less (fár les) Ŵ mucho menos
almosL (ólmousL) Ŵ casl
nearly (nlrll) Ŵ casl
barely (berll) Ŵ apenas
scarcely (skersll) Ŵ apenas
hardly (hárdll) Ŵ apenasţ casl no
noL aL all (noL aL ól) Ŵ para nadaţ en absoluLo
even (lven) Ŵ lnclusoţ aun
even more (lven móor) Ŵ aun más
even less (lven les) Ŵ aun menos
noL even (nóL lven) Ŵ nl slqulera

We ent|re|y agree w|th youŦ
LsLamos enLeramenLe de acuerdo conLlgoŦ
Iƌm afra|d youƌre comp|ete|y wrongŦ
Me Lemo que usLed esLá compleLamenLe equlvocadoŦ
Norman |s abso|ute|y r|ghtŦ
norman Llene razón absoluLamenLeŦ
1h|s apartment |s re|at|ve|y sma|| for the three of usŦ
LsLe aparLamenLo es relaLlvamenLe pequeno para nosoLros LresŦ
At |eastţ naro|d sent you a bunch of f|owers for your b|rthdayŦ
Al menosţ Parold Le envló un ramo de flores para Lu cumpleanosŦ


Would you mlndŧ?

lf you wanL Lo sound parLlcularly pollLeţ or lf you Lhlnk Lhe answer may be negaLlveţ
you can also use Would you mlnd + verbŴlng as Lhe preferred alLernaLlve Lo Could
youŧ? Would you mlndŧ? llLerally meansť Would you ob[ecL Loŧ?

Would you mlnd locklng Lhe door when you leave? Ƌ noţ noL aL all!
Could you please lock Lhe door when you leave? Ƌ ?esţ cerLalnly!
lf youƌre noL busy aL Lhe momenLţ would you mlnd helplng me wlLh my homework?
lf youƌre noL busy aL Lhe momenLţ could you glve me a hand wlLh my homework?


lf you are asklng oLher people Lo do Lhlngsţ you would normally use Would you or
Could you + lnflnlLlveŦ Would you llke Loŧ? ls also a very pollLe way of suggesLlng or
requesLlng someLhlngţ pollLer Lhan uo you wanL Loŧ? Compare Lhe followlngť

Would you please brlng your llbrary books back Loday as Lhey are needed by anoLher

Could you [oln us on SaLurday? 1omƌs back from Sydney and weƌre havlng a barbecueŦ
Would you llke Lo [oln us on SaLurday? Weƌre havlng a barbecue ln Lhe back gardenŦ
Would you care Lo [oln us on SaLurday? Weƌre celebraLlng 1omƌs reLurn from SydneyŦ
uo you wanL Lo [oln us on SaLurday? Weƌre havlng a bash ln Lhe gardenŦ


lor ls used before a quanLlLy of Llmeţ and lL ls commonly used wlLh Lhe presenL perfecL
and pasL perfecL LensesŦ
We have been comlng Lo Lhls beach for flfLeen yearsŦ
We have been en[oylng Lhls paradlse for a weekŦ
We have been swlmmlng for Lhree hoursŦ

Slnce ls used before a speclflc Llme or daLeţ and lL ls commonly used wlLh Lhe presenL
perfecL and pasL perfecL LensesŦ
We have been comlng Lo Lhls beach slnce !ulyţ 1993Ŧ (exacL Llmeţ daLeţ year)
We have been en[oylng Lhls paradlse slnce lasL SaLurdayŦ
We have been swlmmlng slnce slx oƌclock Lhls mornlngŦ

lf you wanL Lo Lalk abouL your presenL slLuaLlonţ you can use Lhe sLrucLure wlsh + pasL
slmple or conLlnuousŦ lor exampleť
l havenƌL goL any moneyŦ l wlsh l had some moneyŦ

l donƌL earn much moneyŦ l wlsh l earned a loL of moneyŦ

Weƌre all llvlng ln a small flaLŦ l wlsh we werenƌL llvlng ln a small flaLŦ l wlsh wewere
llvlng ln a blg flaLŦ
1he same form can be used Lo Lalk abouL someone elseƌs slLuaLlonŦ Poweverţ Lhere ls
anoLher sLrucLure LhaL you use Lo Lalk abouL acLlons LhaL Lake place ln Lhe presenLţ buL
you wanL Lhem Lo change ln Lhe fuLureŦ 1hls sLrucLure ls used Lo Lalk abouL anoLher
personţ and generally abouL Lhlngs you donƌL llkeŦ
1he structure |s w|sh + wou|d]cou|d + |nf|n|t|veŦ Ior examp|eť
?our frlend ls always borrowlng money from you because he never seems Lo have hls
bank card wlLh hlmŦ ?ou could say Lo hlmť
l wlsh you wouldnƌL keep borrowlng money from meŦ

l wlsh you would remember Lo go Lo Lhe bank from Llme Lo LlmeŦ
A quantity of time includes a unit of time: a minute, hour,
week, month, etc. Ìt may also include a modifier such
as now or so far, long, short, a few,many, several,
these past few, these past several
A specific time is stated as an hour, date, year, century or era. Ìt may
also include a modifier such as last, the beginning of, the end of,
the middle of
fifteen minutes a quarter of an hour 7:45 a.m. (seven forty-five) a quarter to eight
forty eight hours several hours April 4, 2010 the day before yesterday
two days a couple of days June 15 the middle of June
a week seven days now last week the end of the week / the weekend
a month a month so far July last July
two years two long years (long or short) 2020 the war, the depression (event)
two summers two summers ago (*Avoid
using ago.)
spring, summer, fall, winter a week ago *See note.
two centuries these past few years (last few) the beginning of the 21st century he called (Since can introduce a
9erhaps Lhe same frlend does loLs of Lhlngs LhaL lrrlLaLe youŦ Maybe he phones you
early ln Lhe mornlng when youƌre sLlll ln bedŦ Pe mlghL arrange Lo meeL you and Lhen
Lurn up laLeŦ ?ou could say Lo hlmť
l wlsh you wouldnƌL phone me so early ln Lhe mornlngŦ
l wlsh you would walL unLll laLerŦ
l wlsh you would Lell me when youƌre golng Lo be laLeŦ
When you Lalk abouL Lhe fuLureţ you use Lhe same sLrucLure as you use Lo Lalk abouL
presenL sLaLesŦ Some examplesť
l have Lo go Lo Lhe denLlsL LomorrowŦ l wlsh l dldnƌL have Lo go Lo Lhe denLlsL

lƌll have Lo do some exLra work over Lhe weekendŦ l wlsh l dldnƌL have Lo do any exLra
work over Lhe weekendŦ

My broLher ls comlng Lo sLay wlLh me nexL weekŦ l wlsh my broLher wasnƌL comlng nexL
1he fuLure ln Lhese cases canƌL be changed (ln Lheory)ţ and so Lhe slLuaLlon ls seen as
unreal and has Lo be referred Lo uslng pasL LensesŦ


When you Lhlnk abouL a slLuaLlon ln Lhe pasLţ naLurally you canƌL do anyLhlng Lo change
lLŦ 1herefore Lhls ls a way of expresslng regreLŦ 1he sLrucLure you use ls wlsh + pasL
perfecLŦ lor exampleť

?ou were Loo slow geLLlng ready Lo go ouLŦ l wlsh you hadnƌL been so slow geLLlng
now weƌve mlssed Lhe LralnŦ l wlsh we hadnƌL mlssed Lhe LralnŦ
l promlsed our frlends weƌd arrlve on LlmeŦ l wlsh l hadnƌL promlsed weƌd arrlve on
Llmeţ because now Lheyƌll be walLlng for usŦ

As menLloned aboveţ Lhe sLrucLure wlsh + would canƌL be used Lo Lalk abouL yourselfŦ lL
ls used Lo refer Lo acLlonsţ and you should be able Lo sLop any acLlon youƌre dolngŦ

1herefore when you Lalk abouL yourselfţ youƌre Lalklng abouL sLaLes you have no
conLrol over (lƌm poorţ l wlsh l was rlch) or oLher peopleƌs acLlons LhaL you have no
conLrol over elLher (l havenƌL goL any moneyŦ l wlsh youƌd glve me some)Ŧ

lf your wlsh mlghL come Lrueţ you should use a dlfferenL Lype of verbŦ lor exampleť
l hope lL doesnƌL raln LomorrowŦ
lƌd llke Lo go Lo Lhe Carlbbean for my hollday nexL yearŦ
l hope you geL well soonŦ
?ou donƌL need Lo repeaL all Lhe verbs all Lhe Llmeť
My flaL ls coldŦ l wlsh lL wasnƌLŦ
?ou smokeŦ l wlsh you wouldnƌLŦ
She Lold hlm! l wlsh she hadnƌLŦ

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