Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr.

Amna Elhawil


10

Exercises of Chapter (1)-Set II
1) Two wires A and B of circular cross-section are made of the same metal and have
equal lengths, but the resistance of wire A is three times greater than that of wire
B. What is the ratio of their cross-sectional areas? How do their radii compare?

2) When the voltage across a certain conductor is doubled, the current is observed to
increase by a factor of three. What can you conclude about the conductor

3) On the basis of the atomic theory of matter, explain why the resistance of a
material should increase as its temperature increases.

4) How does the resistance for copper and silicon change with temperature? Why are
the behaviors of these two materials different?

5) Explain how a current can persist in a superconductor in the absence of any
applied voltage.

6) What single experimental requirement makes superconducting devices expensive
to operate? In principle, can this limitation be overcome?

7) What would happen to the drift velocity of the electrons in a wire and to the
current in the wire if the electrons could move freely without resistance through
the wire?

8) If charges flow very slowly through a metal, why does it not require several hours
for a light to turn on when you throw a switch?

9) In a conductor, the electric field that drives the electrons through the conductor
propagates with a speed that is almost the same as the speed of light, even though
the drift velocity of the electrons is very small. Explain how these can both be
true. Does a given electron move from one end of the conductor to the other?

10) Two conductors of the same length and radius are connected across the same
potential difference. One conductor has twice the resistance of the other. To
which conductor is more power delivered?


Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


11

Solutions of Chapter (1) Exercises -Set II

[1] Two wires A and B of circular cross-section are made of the same metal and have
equal lengths, but the resistance of wire A is three times greater than that of wire
B. What is the ratio of their cross-sectional areas? How do their radii compare?



[2] When the voltage across a certain conductor is doubled, the current is observed to
increase by a factor of three. What can you conclude about the conductor








[3] On the basis of the atomic theory of matter, explain why the resistance of a
material should increase as its temperature increases.



[4] How does the resistance for copper and silicon change with temperature? Why are
the behaviors of these two materials different?







[5] Explain how a current can persist in a superconductor in the absence of any
applied voltage.
Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


12






[6] What would happen to the drift velocity of the electrons in a wire and to the
current in the wire if the electrons could move freely without resistance through
the wire?





[7] In a conductor, the electric field that drives the electrons through the conductor
propagates with a speed that is almost the same as the speed of light, even though
the drift velocity of the electrons is very small. Explain how these can both be
true. Does a given electron move from one end of the conductor to the other?








[8] A current density of 6.00 x10-
13
A/m
2
exists in the atmosphere at a location where
the electric field is 100 V/m. Calculate the electrical conductivity of the Earth’s
atmosphere in this region.




Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


13

[9] If the magnitude of the drift velocity of free electrons in a copper wire is 7.84 x
10
-4
m/s, what is the electric field in the conductor?





[10] A high-voltage transmission line with a diameter of 2.00 cm and a length
of 200 km carries a steady current of 1 000 A. If the conductor is copper wire with
a free charge density of 8.49 x 10
28
electrons/m3, how long does it take one
electron to travel the full length of the line?






Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


14


Exercises of Chapter (2)-Set I

[1] A piece of silicon doped with arsenic (Nd = 10
17
cm
-3
) is 100 µm long, 10 µm wide and
1 µm thick. Calculate the resistance of this sample.
[2] Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes at 300 K for a silicon sample
which has a donor atom concentration of N
D
= 3 x 10
14
atoms/cm
3
and an acceptor
atom N
A
= 3 x 10
14
atom/cm
3
. Is the sample n-type or p-type?
[3] A silicon bar 0.1 cm long and 100 m
2
in cross sectional area is doped with 10
17
cm
-3

phosphorus. Find the current at 300 K with 10 V applied?
[4] A silicon wafer is doped with an acceptor doping of 10
16
cm
-3
. Calculate the electron
and hole density.
[5] A piece of silicon doped with arsenic (Nd = 10
17
cm
-3
) is 100 µm long, 10 µm wide and
1 µm thick. Calculate the resistance of this sample when contacted one each end.

Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


15

Solutions of Chapter (2) Exercises -Set I
Exercise 2.1
A piece of silicon doped with arsenic (Nd = 10
17
cm
-3
) is 100 µm long, 10 µm wide and 1
µm thick. Calculate the resistance of this sample.

Solution
The conductivity of the silicon equals
o = nqp = ŵŴ
17
× ŵ.ź × ŵŴ
-19
× ŻŶŻ = ŵŵź.ŷŶ (u. ˭)
-1

The mobility is obtained from Table 1.2. The resistance equals
˞ =
I

=
ŵŴŴ × ŵŴ
-6
ŵŵź.ŷŶ × ŵŴ × ŵŴ
-6
× ŵŴ
-6
= 8.ź ku
Exercise 2.2
Determine the concentration of free electrons and holes at 300 K for a silicon sample
which has a donor atom concentration of N
D
= 2 x 10
14
atoms/cm
3
and an acceptor atom
N
A
= 3 x 10
14
atom/cm
3
. Is the sample n-type or p-type?

Solution
Since we have
n
i
2

= n . p

From table 2.3, for silicon
(1.5 x 10
10
)
2
= n.p
and
N
D
+ p = N
A
+ n
where
2 x 10
14
+ p = 3 x 10
14
+ n
Multiplying both sides by n
2 x 10
14
n + pn = 3 x 10
14
n + n
2
Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


16

n
2
+ 1 x 10
14
n-np = 0
Replacing np by its value
n
2
+ 1 x 10
14
n - (1.5 x 10
10
)
2
= 0
Solving this second degree equation we obtain
n = 2.25 x 10
6
and
p = 1 x 10
14

since p >> n thus the sample is p-type.
Exercise 2.3
A silicon bar 0.1 cm long and 100 µm
2
in cross sectional area is doped with 10
17
cm
-3

phosphorus. Find the current at 300 K with 10 V applied?

Solution
From Table 2.4, for this doping the conductivity will be
o = qnp
n

o = ŵ.ź ˲ ŵŴ
-19
˲ŵŴ
17
˲ŻŶŴ = ŵŵ.ŹŶŴ (u. c˭)
-1

p =
ŵ
o
= Ŵ.Ŵ8ź8 u. c˭

˞ =
pI
˓
=
Ŵ.Ŵ8ź8 ˲ Ŵ.ŵ
ŵŴŴ ˲ ŵŴ
-8
= 8.ź8Ŵ ˲ ŵŴ
3
u
I =
v
R
=
10
8.68 x10
3
=0.0012 A
Exercise 2.4
A silicon wafer is doped with an acceptor doping of 10
16
cm
-3
. Calculate the electron and
hole density.
Solution
We know that with the acceptor doping
Notes of Microelectronics I course (EC310) Dr. Amna Elhawil


17

N
A
= p = 10
16

From
n
i
2

= n . p

n =
n
ì
2
p
=
(ŵ.Ź ˲ ŵŴ
10
)
2
ŵŴ
16
= Ŷ.ŶŹ ˲ ŵŴ
4


Exercise 2.5
A piece of silicon doped with arsenic (Nd = 10
17
cm
-3
) is 100 µm long, 10 µm wide and 1
µm thick. Calculate the resistance of this sample when contacted one each end.

Solution
Doping with arsenic produces n-type semiconductor, in which N
D
= n. The resistivity of
the silicon equals
p =
ŵ
qnp
n

From table 2.3
p =
ŵ
(ŵ.ź ˲ ŵŴ
-19
)(ŵŴ
17
)ŻŶŻ
= Ŵ.Ŵ8źŴ u. c˭
˞ =
pI
˓
=
Ŵ.Ŵ8ź ˲ ŵŴŴ ˲ ŵŴ
-4
ŵŴ ˲ ŵŴ
-4
˲ ŵ˲ ŵŴ
-4
= 8.ź ˫u