Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder employs a glass sphere to focus the sun's rays to an intense spot, which

will char a mark on a curved card mounted concentrically with the sphere. As the earth rotates, the position of the spot moves across the card. When the sun is obscured, the trace is interrupted. At the end of the day the total length of the trace, less gaps, is proportional to the duration of sunshine. The record cards are made from a special board which produces a clearly visible trace even in weak sunlight. The cards are treated to char rather than burn to ensure clarity of the trace. Different cards are used for different seasons. Each card is marked with hourly intervals. www.moviesmobile.net, mediamobile.com cccccccccccccccccccccc The unit is designed to record the hours of bright sunshine which will burn a hole through the card. However, at sunrise and sunset the sun is lower in the sky and will tend to leave a scorch mark on the card which may at the extreme end be difficult to see. The glass sphere – typically 10 cm (4 inches) in diameter – is designed to focus the rays from the sun onto a card mounted at the back and is set on a stand. The card is held in place by grooves of which there are three overlapping sets, to allow for the height of the sun during different seasons of the year. In the northern hemisphere the winter card is used from 15 October to 29 February, the equinox card from 1 March to 11 April and 3 September to 14 October. The summer card is therefore used from 12 April to 2 September. Each card is marked as to the hour, with local noon being in the centre, and is read in 10ths. The unit is set in a stand facing south to enable the maximum amount of sun to be recorded. Of course it is of great importance to set the unit in an area where the sun will not be blocked by buildings, trees or flagpoles. A modification to the standard unit for Polar regions is the addition of a second, north facing, sphere and card, to record the sunlight during the summer when it remains in the sky for 24 hours. 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 Cup Counter Anemometer The Cup Counter Anemometer measures the run of wind past the Instrument over a period. The instrument consists of three semi-conical copper cups 127mm in diameter with beaded edges fixed to a central spider by three brass rods. The cups assembly is friction coupled to a vertical spindle, which is connected to a counter through gears. There is a small ball bearing at the top of the spindle and another ball bearing at the bottom. cccccccccccccccccccccccc The Cup Counter Anemometer is a passive instrument that indicates the total run of wind past the observation point via a mechanical counter. The observation window to the mechanical counter is inclined to allow easy reading from below. By observing the counter reading at the beginning and end of any period of interest, the average wind speed during that interval can be calculated. Brass, copper, stainless steel and plastics are used throughout the instrument to ensure freedom from corrosion and a long working life and a conical shield protects the upper spindle bearing from precipitation. The only maintenance required is annual lubrication of the top spindle bearing, as all other bearings are self-lubricating. 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 Class A Evaporation Pan Model APAN Evapotranspiration is the transfer of water from the landscape to the atmosphere. Evapotranspiration is a critical component of the water cycle, and an important component of many agricultural, hydrological and climate models.

When measurements are taken. rain fall. is the influence of heavy or intense rainfall causing spuriously high daily evaporation totals without obvious overflow. drought dispersion. solar radiation. on days with rainfall in excess of 30mm (203mm Rain Gauge) the daily evaporation is spuriously higher than other days in the same month where conditions more receptive to evaporation prevailed. a cylinder with a diameter of 47. the outside larger container will catch it. The Class A Evaporation Pan is of limited use on days with rainfall events of >30mm (203mm rain gauge) unless it is emptied more than once per 24hours. ccccccccccccccccccccccccc Class A evaporation pan Pan evaporation is a measurement that combines or integrates the effects of several climate elements: temperature. and is greatly reduced when air is cool. The evaporation pan must be made to the standard specifications having an internal diameter of 1207 mm and a height of 254mm using 20 gauge galvanised iron. developed around the start of the 20th century. The pan is filled with water within 60mm of the top edge. atmospheric demand is often estimated by observing the evaporation rate in an open water container. calm. It is normally installed on a wooden platform set on the ground in a grassy location. Sometimes precipitation is greater than evaporation. Analysis of the daily rainfall and evaporation readings in areas with regular heavy rainfall events shows that almost without fail. windy.Because evapotranspiration is difficult to measure directly. it is taken into account in calculating the evaporation. The measurement day begins with the pan filled to exactly two inches (5 cm) from the pan top.7 cm) that has a depth of 10 in (25 cm). consists of a funnel attached to a graduated cylinder (2 cm in diameter) that fits inside a larger outside container (20 cm in diameter and 50 cm tall). The most common and obvious error is in daily rainfall events of >55mm (203mm rain gauge) where the Class A Evaporation pan will likely overflow. Class A evaporation pan. wooden base and is often enclosed by a chain link fence to prevent animals drinking from it. and therefore more concerning. The standard rain gauge.[1] Pan evaporation measurements enable farmers and ranchers to understand how much water their crops will need. Evaporation is measured daily as the depth of water (in inches) evaporates from the pan. If precipitation occurs in the 24-hour period. and wind. The pan rests on a carefully leveled. the height of the water in the small . and humid. and measured increments of water must be dipped from the pan.5 in (120. The standard material is galvanised iron as alternatives will have different thermal and reflectance properties. 33333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333 A rain gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. Evaporation is greatest on hot. dry days. The less obvious. At the end of 24 hours. humidity. Evaporation cannot be measured in a Class A pan when the pan's water surface is frozen. altering the evaporation rate. The evaporation rate is measured by manual readings. the amount of water to refill the pan to exactly two inches from its top is measured. If the water overflows the inside graduated cylinder.

that has fallen.8 in) of rainfall. In locations using the metric system. the cylinder is usually marked in mm and in the picture above will measure up to 250 millimetres (9. This would then indicate that pre-set amount has fallen when in fact only a fraction of that amount has actually fallen. in areas using Imperial units each horizontal line represents 0. a tipping bucket may be heated to melt any ice and snow that is caught in its funnel. Each time the collector tips. The larger container collects any rainfall amounts over 25 mm that flows from a small hole near the top of the cylinder. When it tips. Tipping buckets also tend to underestimate the amount of rainfall. Tipping bucket rain gauges are a really interesting and fun way for you and your children to learn about the weather. the strain gauge (weight sensor) is re-zeroed to null out any drift. A metal pipe is attached to the container and can be adjusted to ensure the rain gauge is level. medium. Rainfall character is decided by the total amount of rain that has fallen in a set period (usually 1 hour) and by counting the number of 'clicks' in a 10 minute period the observer can decide the character of the rain.4 mm (0. the wheel turns the pen arm moves either up or down leaving a trace on the graph and at the same time making a loud click. When the next period of rain begins it may take no more than one or two drops to tip the lever. In these gauges. This pipe then fits over a metal rod that has been placed in the ground. The chart is measured in 10 minute periods (vertical lines) and 0. it actuates a switch (such as a reed switch) which is then electronically recorded or transmitted to a remote collection station. Correction algorithms can be applied to the data as an accepted method of correcting the data for high level rainfall intensity amounts.0 in) in areas using the metric system. In this design. After a pre-set amount of precipitation falls.[10][11] The advantage of the tipping bucket rain gauge is that the character of the rain (light. Without a heating mechanism. Tipping gauges can also incorporate weighing gauges.graduated cylinder is measured and the excess overflow in the large container is carefully poured into another graduated cylinder and measured to give the total rainfall. Each horizontal line on the cylinder is 5 centimetres (2.01 inch. çccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc A tipping bucket rain gauge is a meteorological device that measures the amount of precipitation. or rain. TIPPING`` BUCKET The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a funnel that collects and channels the precipitation into a small seesaw-like container. The tipping bucket rain gauge is not as accurate as the standard rain gauge because the rainfall may stop before the lever has tipped. . To measure the water equivalent of frozen precipitation. and predict what the weather will be in your area. It is one of the most common tools used to measure rainfall.015 in) (horizontal lines) and rotates once every 24 hours and is powered by a clockwork motor that must be manually wound. dumping the collected water and sending an electrical signal. Modern tipping rain gauges consist of a plastic collector balanced over a pivot. a strain gauge is fixed to the collection bucket so that the exact rainfall can be read at any moment. the lever tips. particularly in snowfall and heavy rainfall events. and thus no precipitation can be measured A tipping bucket rain gauge is a meteorological device that measures the amount of precipitation. Each jump of the arm is sometimes referred to as a 'click' in reference to the noise. or heavy) may be easily obtained. the funnel often becomes clogged during a frozen precipitation event. An old-style recording device may consist of a pen mounted on an arm attached to a geared wheel that moves once with each signal sent from the collector.

in a more sophisticated form. During the tip. Tipping bucket rain gauges are a really interesting and fun way for you and your children to learn about the weather. but the choice of location is difficult. thus giving a fairly continuous record of precipitation and. but the choice of location is difficult. even rainfall intensity. an electrical switch is closed and triggers a nearby autographic recorder to register each 'tilt'. Rain gauges must be sited in as representative a location as possible. A tipping bucket rain gauge has several components that allow it to accurately measure of rainfall. the rainwater in a collector displaces a float so that a marking pen attached to the float makes a continuous trace on the paper. The rain travels down the funnel and drips into one of two very carefully calibrated ‘buckets’ balanced on a pivot (like a see-saw).or rain.001 inches of rain). The two buckets in a tipping-bucket rain gauge rest on a pivot so that when one bucket has received 0. When the bucket has filled to this amount. 1" of rain would fill a container with straight edges to a level of 1". Because it knows how much rain is needed to fill the bucket. Rain gauges must be sited in as representative a location as possible. The recording chart on an autographic rain-gauge is mounted on a drum which is driven by clockwork and typically rotates round a vertical axis once per day. empties the rainwater and allows the other bucket to start collection. it triggers a reed switch (or sensor). the rainwater in a collector displaces a float so that a marking pen attached to the float makes a continuous trace on the paper.2 (or 0. The water then empties down a drainage hole and raises the other to sit underneath the funnel.5 mm) of rain it tips by gravity. empties the rainwater and allows the other bucket to start collection. 66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666 66666666666666666666 min max thermometer Maximum. in a more sophisticated form. the magnet will release its hold. Minimum Thermometers Maximum Thermometre . causing the bucket to tip.2 (or 0. When the bucket tips. that has fallen. The two buckets in a tipping-bucket rain gauge rest on a pivot so that when one bucket has received 0. During the tip.5 mm) of rain it tips by gravity. since many precipitation events are highly localized. even rainfall intensity. autographic gauge which can be either of the tilting-siphon type or the tipping-bucket type. The top bucket is held in place by a magnet until it has filled to the calibrated amount (usually approximately 0. and predict what the weather will be in your area. Rainfall is measured in inches. As rain falls it lands in the funnel of the tipping bucket rain gauge. 55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 55555555555555555555 TILTON siphon rainguage autographic gauge which can be either of the tilting-siphon type or the tipping-bucket type. It is one of the most common tools used to measure rainfall. The display counts the number of times the switch is triggered. since many precipitation events are highly localized. thus giving a fairly continuous record of precipitation and. sending a message to the display or weather station. the display can calculate the rainfall. For a tilting-siphon rain gauge. an electrical switch is closed and triggers a nearby autographic recorder to register each 'tilt'. For a tilting-siphon rain gauge. The recording chart on an autographic rain-gauge is mounted on a drum which is driven by clockwork and typically rotates round a vertical axis once per day.

Thus the end of the index farthest from the bulb gives the lowest temperature attained in a day. the bulb cools. When the temperature of air rises. these are not easy to achieve. producing a temperature difference between the two thermometers. "The achievable accuracies [for humidity determination] listed in the table refer to good quality instruments that are well operated and maintained. but also leaves and animals) for meteorological instruments. Double roof. not of the sunshine. In practice. To allow comparability from screen to screen every aspect of construction and exposure is specified by the World Meteorological Organization. depends on the relative humidity of the air. and extensive louvres maintain adequate ventilation on all but the stillest days. For example. When the temperature falls. has louvred sides to encourage the free passage of air. It is kept 1. 77777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 777777777777777777777777777 Hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the moisture content in the environmental air. with one of the bulbs covered in absorbent cloth dipped into water. usually during a day. walls and floor of whitepainted wood provide screening. the mercury in the thermometer expands and forces its way into the stem past this constriction. It is commonly used wherever a simple way is needed to measure the extremes of temperature at a location." Any instrument for measuring the humidity. or water vapour content. The amount of evaporation. or humidity. Minimum Thermometer The liquid used in minimum thermometer is alcohol in which a dumb-bell-shaped index is set. Six's thermometer is a thermometer which can measure the maximum and minimum temperatures reached over a period of time.Maximum thermometer is also a mercury-in-glass thermometer having a constriction near the bulb end. But when the bulb cools none of the mercury above the constriction will get back into the bulb and then the length of the mercury remains the same. particularly wet and dry bulb thermometers used to record humidity and air temperature.25m/4. of a gas (usually air). while still allowing air to . for instance in meteorology and horticulture. Humidity measurement is among the more difficult problems in basic meteorology. Stevenson screen or instrument shelter is an enclosure to shield meteorological instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources. The end of the mercury thread farthest from the bulb registers the highest temperature reached in a day. and is painted white to reflect heat radiation. A wet and dry bulb hygrometer consists of two vertical thermometers. the alcohol column drags the index towards the bulb end but when the temperature rises the alcohol column expands and runs past the index without disturbing it. snow and high winds. and hence cooling of the wet bulb. since what is measured is the temperature of the air in the shade. 88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 888888888888888888888888888 The Stevenson Screen or thermometer screen is a standard shelter (from rain. As the water evaporates. its doors opens towards the pole to minimize disturbance when reading in daylight. According to the WMO Guide.1ft (UK standard) above the ground by legs to avoid strong temperature gradients at ground level.

or pipette. Its purpose is to provide a standardised environment in which to measure temperature. and evaporation totals are reported as cm3. White is a natural reflector. a dewcell. a hygrometer. and the surface area works out as 11 cm sq. 99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 9999999999999999999999999999999999 piche evaporimeter The Piche evaporimeter is an atmometer.5 cm as is the base of the retaining clip. The outside diameter of the tube is nominally 1. so it does not allow heat to penetrate inside the box. humidity. a simple instrument well known to observers of the weather all over the world. Water is evaporated from both the upper and lower surface of the filter paper. Usually placed inside a Stevenson screen it does what it says . it measures the amount of water lost to the atmosphere usually over a period of one day. * To ensure free air flow inside. * There is an opening between the roof and the sides that allow free air circulation. This is the standard level for surface temperature observations. maximum/minimum).3in. . like a laboratory burette. dewpoint and atmospheric pressure.3in. the four sides of the box has doubled louver.it measures evaporation. A single screen measures approximately 30.circulate freely around them. The Stevenson screen holds instruments that may include thermometers (ordinary. Stevenson Screen Structure: * It is a wooden box painted in white. or cubic centimetres (cm3). If thought more meaningful evaporation may be expressed in terms of mm per unit area (m-2). * The Stevenson screen in the Southern hemisphere is always faced to the south to avoid direct sunlight.or pipette-type) glass tube by a metal clip.1in x 24in x 23. cm (11 cm-2). a barometer and a thermograph. a psychrometer. Evaporation takes place from a 3 cm diameter circle of blotting paper [filter paper] held in place at the bottom of a calibrated (laboratory burette.[1] It forms part of a standard weather station. The interior size of the Stevenson screen increases and decreases depending on the number of instruments that is to be installed inside. keeps the paper constantly wet. preferably deionised. * The slightly tilted roof allows rain water to flow down. Like the lysimeter.1in x 41.3in x 23. or evaporation pan. * It is placed 1-2 m above the ground. Water. The tube is calibrated in millilitres (mm). and a double screen 30.