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Hemanshu Roy Pota∗ February 9, 2006

Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 Start and Quit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8

2 Variables and Getting Started 3 Numbers and Strings 4 Expressions and Functions 4.1 Maple Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Sequences, Sets, Lists, Arrays, and Tables 6 Control Structures 7 Repetition - seq, $, for 8 Manipulation and Simpliﬁcation 9 Helpful Commands 10 Procedures 11 Input and Output 12 Miscellaneous 12.1 Can I do this? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

∗

School of Electrical Engineering, University College, University of New South Wales, ADFA, Canberra ACT 2600 Australia, pota@adfa.oz.au

1

PARAMETERS: Rl R1 V2 20V + 10 R2 R3 5 + 12 R4 I1 R5 6 2A IDC {Rl} 8 - - 0 Figure 1: Maximum Power Transfer Example For the circuit shown in Figure 1 we want to ﬁnd that resistance RL which will transfer maximum power to it from the network.2 An Example Let us look at the following simple example. 1 Introduction Maple is a functional programming language with symbolic manipulation capabilities. In a Maple session the default prompt is >. Maple has an extensive help facility. think in terms of formulating your problem as functions of unknown variables and then manipulate these functions to solve for the unknowns. To be able to use Maple effectively you need to understand the philosophy. In the following it’s assumed that you will type in all the statements which follow >. The material in this document gives you both philosophy and actual workings of Maple. 1. Everything following the sharp key # is treated as a comment in Maple.Abstract This short note is meant to get you started in formulating and solving problems using the functional symbolic programming software Maple. to execute a command. remember to use the ENTER key in the numeric keypad. You can also go to a previous statement. Text can be cut-and-paste within a Maple session like in any other editor. There is no need to type the comments following the commands while going through this tutorial. Most of the other programming languages like C are procedural programming languages.1 Start and Quit To start a Maple session on unix systems type xmaple& at the command prompt. 1. This is a powerful paradigm. On Macintosh. and then execute it by hitting ENTER . For an extensive and all comprehensive package like Maple one can never learn all the features it has but one can understand its basic philosophy and use that understanding to search for appropriate commands to do a particular job. on IBM PC and Macintosh starting a Maple session should be fairly obvious. This document is an attempt to get you to wander through the help facility intelligently. All our mathematical and scientiﬁc thinking is done in terms of functions so it makes sense to use the computer software which enables you to work in the same way. When using Maple. quit or the selection of Exit from the File menu will terminate the program. edit it. The conceptual way to ﬁnd that resistance is to get an expression for the power 2 .

Of course both numerical and symbolic values can also be assigned to variables in Maple.eq2}. alias(I=I. R[L]:=solve("=0. I[1].4). diff(power.x). Next we look at a few immediately useful features of Maple. eq1:=I[1]*12+(I[1]-I[2])*8=20.dissipated across the resistor RL . In a symbolic functional programming language like Maple variables normally stand for the unknowns in functions and other expressions.{eq1.{I[1]. The next sequence of commands illustrates the direct and the indirect approach. > > > > > > > > > > > > > restart. Learning is considerably enhanced by a close link between the natural problem formulation and its implementation in functional symbolic programming software like Maple. sol:=solve({eq1. evalf(R[L]. eq2:=(I[2]-I[1])*8+x*I[2]+5*I[2]+6*(I[2]-2)=0. and solve for RL .I[2]}). Enter the following statement sequence in a Maple worksheet to see how the solution is implemented. differentiate it with respect to RL . #Start a fresh session. equate the differential to zero.eq2})). Finally power dissipation for all the values in that range is either tabulated or plotted to ﬁnd the maximum power transfer. #The value is not assigned yet. To solve the above problem in a procedural programming environment one would ﬁrst write a procedure to calculate the power dissipated across RL for a given value of RL . #ditto (") copies the previous output evalf(R[L]). In Maple this solution can be implemented in its conceptual form itself. In this paradigm a function is evaluated directly at the points of interest rather than indirectly by assigning values to a variable. j=sqrt(-1)). assign(sol). We will implement this procedural solution in PSpice. This is not the most convenient way to think about the problem but one is forced to think this way because of the limitations posed by the procedural programming. Every function or command has many more features and you are well advised to look for them using the help facility. 2 Variables and Getting Started In numerical procedural programming languages variables are used to store numerical values which are either frequently referred to or operated upon. Please be reminded that all the things I touch upon in this document give you a very brief introduction to the facility.x). power:=(I[2]ˆ2)*x. simplify(subs(sol. 3 . The second stage is to guess a suitable numerical range within which the solution will lie.

x:=2: #do not echo the result on the screen. Although Maple provides for both functional and procedural approach. y.101]). The variable left of ‘:=’ is assigned the ‘fully evaluated’ value of the expression to its right (?assignment). It’s a good idea to ﬁnd out the names Maple has reserved for predeﬁned constants (?constants). try ?help.101]: for x in s do f(x) od. Maple will not complain when the predeﬁned constants are used as variable names but it will not allow a value to be assigned to these names. Be careful with I. Try (?operators) to ﬁnd out the predeﬁned mathematical operators in Maple. in addition numbers can be represented as fractions. This is predeﬁned in Maple as ( − 1). Try: > x:=3*I. x:=3: y.a procedural paradigm s:=[1. end the input with a colon.10.2. y. > alias(I=I.#assign an expression to the variable y. the parser waits for either a semicolon or a colon before processing the statement. the functional paradigm should always be preferred. ?name should tell you the syntactically valid variable names. Evaluation of an expression can be delayed by enclosing it in quotes.> > > > > > # direct evaluation --. > I:=3. #unassign the value x. x:=’x’. > > > > > > > y:=xˆ2+5. Many of the options 4 . Try the following. #echo the result on the screen.3.a functional paradigm f:=x->xˆ3+3*xˆ2+2*x+7. #function definition map(f. Strings have to be quoted using back quotes. j=sqrt(-1)).4. If you don’t want the result to be displayed on the screen. ( − 1) to the familiar j and free up I to be used as a normal 3 Numbers and Strings Like all other programming languages Maple has integer and ﬂoat representation of numbers. #Maple should complain The following statement will change variable. #restart starts a fresh maple session. Try the following command sequence: > > > > > restart. > I:=2. x:=2e-3. ?command is a shorthand for help(command).3. x:=’x’. y:=’y’. Maple echos the result on the screen as it processes the input.[1. # map the function to a list # indirect evaluation --. Maple statements can be continued over several lines.2.4. A semicolon followed by a newline character is an indication to Maple to begin processing the input.10.

x). Expressions can be added. Try: > > > > > > > > > > > restart. multiplied. #an expression subs({x=Pi/2. remember to use back quotes to specify strings. ?fsolve) and differential (?dsolve) equations. diff(g(x).y)).2).integer).x). > > > > > > > > > > > > > restart.x). Try: > > > > > > x:=1. type(x. type(x. differentiate (?diff.y=b}.numeric). solve algebraic (?solve. type(x. int(g(x). g*xˆ2+2*x.x=a. An expression or a function can also be a ratio of two expressions. #expression evaluation by substitution evalf(".fraction).(x.numeric). type(x.integer). and also perform most of the standard mathematical operations. integrate (?int).4). #function evaluation f:=unapply(f.for Maple function are strings.x=infinity).y)->xˆ2+yˆ2.float).34.fraction).numeric). int(f. ?D).y)/h(x. type(x. g:=f(x. diff(f.x=2. 4 Expressions and Functions Expressions and functions are the basic entities and form the heart of Maple. f:=x+2*xˆ2. x:=‘This is a string in back quotes‘.. #a range is specified by var=lower. D(g).upper int(g(x). limit(g(x). #a function of one variable g(Pi/2). f:=xˆ2+3*y+sin(x). #expression evaluation x. type(x. int(f..y).x). 5 . type(x. #a function of two variables h(1.integer).b). x:=1e-3. #floating point evaluation of the previous expression subs({x=a..1 Maple Functions Maple has functions to take limits (?limit).float). type(x.string). type(x. #partial differential of f wrt x. ?type. x:=3/4.fraction).numeric). 4. type(x.integer). g:=z->2*z+3/z. f(x. x:=11.3).z). #make a function from an expression f(Pi/2. type(x.fraction).1).f).y)+h(x. type(x. #function evaluation h:=(x. type(x.numeric). Numeric data types are constant expressions. type(x. Remember that you can copy-and-paste in Maple like in any other editor. perform Laplace transformations (?laplace). and divided just like ordinary variables to form other expressions.f). #value of x outside of the subs command is unchanged g:=x->xˆ2+3*sin(x).y=1}.float). type(x.float). type(x. type(x. type(x.

This means that tables can be indexed by data types other than integers. Dollar (?dollar) is a shorthand way to build sequences. A sequence (?sequence) is formed using the comma operator. #elements of the matrix array(1. Lists. ‘Maple Programming‘].2.[[1. 6. 4. Have a look at the binary operators which can be used in the conditional statements ?operators[binary].").. xˆ2. #another list op(6. 1. General syntax: if x>0 y:=x else y:=-x fi. $. g. cos(x). and Tables Expressions and functions can be organised in several ways. #selecting elements of a list [f(7).list1). #another sequence s1:={seq1}.[[x.4*y]]). 4. 8. g. surname=Citizen]).list1). #an expression seq1:=x. Arrays are built from ranges (?range) and lists. xˆ2. #a set can be formed from a sequence set1:={1. x/yˆ2. list1[4].[3*x.To ﬁnd out about other predeﬁned functions try: > ?inifcns > ?ininame > ?index[packages] 5 Sequences.[3. The ordering of the elements is preserved in a list. 6 Control Structures Decision making can be done by if/then/else (?if) and other similar constructs. Sets (?set) are formed by enclosing a sequence is curly brackets.2. Arrays (?array) implement the conventional vectors and matrices. f(x).1. ‘A string‘}. Loops with more 6 . Lists (?list) are formed by enclosing sequences in square brackets. Tables (?table) are associative arrays. kˆ2. #an array table1:=table([name=John.xˆ2].2]. 3. Sequences can be used to form other data types.4]]). #a list can be formed from a sequence list1:=[1. #a sequence of expressions 3.2]. 7 Repetition . 8}. Sequences can be built using seq (?seq) construct. #another set l1:=[seq1]. sin(x)/cos(x). yˆ3. array1[2. 17. Order of elements in a set can change because Maple orders elements of a set convenient for its implementation.2. f(r). y. #a table (an associative array) table1[name]. op(1. Sets. #an array array1[1. 5. Arrays.05. 3. f(n).2.1. They have all the properties of a conventional set. #a function g:=yˆ3+7+3*zˆ2. op(4. 100]. #a list list1[1]. f:=x->xˆ3+5. 3.. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > restart. array1:=array(1. for Repeated evaluation of an expression can be achieved in Maple in several ways.seq..2]. #a set {x.. sqrt(x).

?remove.5 ). > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > restart. ?remove. ?zip 10 Procedures Here is a simple procedure (?proc) to convert temperature in degree Celcius to degree Fahrenheit.y.. od.. od. coeff(p.3.3. ?uneval. collect(p.’i’).y}. unassign(’x’. 8 Manipulation and Simpliﬁcation Maple has very powerful in-built commands to manipulate expressions. ?unapply.2). for x in seq1 while (x <> 2) do xˆ2. ?ditto. ?help. seq1:=1. ?LargeExpressions[Uneil].. ?info..3. for x in set1 do xˆ2. ’’x[i]’’ $’i’ = 1. ?evalf. ?dot. set1:={1. ?map. coeff(p. ’x[i]’ $’i’ = 1. od. ?plot[options].2.3. ?atsign.5 )}. ?unassign.. x:=3. ?plot.3). collect(p. simplify(sin(x)ˆ2+cos(x)ˆ2). normal(2/(x+1) + 3/(xˆ2+3)). Try: > > > > > > > > restart.5 )]. od. for x in seq1 do xˆ2.x. # $ is an iterator x[i] $i = 1. i:=2. sin(x). x[i] $i = 1. for i from 1 by 2 to 10 do iˆ3 od. i=1.x). p:=2*x+3*xˆ2+4*y+5*yˆ2+yˆ3+x*y. factor(xˆ2+2*x*y+yˆ2). ’x[i]’ $’i’ = 1. 9 Helpful Commands ??.2. ?quotes.3. i=1. #a sequence {seq( iˆ2. list1:=[1. seq( iˆ2. ?evalc. 7 . ?assign. #a list x$4.. sin(x). ?LargeExpressions[Veil]. i=1.y].y.2. for x in list1 do xˆ2..y). ?select.than one action statement can be built using for/while/do (?for) construct. #a set [seq( iˆ2. ?op. ?eval. ?example.. expand((x+a)ˆ7). sin(x). sin(x).

b)=int(xˆ2.x=a.x=infinity)=limit(sin(x)/x.title=‘C to Fahr‘. This form is called the inert form.b).ma‘). labels=[‘degree C‘. There is also another form of most of the mathematical functions which starts with an uppercase letter. RETURN(f). You can expect to ﬁnd an equivalent function or a sequence of functions in Maple for anything you want to do with and to functions.100]. ?load. ?save. f:=1.. It is called inert because it doesn’t perform any mathematical function but is simply used to provide a literal description of the function in mathematical equations. c2f(100).‘degree Fahr‘]). end. > flist:=map(c2f. ‘A procedure to convert temperature in degree Celsius to degree Fahrenheit‘. 8 . The following sequence of commands plots (?plots) the temperature in degree Celsius versus degree Fahrenheit.20.38.> > > > > > > c2f:=proc(c) local f. > Int(xˆ2.. 12 Miscellaneous All the predeﬁned Maple functions and commands start with lowercase letters. > clist:=[0. so look for it in the Contents under the help menu item in the worksheet or try ?contents.y)->[x. Try: > Limit(sin(x)/x.x=a.1 Can I do this? As mentioned in the beginning Maple is a functional programming environment. To read in a ﬁle use the read (?read) command: Example: > read(‘c:/assignments/maplefiles/circuits/a1. > plot(zip((x.clist.flist).clist). 11 Input and Output Maple is an interactive language and all the work can be done from within a worksheet but many times it’s a good idea to have a separate text ﬁle with all the commands and then read in that ﬁle.50.60. 12.y].80. Also see ?write.8*c+32. Remember that the complete ﬁle name needs to be speciﬁed within two back quotes.x=infinity).

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