CLINICAL SCIENCES

Management of Inferior Breaks in Pseudophakic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment With Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Air
Vicente Martínez-Castillo, MD; Alicia Verdugo, MD; Anna Boixadera, MD; José García-Arumí, MD; Borja Corcóstegui, MD

Objective: To determine the role of pars plana vitrec-

tomy without scleral buckling and air as a tamponade with 24 hours of prone positioning in the management of inferior breaks in primary pseudophakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.
Methods: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Fifteen consecutive eyes (15 patients) with primary pseudophakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with causative breaks located between the 4-o’clock and 8-o’clock positions underwent pars plana vitrectomy with air tamponade. The prone position was maintained for 24 hours. Anatomic and functional results are presented. Results: The anatomic reattachment rate was 93.3% after 1 procedure and 100% at the 6-month visit. Mean

preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 (range, 20/400 to 20/25) and mean postoperative bestcorrected visual acuity was 20/30 (range, 20/100 to 20/20). In 1 case the retina redetached at the second week because of an undetected break. Postoperative epiretinal membrane was observed in 1 case.
Conclusion: Pars plana vitrectomy and air tamponade with only 24 hours of prone positioning postoperatively is effective in the management of primary pseudophakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with causative breaks between the 4-o’clock and 8-o’clock positions.

Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1078-1081 report on the use of PPV for inferior breaks with 24 hours of prone positioning.
METHODS We included 15 consecutive patients (15 eyes) of 24 consecutive patients with primary pseudophakic RRD and causative inferior breaks between the 4-o’clock and 8-o’clock positions over a 1-year period. Inferior RRD with subretinal fibrosis or demarcation lines and RRD with proliferative vitreoretinopathy B or greater were excluded. All patients had acute symptoms. Extensive lattice degeneration was not an exclusion criterion. Patients were fully informed of all aspects of the procedure, and all provided written informed consent. We obtained local ethics committee approval for this study. Preoperative evaluation included slitlamp biomicroscopy fundus examination and peripheral retinal evaluation with the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope. The number, type (opercule or horseshoe tear), position (anterior to the equator, equatorial, and posterior to the equator), and size of breaks were determined preoperatively. During postoperative follow-up, the relationship between the air bubble and retinal breaks was established by slitlamp examination.

Author Affiliations: Vall d’Hebrón Hospital, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (Drs Martínez-Castillo, Verdugo, Boixadera, and García-Arumí); Instituto Oftalmológico de Barcelona (Drs Martínez-Castillo, Verdugo, and Boixadera); and Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular (Drs García-Arumí and Corcóstegui), Barcelona, Spain. Financial Disclosure: None.

detachment (RRD) remains a major problem after cataract surgery because it occurs in approximately 1% of eyes.1 The use of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in pseudophakic RRD has gained increasing popularity over the last decade.2 It can be used alone or in combination with scleral explants.2-13 Pars plana vitrectomy improves the visualization of peripheral retina and identification of retinal breaks and enables the removal of vitreous traction.7 Few works have specifically studied the management of inferior breaks during PPV without scleral buckle procedures. In such cases, it is recognized that strict postoperative prone positioning is essential for tamponade inferior breaks when gas or silicone oil is used. This positioning is difficult and uncomfortable for many patients. Posturing periods in the literature vary from 8 to 12 days.14 The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of PPV and air in pseudophakic RRD with inferior breaks. To our knowledge, this is the first

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HEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL

(REPRINTED) ARCH OPHTHALMOL / VOL 123, AUG 2005 1078

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Sclerotomies were carefully reviewed before the fluid-air exchange. 4 equatorial. fluid was aspirated with a flute needle to ensure complete air-fill of the cavity. and 1 posterior to the equator. Mountain View.7 Two potential disadvantages of repairing pseudophakic retinal detachments with primary PPV are the need WWW. .M. phacoemulsification.66%). all eyes had a posterior chamber intraocular lens. On preoperative examination.). RESULTS 2 (range. 2 weeks. Perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18.33%) composed our study population. 3 months. Vitreous was removed over the pars plana. Preoperative visual acuity for the entire population ranged from 20/400 to 20/25 (mean. 1-5).33 years (range. 7-10 months). Germany) was injected over the posterior pole through a 20-gauge blunt cannula in all cases. Five breaks located at the 6-o’clock position were not covered by air at 24 hours postsurgery without prone positioning. Adato-octa. and the range was 60% to 90%. Mean patient age was 58. 2011 ©2005 American Medical Association. No drainage retinotomy was performed. Patient demographic data and RRD characteristics are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. all eyes underwent intraoperative scleral depression for 360° for trimming of the vitreous base and removal of all vitreous traction on retinal tears. RRD. 3 months. Another patient developed an epiretinal membrane that required PPV. This advantage is very important in patients with pseudophakia because preoperative examination is more difficult than in phakic patients. The mean number of quadrants affected was 2 (range. In 1 patient (case 14) the retina redetached at the second week because of an undetected opercule at the 6-o’clock position anterior to the primary break and was treated with PPV and 25% sulfur hexafluoride.com on December 5.-C. Other advantages are the removal of posterior capsular lens opacities for better visualization of the peripheral retinal tears and minimal changes induced in refractive error. Postoperative visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/20 (mean. No major postoperative complications occurred. Thirty breaks were treated: 25 anterior to the equator. a fluid-air exchange was performed to drain the subretinal fluid through the causative break. All patients maintained the prone position for 24 hours postsurgery. Adatomed. The average number of breaks was (REPRINTED) ARCH OPHTHALMOL / VOL 123. The macula was found to be detached in 9 (60%) of 15 eyes. 72 hours. Air was used as an internal tamponade in all cases. Clinical Characteristics of 15 Eyes With Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Best-Corrected Visual Acuity Patient No.33%) of 15 eyes and broken at the time of cataract surgery or postoperatively with a Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy in 4 eyes (26. Mean follow-up was 8 months (range. 360° prophylactic laser was not used. Sclerotomies were carefully closed to avoid air loss during the first postoperative hours. 29-79 years).Table 1. No break had tamponade for more than 3 days. 48 hours. y/Sex/Eye 1/56/M/OS 2/70/M/OS 3/74/F/OD 4/54/M/OS 5/46/F/OS 6/72/M/OS 7/65/M/OD 8/69/F/OS 9/29/F/OD 10/66/M/OD 11/61/F/OS 12/79/M/OS 13/46/F/OS 14/56/F/OD 15/32/F/OS Pseudophakia Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco sulcus Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Phaco Posterior Capsule Status Normal Normal Nd-YAG Normal Normal Normal Broken Broken Normal Broken Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Time From Phaco to RRD. Calif ) were applied to treat causative breaks after the fluid-air exchange. 1 week. Two rows of diode laser retinopexy (IRIS Medical Inc.COM Downloaded from www. Three-port PPV was performed using a wide-angle viewing system.archophthalmol. rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. COMMENT Seven eyes of 7 men (46. and the proliferative vitreoretinopathy rate were examined at 1 month. All rights reserved. Patients were followed up at 24 hours. München. Twenty-one breaks were less than 1 clock hour and 9 were 1 clock hour or larger. All procedures were performed under retrobulbar anesthesia by the same surgeon (V. Once it reached the posterior border of the break. Patients were instructed to maintain the prone position for 24 hours.2-13 The advantages of PPV are the removal of all vitreous traction on retinal tears and improved microscope visualization of peripheral retina. 20/30) at the final follow-up visit. The average size of the air bubble on postoperative day 1 was 75%. We observed an inferior break in 1 patient (Figure). 1 month./ Age. the anatomic reattachment. No complications developed during the surgical procedure.66%) and 8 eyes of 8 women (53. Visual acuity. mo 6 14 48 4 10 81 12 72 20 11 16 60 54 44 38 Preoperative 20/400 20/400 20/30 20/25 20/30 20/25 20/400 20/400 20/125 20/30 20/200 20/400 20/400 20/400 20/40 Postoperative 20/25 20/30 20/30 20/25 20/50 20/25 20/40 20/40 20/30 20/30 20/30 20/50 20/40 20/25 20/40 Complications 0 0 Punctate superficial keratopathy 0 Macular pucker 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Redetachment 0 Abbreviations: Phaco. After central and peripheral vitreous removal. 20/60). Nine breaks were opercules and 21 horseshoe tears. 1-3). AUG 2005 1079 Pars plana vitrectomy for pseudophakic RRD has gained popularity over the last decade. The posterior lens capsule was intact in 11 (73. and 6 months postoperatively.ARCHOPHTHALMOL. At the end of the procedure. and 6 months postoperatively.

no information is given on the results in these 2 cases. careful case selection and the limited number of eyes may have influenced these results. opercule.14 In this series. 6. They also stated that the adhesive force of the photocoagulated areas continued to increase for 2 weeks. Escoffery et al3 identified 2 cases. H) 2 (H.2-10 However. 4:30. the process of chorioretinal adhesion was not influenced by the position of the breaks and retinal reattachment was achieved. 1. at equator Anterior Anterior Anterior Anterior. and silicone oil). They reported a 50% retinal redetachment rate. the implications of this study are that 24 hours of prone positioning is effective for the manWWW. 1 1 1.15.21 We believe that the size of the air bubble during the first hours is most important for tamponade of inferior retinal breaks.com on December 5. 7 7 6. All these series included both inferior and superior causative breaks. 2011 ©2005 American Medical Association. the final reattachment rate of 100% was not affected by break size or type. H.O) Abbreviations: H. The concept of performing PPV with air and 24 hours of prone posturing arose from clinical observations made in the first 24 hours post-PPV without scleral buckling in pseudophakic RRD with perfluoropropane tamponade. 7 4:30. Characteristics of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachments Break Size in Disc Diameter ½. These results compare favorably with those of previous series. ¼ ½. a minimum of 8 to 10 days prone posture has been recommended. All patients were instructed to maintain the prone position for 10 days. Kita et al19 measured the retinal adhesive force after laser photocoagulation in living eyes and observed rapid enhancement at 24 hours. . O. The efficacy of a tamponade agent lies in its ability to make contact with the retina. 5. O) 3 (H. O. H) 1 (H) 2 (O. 1 ½ ¼.5. In cases with gas. 5 of the 30 breaks were located at the 6-o’clock position. 5 4. AUG 2005 1080 Yoon and Marmor17 provided direct experimental evidence that fresh laser burns produced a greater-thannormal adhesive bond between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium at 24 hours posttreatment.14 When causative breaks are located inferiorly (between the 4-o’clock and 8-o’clock positions). H) 3 (H. O. In these cases.3%. ¼ ¼. 2 1. Our overall success rate of reattachment with 1 procedure was 93.COM Downloaded from www. H) 1 (H) 2 (H. 4:30. In summary. In our series. 5 4:30. Peripheral vitreous removal and pseudophakia are the main factors influencing the bubble size because they both permit complete filling of the vitreous cavity. we decided to use air to reduce morbidity and enable rapid visual recovery. O. ½ ¼. 20/100 to 20/20). ¼. No. In this series. 7 5 5 4. (REPRINTED) ARCH OPHTHALMOL / VOL 123. Heimann et al6 treated 6 patients with primary RRD and inferior breaks with PPV and sulfur hexafluoride. 5-7 4. These patients maintained only 1 day of prone posturing and the retina reattached without complications. 5. Different authors have reported on the management of inferior breaks with PPV alone. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Quadrants 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 Macula Off Off On On On On Off Off Off On Off Off Off Off On Breaks. ¼ Break Position in Clock Hour 4. 12%14% perfluoropropane. The present study included only inferior RRD with causative breaks located between the 4-o’clock and 8-o’clock positions to determine the minimum time of tamponade required for the retinopexy to be effective. the minimum number of days in the prone position required to ensure tamponade of inferior breaks remains to be determined. 1 1 ½ 1. H) 1 (H) 2 (H. at equator Anterior. ¼. (Types) 5 (H. perfluorocarbon liquids and different types of silicone oil have been used to tamponade these breaks in RRD. horseshoe tear.2-8 Tanner et al2 reported an 89% anatomic success rate in a pilot study with 3 different tamponade agents (30% sulfur hexafluoride.16 However. it proved possible to manage inferior breaks in pseudophakic RRD with PPV alone and 24 hours of prone positioning. ¼ ½. No major complications developed during postoperative follow-up. 8 4. There is no consensus on the type of tamponade agent and the duration of prone posture. ¼. O) 2 (H . In all these cases.ARCHOPHTHALMOL. posterior Anterior-anterior Anterior Anterior.20. H) 2 (H. ¼. air was effective for retinal reattachment. H. 5:30 6 4. 5 Break Position in Relation to Equator Anterior Anterior Anterior Anterior At equator Anterior Anterior. On the basis of these observations. ¼ ½ ½. This is the reason for maintaining postoperative prone positioning for 24 hours. at equator Patient No.14 Indeed. 6 5 6:30. H) 1 (O) 1 (O) 2 (H. Mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 20/30 (range.17 Folk et al18 reported similar results in a different experimental model and 1 human eye.archophthalmol. Tamponade of inferior breaks for the first 24 hours postsurgery suffices for chorioretinal adhesion. for postoperative positioning and the restriction from air travel. 1 inherent problem in the use of PPV is the difficulty in maintaining a direct tamponade on inferior breaks for at least 8 days using different currently available gases. We observed that breaks in 2 patients located between the 5-o’clock and 7-o’clock positions were not covered by the gas at 24 hours postsurgery.Table 2. All rights reserved. however.

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