Engineering Marvels of the Bologna-Florence "Direttissima" Route

BEFORE entering into the details of the construction of the Great Apennine Tunnel itself, this page will deal briefly with the re line on which it is situated. This railway is known as the Bologna-Florence "Direttissima."

The expression "direttissima" has no counterpart in English. It means "the most direct" and, when applied to a railway, indicate which has the maximum possible number of straight stretches, curves of very large radius, absence of level crossings and the m possible gradients. A "direttissima" is built without fear of natural obstacles through which it has to pass.

One is reminded of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, who, on granting the concession for the railway from St. Petersburg (Leningrad Moscow, prescribed the route by taking a ruler and drawing a straight line on the map between the two capitals of his empire. T "Direttissima" Bologna-Florence is the second line of this kind which Italy has completed during the last few years. The other "Direttissima" is that from Rome to Naples.

Italy's peculiar geographical features have a great influence on the construction and working of her railways. With the exception northern parts, the country is a narrow strip averaging about ninety miles in width and extending for 600 miles in length. The A mountain-range traverses it in a longitudinal direction. The construction of railways has accordingly developed mainly along th coast lines ; the trunk line from Bologna via Florence to Rome being the only line of importance which runs in the centre of tha strip.

It must be remembered that whereas the northern parts of Italy are highly industrialized, the centre and south of the country are agricultural. These latter provide the northern provinces with agricultural and dairy produce, and maintain at the same time a va such products to all European countries.

All this traffic moves towards the industrial districts of Lombardy and Piedmont, and across the frontiers at Chiasso, Brenner an and is carried over a system of lines which include the Florence-Bologna via Pistoia (the Porretta) line and the line via Faenza-F and via Sarzana-Parma. All these lines have steep gradients, narrow curves, and the stations possess little accommodation. They many years ago when railway engineering was still in its infancy, and when the traffic carried was but a small percentage of wh day. The mountainous character of these lines makes it in many instances almost impossible to double the tracks or to enlarge th

D surveys several alterations in the route were made. The distance from Bologna to Pracchia is forty-six miles. In those days Italy was still divided into a number of independent territories. kingdoms. and even with electric traction i and a quarter hours to complete the short journey. and i the second longest in the world.. and when Italy had been united in 1870. The route of the Porretta line was chosen not only for technical reasons but also for strategical considerations. the ever-increa called for better means of communication between the north and the south. Freight trains were limited to 480 tons. The inadequate capacity of this line was realized soon after its opening.021 ft.THE NORTHERN PORTAL of the Great Apennine Tunnel. Many curve radius of less than 330 yards. so that not more than 180.000 sterling.." voting at the same time the n credits of £6. as much as 1 in 35. Various proposals were suggested for the doubling o and the enlargement of the stations. but the consequent expenses would have been so great that they did not warrant the executi these projects. The tunnel measures 11 miles 879 yards. generally. The length of thi almost eighty-two miles. This part of the project necessitated long and exhaustive investigations and studies covering a period of two years. The project of the "Direttissima" Bologna-Florence line included the construction of a tunnel eleven and a half miles long throu Apennines. at an altitude of 206 ft.000.815 ft. In 1908 Parliament approved the construction of the "Direttissima. and for many years it was considered to be one of the finest example railway engineering in Europe. The tim between Bologna and Florence was two and three-quarter hours by steam-driven express trains. on the Bologna-Florence route. above sea level. The difference being 1. and the whole line from Pracchia to Pistoia is an almost uninterrupted sequence of tunnels. Bologna lies at an altitude of 148 ft. and consequently the approach to the entrances of the tunnel had to be chang .000 trucks handled annually. and the highest point of the line is reached at the station of Pracc altitude of 2. offered only a makeshift solution. This difficulty of reconstruction applied particularly to the Porretta line from Bologna to Florence via Pistoia. which. The line was buil years 1856-62 by the famous railway constructor Protsche. A commission was appointed to report on various projects s the construction of a new line. the average gradient is 1 in 45 and reaches on certain stretches. On the southern slope the line de rapidly towards Pistoia which lies at a distance of fifteen and a half miles from Bologna. even in tunnels. and duc Florence was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

where the new line joins the Porretta line distance between Bologna and Prato is just under fifty-two miles. whereas via the Porretta line it is over eighty-one miles. This was on the section between Bologna and Pianoro.000 was made. with the exception of the Great Tunnel.000 would not be sufficient. by reason of the considerable lessening of the gradients. and the line is laid with a double track. wh gradients are 1 in 500 and 1 in 175. but the value of the new route.000. The maximum gradients in the open are 1 in 85. The new route extended Bologna to Prato. The highest point is at of 1. and in tunnels 1 in 125. The curves have a radius of 880 yards on the Bologna and of 660 yards on the Florence side distance from Bologna to Florence is sixty and a quarter miles. Work on the line began in 1913.UNDER CONSTRUCTION. The journey from Bologna to Florence now takes sixty-six while freight trains of 950 tons weight can be hauled over the new line with the same tractive effort as was required for 480 ton old line. There are forty bridges and thirty-one tunnels on this line. A fine masonry viaduct at Vado by which the "Direttissima" line crosses the River Setta.000. from the working point of view. and the elaboration of the definite project in all its det taken in hand. is enhanced out of all proportion to this of distance. The dif about twenty-one miles. A second provisio for £7. .058 ft. a station on the old line eight and three-quarter miles from Florence. The provisional project was approved in 1911. One of the results of the survey was to show that the original estimate of £6. Each arch has a span of over 80 ft.

and three of 40 ft. wh length of 7. crosses the rive by a masonry bridge of seven arches of 46 ft. It turns southwards. Bey station of Grizzana the line crosses the Farnetola Valley by a viaduct of twelve arches. A large number of tunnels and viaducts was necessary o There is a viaduct over the Scopa with twelve arches of 50 ft. which has a length of 3. span.) and enters the Monte Adone Tunnel. as well as the others on the line.. crossin and continuing on its left bank as far as the station of Vernio. of which eleven are 66 ft. crosses the river again over an oblique bridge of five arch span. Having left this tunnel. another over the Casone with fourteen arches of 40 ft. for which Italians have always been famous. and continues on the right bank as far as Pianoro. spa continues on the left bank of the Setta as far as the station of Grizzana. span and two of 66 ft.334 yards. The line continues on the right bank of the Setta. the line enters the Setta Valley near the station of Vado and.694 yards. All these viaducts. span . of which seven are of 65 ft. and enters the Great Apennine Tunnel. having passed through another tunnel. span and two of 39 ft. are masonry constructions. span. From this it emerges near the junction of the rivers Fiumenta and Bisenzio. 7 in. After having crossed the Bisenzio twice the new line reaches the s . nego valley by means of an imposing viaduct-bridge of fourteen arches. each and one of 20 ft. and one of 40 Here the Pian di Setta Tunnel begins.THIS VIADUCT over the Quercia River has nine arches of 65-1/2 ft. Shortly after this station th crosses the Savena by a bridge of six arches (five spans of 50 ft. and after a short tunnel the Setta is crossed by a skew bridge with three a ft. The "Direttissima" branches off the Bologna-Ancona line immediately on leaving Bologna. On emerging from the tunnel the Brasinone river is cro viaduct of three arches of 83 ft. span across the Quercia with eleven arches. span and seven of 82 ft.

The Monte Adone Tunnel has a length of 7. 1 in. It will be appreciated that considerable engineering feats were involved in these subsidiary operations. and there are thirty sleepers to every l rail. and the pla the finest examples of hydro-electric plants in Europe. The "Direttissima" is also connected with the powerful transformer statio Bologna—San Viola. The new line is electrified on the direct current overhead system at 3. per yard. The track runs straight with the exception of a length of 650 yards. The total quantity of ballasting amounted to 655. The contact wires are fed by five transformer st the line.. where the high-tension current is stepped down to the required voltage.694 yards. BUILDING THE BRIDGE over the River Setta involved the use of a special service bridge. and as no particular difficulties were encountere completed within five and a half years. which is shown to the right. where high-tension current at 120. high.000 v the hydro-electric power plant which the State Railway Administration has built on the Apennine mountains near Pracchia.000 volts is received from hydro-electric plants in the Alps. The high-tension current is supplied at 60. The tunnel was driven from both ends.Vaiano and finally joins the old one at Prato.1 lb.000 volts. The double track is laid with rails of 59 ft. For of storing up the necessary volume of water a vast reservoir has been built by the construction of a dam 300 ft. each length weighing 102. which wide curve with a radius of 2. .200 yards.000 cubic yards.

Progress w and thirty yards a day was the maximum. and in 1925 from the south.340. It runs straight for about 1. the total length of which is two and three-quarter miles .IN THE HEART OF THE TUNNEL is a station that enables fast trains to overtake slow traffic. as previously mentioned. the masonry work in the tunn four million cubic feet. the excavated material from the tunnels amounted to 101-1/4 million cubic feet. Work was begun in 1921 from the northern side. . The picture shows the station under construction. thirty-one tunnels with a total length of two and a half miles. The Pian di Setta Tunnel has a length of 3.200. Advance met in 1928. The "Direttissima" joins the old line." the total cost of which amounted £12. At this point the diameter of the arch is 56 ft. thirty-one and a half miles of embankments. and nearly seven miles of cuttings.820 yards.000 kilowatt h The line contains forty bridges. Embankments represent a volume of 192-1/2 million cubic feet.334 yards. and a large modem station was l The following figures give an idea of the magnitude of the construction of the "Direttissima.000 sterling. and then on a curve with a wide radi Difficult conditions of soil were encountered and heavy emanations of methane gas (marsh gas) had to be overcome. seventy-five and a half million cubic feet were excavated . at Prato. The consumption of electric current required for the plants and installations was 101. A magnificent new station building was erected. The impossibility of enlarging the existing station neces transfer of the station 700 yards farther south.

for it is built for a double track. It was a struggle between Titans. The magnitude of the tunnel construction necessitated a vast amount of preliminary work. water in endless quantities. often combined. some of them to a dept . and of fire—one after the other. whereas the Simplon has single-track t MODERN RAILWAY ARCHITECTURE. 1934. The nature of the soil through which was to be bored had first to be investigated. Seldom—if ever—has the construction of a railway tunnel been fraught with so many serious difficulties. All the elements seem combine to prevent the completion of the tunnel . The Carmeto Tunnel on the Bologna-Florence route is a typical example of the fine engineering feats on this line.546 yards shorter than the Simplon Tunnel. on the one hand the elements. Seven shafts were sunk at intervals to below the tunnel line. the longest in the world. A monument erected on the square outside the station of Bologna bears ninety-seven names and the inscription "E TENEBRIS On April 21.21 yards—el half miles. Although it is 1." The ninety names are those of the men who sacrificed their lives on this battlefield of progress. the Apennine Tunnel may be co the greatest example of tunnel construction in existence. the length of which is 20242. A "direttissima" line must be laid straight regardless of cost.But the most outstanding feature of the "Direttissima" is the Great Apennine Tunnel. explosions of poisonous gas. and this involves much bridging an tunnelling. the King of Italy unveiled the monument in commemoration of the opening of the "Direttissima. treacherous soil. on the other—man conquered.

respectively.2 cubic yards. two inclined shafts to the level of the tunnel. To allow for this the shafts were widened in the centre. The cable railway worked on the "jig-back" system with one ascending and one descending car. The trucks had a seating for thirty men. decided to create two points of attack by sinking. Their length is 1. from one another at an inclination of twenty-seven degrees. . The geological formation of the Apennines differs from that of the Alps.000 cubic yards. The Alps. A worse soil for tunnel construction could not be found.605 ft. By doing this it was possible to ascertain the nature of the ground and its composition.ft.683 and 1. ft. THE PROBLEM OF VENTILATION in a tunnel eleven and half miles long is a vital one. The hauling ropes h diameter of 1-3/4 in. each of the three pulleys being operated independently by one motor. and at the shafts.9 cubic yards. As the heading advanced. where so many famous tunnels have been co are of solid rock. and the boring did not present any particular difficulties. They were connected at the bottom by a wide gallery in which the necessary machinery and pumping insta were erected. At the sides of th staircase was built for emergencies. The two shafts were s distance of 400 ft. The shafts were lined partly with bricks and partly with concrete. In each of the shafts a cable railway was built for the conveyance of men and the transport of material. Ventilation plants were installe at the two entrances to the Great Apennine Tunnel. It was. this was capable of hauling two trolleys each of 1. The hauling machinery was driven by thre motors of 720 revolutions per minute. The construction of the sh required the excavation of 41. a section is 170 sq. therefore. During the later stages of the construction a more powerf plant was installed . which lea terminals simultaneously and pass each other midway. auxiliary ventilating machinery was installed within the tunnel. The Apennine mountains on the route of the "Direttis consist mostly of clay and sand schists. about midway at Cà di Landino. It was clear from these surveys construction would be very slow if it were undertaken in the usual way from both ends. and the trolleys were built for loads of 2.

The second line of thirteen and a half miles was Prato via the Bisenzio Valley to the southern entrance of the tunnel.. The lines had a gauge of 3 ft. there existed the possibility of snowstorms or torrential rendering the roads impassable. material and plant had solved.000 CUBIC FEET of air was driven into the tunnel each day. The solution was found in the construction of two service railways. and the difference in level between the two terminal stations 865 ft. The laying of these l for a number of constructional works. and at the south portal a few months earlier. the used air escaping through the other. The carriers had a capacity of 8 cwt. a station on the Porretta line. 1-3/8 in. and farther still from any railway station. The fresh air was driven through one side o the tunnel.000 tons. and the hourly capacity of the line was twenty-seven a tons. some of which are of considerable importance. The cost of the two lines. The existing ro ordinary country roads. The two service lines provided transport facilities only to the two entrances of the tunnel. The rolling stock for the service lines consisted of fourteen steam locomotives and 216 trucks. The boring of the tunnel started at the north po 1920. Before the construction of the Great Tunnel could proceed the problem of transporting all the machinery. an aerial ropeway was built from the northern tunnel entrance. and in order to bring the entrance to th shafts at Cà di Landino within easy reach.000. .143. to the northern entrance of the tunnel. Both entrances of the tunnel were a long way from any village. including rolling-stock. Furthermore. The total quantity of material transported by this ropeway was 75. by which two and a half million material were transported. The length of this rope over five miles. amounted to £480. The auxiliary ventilating plants drew air from the main ducts and forced it through pipes of decreasing diamete to the workings. One line of seventeen miles from Sasso. The system of the aerial ropeway adopted w two carrying and one traction rope.000. unsuitable for heavy lorry traffic.

were installed at the southern. at the northern entrance. Power was generated by eleven Diesel engines varying from 120 t Their total capacity was 2. Two types of locomotives were employed.p. . An aqueduct ensured the supply of fresh water.220 h.p. The arrangements for the power supply were on a vast scale.540 h. schools. was built from Prato to Cà di Landino to carry 2.000 kilowatts. kindergarten and cinemas. The villages were completely equipped .000 volts line. and electric light was supplied during the first few ye oil-driven power plant. hospitals. The locomotive took in the compressed ai from pipe-lines. The transformer stations had a total capacit kilo volt amperes. which had a length of twenty half miles. maternity homes. and during the latter stages of the construction a s nineteen miles long. At both entrances of the tunnel. and one of 80 h. and 720 h.A COMPRESSED AIR LOCOMOTIVE used for the transport of men and material in the tunnel. Electric current was supplied over a 30. a line was constructed to convey the current from Prato to Cà di Landino and to the two entrances required voltage was obtained in the transformer stations. at the inclined shafts. of which 600 h.p.. there were churches. Ther 1.. and at Cà di Landino.p. one of 40 h.000 volts line from Prato. laid along the tunnel.p. Later.p. the State Railway Administration built villages to house the thousands of engineers and their families. Cà di Landino was connected with Bologna by a 30.

ft. each were installed. The ventilating plant at either of the portals consisted of two Sulzer fans. driven by 45-55 h. at each of the shafts two Cerpelli fans of 650 cub. As the headings proceeded. per second. the used air escaping thro other. the fresh air being driven through one side. ft. In view of the great length of the tunnel careful provisions were made to ensure the supply of fresh air to the farthest working p ventilation plants were installed at the two portals and at the two shafts. situated at the north entrance of the tunnel. each of 850 cub.p. an auxiliary ventilating pla installed within the tunnel. Fresh air was supplied at 850 cub. motors.IN THE HALL OF MACHINERY. The average daily rate of fresh air driven into the tu powerful ventilators was fifty-eight million cubic feet from the north entrance. . Two ducts were formed. a compressor plant supplied the compressed air for the locomotives and for the pneumatic hammers and drills. fifty million from the shafts and thirty-five milli south. capacity and driven by 145motors . On account of such large volumes of air it was necessary to divide the completed and lined sections of the tunnel by a temporar bulkhead running longitudinally. The auxiliary plant at either heading consiste fans of 210 cub. These auxiliary fans drew the air from the main ducts and drove it through met decreasing diameters to the working faces. ft. ft.

At certain cocks were fitted in the pipeline from which the locomotives drew their supply. Salvage crews had been tra anticipation of any serious outbreak. The presence of gas and the danger of explosions and fire continually worried the engineers in charge. and indicated by the length of the flame the proportions of the components in the gas. over which ran compressed-air locomo types of locomotives were in use. A mixture of cement.p. per second to the danger spots to dilute the gas and render it harmless. on account of it specific weight. for the advance headings and a larger one of 80 h. For the transport of men and material inside the tunnel a narrow-gauge railway was laid. . it was set on fire by distance-controlled fuses. These changed colour in accordance with the gas present. per second at a high pressure. while a permanent supply of water was ensured by the laying of a special pipeline. When gas was found. when mixed with air i proportion. The air was compressed in the machinery hall and was delivered through steel pipes laid within the tunnel. Specially constructed safety and gas-detecting lamps were employed. and along the tunnel a number of pumps were installed and connected with the pipeline. The measures proved efficien were only four explosions which caused any serious interruption of work. for the completed the tunnel. a smaller one of 40 h.STEMMING A FLOOD. rose to the highest points and accumulated behind timbering. Gas emanations were en during almost the whole time of the construction. The gas consisted of ninety-seven per cent of methane which. This picture shows a wall of cemen pierced by large pipes to disperse the water. Methane is poisonous and.350 cub. Fresh air had to at the rate of 1. wood-shavings and metal scrap was injected through the thin pipes. The compressor plant also provided the compre required for driving the pneumatic hammers and drills. All possible precautionary me were taken. Gas issued at the rate of 4-1/2 cub. Trained men were employed the upper parts of the headings. becomes highly explosive on contact with an open flame or when a detonator is fired. ft. The irruptions of gas were serious at times.p. The wa kept under a high pressure. ft.

which intercommunicated. and at one period the men worked waist-deep in the floods. In order not to protract the stoppage of work in the northern part of th by-pass tunnel was constructed at 50 ft. when an onrush of gas occurred and the timbering took fire. were filled with h smoke. at about three miles from the north portal. and it joined the track of the tunnel beyond the flooded section so that work could proceed. It was decided to flood the heading to a dep at the back of a wall which was put up across the heading. over a length of about 700 ft. This by-pass was bored at a shor in front of the cross wall. . T lower heading became filled with gas and hindered all efforts to extinguish the fire. But the fire continued furiously fo half months. distance from the tunnel. they issued from a gas-filled cavern below the tunnel. for. stopped work in the affected zone for seve This outbreak occurred during blasting. the whole ventilation system had been damaged. One. The ventilation bulkhead was destroyed for o ft. three powerful hydrants protected the scaffolding which was erected to replace the wooden timbering with shores. and it took ano months to repair the damage. A large canal was dug along the floor of the tunnel fo draining purposes. The temporary bulkhead was rebuilt. On the next day another heavy explosion occurred at the same spot. The men flooded the area and checked the f then was it possible to ascertain that the lower heading had collapsed through the burning of the timbering.. Over 330 completed beyond the flooded area during this time. as well as the cabin of the ventilation engineer. in the part of the upper heading w continued unabated. Meanwhile. Matters became worse through emanations of gas in the lower heading. The temperature had 212 degrees.WATER WAS THE MOST STUBBORN ENEMY of the workers. Despite all efforts the fire c extinguished. and also the ventilating cabin. but the floods often gained the upper hand Outbreaks of fire were more serious. The upper and lower headings. Three fine-mesh wire nettings were put up at a distance of 3-1/2 ft. owing to the collapse of the bulkhead. from one another. An heroic crew drove up on a compressed air locomotive to the burning timbering. Five months after the outbreak the flames had disappeared.

The canal built in the centre of the tunnel to collect the waters was insufficient . the heading was flooded and work interrupted. Simultaneously seven pipes of smaller diameter. 15 to 30 ft. Despite all precautions water continued to trickle through over almost the whole length of the tunnel. and the original pumping plant had to be increased twenty-seven electric pumps with a total capacity of 215 gallons per second were at work.735 million gallons of water (corresponding to an average of 3. a that would be sufficient to fill an artificial lake of 1-1/4 miles in length.THE SOURCE OF POWER. deep. Three reciprocal p been installed. 4. During the period from May 1925 to 1930.366. wood and metal scrap was forced through under pressure. when the waters broke through in the form cascade at the rate of 66 gallons per second. The overhead. but with the progress of work more and more water appeared. To waterproof the crown of the tunnel was a matter of vita . The wall was again demolished and where art and science had indomitable will power of the men working waist deep in the floods succeeded. and flooding the headings by torrential downpours. To stop the flow of the water a brick wall. spouting from the drill holes.000 gallons a day) were pumped from the tunnel. were driven throug and first a cement mixture and then a mixture of cement. long. Water was also a most stubborn enemy . 10 ft. Fire and gas were not the only obstacles. The original surveys had revealed that water would be met with in limited quantities. Contact wires in the tunnel's internal station. 3/4 mile wide and 33 ft. it was present everywhere. seeping through th through the sides. was built and nine steel pipes diameter were let in to drain off the water. and at first this was so.000 volts. w line is electrified. In the Apennine Tunnel. failed this time. The most violent incursion occurred at a point 6. direct-current system gives power at 3. bursting forth in the form of casca rate of seventy-five gallons per second. even a small amount of water upon the overhead contact lines might cause serious trouble. But this me had previously proved successful at other points. thick. breaking through from underground caverns.320 yards from the southern portal. and a dangerous si would arise if the accumulated water were to freeze and icicles form.

8 ft. The strongest pieces of 25 in. 6-3/4 in. which represented the floor of the upper h Vertical shafts bored through this division provided communication between upper and lower headings for the purpose of remo excavated material from the upper heading. The method of driving the tunnel was as follows : First a bottom heading. sometimes steel centring. the difficul were encountered on certain sections were never expected. the strongest ste was bent and gave way. On co the side walls the inverted arch was set in. All join bricks or masonry were cleaned of the adhering mortar by pneumatic tools. The swelling clay soil had given trouble on the northern side. 13 ft. The waterproofing mixture was then applied in two thickness of 1 in. the old route being indicated by the full black line. A STRIKING COMPARISON. steel constructions—combinations of both—were tried. under pressure. and washed by jets of water under pressure. and the arch excavated to its full dimensions. The spoil was shot through these shafts directly into the trucks in the bottom headin heading was afterwards widened and extended as far down as the springing of the arch. cleaned with steel brushes.importance. diameter were shattered to splinters. remained. by 6 ft. The pressure of the swelling clay greater than any timbering could withstand. 1-1/2 in. was in number of holes. but he timbering. along the whole tunnel. This was done over a width of 22 ft.. by 10 ft. Repeatedly they crumbled .. The face was then roughened. however. To ensure perfect execution. 6 in. A mixture of cement and sand. was driven corresponding to the lin crown. At a point about one and a half miles from the north portal. a top heading. was driven over a given and the narrow gauge railway laid in it. 2-3/8 in. the reduction in length of the working sections and the method of completing the lining ov difficulties. The centring was then set in to keep the position. Although the geological survey had made it clear that the soil was of the most difficult kind for tunnel construction. thick. Next. During this work the arch was supported by timbering. This diagram shows the comparative heights of the old and new routes. When the arch was in position the horizontal division between the two h removed and the bottom heading excavated to its full dimensions. this work was done by hand instead of using cement guns. a serious situation arose. about 7 ft. Between these two headings a horizontal division. The introduction of the new route reduced the distance between Bologna and Florence from 81-7/8 miles to 60-1/4 miles. Stronger timbering.

A feature of the tunnel is the large passing station constructed about mid-way between the bottom of the inclined shafts. Its purp permit fast trains to overtake slow traffic. The station consists of a vast hall which is 505 ft.100. 3-1/2 in. the diame arch is 56 ft. Also the thickness of the lining varies. to 26 ft. high . At either end of this station sidings were built in independent tunnels which join again with the main tunnel. 3-3/4 in. At the crown it 9-1/2 in. an average of 8-1/2 million cubic feet of compressed air was used for traction purposes and fo drills and pneumatic hammers . But man conquered again. the height between crown and the inverted arch from 24 ft. consisted of lining the circumference with rings of strong wooden key-shaped wedges. The section of the tunnel varies according to the nature of the ground. The radius of the crown extends from 14 ft. to 14 ft. and the average number work in the yards was 550. which will no doubt be adopted in future circumstances. and at the inverted arches from 1 ft.470 ft.000. or £252 per yard. The cost of the tunnel was £5. to 2 ft. The le these sidings is 1. used while boring through particularly difficult sections of the Apennine Tunnel. When deformations occurred in the lining they were easily repaired by driving wedges in cracks of the lining. The resistance of this cylinder-like stru powerful enough even in this instance. to 3 ft. the masonry work (linings) to 16 million cubic feet. was created. 3 in. Advance headings met in the northern part in November 1929 and in the southern part in December 1929. The consumption of electric current was 110 million kilowatt hours. long and 29-1/2 ft. 6 in. A new method of tunnel driving. The so-called "Italian" method consisted of driving the bottom of a circular section with a diameter and lining the circumference with rings composed of staunch wooden wedges like keys.seemingly infinite power. In the passing station the lining of the cr The magnitude of the tunnel construction may be judged from the following figures : The excavated material amounted to 69 m feet. 7-3/4 in. THE "ITALIAN" METHOD. .300. the average number of men working inside the tunnel was 1. 9 dynamite were used for blasting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